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I HC NNG LM TP.

HCM
KHOA C KH CNG NGH












BI GING
C K THUT
(M s: TotNghiep-3TC - Lu hnh ni b)

Bin son: Vng thnh Tin












Tp. HCM 2013
2
MC LC
Chng 1: MA ST trong k thut c kh ..................................................................... 3
1. GII THIU ........................................................................................................... 3
2. MA ST TRONG KHP TNH TIN .................................................................. 5
3. MA ST TRONG KHP QUAY ........................................................................ 14
4. MA ST LN TRONG KHP LOI 4 .............................................................. 22
5. HIU SUT.......................................................................................................... 23
Chng 2: CN BNG MY ..................................................................................... 28
1. MC CH v NI DUNG ca CN BNG MY........................................... 28
2. CN BNG KHU QUAY:................................................................................ 28
3. CN BNG C CU: ......................................................................................... 34
Chng 3: C CU PHNG TON KHP THP ................................................... 36
1. I CNG ........................................................................................................ 36
2. CC BIN TH TRONG C CU BN KHU BN L ............................... 36
3. C IM NG HC CA C CU 4 KHU BN L ............................ 38
4. C IM NG HC CA CC BIN TH THNG GP ................... 41
5. GC P LC ....................................................................................................... 43
6. MT S NG DNG CA C CU NHIU THANH ................................... 44
Chng 4: C CU BNH RNG ............................................................................. 47
1. I CNG V TRUYN NG BNH RNG ........................................... 47
2. CC THNG S HNH HC C BN CA BNH RNG THN KHAI
TIU CHUN .......................................................................................................... 50
3. NG N KHP CUNG N KHP H S TRNG KHP ................. 51
4. S TRT CA CC RNG ............................................................................ 53
5. NHNG PHNG PHP C BN CH TO BNH RNG THN KHAI . 54
6. BNH RNG TR TRN RNG NGHING .................................................. 59
7. PHN TCH LC TRN BNH RNG TR TRN ....................................... 63
TI LIU THAM KHO ............................................................................................ 65














3

Chng 1: MA ST trong k thut c kh
1. GII THIU
Ma sat la mot hien tng t nhien phat sinh ni tiep xuc gia cac khau co
chuyen ong tng oi vi nhau.
Ma sat gan lien vi van e rat quan trong trong ky thuat, l s hao mon cua
may moc, thit b v tuoi tho cua chung.
Thng thng, ma st l lc cn c hi v n lm tiu hao cng sut, gim hiu
sut ca my. Cng ca lc ma st phn ln bin thnh nhit lm nng cc chi tit
my; lm thay i c, l tnh ca b mt tip xc hoc cht bi trn; lm mn cc
chi tit my, chnh xc gim Tuy nhin trong nhiu trng hp, n l lc cn
c ch, c dng truyn ng, v d trong c cu bnh ma st, c cu ai, my
cn... trong cc thit b phanh hm, c cu kp cht



a) C cu ai b) C cu bnh ma st c) Truyn ng v cp
Hnh 1-1: Mt s ng dng c ch ca lc ma st
1.1. Phan loai
- Theo tnh chat tiep xuc
+ Ma sat t (a) - Ma sat kho (b)
+ Ma sat na t - Ma sat na kh (c)

a) b) c)
Hnh 1-2: tip xc gia 2 b mt
- Theo tnh chat chuyen ong
+ Ma sat trt: xut hin gia hai mt tip xc nhau, trong vn tc ca
chng ti cc im tip xc khc nhau v gi tr v phng chiu.
+ Ma sat lan: xut hin gia hai mt tip xc c chuyn ng tng i vi
nhau, nhng trong chuyn ng ny, vn tc ca chng ti cc im tip xc bng
nhau.
4

Hnh 1-3: chuyn ng tng i gia 2 b mt
+ Ngoi ra ngi ta cn phn bit: ma st tnh - ma st ng.
1.2. Lc ma sat trt kh.
Gia s 2 vat A, B tiep xuc nhau theo mot mat phang (H.1-4).


