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Human Proteins

Human Proteins

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Examples of some human proteins and their functions.
Examples of some human proteins and their functions.

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Published by: Norberto R. Bautista on Jul 23, 2014
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HUMAN PROTEINS

Notes in Bioinformatics
Insulin
Model of six insulin molecules assembled in a hexamer, highlighting the
threefold symmetry, the zinc ion holding it together (pink sphere), and
the histidine residues (pink sticks) involved in zinc binding. Inactive
insulin is stored in the body as a hexamer, while the active form is the
monomer
Insulin is a peptide hormone,
produced by beta cells in the
pancreas, and is central to
regulating carbohydrate and
fat metabolism in the body. It
causes cells in the skeletal
muscles, and fat tissue to
absorb glucose from the
blood.
Insulin is a very old protein that may have originated more
than one billion years ago. The molecular origins of insulin go
at least as far back as the simplest unicellular eukaryotes.
Apart from animals, insulin-like proteins are also known to
exist in Fungi and Protista kingdoms.
Insulin stops the use of fat as an energy source by inhibiting
the release of glucagon. Except in the presence of the
metabolic disorder diabetes mellitus and metabolic
syndrome, insulin is provided within the body in a constant
proportion to remove excess glucose from the blood, which
otherwise would be toxic. When blood glucose levels fall
below a certain level, the body begins to use stored sugar as
an energy source through glycogenolysis, which breaks down
the glycogen stored in the liver and muscles into glucose,
which can then be utilized as an energy source.
Growth Hormone
Somatotropine
Growth hormone (GH or HGH),
also known as somatotropin or
somatropin, is a peptide hormone
that stimulates growth, cell
reproduction and regeneration in
humans and other animals. It is a
type of mitogen which is specific
only to certain kinds of cells.
Growth hormone is a 191-amino
acid, single-chain polypeptide that
is synthesized, stored, and secreted
by somatotropic cells within the
lateral wings of the anterior
pituitary gland
Androgen
Androgen, or androgenic hormone or testoid, is the broad
term for any natural or synthetic compound, that stimulates
or controls the development and maintenance of male
characteristics in vertebrates by binding to androgen
receptors. This includes the activity of the accessory male sex
organs and development of male secondary sex
characteristics. Androgens were first discovered in 1936.
Androgens are also the original anabolic steroids and the
precursor of all estrogens. The primary and most well-known
androgen is testosterone. Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and
androstenedione are less known generally, but are of equal
importance in male development. DHT in the embryo life
causes differentiation of penis, scrotum and prostate. Later in
life DHT contributes to male balding, prostate growth and
sebaceous gland activity.
Estrogen
Oestrogens or estrogens are a group of
compounds named for their importance in
both menstrual and estrous reproductive
cycles. They are the primary female sex
hormones. Natural estrogens are steroid
hormones, while some synthetic ones are
non-steroidal.

Estrogens are synthesized in all
vertebrates[2] as well as some insects. Their
presence in both vertebrates and insects
suggests that estrogenic sex hormones have
an ancient evolutionary history.
Keratin
Keratin is a family of fibrous
structural proteins. Keratin is the key
structural material making up the
outer layer of human skin. It is also
the key structural component of hair
and nails. Keratin monomers
assemble into bundles to form
intermediate filaments, which are
tough and insoluble and form strong
unmineralized tissues found in
reptiles, birds, amphibians, and
mammals. The only other biological
matter known to approximate the
toughness of keratinized tissue is
chitin
Horns such as those of the impala are
made up of keratin covering a core of
live bone
the α-keratins in the hair (including wool), horns, nails, claws
and hooves of mammals[verification needed]
the harder β-keratins found in nails and in the scales and
claws of reptiles, their shells (Testudines, such as tortoise,
turtle, terrapin), and in the feathers, beaks, claws of birds and
quills of porcupines.[9] (These keratins are formed primarily
in beta sheets. However, beta sheets are also found in α-
keratins.)[10]

The baleen plates of filter-feeding whales are made of keratin.
Chitin (C8H13O5N)n is a long-chain polymer of a N-
acetylglucosamine, a derivative of glucose, and is found in
many places throughout the natural world. It is the main
component of the cell walls of fungi, the exoskeletons of
arthropods such as crustaceans (e.g., crabs, lobsters and
shrimps) and insects, the radulae of molluscs, and the beaks
and internal shells of cephalopods, including squid and
octopuses. The structure of chitin is comparable to the
polysaccharide cellulose, forming crystalline nanofibrils or
whiskers. In terms of function, it may be compared to the
protein keratin. Chitin has also proven useful for several
medical and industrial purposes.
Chitin – a Carbohydrate
Collagen
Collagen is the main structural protein of the various
connective tissues in animals. As the main
component of connective tissue, it is the most
abundant protein in mammals, making up from 25%
to 35% of the whole-body protein content. It is
usually found in the skin, muscle, tendons, cartilage,
bones and nerve tissues.
Tropocollagen triple helix
Haemoglobin
Haemoglobin is the iron-containing
oxygen-transport metalloprotein in
the red blood cells of all
vertebrates (with the exception of
the fish family Channichthyidae) as
well as the tissues of some
invertebrates. Hemoglobin in the
blood carries oxygen from the
respiratory organs (lungs or gills) to
the rest of the body (i.e. the
tissues) where it releases the
oxygen to burn nutrients to
provide energy to power the
functions of the organism in the
process called metabolism.


Melanin
Melanin is a broad term for a
group of natural pigments
found in most organisms
(arachnids are one of the few
groups in which it has not
been detected). Melanin is
produced by the oxidation of
the amino acid tyrosine,
followed by polymerization.
The pigment is produced in a
specialized group of cells
known as melanocytes.
Part of the structural formula of pheomelanin.
"(COOH)" can be COOH or H, or (more rarely)
other substituents. The arrows denote where
the polymer continues.
Albinism occurs when melanocytes
produce little or no melanin. This albino
girl is from Papua New Guinea.
Elastin
Elastin is a protein in connective
tissue that is elastic and allows
many tissues in the body to
resume their shape after
stretching or contracting. Elastin
helps skin to return to its original
position when it is poked or
pinched. Elastin is also an
important load-bearing tissue in
the bodies of vertebrates and used
in places where mechanical energy
is required to be stored. In
humans, elastin is encoded by the
ELN gene.
Progesteron


Progesterone is an
endogenous steroid hormone
involved in the menstrual
cycle, pregnancy, and
embryogenesis of humans
and other species.
Progesterone is also a crucial
metabolic intermediate in the
production other endogenous
steroids, including the sex
hormones and the
corticosteroids, and plays an
important role in brain
function as a neurosteroid
Ferritin


Ferritin is a ubiquitous intracellular
protein that stores iron and releases it in
a controlled fashion. The protein is
produced by almost all living organisms,
including algae, bacteria, higher plants,
and animals. In humans, it acts as a
buffer against iron deficiency and iron
overload. Ferritin is found in most
tissues as a cytosolic protein, but small
amounts are secreted into the serum
where it functions as an iron carrier.
Plasma ferritin is also an indirect marker
of the total amount of iron stored in the
body, hence serum ferritin is used as a
diagnostic test for iron deficiency
anemia
Pro-Thrombin


Prothrombin (coagulation
factor II) is proteolytically
cleaved to form thrombin in
the coagulation cascade,
which ultimately results in
the reduction of blood loss.
Thrombin in turn acts as a
serine protease that
converts soluble fibrinogen
into insoluble strands of
fibrin, as well as catalyzing
many other coagulation-
related reactions.

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