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format without the prior written consent of OPNET Technologies, Inc.
© 2007 OPNET Technologies, Inc.
Understanding LTE Model
Internals and Interfaces
R&D Solutions for Commercial and
Defense Networks
Session 1581
CONFIDENTIAL ─ RESTRICTED ACCESS: This information may not be disclosed, copied, or transmitted in any
format without the prior written consent of OPNET Technologies, Inc.
© 2010 OPNET Technologies, Inc.
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Abstract
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Brief Technology Introduction
Goals
To improve the UMTS standard to cope with future technology evolutions
User demand for higher data rates and QoS
~300 Mbps downlink, ~100 Mbps uplink
Continued demand for cost reduction (CAPEX and OPEX)
Low complexity
Compatibility and inter-working with earlier 3GPP Releases
Introduced in 3GPP specification Release 8 and can be found in the 36-series
OFDMA in the downlink
SC-FDMA in the uplink
The resulting architecture is called EPS and comprises
E-UTRAN on the radio access side
EPC on the core side
Marketed as 4G
Actually a 3.9G technology
Doesn’t fully comply with the IMT Advanced 4G requirements.
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1581 Understanding LTE Model Internals and Interfaces
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OPNET's Model Development Consortia
LTE Model Development Consortium
Prominent network equipment manufacturers, service providers, defense
organizations
Benefits to Consortium Members
Early access to LTE model
Opportunity to influence design requirements
Phased release schedule
Phases I and II released so far
Phase III very close to completion
Phase IV and other advanced features planned
Some current members include Aerospace Corporation, AT&T, DoCoMo
Euro-Labs, InterDigital, NIST, Samsung, and Sony
Successful past consortia
WiMAX, UMTS, MANET, MPLS, and DOCSIS
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1581 Understanding LTE Model Internals and Interfaces
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LTE Model Features Up to Phase II
PHY
OFDMA for downlink & SC-FDMA for uplink
Supported channels: PDCCH, PUCCH, PHICH,
PDSCH, PUSCH, PRACH
BLER modulation curves with turbo coding and
circular buffer rate matching algorithm for each
modulation and coding scheme (MCS)
Multiple path loss models
Multipath channel model for uplink and
downlink
Interference on data channels from other data and
control channels
Intra- and inter-cell interference
HARQ
Synchronous retransmissions with implicit grants
on uplink
Asynchronous retransmissions on downlink
Type-II incremental redundancy
ACK to NACK and NACK to ACK error
modeling
MAC
GBR/Non-GBR EPS bearers
Logical and Transport Channels
Random Access Procedure
Frame generation and Scheduler
MAC
Scheduling Requests
Buffer Status Reporting
Admission Control
RLC
Acknowledged, Unacknowledged and
Transparent Modes
Segmentation of retransmitted PDUs in case of
small grants into PDU segments
Configurable RLC parameters for each radio
bearer for each direction
PDCP: Compression for TCP/IP and UDP/IP
headers
EPS Mobility Management (EMM)
EPS Session Management (ESM)
S1 Signaling and EPS Bearer
Setup/Modification/Release
General
Efficiency mode to disable PHY layer
Tagged EPS/radio bearer related statistics
3 and 6 sector eNodeBs
Router UE node
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1581 Understanding LTE Model Internals and Interfaces
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* This information is provided for planning purposes only and is subject to change without notice. This does not represent a
commitment by OPNET to deliver any or all capabilities in any particular timeframe.
Phase-III: Channel Dependent
Modulation and Scheduling
Channel dependent scheduling
CQI and rate adaptation
Energy consumption model
Single-cell downlink broadcast
LTE Network Deployment Wizard
Initial cell selection
Phase-IV: Mobility and Handovers
Intra-E-UTRAN and intra-frequency handover
with and without X2 support
GGSN services by EPC to legacy SGSNs
Application Delay Tracking
Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service
(MBMS)
Other features
MIMO
2x2
Spatial multiplexing
IPv6 support
Device Creator support
Power savings
LTE_IDLE state
PCCH and PCH
Dynamic failure/recovery of base
stations
LTE Model Proposed Roadmap*
Future Phases – Subject to Change Based on Customer Requirements
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1581 Understanding LTE Model Internals and Interfaces
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Agenda
LTE Network Architecture
LTE Node and Process Models
UE Architecture
eNodeB Architecture
Lab 1: Admission Control Customization
EPC Architecture
Global Attribute Definer Object
Demo 1: LTE Channel Capacity
LTE Features
EPS, EMM, PDCP, RLC
MAC
eNodeB: Frame Generator, Scheduler and HARQ
Lab 2: Scheduler Customization
UE: Buffer Status Reporting and Random Access
PHY
Architecture and MAC to PHY interface
PHY Features
Lab 3: Pathloss Customization
Documentation References
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1581 Understanding LTE Model Internals and Interfaces
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UE with
complete TCP/IP
stack
eNodeBs (1, 3 and 6 sectors) Evolved Packet Core
Network with
IP/GTP Support
Typical Modeled Network Architecture
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1581 Understanding LTE Model Internals and Interfaces
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Data Traffic Flow in LTE Networks
GTP Encapsulation/Decapsulation
EPS Bearer
Radio Bearer S1 Bearer
IP packets entering the LTE network
are mapped to GTP tunnels
uplink data
on radio
bearer
co
rresp
o
n
d
in
g
G
T
P
tu
n
n
el ca
rry
in
g
u
p
lin
k
d
a
ta
d
ow
n
lin
k
d
ata in
G
T
P
tu
n
n
el
corresponding radio bearer
carrying the downlink data
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1581 Understanding LTE Model Internals and Interfaces
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LTE eNodeB
lte_enodeb_atm4_ethernet4_slip4
lte_enodeb_ethernet4
lte_enodeb_slip4
lte_enodeb_3sector_slip4
lte_enodeb_6sector_slip4
LTE UE
lte_wkstn
lte_server
LTE configuration node
lte_attr_definer
LTE EPC Node
lte_epc_atm8_ethernet8_slip8
LTE UE Router
lte_ue_ethernet_gtwy
Simulation Model Entities
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1581 Understanding LTE Model Internals and Interfaces
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Agenda
LTE Network Architecture
LTE Node and Process Models
UE Architecture
eNodeB Architecture
Lab 1: Admission Control Customization
EPC Architecture
Global Attribute Definer Object
Demo 1: LTE Channel Capacity
LTE Features
EPS, EMM, PDCP, RLC
MAC
eNodeB: Frame Generator, Scheduler and HARQ
Lab 2: Scheduler Customization
UE: Buffer Status Reporting and Random Access
PHY
Architecture and MAC to PHY interface
PHY Features
Lab 3: Pathloss Customization
Documentation References
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UE NAS
Sends ESM “Activate
dedicated EPS bearer
ACCEPT” message to EPC
Sends ESM “Deactivate
dedicated EPS bearer
ACCEPT” message to EPC
Flushes the buffer of an
inactive EPS bearer
Sends ESM “modify
dedicated EPS bearer
REQUEST” message to EPC
Initiates the attachment procedure to the network (EPC)
Controls activation/deactivation of EPS bearers depending upon traffic
activity
While the EPS bearer is setup, data packets mapped to that bearer are queued
lte_ue_nas.pr.m
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UE AS
Requests bandwidth using
PUCCH
Requests bandwidth using
RACH
Steady state – connected
to an eNodeB
Requests bandwidth for higher layer data
Sends Uplink data in assigned grants
Performs HARQ and RLC retransmissions for Uplink MPDUs in error
Processes Downlink data
lte_ue_as.pr.m
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UE AS: Random Access Process
lte_rach.pr.m
Awaiting initial preamble
transmission
Awaiting random access response message
from the eNodeB
Awaiting contention resolution message from
the eNodeB
Child process of lte_ue_as.pr.m
Sends a preamble on the random access channel
Sends an uplink MPDU in the grant contained within the random access response message
Performs HARQ retransmissions of the uplink MPDU until contention resolution message is
received or the timer expires
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1581 Understanding LTE Model Internals and Interfaces
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Agenda
LTE Network Architecture
LTE Node and Process Models
UE Architecture
eNodeB Architecture
Lab 1: Admission Control Customization
EPC Architecture
Global Attribute Definer Object
Demo 1: LTE Channel Capacity
LTE Features
EPS, EMM, PDCP, RLC
MAC
eNodeB: Frame Generator, Scheduler and HARQ
Lab 2: Scheduler Customization
UE: Buffer Status Reporting and Random Access
PHY
Architecture and MAC to PHY interface
PHY Features
Lab 3: Pathloss Customization
Documentation References
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eNodeB S1
Communication TO the
core side
Communication FROM
the core side
Exchanges S1 messages with the EPC
Acts as a translator between the core (EPC) and radio (EUTRAN) domains
Communicates UE NAS messages to the core side
Translates the core NAS message for the radio side: e.g. bearer activate,
deactivate etc.