Q
Fms
N
P
B
A
R



a) phn tch lc b) ma st ng-ma st tnh
Hnh 1-4: m t ma st trt
Vat A chu 1 lc thang ng Q vuong goc mat tiep xuc. Vat B se tac ong vao
A mot phan lc N cung phng ngc chieu va co gia tr bng lc Q.
Tac ong vo A mot lc P nho, nam ngang trong mat phang tiep xuc. Tng dn
lc P t gi tr 0. Lc u, vt A ng yn, chng t c lc tc dng ln A cn
bng vi lc P . Lc gi l lc ma st F.
F = - P
Lc F gi l lc ma st tnh.
Tng t t lc P ta thy vt vn ng yn ngha l F tng theo lun cn
bng vi lc P .
Tng lc P n mt gi tr no , vt A bt u chuyn ng. Lc ma st tnh
tng n gi tr max F .
Khi vt A chuyn ng thng u, vt A chu tc ng ca mt lc ma st ng
cn bng vi lc P . Quan h gia lc ma st F v lc P c biu th trn hnh
1-4b.
Theo Culomb, lc ma st c tnh theo cng thc:
F = a + b.N
Trong , h s a ph thuc vo din tch tip xc.
F = (a/N + b).N
F = f.N (1-1)
5
Trong , h s ma st f = a/N + b l h s ma st tnh khi 2 vt c xu hng
chuyn ng tng i vi nhau, l h s ma st ng khi hai vt c chuyn ng
tng i.
Gc ma st tnh v gc ma st ng c xc nh theo cng thc:
tgt = Fmax/N = ft; tg = F/N = f
Sau y, thun tin, ta dng k hiu F ch c lc ma st tnh ln lc ma st
ng v k hiu f ch c h s ma st tnh v ng. Ch :
- Chieu cua lc ma sat la chieu chong lai chuyen ong tng oi.
- He so ma sat f phu thuoc vao vat lieu be mat tiep xuc (trn hay nham)
va thi gian tiep xuc.
- He so ma sat khong phu thuoc vao dien tch tiep xuc, ap suat tren be
mat tiep xuc va van toc tng oi gia hai be mat tiep xuc.
- Trong a so trng hp, he so ma sat tnh ln hn he so ma sat ong.
1.3. Hien tng t ham
Tc dng ln A mt lc P to vi phng php tuyn mt gc o
(Hnh 1-5).
Phn tch lc P thnh 2 thnh phn:
Pn = P.sino; P = P.coso.
+ Thnh phn nm ngang P n y vt chuyn ng
ngang.
+ Thnh phn thng ng P p 2 vt li, to nn phn
lc N tc ng ln A.
Lc ma st gia 2 vt l: F = f.N = f.P.coso
- Nu lc P nm trong gc ma st, ngha l: Hnh 1-5:
nn ma st
o < tgo < tg sino/coso < f P.sino < f.P.coso Pn < F.
V lc y ngang nh hn lc ma st, nn d lc P c ln bao nhiu i na,
vt A vn khng th chuyn ng c. l hin tng t hm.
- Nu lc P nm ngoi gc ma st, th Pn > F, vt A chuyn ng nhanh
dn.
- Nu lc P nm trn mp gc ma st, tc l o = , lc Pn = F, vt A
chuyn ng thng u.
- Cho gc quay quanh php tuyn, cnh ca gc ma st s vch nn hnh
nn ma st. Khi nu lc P nm trong hnh nn ma st, s l hin tng t hm.
2. MA ST TRONG KHP TNH TIN
2.1. Dang phang
F = f.N
Trong : f l h s ma st; N l phn lc php tuyn.
2.2. Dang ranh tam gic
A
Pn
Pd P
o
P
B
N
Fms
6
Gi f l h s ma st trn c 2 b mt tip xc. Lc ma st trn rnh:
F = F1 + F2
F = f.N1 + f.N2 = f(N1 + N2)
M N = (N1 + N2)cos| F =
| cos
f
.N = f.N
Trong : f l h s ma st thay th dng rnh tam gic,
f =
| cos
f
= tg (1-2)
Gc gi l gc ma st thay th.



|
|
N1
N2
N
Q |
A
B
Q

N2
N1

a) khp tnh tin rnh tam
gic
b) lc trn khp dng rnh
Hnh 1-6: ma st trong rnh tam gic
2.3. Dng rnh trn (hnh 1-7a)
do
o
|
r
l
dS
dN
p
A
B
N
Q


02
01
uo
p
o
N
p(o)

a) khp tnh tin dng trn b) lc trn khp dng trn
Hnh 1-7: ma st trong rnh trn
7
Vt A chu ti trng Q vung gc vi phng trt. p sut do rnh B tc
dng ln A phn b trn phn cung chn bi gc |. Nu xt mt din tch v cng
b dS (dS = l.r.do).
Gi p(o) l p sut trung bnh trn din tch phn b
dN = p(o).dS
Lc ma st xc nh bng cng thc:
F =
}
|
dF =
}
|
o o d ). ( p . r . l (1-3)
Phn lc N = o
}
|
cos . dN = o o o
}
|
d . cos ). ( p . r . l (1-4)
t f =
N
F
= f.
}
}
|
|
o o o
o o
d . cos ). ( p . r . l
d ). ( p . r . l
= .f
f l h s ma st tng ng, ph thuc vo quy lut phn b p sut
p(o).
gi l h s phn b p sut,
=
}
}
|
|
o o o
o o
d . cos ). ( p . r . l
d ). ( p . r . l
(1-5)
V tg = f; gi l gc ma st thay th.
Cc quy lut phn b p sut thng gp:
+ Trong cc khp tnh tin mi, p sut thng c coi l phn b u
p(o) = p; lc ny | = 180
o
. Thay p(o) vo cng thc (1-5) vi tch phn cn t -
t/2 t/2
= t/2.
+ Nu trc A cng, lt B mm, sau khi chy mn, th quy lut phn b p
sut c th hin hnh 1-7b. Lc ny p(o) = po.coso, trong p sut ln nht
po ng vi mn hng tm ln nht ch tc dng ca lc N. Thay p(o) vo
cng thc (1-5) vi tch phn cn t -t/2 t/2
= t/4.
Ta c th tnh po bng cch thay p(o) = po.coso vo cng thc (1-4):
po =
l . r .
Q 2
l . r .
N 2
t
=
t
(1-6)
2.4. Mt ng dng ca lc ma st Truyn ng ai (b truyn ai)
Nguyn l: Chuyen ong c truyen t bnh 1 sang bnh 2 nh lc ma sat gia
day ai va banh ai. Banh ai nho thng la banh chu ong. Khi cha chuyen
ong, e tao lc ma sat gia day ai va banh ai, phai tao nen lc cang ban
au Fo gia 2 nhanh ai.
.
8

Hnh 1.8: M t mt c cu ai

Hnh 1.9: Nhng cch khc nhau to ra & duy tr lc cng ai
9
- Ma st sinh ra gia hai b mt xc nh theo cng thc:
N . f F
ms
=

