Precipitating Factors: exposure to pathogen Upper respiratory tract infection Etiology: • streptococcus pneumonia Predisposing factors Age altered state of immunity polluted environment (smoking, noxious gases, etc)

Pathogens invade the respiratory tract/ infect airways Bronchi Bronchiole terminal bronchiole Spread to the alveoli

Release biochemical mediators of inflammation and the inflammatory response occurs

Cell injury

Injured respiratory mucosa (goblet cells)

Capillary vasodilation Increase bloodflow

WBC activation Chemotaxis and phagocytosis of pathogens

Increase capillary permeability

secrete large amounts of mucous

Swelling / mucosal edema


Endogenous pyrogens

Fluid and exudates accumulation

Crackles and Wheezing



Airway (bronchioles or terminal bronchioles) with exudates and fluids

Alveoli lose air spaces and solidify because the space which air must occupy is filled with fluids and exudates (consolidation)

Dullness during percussion
Decrease oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange in the alveoli The body compensates the decrease in oxygen that reaches the alveoli by increasing the respiratory rate

Ventilation – perfusion mismatch



less oxygen is also delivered to body tissues and organs

The heart compensates by increasing the heart rate

pale and dusky skin

Hypoxia Tachycardia


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