lte_s1.pr.m
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eNodeB AS
UL/DL framing – every
TTI (1 ms)
Keeps a record of all admitted UEs
Performs admission control to manage radio resources for GBR bearers
Communicates with S1 for this purpose
Creates Uplink and Downlink subframes for sending/receiving traffic on the
wireless medium
Performs scheduling of traffic on radio resources
Manages uplink/downlink HARQ retransmissions.
Receives Uplink MPDUs and sends Downlink MPDUs
Performs HARQ and RLC retransmissions for Downlink MPDUs in error
lte_enb_as.pr.m
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EPS Bearer
Activation/Deactivation/Modification
Bearers can be activated, deactivated, and modified on-the-fly
Activation:
Activation begins at the higher layer (NAS)
Both the network-initiated and UE-initiated cases supported
Deactivation:
Bearer deactivation can begin at the NAS or radio level
In OPNET, bearer deactivation is supported for idle bearers, which starts at the
radio level at the eNodeB
Bearers can also be preempted, in which case, they are torn down from the
system in a similar way as the inactive bearers
Modification:
Modification of the bearer’s QoS parameters is defined at the higher layer in the
standard (NAS)
In OPNET, QoS parameters are not modified at the EPS or radio level, although
bearer modification message is used when it is rejected at the setup
In lab 1, bearer modification will be achieved at the radio layer
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Admission Control in LTE
Starts at the NAS layer of the UE or the core network
A chain of ESM and RRC messages needs to be exchanged
Applicable only for the GBR bearers
Non GBR bearers are admitted by default
A brief functional overview
The core communicates EPS ID and QoS parameters of the bearer to the eNodeB
eNodeB S1 translates the EPS information to the radio information (EPS_ID
RB_ID) for the eNodeB AS
eNodeB AS uses a custom procedure to calculate if this GBR bearer should be admitted
by looking at the available radio resources
If the bearer can be admitted, the eNodeB AS exchanges RRC messages with the UE
AS
Else the NAS at the core is informed about the rejection of EPS bearer
ESM messages are created for the core to indicate that the radio part of the bearer is
active
Finally, the core network starts sending traffic mapped to this bearer
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A Typical Bearer Activation Message
Exchange Chart
EPC core eNodeB S1 eNodeB AS UE
ESM bearer activation
message: EPS ID, QoS
profile
Downlink traffic arrives
Translator for the AS:
(command: Activate,
RB ID, QoS profile)
Admission control:
Decision = ADMIT
RRC Reconfiguration:
(RB ID)
RRC Reconfiguration
Accept: (RB ID)
Translator for the S1:
(command: Activate,
EPS ID)
ESM bearer activation
ACCEPT message:
EPS ID
Begin sending downlink
traffic
Admission control
can preempt a lower
priority bearer in the
process
Translator for the S1:
(command: Release,
EPS ID)
ESM bearer
deactivation
REQUEST message:
EPS ID
Begin the bearer deactivation process by sending the ESM bearer
deactivation, which will eventually be communicated via RRC messages
to the appropriate UE.
The radio side of each GBR EPS bearer goes through admission control. The code is
implemented in lte_admit_control_support.ex.c
UE receives
ESM bearer
ACTIVE
message
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Bearer Activation: UE Initiated Case
EPC core eNodeB S1 eNodeB AS UE
Uplink traffic
arrives
ESM bearer resource modification request
Begin the bearer activation process using the same messaging as was used
in the downlink data arrival case as shown on the previous slide
ESM bearer resource modification request
Sent using the signaling bearer on the uplink radio access to the eNodeB
eNodeB forwards to S1, which sends it to the EPC core in the usual GTP tunnel
Does not modify QoS parameters even if rejected
Keeps trying until maximum attempts are exceeded
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Lab 1: Admission Control Customization
Objectives
Understand how the admission control algorithm monitors radio
resources and admits/rejects/preempts radio bearers
Customize the admission control algorithm with a certain
objective
Analyze the admission control logic using detailed traces and
statistics
Time: 40 minutes
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Lab 1: Take away points
OPNET supports dynamic activation, and deactivation of EPS
bearers
It is possible to modify the bearer QoS at the radio level
It is possible to easily interface with the admission control module without
needing any additional work in communication with the core side
Bearer QoS can be modified locally at the radio level
IMPORTANT: In this lab, we are not modeling EPS bearer modification
process. The bearer QoS is changed locally at the eNodeB AS. Ideally, such
a change would trigger the EPS modification message, but it is not
important for our purposes, and hence not modeled
Using detailed traces and statistics, the admission control module can be easily
analyzed
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Agenda
LTE Network Architecture
LTE Node and Process Models
UE Architecture
eNodeB Architecture
Lab 1: Admission Control Customization
EPC Architecture
Global Attribute Definer Object
Demo 1: LTE Channel Capacity
LTE Features
EPS, EMM, PDCP, RLC
MAC
eNodeB: Frame Generator, Scheduler and HARQ
Lab 2: Scheduler Customization
UE: Buffer Status Reporting and Random Access
PHY
Architecture and MAC to PHY interface
PHY Features
Lab 3: Pathloss Customization
Documentation References
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EPC
EPC S1/NAS mainly:
Exchanges S1 messages with the eNodeB mainly carrying NAS messages
Exchanges NAS messages with the UE for initial network attachment
Exchanges NAS messages with the UE for bearer activation/deactivation/modification
Provides UE subscription and EPS bearer mapping information to GTP to perform
tunnel encapsulation
lte_s1_nas.pr.m
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Agenda
LTE Network Architecture
LTE Node and Process Models
UE Architecture
eNodeB Architecture
Lab 1: Admission Control Customization
EPC Architecture
Global Attribute Definer Object
Demo 1: LTE Channel Capacity
LTE Features
EPS, EMM, PDCP, RLC
MAC
eNodeB: Frame Generator, Scheduler and HARQ
Lab 2: Scheduler Customization
UE: Buffer Status Reporting and Random Access
PHY
Architecture and MAC to PHY interface
PHY Features
Lab 3: Pathloss Customization
Documentation References
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Global LTE Config Attributes
EPS bearers
Each UE that configures an
EPS bearer with this name
borrows the QoS configured
here
Efficiency attributes
Can run a simulation without
needing PHY effects
Ideal for capacity
studies/error free channel
conditions
PHY profiles
Each profile should be
configured with both UL/DL
The channel bandwidth
influences the capacity of the
channel the most
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LTE Frame Structure in Time Domain
Type I FDD frame is supported
Frame Length: 10 ms
Subframe length:1 ms
Scheduling and frame generation happens every subframe
Slot length: 0.5 ms
Slots consist of either 6 or 7 ODFM symbols, depending on whether the
normal or extended cyclic prefix is employed.