Nh vy, c lc ma st th cn thit phi c p lc php tuyn. Trong b truyn
ai, to lc php tuyn th phi to lc cng ai ban u, k hiu l F0. Mt vi
cch duy tr lc cng ai cn thit, c m t trong hnh sau:
Phn loi
u nhc im v phm vi s dng
u im:
Nhc im
Thng s hnh hc b truyn ai:
- Thng s hnh hc ch yu: a: khong cch trc; : gc m bnh ai nh (bnh
dn); d1,2: ng knh bnh ai; L: chiu di ai. Tt c c m t trong hnh
19.1a.
- Quan h gia cc thng s hnh hc:
* Gc m ly gn ng
0
2 1
180 57( ) / d d a u=
(1-7)
- Chiu di ai c xc nh theo cng thc:
2
1 2 1 2
( )
2
2 4
d d d d
L a
a
t
+
| |
= + +
|
\ .
(1-8)
- Chiu di ai c chn li theo tiu chun. Sau tnh li khong cch trc a:
4
8 k k
a
2 2
A +
=
(1-9)
trong :
2 / ) d d (
2 / ) d d ( L k
1 2
2 1
= A
+ t =

Lc tc dng ln b truyn ai
a. Lc tc dng ln ai
0
F 0
d
1

Hnh 1.10: lc tc dng ln ai
- Gi F0 l lc cng ban u; F1 l lc cng trn nhnh cng v F2 l lc cng
trn nhnh chng khi b truyn chu ti.
- iu kin cn bng lc:
1 2 t
F F F =
(1-10)
Ft gi l lc vng hay ti trng c ch
M-men (gii hn) c th truyn trn ai l:
T = (F
1
F
2
).(d
1
/2)
2
F
1 d
1
10
Gi s chiu di L khng thay i khi chu ti trng nn co v gin trn hai
nhnh bng nhau.
F F F
F F F
0 2
0 1
A =
A + =
(1-11)
0 1 2
F 2 F F = +

t (1-10) v (1-11):
2
F
F F
2
F
F F
t
0 2
t
0 1
=
+ =

Mi quan h gia F1 v F2: (cng thc Euler)
1 2
f
F F e
u
=
(1-12)
T cc cng thc trn, ta c:
1
2
0
/ ( 1)
/ ( 1)
( 1) / 2( 1)
f f
t
f
t
f f
t
F Fe e
F F e
F F e e
u u
u
u u
=
=
= +
(1-13)
Suy ra:
0
2 ( 1) / ( 1)
f f
t
F F e e
u u
= +
.
Nh vy, nu tng gc m v h s ma st f ln th s tng kh nng ti ca b
truyn.
- Khi ai chuyn ng trn bnh ai, mi phn t ai chu lc ly tm, lc ly tm
to nn lc cng ph Fv trn ai:
2
m
2
v
v q Av F = =
(1-14)
qm khi lng trn 1m dy ai, kg/m
- Phng trnh Euler c k n lc cng ph

1
2
f
v
v
F F
e
F F
u

(1-15)
- i vi ai hnh thang (nh hnh 1.11)
Phng trnh Euler l:

'
1
2
f
v
v
F F
e
F F
u

(1.16)
Trong , f = f/sin, vi l gc chm ca ai hnh thang, m t trong hnh v.

11

Hnh 1.11: M t s tip xc ca mt c cu ai hnh thang
b. Lc tc dng ln trc v
F
2
F
1
F
2
F
1
F
r

Hnh 1.12: lc tc dng ln trc
Lc tc dng ln truc:
0
2 sin( )
2
r
F F
u
~
(1.17)
Cu to ca ai & Bnh ai
Hin tng trt trong b truyn ai
Bao gm: trt hnh hc, trt n hi, trt trn
- Trt hnh hc: xy ra khi b truyn cha lm vic, di tc dng ca ti trong
F0, ai b gin hin tng trt trn
-Trt n hi: do lc F1 trn nhnh cng > F2 trn nhnh chng, nn bin
dng ai 1 khi vo ai s > bin dng ai khi ra ai. Do , khi ai vo tip
xc vi bnh dn ai s b co li gy nn hin tng trt n hi
Trn bnh b dn xy ra hin tng trt n hi khi ra ai.
- Trt trn: xy ra khi moment truyn ln hn moment ma st
12
ng cong trt v hiu sut ca b truyn ai
Vn tc v t s truyn
- Vn tc vng trn cc bnh ai:
+ Trn bnh dn: v1 = td1n1/60000
+ Trn bnh b dn: v2 = td2n2/60000 (1-18)
- Gia vn tc vng hai bnh ai c s lin h:
1 1
2 2
1
2
1 2 1
n d
n d
1
v
v
1 v / ) v v ( = = =

) 1 ( v v
1 2
=
(1-19)
vi: - h s trt tong i. = 0,01 .. 0,02
- T s truyn ca b truyn ai:
1
2
1
2
d
d
) 1 ( d
d
u ~

=
(1-20)
Tnh ton thit k b truyn ai
(Tham kho Tp 1, ti liu [2], trang 50 76)
2.5. Ma st trn mt phng nghing
- Xet vat chuyen ong eu len tren nh lc ay P (h 1.13)

o
o
90(o+|)
90(|)
o+

o
|
o
R
P
R
P
Q
Q

a)
c)
b)

|=o
o
R
P
Q
Q
R
o
|=0


Fms
R
Q
P'
N
o


d)
Hnh 1.13: phn tch lc i vi chuyn ng tnh tin trn mt phng nghing
T ho lc (h 1.13b) v cho vt chuyn ng u:

)] ( 90 sin[
) sin(
Q
P
o
|
+ o
=
P = Q.
) cos(
) sin(
|
+ o

* Neu P // mat phang nghieng (h1.13c)
| = 0 P = Q.

+ o
cos
) sin(

* Neu P co phng nam ngang (h1.13d)
| = -o P = Q.tg(o + )
- Neu lc P c dung e gi cho vat khong b tut do c
13
( R , N) = -
Trong cac cong thc tren se oi dau.
khi P co phng nam ngang P = Q.tg(o - )
Khi xt ma st trn dng rnh nghing (h1.14)
o+'
R
P
Q
n
n
o
B
A
F
N
Q
P
R
o
|
'

Hnh 1.14: phn tch lc trn rnh nghing
+ Nu vt c xu hng chuyn ng ln trn th:
P = Q.tg(o + ) (1.21)
+ Nu vt c xu hng chuyn ng xung di th:
P = Q.tg(o - ) (1.22)
Trong : l gc ma st thay th dng rnh.
2.6. Ma sat trong khp ren vt
N
o
N
o

o=90
o
-| o=90
o
-|

a) b)
Hnh 1.15: m phng ai c trong khp vt & vt nng trn mt phng nghing
+ Co the xem mat vt nh 1 trng hp rieng cua mat phang nghieng
cuon tren mat tru. Khai trien mat tru, ta se co 1 ng thang nghieng thay cho
ng xoan oc. ai c chu lc thng ng Q s dch chuyn ln dc di tc
dng ca lc ngang P .
14
+ Lc P cn thit vn cht ai c c tnh theo (1.21), vi (o + ) <
90
o
.
oi vi ren tam giac hay ren hnh thang th c tnh theo: tg=
f/cos|. Lc P cn thit s ln hn so vi khi dng ren vung hay ren hnh ch nht
(| = 0 = ). V th trong cc chi tit truyn ng (vt-me, vt kch) thng l
ren vung.
+ ai oc khi lam viec co the b thao long, trnh hin tng ny, theo
(1-22):
P > Q.tg(o - ) hoac (o - ) < 0 (hien tng t ham)
V th trong cc chi tit ghp (bu lng ai c) nn dng ren bc ngn, ren tam
gic hay ren hnh thang co | cang ln cang tot.
MI GHP REN
(Sinh vin t n phn l thuyt t file Moi_ghep_ren.pdf v gii tt c nhng
bi tp, file Bai_tap_chuong_moi_ghep_ren.pdf; Bi ging chi tit my-Bi
Trng Hiu)
3. MA ST TRONG KHP QUAY
Trong cac c cau thng gap, khp quay la cho tiep xuc gia chot va ban le,
hoac ngong truc va lot o Trc tien ta xem ma sat trong khp quay la ma sat
trt kho.
MA ST KH
3.1. Phan tch lc tac ong trong khp quay
Xet trng hp tong quat, truc va ngong truc tiep xuc tren 1 cung om CD = |.
Truc quay eu di tai trong Q (tac ong qua tam O) va mo men M (h1-16a).
h
c)
b)
a)
0

Q'

N
R
a
Q
M M

Q
F
F
x
y
Q
dF
D
C
N
B
dN
r
|
o
do

Hnh 1-16: ma st trong khp quay
15
Xet phan lc N: ap suat phan bo theo 1 quy luat p(o) nao o tren cung
om. Cac ap suat qua tam. Nen N cung se qua tam O.
+ Phng cua N c xac nh sao cho }dNsino = 0.
+ Gia tr N xac nh theo: N = }| dN.coso
Vi: dN = p(o).l.r.do (1-23)
Trog : l: chieu dai ngong truc, r: ban knh truc , do: goc chan cung ds.
Xt lc ma sat: F = }| f.dN.coso = f.N, theo phng x.
Phan lc toan phan (H.4-11b):
R = N + F
T ieu kien can bang lc R = - Q v tg = f = F/N
R = Q =
2 2
F N + =
2 2 2
N . f N + = N.
2
f 1+
N = Q /
2
f 1+ (1-24)
Nhan xet:
+ N ch phu thuoc vao Q va f, khong phu thuoc vao mo men M va quy
luat phan bo ap suat.
+ N lech vi tai trong Q mt goc bang goc ma sat.
Mo men ma sat:
T ieu kien quay eu, nen momen M phai can bang vi momen ma sat
Mms (= F.a).
Mms = F.a = R. = Q.
Trong F = f .N = f .Q /
2
f 1+ = f.Q; vi f =
2
f 1
f
+
l he so ma sat
thay the.
Canh tay on a c tnh nh sau, v F l hp ca tt c cc lc ma st ca
cc phn t c din tch dS nn:
F.a = }|.r.dF = r.}|.f.dN; v F f.N a = (r.}|dN)/N.
Thay N v dN tnh phn rnh trn, ta c
a =
}
}
o o o
o o
d . cos ). ( p
d ) ( p
r = x r (1-25)
Vi : he so phan bo ap suat.
Mms = F.a = Q.f. .r (1-26)
Vong tron ma sat: vong tron tam O , ban knh c goi la vong tron
ma sat.
Gia s ngoai lc Q tac ong len truc, cach truc oi xng 1 oan bang h,
chuyen Q ve mat phang oi xng, c Q va mo men Q.h. Mo men nay lam
quay truc (H.4-11c). Xt 3 trng hp sau:
16
- Lc Q cat vong tro ma sat
Ta c:
h < Q.h < Q.;
Vi = a.sin = a.
+