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LTE Frame Structure in Frequency
Domain
A resource block consists of 12 sub-
carriers, each 15 kHz wide
A pair of two Resource Blocks (RBs) is
the minimum allocation unit used by the
scheduler while determining the
allocations on a frame
The pairing is in time domain, making the
allocation unit one subframe (1 ms) in length
The term transport block (TB) is sometimes
used for the pair. Some resources use the term
resource block to refer to the transport block
Downlink reference symbols occupy 4
resource elements in each RB
Uplink reference symbols occupy 12
resource elements in each RB
This overhead is accounted for while
computing the frame capacity for the
admission control procedure
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LTE Channel Capacity
Capacity depends upon:
Modulation and coding index (MCS) – the higher the MCS index, the more the capacity
Number of free resource elements per transport block – for the downlink, this number can vary in
each subframe
The standard (36.213) provides a table (7.1.7.2.1-1) of mapping between number of RBs
and capacity in bits using 120 resource elements per block (REs) as a baseline
A Downlink channel with 2 transmitters and 3 columns taken by the PDCCH would have 120 REs
per block
If the REs of a block are different, the bit carrying capacity is scaled proportionally
At the end of the simulation, for each eNodeB, a table is created to give you an estimate of
the channel capacity
A capacity estimate used by the admission control module is also given separately
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Demo 1: LTE Capacity Planning Study
The OT table capacity estimate is nice, BUT
It is an “estimate” with the assumption that a single UE occupies the whole channel
Typically multiple UEs share the channel
Different MCS indexes, different traffic requirements
Estimate is based upon ideal conditions and cannot account for dynamic changes
Extra allocations required due to channel errors
How to use OPNET Modeler for planning studies
Map application traffic to GBR bearers and set up a traffic contract to closely match the
application requirements + lower layer overheads
Admission control: Acts as the first filter in capacity estimation: Find out how many GBR
bearers are active
Monitor the shared channel usage statistics to understand how they are utilized
Uplink and Downlink should be analyzed separately
Find out if one of them acts as a bottleneck
Implement possible customizations to improve performance
We will learn some tricks in lab 2
Draw inferences, make adjustments and find the configurations that give satisfactory results
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Demo 1: A Planning Study Example
Inputs:
eNodeB with a 3 MHz UL and DL channel
Each UE has an FTP upload/download application
96 Kbps for both upload and download
The initial planning committee made some advanced calculations and determined that UEs with the following
characteristics should be supported:
31 28
16 20
6 9
1 0
Number of UEs MCS Index
Requirements:
SLA requirement is that each upload/download should occur in less than 1 second
Planning question:
Can this be done? If not, how many UEs can really be served without violating the SLA?
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Demo 1: Planning Approach
First use the admission control module to figure out how many UEs
“should” be served
Admission control provides rough estimates only
Scenario: capacity_planning_demo: 53 were admitted using 96 Kbps contract
The initial planning committee was pretty close in their estimate
Results: SLA violated – delays ~ 30 seconds
Reason: The uplink is saturated! Uplink also carries extra signaling overhead
(for HARQ ACKs) that we shall study later
Now make the admission criterion stricter
Make the loading factor < 1
First decreased to 0.75 (Scenario: capacity_planning_demo2): Still large delays
At 0.6 loading factor (Scenario: capacity_planning_demo3), stable performance
was observed with 33 admissions
Uplink is pretty close to the saturation point
Hence 33 UEs is the best we can do under the circumstances!
Of course there is R&D
You can improve scheduling algorithms…here is an idea: Schedule on the
Downlink only if the probability of getting scheduled on the Uplink is high…this
minimizes wastage on the Uplink and it won’t be the bottleneck!
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Agenda
LTE Network Architecture
LTE Node and Process Models
UE Architecture
eNodeB Architecture
Lab 1: Admission Control Customization
EPC Architecture
Global Attribute Definer Object
Demo 1: LTE Channel Capacity
LTE Features
EPS, EMM, PDCP, RLC
MAC
eNodeB: Frame Generator, Scheduler and HARQ
Lab 2: Scheduler Customization
UE: Buffer Status Reporting and Random Access
PHY
Architecture and MAC to PHY interface
PHY Features
Lab 3: Pathloss Customization
Documentation References
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EPS Mobility Management (EMM)
Registration of UEs to the LTE network via EMM Attach procedure is
modeled
An eNodeB can serve multiple EPCs
Once the attachment is completed, UEs remain in the LTE_Active
state, the IN_SYNC sub-state, and in the RRC_Connected state
The attachment procedure is implemented based on Figure 5.3.2.1-1:
"Attach Procedure" in 3GPP TS 23.401 "General Packet Radio Service
(GPRS) enhancements for Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access
Network (E-UTRAN) access".
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EPS Session Management (ESM)
Dedicated Bearer Activation Procedure
MME initiated Dedicated Bearer Deactivation Procedure
GTP Tunneling Between eNodeB and EPC Nodes
GTP tunnels carry the EPS bearers in the core network.
A GTP tunnel is dynamically established for each EPS bearer.
The GTP layer is located at the eNodeB and EPC nodes as follows:
IP datagrams are sent through the corresponding GTP tunnels in the LTE core
network with the following encapsulation headers:
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Classifier (IP packet EPS bearer)
LTE Packet Transmission in OPNET
IP Payload
lte_pdcp_pdu
IP Payload
lte_pdcp_pdu
IP Payload
lte_pdcp_pdu
lte_rlc_amd_pdu lte_rlc_umd_pdu lte_rlc_amd_pdu lte_rlc_umd_pdu
lte_mac_sdu lte_mac_sdu lte_mac_sdu lte_mac_sdu
lte_mac_pdu lte_mac_pdu
HARQ process j
MPDU
transmission
HARQ process k (≠j)
MPDU
transmission
TCP/IP and UDP/IP header
compression (optional)
RLC operation:
- Segmentation
- Concatenation
- Reordering
- Re-transmissions
- Status reports
Scheduler
Frame Generator
Subframe n Subframe n+1
RLC buffer, bearer a RLC buffer, bearer b RLC buffer, bearer a RLC buffer, bearer c
IP Traffic
Traffic classification
HARQ
Radio Transmission
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PDCP Features and Related Code
PDCP overhead of 16 bits is added to all higher-layer packets.