2
tg 1
tg
= a.f = .r. f
Q. = Q.f. .r: y chnh la mo men cua lc ma sat.
Ngha l khi Q cat vong tro ma sat th Q.h < Mms , truc ng yen
Khi Q tang th Mms cung tang theo, bat ang thc tren van khong thay oi,
truc van ng yen, du lc Q ln bao nhieu tuy y. o la hien tng t ham
trong khp quay.
- Lc Q tiep xuc vi vong ma sat: h =
Qh = Mms: trc c th quay u c.
- Lc Q khng ct vong ma sat: truc se quay nhanh dan.
Y ngha: khi thiet ke tay quay truc may, ban knh tay quay phai ln hn ban
knh vong ma sat.
3.2. Ma st
ng dng cc cng thc trn tnh Mms v bn knh vng trn ma st ca cc
loi khp quay thng gp trong thc t.
a) Khp quay h

a) b)
Hnh 1-17
- ac iem: ban knh truc nho hn ban knh o, khi quay, truc va o tiep
xuc theo 1 ng sinh, tren mat ca t ngang, tiep xuc nhau tai 1 im B (h1-17a)
- Cac yeu to lc :
+ Canh tay on ma sat a = r
+ He so phan bo ap suat : = 1
} = r.f
17
+ Momen ma sat : Mms = Q. = Q.r.f (1-27)
- Nhan xet: xem lo la mat phang nghieng, co goc nghieng tang dan. au
tien truc va o tiep xuc tai A. Khi truc quay lan tren thanh lo (H.4-12b). T A
en B, goc nghieng o nho, nhng v hien tng t ham, truc khong tut xuong (o
< ). en B, goc nghieng bang goc ma sat , nen iem B la mien gii han t
ham. Qua iem B, truc se khong lan len c, nen truc va o se tiep xuc tai B
va quay tai o.
b) Khp quay kht mi (hnh 1-18a)
- ac iem: ban knh truc va o bang nhau, ap lc phan bo eu tren cung
tiep xuc CC: p(o) = p.
- Cac yeu to lc :
+ N nam gia chia cung CC thanh 2 phan oi xng, goc o thay oi
t -t/2 t/2
+ = t/2 ; a = (t/2).r ; = (t/2).r.f
+ Mms = (t/2).r.f.Q (1-28)
+ p suat p =
2
f 1 . l . r 2
Q
+



a) phn tch lc trn khp quay mi b) phn tch lc trn khp quay mn
Hnh 1-18: ma st trong khp quay
c) Khp quay kht, a mon (hnh 1-18b)
- Ap suat phan bo theo quy luat cosin tren suot cung tiep xuc lam viec:
p(o) = p.coso vi o thay oi t -t/2 t/2.
- Tnh c : + = 4/t a = .r = (4/t).r
Va = .r.f = (4/t).r.f
18
+ Mms = Q. = (4/t).r.f.Q (4-15)
- Cc chng minh tng t nh kht mi, ta c: p =
2
f 1 . l . r .
cos . Q 2
+ t
o

- So sanh ta nhan thay : Mms (o h) < Mms (o kht mon) < Mms (o kht
mi)
3.3. Ma sat o chan
- O chan dung e truc theo chieu truc. Mat tiep xuc gia truc va o la
mot hnh vanh khan, ban knh trong r1 va ban knh ngoai r2.
- Mo men ma sat: xet 1 phan to dien tch dS hnh vanh khan, ban knh r
va chieu day dr. Dien tch cua phan to nay la: dS = 2tr.dr
Ap lc tac ong len phan to: dN = p.dS
Lc ma sat: dF = f.dN
Mo men ma sat cua phan to la : dMms = r.dF
Mo men ma sat cua lt tc dng ln trc l:
Mms =
}
t
2
1
r
r
2 .f.p.r
2
.dr (1-29)



b) chn mn
a) chn mi
Hnh 1-19: ma st trong chn
a) chan con mi (Hnh 1-19a)
19
p suat phan bo eu tren dien tch tiep xuc gia truc va o: p =
) r r (
Q
2
1
2
2
t

Mms =
) r r ( 3
) r r ( Q . f 2
2
1
2
2
3
1
3
2

(1-30)
Neu r1 = 0; r2 = r Mms =
3
2
f.Q.r
b) O chan a chay mon
Thay rang ap suat phan bo theo ng hyperbol (hnh 1-19b) xac nh
bi :
p =
r ). r r ( 2
Q
1 2
t

Mms = } 2t.f.p.r
2
.dr = f.Q.
2
r r
1 2
+
(1-31)
Khi r2 = r v r1 = 0 Mms = (f.Q.r)
Nhng neu: r = r1 = 0, ap suat tam truc se ln vo cung. Nen e tranh,
ngi ta thng khoan lo r = r1 gia.
MA ST T
Trong cac khp ong, e giam o mon, tang tuoi tho may, dung chat boi trn
ngan cach cac mat tiep xuc cua chung. Chat boi trn co the la chat kh, chat
ran di dang bot, nhng thng nhat la chat long, dau nhn.
3.4. Cc dng bi trn
Cc dng bi trn
Bi trn thng c phn loi da vo mc m cht bi trn phn cch 2 b
mt tip xc. Hnh sau m t 3 trng hp c bn v mc phn cch.

Hnh 1-20: M t 3 mc phn cch gia 2 b mt
Trong bi trn thy ng (hnh a), b mt c phn cch hon ton bi lp (du)
bi trn. Ti trng, c khuynh hng p 2 b mt tip xc nhau, c hon
ton bi p sut ca cht lng c to ra bi chuyn ng tng i ca 2 b mt
(vd, chuyn ng quay ca ngng trc). Mn b mt khng xy ra. Chiu dy c
trng ca lp cht lng ti im mng nht khong t 0.008 0.020 (mm). Gi tr
20
c trng ca h s ma st trong trng hp ny nm trong khong 0.002 n
0.010.
Trong bi trn mng hn hp (ma st na t, hnh b), cc nh ca b mt khng
lin tc trong tip xc v tn ti lc (thy ng) tng phn. Nu thit k ng,
b mt s mn nh.
Gi tr c trng ca h s ma st trong trng hp ny nm trong khong 0.004
n 0.1.
Trong bi trn bin (ma st na kh, hnh c), tip xc gia cc b mt lin tc v
c phm vi rng, tuy nhin, cht bi trn c bi 1 cch lin tc qua nhng b
mt v cung cp nhng lp b mt (du) bm vo, c lm mi lin tc. Gi tr
c trng ca h s ma st trong trng hp ny nm trong khong 0.05 n 0.2.
Kha nim c bn v bi trn thy ng


Hnh 1.21: M t (khe h) s hnh thnh bi trn thy ng

Hnh 1.21a th hin 1 trt () trng thi tnh. Khong h gia trc v cha
y du, tuy nhin, ti (W) bt cht lp du ti y. Khi trc quay (chm, theo
chiu kim ng h), lm cho n ln v bn phi, hnh 1.21b. Quay (chm) 1 cch
lin tc dn cho trc 1 v tr ging nh ang leo ln tng ca b mt , to ra
bi trn bin.
21
Khi tc quay ca trc tng dn, cng nhiu lp du (ang dnh trn b mt trc)
i vo vng tip xc cho n khi p sut pha trc ca vng tip xc
nng trc, hnh c. Khi iu ny xy ra, p sut cao ca dng du tch t phi bn
phi ca v tr c dy lp du nh nht (h0) lm di chuyn trc 1 cch nh
nhng v pha bn tri ca tm quay. Di nhng iu kin thch hp, s cn bng
c thit lp v b mt ca trc v c tch ra hon ton. Bi trn thy ng
(cn c gi l bi trn full-film hay thick-film) c thit lp. lch tm cn
bng (e) ca trc v c th hin trong hnh 1.21c.
Hnh 1.22 sau y cho thy nh hng ca 3 thng s c bn ln cc dng bi trn
v h s ma st tng ng ca n.

Hnh 1.22: ng cong Stribeck v cc dng bi trn
Trong , (N.s/m
2
, hay, Pa.s) l nht (ng lc hc v nht tuyt i); n
(vng/giy) l tc quay ca ngng trc, v P (N/m
2
) l ti n v ca , P =
W/d.l, vi d, l l ng knh v chiu di ngng trc.
Gi tr s trn ng cong trong hnh v ph thuc vo nhng chi tit ca 1 trt
c th, v d, khi nhng b mt cng nhn, mng du cn thit tch hon ton
(nhng nhp nh ca) 2 b mt cng mng, v th, gi tr ca n/P (tng ng vi
im A) cng thp. Khe h hay kht ca ngng trc trong trc c nh hng
quan trng, bi v c ch to ra p sut cht lng thy ng trc yu cu trc
quay lch tm trong .
Ch rng, t c bi trn thy ng, cn 3 yu t:
- Chuyn ng tng i ca cc b mt c phn cch.
- S hnh thnh chm du.
- S hin din ca cht lng ph hp.

22
Ma sat t trong o trt
Vi r: ban knh ngong truc;
e: van toc goc cua truc;
ho: chieu day khe h gia truc va o;
= ho /r: o h tng oi.
Tnh c :
Mms =

e t .
.
2
l . d .
2
(1-32)
Trong o: l: la chieu dai ngong truc;
d: la ng knh ngong truc;
: o nht ong lc;
Tnh ton chn trt
(Tham kho Tp 1, ti liu 2, trang 227 -233)
4. MA ST LN TRONG KHP LOI 4
4.1. Ma sat lan
Xet mot hnh tru at tren mot mat phang. Di tac dung cua lc Q, 2 vat tiep
xuc se b bien dang. ng suat be mat tiep xuc phan bo oi xng qua lc Q.
Neu tac ong vao hnh tru 1 lc P , cach mat phang 1 oan y. Gia s hnh tru
lan theo chieu mui ten. Dien tch tiep xuc se c chia lam 2 phan, gii han
bi cung AB va CD. Tren phan cung AB lam 2 phan, gii han bi cung AB va
BC. Tren phan cung AB mat tiep xuc b bien dang , tren phan cung BC mat
tiep xuc ang phuc hoi ve hnh dang cu.