PDCP header compression is performed for UDP/IP and TCP/IP headers for
all higher-layer packets.
Encapsulation: All packets entering LTE go through PDCP encapsulation
lte_pdcp_pdu
Encapsulation occurs in lte_support_pdcp_higher_layer_to_pdcp_pdu_convert() in
lte_support.ex.c
Compression supported conditionally for TCP/IP and UDP/IP
lte_support_pdcp_header_comp_size_compute() in lte_support.ex.c does the
compression job
Compression algorithm: A compression factor generated using a
configured distribution
Compression reflected by setting the a negative bulk size for lte_pdcp_pdu
Decapsulation:
Simply recovers original packet – its size was never changed
lte_support_pdcp_pdu_to_higher_layer_convert() in lte_support.ex.c
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RLC Features
Segmentation and concatenation procedures are performed using a dynamic
PDU size that is determined by the scheduler decisions.
The model supports the following RLC modes:
Transparent mode—No RLC header is included in this mode.
Unacknowledged mode—This mode ensures in-sequence delivery of SDUs to the
higher layers.
Acknowledged mode—This mode ensures retransmission of missing SDUs in addition
to in-sequence delivery of SDUs to the higher layers.
While transmitting PDUs, an RLC entity in acknowledged mode follows this priority
order: status report PDU > retransmitted PDU(s) > PDU with new data
While retransmitting RLC AMD PDUs, segmentation of the retransmitted PDUs in
cases of small maximum allowed PDU sizes is supported
SRBs use RLC UM mode
The RLC mode of the data radio bearers is configurable separately for uplink and
downlink
Default bearer always uses UM
CCCH transmissions use transparent mode, and TM is used only by CCCH
transmissions
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RLC Code
All RLC functionality resides in models/std/lte/rlc_support.ex.c
The MACRO RLCC_MAX_TX_SDU_COUNT defined in rlc_support.h
controls the RLC buffer size
Modeled as a constant with a capacity of 1500 packets for each radio bearer: Packets
can be of any size, though typical TCP/IP packets will be at most 1500 bytes
Enqueue/dequeue functions:
rlc_support_rlc_sdu_enqueue()
rlc_support_lte_rlc_pdu_create()
Other important functions
rlc_support_tx_queue_size_in_bits_get(): Get the size of the queue. This is how the
scheduler would know if the queue is empty.
rlc_support_is_tx_window_stalled(): This is important for the scheduler to know. A
stalled RLC window is treated the same as empty buffer
rlc_support_lte_min_pdu_header_size_get(): This is important for the frame
generator. If it does not have resources to allocate even the minimum RLC PDU
header, it should not allocate any resources at all.
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Agenda
LTE Network Architecture
LTE Node and Process Models
UE Architecture
eNodeB Architecture
Lab 1: Admission Control Customization
EPC Architecture
Global Attribute Definer Object
Demo 1: LTE Channel Capacity
LTE Features
EPS, EMM, PDCP, RLC
MAC
eNodeB: Frame Generator, Scheduler and HARQ
Lab 2: Scheduler Customization
UE: Buffer Status Reporting and Random Access
PHY
Architecture and MAC to PHY interface
PHY Features
Lab 3: Pathloss Customization
Documentation References
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LTE MAC Implementation Overview:
eNodeB
Process model lte_enb_as.pr.m
UL and DL framing – all functions in the same process model
Scheduling – Most of the functionality in lte_sched_support.ex.c and
externally callable functions are called from the process model
Support functionality in lte_support.ex.c
Mapping bits to allocation blocks and vice versa
Managing the database of control channel elements in PDCCH
Managing all control channels such as PDCCH, PUCCH, and RACH
HARQ functionality – some functionality in harq_support.ex.c and some in the
same process model
RLC functionality: RLC functions are called from this process model
Admission control – Most of the functionality in
lte_admit_control_support.ex.c, and the externally callable functions are called
from the process model
Uplink received data processing – all functions in the same process model
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LTE MAC Implementation Overview: UE
Process model lte_ue_as.pr.m
Child process model lte_rach.pr.m handles random access procedure
exclusively
SR/BSR – all functions in the same process model
Grant processing – all functions in the same process model
UE uses the same scheduler as the eNodeB to “fill” its grants from various
radio bearer queues
HARQ functionality – some functionality in harq_support.ex.c and some in the
same process model
RLC functionality: RLC functions are called from this process model
Downlink received data processing – all functions in the same process model
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Scheduler Support at the eNodeB
Frame generator, and the scheduler are distinct entities
Frame generator deals with the “framing” and understands the resources available for data, how
bits can be mapped to these resources etc
Scheduler is oblivious to the “frame”
Ideally, you should be able to use the scheduler package for any entity
Scheduler only finds the identity and optionally the number of bits of the “next queue to serve”
By default, the scheduler is even oblivious to RLC (data buffers), although this need not be the
case
Scheduler can recommend “infinity”, and the frame generator will decide exactly how
many bits are served
If the scheduler does specify a finite number, the frame generator treats it as the “upper
limit” of the amount of bits to be served
Frame generator is a client of the scheduler
Very complex…needs to manage multiple RBs per UE, decide termination criterion etc
Can block/unblock some scheduler queues to exclude/include them in scheduling
Scheduler code:
Scheduler code is implemented in lte_sched_support.ex.c and lte_sched_sup.h
Frame generator code is in lte_enb_as.pr.m:
DL function: lte_enb_as_dl_frame_generate()
UL function: lte_enb_as_ul_frame_generate()
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Technical Paper Published on the LTE
Consortium Website
A technical paper describing the frame
generator/scheduler concepts and detailed code
description/interfaces published on the LTE consortium
website
“LTE Frame Generator and Scheduler Description”
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DL Frame Generator Block Diagram
Frame
Generator
Scheduler
Set Scheduler callbacks (depending
upon the pass)
Reset the scheduler (erase transient
memory)
Q
1
Q
2
Q
3
Q
4
Q
5
Q
6
Group 1 Group 2 Group 3
Makes group1 current
Get (Q
i
, R
i
) R
i
being the
recommended bits to serve
Start at the current group, use
callbacks to find Q
i
and R
i
Slide to the next group if the current
group is done
Calculate N
i
, the maximum number of
incremental allocation blocks that can
be given to this queue and S
i
, the
corresponding bits that can be served
Ask the RLC module to return one or
more RLC PDUs not exceeding (S
i

MAC overheads)
Recalculate N’
i
<= N
i
as the actual
number of allocation blocks taken by
this queue
Update the subframe state
Evaluate termination in the current
pass
Don’t
terminate
Process feedback from the frame
generator. Update the permanent
state of Q
i
that can be used to
influence future selection of queues
Return (Qi , Ri) and also send any
custom information. If all
queues in all groups are
either empty or blocked,
return INVALID
Actual number of bits
and blocks consumed
by this queue in the
current subframe
Assign PRBs to all MPDUs
Terminate
VALID Q
i
INVALID Q
i
Get next queue
Appendix B gives function names
corresponding to various blocks for
the DL frame generator
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Understanding How to Interface to the DL
Frame Generator
Entry function: lte_enb_as_frame_dl_frame_for_harq_tx_generate()
Pass 1: Called for all queues. For GBR queues, only a maximum of contract bits served.