k
C
A
B
Fms
N
P
Q Q




a) b) c)
Hnh 1-23: m t ma st ln
Trong ly thuyet an hoi, co nghien cu hien tng an hoi tre cua vat lieu. o
th tren bieu th moi quan he gia bin dng c va ng sut o. Chieu cua mui
ten la hng thay oi ng suat va bien dang. Vi bien dang c nh nhau, ng
suat o1 trong giai oan bien dang tang se ln hn ng suat o2 luc bien dang
ang giam. V vay, ng suat se phan bo khong oi xng. Tren phan AB, ng
suat se ln hn tren phan BC.
23
Phan lc N cua cac ap lc tren mat tiep xuc se lech so vi Q mot oan k; Q
va N se hp thanh 1 ngau lc, can lai chuyen ong lan, nen goi la ngau lc ma
sat lan.
Mmsl = k.Q (1.33)
Vi k: he so ma sat lan co th nguyen la chieu dai.
4.2. ieu kien lan khong trt
- Muon hnh tru co the lan, mo men lan phai ln hn mo men ma sat lan:
P.y > Q.k P >
y
k . Q
(1)
- e hnh tru khong trt, lc keo trt P phai nho hn lc ma sat trt:
P < f.N P < f.Q (2)
- e vat lan khong trt, lc P phai thoa man (1) va (2)
f.Q > P >
y
k . Q
(1.34)
- e P co the chen gia 2 gia tr nay th:
f.Q >
y
k . Q
y >
f
k
(3)
- Nhan xet: khoang cach y cang ln hn k/f, ieu kien (4-20) cang de
thc hien v pham vi thay oi cua P e thoa man (4-20) cang ln.
- Tom lai: muon hnh tru lan, khong trt, trc tien phai thoa man (3),
sau o mi en ieu kien (4-20).
- oi vi cac xe co, khoang cach y chnh la ban knh cua banh xe. Cho
nen banh xe cang ln, ieu kien lan khong trt cang de thc hien, ay xe
cang nhe.
5. HIU SUT
Trong moi chu ky chuyen ong bnh on, cong cua lc phat ong bang cong cua
lc can:
A = Ac
Cong can Ac gom co 2 phan chnh: cong can co ch Aci la cong cua cac lc can
ky thuat e hoan thanh nhiem vu cong nghe, va cong can co hai la cong dung
e thang cac lc can co hai (lc ma sat trong cac khp ong, lc can cua moi
trng chung quanh) trong o chu yeu la cong dung e thang lc ma sat Ams.
Do o:
A = Aci + Ams
e anh gia hieu qua s dung nang lng vao cong viec co ch cua may, dung
ch tieu c goi la hieu suat cua may.
q = Aci / A (1.35)
24
(cung co the dung ch tieu khac, goi la he so ton that nang lng, ky hieu la:
= Ams / A . D nhien: q + = 1)
Nh vay q = Aci / A = (A Ams) / A = 1 Ams / A
oi vi khp ong, A chnh la nang lng c truyen vao khp, Aci la nang
lng nhan c sau khi truyen qua khp ong.
Hieu suat cua khp ong, cua c cau co the xac nh bang tnh toan, bang thc
nghiem. Trong cac so tay ky thuat, co cho nhng gia tr cua hieu suat cac khp
ong hoac c cau thng dung, v du: hieu suat cua o lan, o trt, c cau banh
rang, xch, ai truyen Cn phai tm hieu suat cua 1 he thong cac khp ong,
c cau c ghep lai vi nhau.
5.1. He thong khp ong, c cau, may, lap noi tiep.
Gia s co 1 he thong bao gom n khp ong, c cau may, c lap noi tiep, co
s o truyen nang lng nh hnh ve.


Hnh 1.24: h thng ni tip
Nang lng a vao he thong la A. Sau khi ra khoi he thong, e khac phuc lc
co ch, nang lng con lai la Aci. Hieu suat cua he thong la:
q = Aci / A = An / A = (An / An-1) x (An-1 / An-2) x.. x (A2 / A1) x (A1 / A)
Hay q = q1 x q2 x .x qn (1.36)
Trong o q1, q2 , qn la hieu suat cua cac khp ong 1,2n
V du: tnh hieu suat cua he thong cua khp ong va c cau nh hnh ve. Nang
lng t ong c truyen en bang tai theo 1 he thong at noi tiep nh sau:
3
1
2
I
II
III
4
5

q1 q2 q3 qn
A A1 A2 An
Aci
25

Hnh 1.25: s ng
Do o, hieu suat cua tram dan ong bang tai se bang:
q = Aci / A = qai x q
3
x q
2
br
5.2. He thong lap song song.
Xet n khp ong, c cau c lap song song, vi s o truyen nang lng nh
H.1-26.
Aci1 Aci2 Acin


Hnh1.26: h thng song song
Trong he thong lap song song, nang lng c chia thanh A1, A2, An e
truyen qua cac c cau 1,2,n vi ieu kien: A = A1 + A2 + + An
Mt khc: A1 = Aci1 / q1 ; A2 = Aci2 / q2
C
q
2
q
1

A
ci1
A
ci2
A
cin
q
n
ng c
26
V vay hieu suat cua he thong lap song song se la:
q = Aci / A =

=
=
n
i i
cii
n
i
cii
A
A
1
1
q
(1.37)
Trng hp ac biet, neu hieu suat cua cac c cau eu bang nhau:
q1 = q2 = = qn = qc
Th hieu suat cua he thong se bang:

c
n
i
ci
c
n
i
ci
n
i c
ci
n
i
ci
A
A
A
A
q
q q
q = = =

=
=
=
=
1
1
1
1
.
1
(1.38)
V vay hieu suat cua he thong c cau lap song song, trong o hieu suat tng c
cau bang nhau, bang hieu suat cua 1 c cau trong he.
5.3. He thong hon hp.
Thong thng trong cac may, dung cac he thong khp ong, c cau va lap
song song, va lap noi tiep. Vi 1 he thong lap hon hp nh vay, khong the tm
c cong thc duy nhat e xac nh hieu suat cua no. Can phai phan tch
chung thanh nhng he song song va noi tiep rieng, sau o dung cac cong thc
(1-36) va (1-37) e tnh hieu suat cua he thong, v du hnh ve tren la 1 he thong
lap hon hp.


Hnh 1.27: h thng hn hp
Phn tch h thng ny, ta thy t ng c n ni cng tc Aci1, Aci2, Aci3, nng
lng c truyn theo 3 chui lp ni tip, hiu sut ca tng chui c tnh
theo cng thc lp ni tip. ba chui ny c lp song song, nn hiu sut ca
ton h thng c tnh theo cng thc lp song song, trong o qi l hiu sut trn
tng chui ni tip trn.