Pass 2: Called only for the GBR queues. Excess traffic in GBRs served.
Pass 3: Called if PDCCH gets congested before PDSCH.
In order to prevent creating new control channel elements, all unserved UEs are
blocked, and remaining PDSCH resources are distributed only to the served UEs.
At the start of the framing, set scheduling callbacks:
lte_sched_support_q_selection_proc_set()
Procedure that finds the “next queue”
lte_sched_support_bit_selection_proc_set()
Procedure that “recommends” bits to be taken from the queue’s buffer
That’s pretty much it! Interface reduced potentially to 2 lines only
Frame generator in turn calls (until resources remain, or buffers are nonempty):
lte_sched_support_next_q_get(): Gets the queue ID (crnti, RB) and the “recommended
bits”
Frame generator has the ability to determine termination, reset the scheduler system, potentially
set different callbacks each time, exclude/include queues in the scheduling process etc!
We recommend you leave the frame generator undisturbed!
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Downlink Framing Sequence
Set PDCCH symbol times = 3
(# of columns anticipated for
PDCCH)
Create random access
responses. Adjust number of
RBs available for data.
Create CCCH messages.
Adjust number of RBs
available for data.
Place HARQ retransmission
MPDUs on the DL. Adjust
number of RBs available for
data.
Attempt to resize the PDCCH
size into 1 or 2 columns
Schedule new MPDUs. Adjust
the number of RBs available
for data.
EXIT
All buffers empty OR PDCCH resized already
No more RBs AND PDCCH NOT resized already
P
D
C
C
H

c
a
n
n
o
t

b
e

r
e
s
i
z
e
d
Attempt to resize the PDCCH
size into 1 or 2 columns
PDCCH resized to 1 or 2 symbols
More RTX and no more RBs
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Summarizing the Best Practices for
Interfacing a Custom DL Scheduler
Most recommended approach: Adhere to the OPNET architecture
Let OPNET’s frame generator take care of the actual framing for you
Refer to Appendix C for a non-recommended interfacing example
Write two scheduler callbacks of type (declared in lte_sched_sup.h) :
LteT_Scheduling_Q_Selection_Proc
LteT_Scheduling_Bit_Selection_Proc
Set the custom callbacks at the beginning of lte_enb_as_dl_frame_generate()
function (defined in lte_enb_as.pr.m).
Pass 3 should always be used. Passes 1 and 2 can be combined into a single pass, if
your scheduling algorithm had different objectives
Output of the DL frame generator
Created MPDUs
UE context, Number of resource blocks, MCS index, Downlink MPDU,
HARQ context
Use the trace lte_frm to examine how the frame is constructed
The trace lte_low_level gives detail information about how each MPDU was
constructed
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HARQ Support for DL
Asynchronous adaptive HARQ
An open HARQ process must be found for new MPDU transmissions
Eight HARQ processes supported.
HARQ context is exclusively signaled on the control channel
Signaling occurs on PDCCH. DCI format 1 is set for downlink carrying
HARQ process ID, NDI bit and the redundancy version
HARQ retransmission can be scheduled any time at any location on the frame
starting from n+8
Technically it can also carry any MCS index, although it is not done by
default
All retransmissions served before any new transmission
Acknowledgment mechanism:
Either PUCCH or PUSCH channel is used for sending ACK back
If PUCCH is absent at n+4, the DL frame generator also reserves 1 resource
block for this UE on PUSCH, which may be reused by the UL frame generator
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HARQ Process Management on DL
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
New tx:
process 0
New tx:
process 1
NACK:
process 0
NACK:
process 1
RTX process
0 failed due to
insufficient
resources!
Can happen
for any of
PDSCH,
PUSCH or
PDCCH
RTX
process 0
succeeded
RTX
process 1
pushed to
next
subframe
RTX
process 1
succeeded
In the above example, HARQ process 1 transmission occurred after 9 subframes instead of 8.
The minimum gap between transmissions on a process is 8 subframes. It can be indefinitely larger than
that
It is extremely unlikely that HARQ RTX blocked for 8 consecutive subframes, in which case, an open
HARQ process for transmission cannot be found at all!
Appendix D gives a flow chart along with function names showing how DL HARQ retransmissions are
served
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UL Frame Generator at the eNodeB
Very similar to the DL frame generator
Called in the same 3 phases
Uses the same scheduler and callback functions
Does not deal with RLC, since it is the UE’s job
Only creates grants, and understands how many bits could fill the space
allocated in a grant – The eNodeB knows the UE’s needs from BSRs
Conditionally reuses some grants created by the DL Frame Generator for
HARQ acknowledgment purposes
In case the scheduler does not choose such UEs, the UL frame generator is
aware that 1 allocation block would eventually be given to the above UE.
Does not use the space allocated to the control channels, such as PUCCH and
RACH
Function: lte_enb_as_ul_frame_generate()
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Uplink “Segments”
A typical 5 MHz Uplink Subframe
RACH
PUCCH
PUCCH
Synchronous
HARQ RTX
Synchronous
HARQ RTX
1

b
l
o
c
k
6
b
lo
c
k
s
2

b
l
o
c
k
s
4

b
l
o
c
k
s
For every “contiguous segment”, UL frame
generator is run separately
In this example, no UE can get more than 6
allocation blocks, although a total of 13 blocks are
free
A UE scheduled in one segment cannot be
scheduled again in another segment due to
SCFDMA
When all UEs in one segment are scheduled,
their bursts are also placed in that segment
Grants created for DL HARQ ACKs can go in
any segment in the end. It is guaranteed that UL
frame generator will leave enough space to
allocate them.
lte_enb_as_frame_ul_frame_for_harq_tx_gener
ate() to enter the whole UL frame generation
process
lte_subframe_free_prb_segments_create() to
find the number of free segments
lte_subframe_free_prb_segments_next_seg_get
() to find the dimension of next free segment (in
terms of start index and number of alloc.
Blocks)
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The Uplink Framing Sequence
Uplink framing is relatively simpler than the downlink framing, since
the space occupied by the control channels is fixed
PUCCH and RACH allocations are made first
All non-adaptive synchronous HARQ retransmission elements are
scheduled next
If an HARQ retransmission collided with RACH, it is fitted in an open
“segment” large enough to accommodate it. All such adaptive HARQ
retransmissions are scheduled next
All msg3 grants given in the random access response (msg2) messages
of the random access procedure are scheduled next
Finally, new grants are given in the remaining open segments to the
UEs that are not already under retransmissions
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HARQ Support for UL
Synchronous non-adaptive/adaptive HARQ
Synchronous: HARQ process number fixed.
PID = (10*frame_number + subframe_number) modulo 8
Non-adaptive: The eNodeB does not signal HARQ RTX control information
on PDCCH.
Implicit RTX made by UE
Adaptive: The eNodeB may have a valid reason to move the retransmission
somewhere else in the subframe
E.g. if the RTX burst collides with RACH
Adaptive RTX has the cost of having extra control information in PDCCH
If RTX cannot be scheduled, the UE remains blocked for this subframe!
Different from downlink – in downlink, a new TX would have happened on
a new process
RTX can remain blocked for a long time in pathological cases
Appendix E gives the Uplink HARQ retransmission processing flow
chart along with function names
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Recapping the DL and UL Frames
Exactly 1 allocation per UE in DL and UL
Allocation represented as a burst identified as (Start index, Number of allocation
blocks, Start time, Delay, MCS index)
DL MPDU must not be created if no HARQ feedback mechanism on the UL can
be ensured
If the UE does not have PUCCH in n+4, a UL grant must exist: if the UE has not
requested data, or if the scheduler does not schedule this UE, this grant will consist of a
minimum 1 allocation block and will be used exclusively for sending control
information (HARQ ACK/NACK)
DL data (PDSCH) and control (PDCCH) space is shared. PDCCH can be resized
to make bigger space for the data
A scheduler can aim to reduce the amount of control channel elements by restricting the
number of UEs served in the same subframe, which can create more space for downlink
data
HARQ retransmissions are part of the framing process
For uplink, both non-adaptive and adaptive HARQ retransmissions are supported
For downlink, asynchronous HARQ retransmissions are supported, in which retransmission
can happen in any subframe >= n+8
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Agenda
LTE Network Architecture
LTE Node and Process Models
UE Architecture
eNodeB Architecture
Lab 1: Admission Control Customization
EPC Architecture
Global Attribute Definer Object
Demo 1: LTE Channel Capacity
LTE Features
EPS, EMM, PDCP, RLC
MAC
eNodeB: Frame Generator, Scheduler and HARQ
Lab 2: Scheduler Customization
UE: Buffer Status Reporting and Random Access
PHY
Architecture and MAC to PHY interface
PHY Features
Lab 3: Pathloss Customization
Documentation References
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Lab 2: Downlink Scheduler Customization
Objectives
Understand how a custom scheduler function can impact the
application performance
Monitor control channel overhead and draw inferences
Write and interface a custom scheduler function with a certain
objective to the downlink frame generator
Analyze the performance of the downlink scheduler by using
detailed traces and statistics
Time: 40 minutes
You can stick around after the session to finish the extra credit
portion of the lab if running short of time
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Lab 2: Take Away Points
Using the frame generator/scheduler architecture, it is simple to
interface custom schedulers to the software
Interface can be minimized to 1 line in the standard models code, while
you implement a whole new scheduler
Using detailed traces and statistics, the downlink channel can be
analyzed and its impact on the application performance can be
readily explained
Your scheduler function should consider the impact on the
Downlink control channel (PDCCH)
Use OPNET’s ability to dynamically resize the PDCCH to implement the
scheduler in a way that minimizes the demands put on PDCCH
Refer to Appendix C if you want to interface differently
OPNET code is very easy to interface to, even if you do not follow our
recommendations
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Agenda
LTE Network Architecture
LTE Node and Process Models
UE Architecture
eNodeB Architecture
Lab 1: Admission Control Customization
EPC Architecture
Global Attribute Definer Object
Demo 1: LTE Channel Capacity
LTE Features
EPS, EMM, PDCP, RLC
MAC
eNodeB: Frame Generator, Scheduler and HARQ
Lab 2: Scheduler Customization
UE: Buffer Status Reporting and Random Access
PHY
Architecture and MAC to PHY interface
PHY Features
Lab 3: Pathloss Customization
Documentation References
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Buffer Status Reporting (BSR) for the
Uplink Data
UE sends BSRs as a MAC subheader in an uplink MPDU
Short (16 bits) or the long BSRs (32 bits) are sent as per the standard
After reading the BSR contents, eNodeB sends grants to serve that traffic, in which
new BSRs can be sent, and so on.
When buffers are empty, the UE reports 0 traffic, at which point the eNodeB stops
issuing grants.
However in order to send the BSR, it needs an “initial grant”. There are 2 ways in which
the UE gets it:
Case 1: UE has a dedicated uplink control channel (PUCCH): In this case, it sends a
scheduling request (SR) bit at the first opportunity. The eNodeB issues it a grant of a
predefined size, in which the UE can send the BSR.
Case 2: The UE has no dedicated uplink control channel. It this case, it uses the
random access channel and the random access procedure to get the initial grant.
When the UE is waiting for a new grant, it stays in either:
SR_TR or
BW_REQ_VIA_RACH
A UE can go in only 1 of these 2 red states depending upon whether it has
PUCCH allocation or not.
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The Buffer Status Report Process
Higher layer data arrival Request initial grant using PUCCH or RACH
PUCCH period or
RACH timer expiry
Request initial grant using PUCCH or RACH
Send initial grant
Send BSR + Uplink data
BSR retransmission
timer = typically
2560 subframes
Send BSR + Uplink Data
Send Uplink grant
Send Uplink data and more BSR if necessary
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The Random Access Procedure
All UEs use it for initial attachment
UEs without PUCCH allocation use it for sending bandwidth
requests
Implemented in lte_rach.pr.m, a child process of lte_ue_as.pr.m
Exchange of 4 messages between the UE and the eNodeB
msg1 or preamble: UE sends to the eNodeB (lte_rach process model)
msg2 or the random access response: eNodeB sends to the UE
Function lte_enb_as_random_access_responses_generate() in
lte_enb_as.pr.m
Message carries an uplink grant within itself
msg3: UE sends to the eNodeB from lte_rach process
Uses the UL grant that comes with the random access response message
Has HARQ support
msg4 or the contention resolution message: terminates the random access
procedure successfully
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Uplink Grant Processor at the UE
Uses the same scheduler as the eNodeB to allocate
resources to various RBs
Simpler, because resources already expressed in bits
Handles all MAC and RLC headers
Also inserts BSR subheader to indicate its queue sizes
Function: lte_ue_as_mpdu_form()
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Agenda
LTE Network Architecture
LTE Node and Process Models
UE Architecture
eNodeB Architecture
Lab 1: Admission Control Customization
EPC Architecture
Global Attribute Definer Object
Demo 1: LTE Channel Capacity
LTE Features
EPS, EMM, PDCP, RLC
MAC
eNodeB: Frame Generator, Scheduler and HARQ
Lab 2: Scheduler Customization
UE: Buffer Status Reporting and Random Access
PHY
Architecture and MAC to PHY interface
PHY Features
Lab 3: Pathloss Customization
Documentation References
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The PHY Module and the Process Model
•PHY modeled as a separate process
•All PHY related attributes are under the PHY process
•When promoting, on LTE node models, they will be promoted under the LTE.PHY group
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The PHY Module Functions
Accept a packet from MAC and perform transmission on OFDM resources
wrls_phy_pk_send() wrls_phy_mcarrier_pk_send() in wrls_phy_support.ex.c
Physical layer effects in pipeline stages
Most LTE pipeline stages are wrls_* under the models/std/wireless folder
Effects such as pathloss, multipath, interference are modeled in pipelines
Open architecture allows users to create custom pathloss and multipath models
easily (lab 3)
Set up transmitter and receiver specific PHY information for easy information
sharing
wrls_phy_tx_info_init_first_phase() and wrls_phy_tx_info_init_second_phase() in
wrls_phy_support.ex.c
Collect various statistics
Pathloss, SNR, received power, dropped packets etc.
Promoted statistics are under the LTE PHY group
Support advanced PHY features (upcoming and future planned)
Measurements and notifications to the MAC upon crossing of a threshold
Monitoring energy consumption at a node
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Sending LTE MPDU via the PHY Interface
lte_mac_pdu created at lte_enb_as.pr.m, lte_ue_as.pr.m, and lte_rach.pr.m
lte_support_phy_burst_ici_info_pk_install_from_dci() called to create an ICI
of type wrls_phy_mac_interface
PHY extracts the “burst information” from the ICI and prepares the packet
for the PHY transmission in wrls_phy_pk_send() by adding 2 unnamed fields
lte_mac_pdu WrlsT_Phy_Mcarrier_Burst_Info WrlsT_Phy_Chnl_Info
Burst dimensions:
Start time,
transmission delay,
start frequency, end
frequency, PRB start
index, #PRBs etc.
Wireless channel information:
•WrlsT_Pathloss_Info*
•MultipathT_Channel_Instance*
•WrlsT_Phy_Antenna_Info*
•WrlsT_Phy_Profile*
•Stathandles for physical layer
•Etc.
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The Purpose of PHY Unnamed Fields
Unnamed fields are “read only”
Burst Information (WrlsT_Phy_Mcarrier_Burst_Info):
Provides information about how the packet is mapped on the OFDM resources
in form of a rectangle
Used in interference calculations by determining the overlap between a pair
of rectangles
Also pathloss computations need frequency information to compute the
pathloss accurately
Channel Information (WrlsT_Phy_Chnl_Info):
Carries information about the specific wireless channel modeled by each UE
Each UE can customize its own pathloss and multipath models
Different UEs can be connected to different eNodeBs, and the physical layer
profiles of those eNodeBs can be different
Also carries stathandles for recording the PHY statistics
Ideal place to insert various customization elements
Custom information for custom pathloss, multipath models etc.
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Agenda
LTE Network Architecture
LTE Node and Process Models
UE Architecture
eNodeB Architecture
Lab 1: Admission Control Customization
EPC Architecture
Global Attribute Definer Object
Demo 1: LTE Channel Capacity
LTE Features
EPS, EMM, PDCP, RLC
MAC
eNodeB: Frame Generator, Scheduler and HARQ
Lab 2: Scheduler Customization
UE: Buffer Status Reporting and Random Access
PHY
Architecture and MAC to PHY interface
PHY Features
Lab 3: Pathloss Customization
Documentation References
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Overview of PHY Features in Phase II
Support for variable bandwidth
1.4MHz, 3Mhz, 5Mhz, 10Mhz 15Mhz and 20Mhz
Modeling of physical channels
PDSCH, PDCCH, PRACH, PUSCH and PUCCH
Pathloss models
Freespace, Suburban Macrocell, Urban Macrocell, Urban Microcell, Erceg, Pedestrian and Vehicular
Multipath models
ITU Pedestrian A & B and ITU Vehicular A & B
Modulation and coding schemes
Interference modeling
Time and frequency overlaps among different bursts are detected
Interference is proportional to the overlap
Interference may cause burst drops for PUSCH and PDSCH bursts
Interference effects for control channels are based on a probability distribution function.
HARQ
Type II incremental redundancy
Asynchronous retransmissions on the downlink
Synchronous retransmissions on the uplink
Asynchronous in case of collision of synchronous retransmissions
Disabling PHY layer for faster simulations
Support for antenna models
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Propagation Effects: Multipath and
Pathloss
Pathloss called from the pipeline wrls_power.ps.c
Function wrls_phy_packet_pathloss_compute() defined in
wrls_phy_support.ex.c
“Burst information” of the packet carries the pathloss model configured at
the UE: Can easily be customized (lab 3)
Multipath model called from the pipeline wrls_snr.ps.c
Function wrls_phy_effective_snr_get defined in wrls_phy_support.ex.c
Calls wrls_phy_mpath_effective_snr_compute()
In turn calls a user extensible callback function passed during the
initialization of the receiver element: wrls_phy_mpath_lte_init_proc()
defined in wrls_phy_support.ex.c
The multipath function used for LTE is
wrls_phy_mpath_lte_effective_snr_compute() defined in
wrls_phy_support.ex.c
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Modulation and Coding Schemes
Modulation/coding curves created for MCS indexes from 0 to 28
For some indexes, separate curves defined for the uplink and the downlink
Curves created by a bit-level Monte Carlo simulation by assuming
transmission of 1 allocation block
A document has been published on the LTE consortium website
describing our methodology
Loading the tables in the software
KP op_tbl_modulation_get()
Function wrls_phy_mcs_info_init() in wrls_phy_support.ex.c
Tables loaded in global arrays for UL and DL separately
Computing BLER and packet drop probability in PHY
wrls_ber pipeline: BLER accessed using the KP op_tbl_mod_ber()
wrls_error pipeline: Calls wrls_phy_burst_decode_success_compute()
defined in wrls_phy_support.ex.c
If the burst consists N blocks, and if BLER is p, the probability of
successful decoding is (1-p)
N
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Physical Layer Packet Combining of
HARQ
All packets tagged as “valid” are forwarded to the MAC whether they are decoded
correctly by the PHY or not
HARQ module is implemented in MAC for its extensive MAC functionality, although its physical
layer component is responsible for combining the packets
Type II incremental redundancy simulated
Logic: 2 types of gains: SNR gain – can be simply found by adding effective SNRs of
successive packets. Coding gain – simulated as SNR gain by adding the SNR of the “extra
bits” stuffed into the MPDU
Example: MPDU of size 128, corresponding burst has 4 allocation blocks. The maximum
bit carrying capacity of the burst = 192. Thus 64 “extra bits” can be carried within the burst,
which can provide an extra gain at the receiver
Packet receiving and processing functions:
lte_enb_as_mpdu_decode_with_harq() : At lte_enb_as.pr.m
lte_ue_as_mpdu_decode_with_harq(): At lte_ue_as.pr.m
Efficiency support:
Possible to characterize PHY by drop probability parameters
If first transmission, drop probability = p (configurable attribute)
If n
th
retransmission, drop probability = p *1/n
k
k is a configurable parameter – idea is that the drop probability reduces exponentially with
each retransmission attempt
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Agenda
LTE Network Architecture
LTE Node and Process Models
UE Architecture
eNodeB Architecture
Lab 1: Admission Control Customization
EPC Architecture
Global Attribute Definer Object
Demo 1: LTE Channel Capacity
LTE Features
EPS, EMM, PDCP, RLC
MAC
eNodeB: Frame Generator, Scheduler and HARQ
Lab 2: Scheduler Customization
UE: Buffer Status Reporting and Random Access
PHY
Architecture and MAC to PHY interface
PHY Features
Lab 3: Pathloss Customization
Documentation References
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Lab 3: Pathloss Customization
Objectives
Understand how to implement a custom pathloss model which requires custom
attributes
Analyze the custom pathloss model with physical layer statistics
Time: 15 minutes
Take away points
Using the generic physical architecture, it is easy to add one’s own custom
physical layer algorithms in OPNET
Each UE can be configured with a unique physical environment allowing for
the possibility of simulating UEs in various environments
Using the physical layer statistics, one can readily validate the custom physical
layer
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Agenda
LTE Network Architecture
LTE Node and Process Models
UE Architecture
eNodeB Architecture
Lab 1: Admission Control Customization
EPC Architecture
Global Attribute Definer Object
Demo 1: LTE Channel Capacity
LTE Features
EPS, EMM, PDCP, RLC
MAC
eNodeB: Frame Generator, Scheduler and HARQ
Lab 2: Scheduler Customization
UE: Buffer Status Reporting and Random Access
PHY
Architecture and MAC to PHY interface
PHY Features
Lab 3: Pathloss Customization
Documentation References
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Documents
Some important 3GPP Standards
36213-880: for the physical layer
36300-910: for the overall description of E-UTRAN
36321-900: for the MAC operation
36322-870: for the RLC operation
36331-900: for the RRC protocol
23203-830: for the policy and control architecture
23401-860: for the EUTRAN access network
OPNET Published (LTE consortium website)
LTE Phase I Requirements Document
LTE Phase II Requirements Document
LTE Frame Generator and Scheduler Description
LTE Modulation Models
LTE Multipath Fading Models
Coming soon: LTE Phase III Requirements Document
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Resources and Model Support
Technical Support
www.opnet.com/support
Link to OPNETWORK proceedings
FAQs and FAQ search
Link to latest Modeler product releases
Link to the Modeler user forum
Link to the Modeler training videos
www.opnet.com/university_program
Links to the contributed papers and contributed models
support@opnet.com
OPNET LTE Specialized Model
www.opnet.com/LTE
Access to OPNET LTE Consortium Website
Modeler Product Documentation
Models > Model Library > LTE
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Related Sessions
1571: Planning WiMAX Network Deployments
Covers planning use cases in more detail of the sister technology WiMAX
1530: Modeling Custom Wireless Effects - Introduction
1580: Modeling Custom Wireless Effects – Advanced
Covers advanced physical layer concepts on antenna modeling, node mobility
modeling, OFDMA transmission framework, MCS curve generation
methodology, interference computations, pathloss models, multipath modeling
framework etc.
1586: Building Realistic Application Models for Discrete Event
Simulation
1576: Verifying Statistical Validity of Discrete Event Simulations
1550: Accelerating Simulations Using Efficient Modeling Techniques
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Take-Away Points
OPNET implements various LTE features
More features are on the way
Being a part of OPNET LTE consortium can help
Early models access can help you get familiarize to the models code
You can influence LTE features release priorities
OPNET Modeler can be used in LTE planning exercises
Capacity planning, application performance etc.
OPNET Modeler can be used in LTE R&D
Callback based architecture allows easy customizations
API based architecture allows easy interfacing to the standard models code
OPNET provides standard models code that is modular and easy to
customize
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Appendix A: Acronyms
3GPP: 3
rd
Generation Partnership Project
QoS: Quality of Service
OFDMA: Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiple Access
SC-FDMA: Single-Carrier Frequency-Division Multiple Access
LTE: Long Term Evolution
4G: 4
th
Generation
UMTS: Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
3G: 3
rd
Generation
EPS: Evolved Packet System
EPC: Evolved Packet Core
E-UTRAN: Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network
GTP: GPRS Tunneling Protocol
eNodeB: Enhanced NodeB
UE: User Equipment
PDCP: Packet Data Convergence Protocol
RLC: Radio Link Control
HARQ: Hybrid Automatic Repeat reQuest
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Appendix B: DL Frame Generator Code
lte_enb_as_dl_frame_generate():
Concept of a “scheduling pass”
Ability set up a different scheduling callback
lte_enb_as_dl_frame_gen_blocks_and_bits_compute()
Computes the upper limit on the allocation blocks given to the queue
lte_enb_as_dl_mac_sdu_create()
Creates 1 or more MAC SDUs by contacting the RLC queue for the selected RB
Computes the actual number of resources consumed in allocation blocks (<= upper limit)
Also finds an HARQ process identifier for transmission if not already found
lte_enb_as_harq_ack_schedule()
Checks if PUCCH exists at n+4 for the UE.
Else checks if the UE is performing an HARQ retransmission at n+4.
Else checks if a UL allocation can be created on PUSCH for 1 allocation block. This may also require a new
control channel element on PDCCH.
If yes, a UL allocation is created. This will be reused by the UL scheduler if it finds the same UE for
scheduling purposes.
lte_enb_as_mac_pdu_dl_send()
Creates an HARQ “context” of transmission. This means that after 8 subframes, we will check whether for
this UE and HARQ process, an ACK/NACK was received or not.
Sends the MAC PDU to the UE (efficiency or PHY method).
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Appendix C: What if Your Scheduler
Doesn’t Produce the “Next Queue”
Case study: My scheduler already decided all the UEs to schedule and
all the associated RBs…I also know how many blocks are given to
each RB…how do I interface my system to OPNET?
This problem can be solved as follows:
Step 1: Overwrite the output of lte_sched_support_next_q_get() with your
own (c_rnti, rb_id), so that frame generator will service your queue instead
of letting the callback choose one for you
When you are done, assign the variable return_ q_id the value
LTEC_SCHED_Q_INVALID for termination
Step 2: Overwrite the calculation of the variables “num_alloc_blocks_ptr”
and “small_alloc_blocks_ptr” in the function
lte_enb_as_dl_frame_gen_blocks_and_bits_compute()
“Small allocation blocks” is important to know for subframes with
special channels such as primary/secondary synchronizations and BCCH.
That’s pretty much it!
As long as you have produced a “correct frame” (i.e. not allocating more
resources than what actually exist), things will work fine
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Appendix D: Handling of DL HARQ
Retransmissions
lte_enb_as_dl_frame_harq_rtx_process()
Find all UEs that should have received
and processed their acknowledgements
by now: (UEs that transmitted at n-8, and
all NACKed UEs that got “pushed” to
the current SF). Find the HARQ context
of the UE.
Free the HARQ process for new
transmissions.
ACK || max RTX exceeded
Examine if resources are available on
PDSCH, PDCCH and conditionally
PUSCH:
lte_enb_as_dl_harq_rxmt_dci_obtain()
Perform retransmission in the current
subframe
Find a future subframe for retransmission:
No other HARQ process for this UE should
be scheduled for retransmission in that SF.
lte_enb_as_async_dl_harq_rtx_perform()
Else
All resources available
Else
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Appendix E: Handling of UL HARQ
Retransmissions
lte_enb_as_ul_frame_harq_rtx_process()
Find all UEs that transmitted at n-8
Free the HARQ process for new
transmissions.
(ACK || max RTX exceeded) && (UE
made a “correct” transmission)*
Send a fake ACK to this UE to stop
further retransmissions and mark for
“adaptive” retransmission
Else if UE made an “incorrect”
transmission*
Attempt synchronous retransmission:
lte_enb_as_ul_frame_harq_implicit_rtx_process()
Else
For each open “segment”, attempt adaptive
retransmission:
lte_enb_as_ul_frame_harq_explicit_rtx_process()
Failed due to collision with another
RTX or RACH
Send a fake ACK to stop retransmission Send NACK and a grant for
RTX with NDI = 0
Failed Succeeded
*Incorrect transmission: An incorrect transmission is a consequence of the following scenario: ACK to NACK and lost grant for
new data. In this case, the UE retransmits using a previous grant instead of doing a transmission using the new grant. In real
systems, HARQ/PHY can detect this by noting reception of a packet on wrong frequencies.
Send NACK. The
UE will retransmit
implicitly
Else