C
q
1
q
2
q
2
q
3
q
2
q
3
q
3
A
ci1
A
ci2
A
ci3
27
Bi tp ca chng 1:
1. Tt c nhng bi tp v b truyn ai s cho ghi chp ti lp v s c nhng
bi gii mu ti lp.
2. T c nhng bi tp ( c li gii sn) sau y: 161, 162, 163, 164, 165
v 166 (sch bi tp NLM T ngc hi 2005). Tt c nhng thc mc
s c gii p ti lp.
3. T gii cc bi tp 168, 169, 171
28
Chng 2: CN BNG MY
1. MC CH v NI DUNG ca CN BNG MY
1.1. Tc hi ca lc qun tnh
Trong khi may lam viec, neu cac lc tac dung len may thay oi, phan lc cac
khp ong cua c cau se thay oi. Cac lc tac ong thay oi theo chu ky, phan
lc cung thay oi theo chu ky, ta o nen hien tng rung ong tren may, lam
giam hieu suat cua may, tang o mon cua cac thanh phan khp ong, giam tuoi
tho cua may, giam o chnh xac cua may.
Trong cac lc tac ong len may thay oi o, nhng rung ong do lc quan tnh
thay oi gay ra la co the khac phuc c. Thc te thay rang lc quan tnh la
nguyen nhan chu yeu gay nen hien tng rung ong tren may. Khi van toc cua
may thay oi cang ln, lc quan tnh cung cang ln. Co khi lc quan tnh ln
hn rat nhieu, so vi tai trong tnh at len may.
V d: vt c khi lng m = 10 kg, quay vi tc n = 6000 vg/ph, ch cn khi
tm ca vt lch khi tm quay 1mm, th lc qun tnh ly tm cng l 4000N,
ln gp gn 40 ln trng lng bn thn!
Nhng tc dng xu s rt nghim trng khi xy ra hin tng cng hng.
1.2. Ni dung cn bng my
Tm cach kh hoan toan hoac 1 phan rung ong do s thay oi co chu ky cua
lc quan tnh gay nen, la nhiem vu het sc quan trong. Mun vy phi tm cach
phan bo hoac at them, thao bt khoi lng cua cac khau chuyn ng, sao cho
co the, cac lc quan tnh can bang lan nhau. o la noi dung cua can bang may.
Cn bng my l vn kh phc tp cho nn trong chng ny ch xt mt cch
nguyen l hai vn c bn:
- Cn bng lc qun tnh v mmen lc qun tnh ca cc vt quay quanh 1
ng tm c nh, gi l cn bng vt quay.
- Cn bng lc qun tnh v mmen lc qun tnh trn c cu kh p lc
do chng gy ra trn mng my. Vn ny c gi l cn bng c cu
hay cn bng trn mng (trn nn).
2. CN BNG KHU QUAY:
Khau quay thng c lap tren cac truc, at tren cac goi ta. Nhng v du ve
khau quay: banh xe, tuoc bin cung vi truc, li ca lap tren truc quay, ro to
cua ong c
Ta se nghien cu 2 kieu khau quay :
2.1. Khau quay mong (a mong)-Cn bng tnh
29
Vi vat quay mong, kch thc chieu truc nho, so vi kch thc ng knh.
Trong lng cua vat quay mong xem nh ch phan bo tren 1 mat phang vuong
goc vi truc quay. Can bang vat quay mong goi la can bang tnh
Nguyen tac can bang :
Xet 1 khau quay co khoi lng phan bo tren 1 ma t phang, gia s cac khoi
lng tap trung la m1, m2, m3 ti cc v tr
1
r ,
2
r ,
3
r .

m1
Pl1
r1
r2
r3
rd
0
m2
Pl2
Pl3
m3
md
D





Hnh 2.1: cn bng a mng
+ Truc quay vi van toc goc e. Lc ly tam do co khoi lng gay ra:
P l1 = m1. r 1. e
2
, P l2 = m2. r 2. e
2
, P l3 = m3. r 3. e
2

+ Neu tong cac lc quan tnh ly tam khong bang khong, phng chieu
cua lc quan tnh tong hp luon luon thay oi, quay cung truc. Phan lc cac goc
ta se thay oi vi chu ky bang chu ky quay cua vat quay, gay rung ong.
+ Muon cac lc quan tnh ly tam triet tieu, pha i lap them oi trong, lc
quan tnh ly tam cua oi trong P phai triet tieu cac lc quan tnh tren:
Ngha l: P l1 + P l2 + P l3 + P = 0
m1 r 1 + m2 r 2 + m3 r 3 + m r = 0 (2-1)
Trong m, r la khoi lng, ban knh vec t khoi tam cua oi trong.
+ Dung hoa o vec t ta xac nh c m. r .
Cho tr so cua r ta tnh c m can them vao, co the khong can them oi
trong m, ma bt i 1 khoi lng m iem xuyen tam.
Th nghiem can bang tnh: e xac nh lng mat can bang mi r i
a. Phng phap do trc tiep (H.2.2)
m1
1
r
m2
2
r m3
3
r
m
d
r
d
30



1: Chi tit mt cn bng
2: Trc quay
3: Thanh dao
Hnh 2.2: phng php d trc tip
at truc chi tiet len 2 li dao nam ngang song song. Neu khong can bang, chi
tiet se t lan tren dao cho en khi trong tam v tr thap nhat tren ng thang
ng xuyen tam. ap mat-tt (hoac at set) vao 1 iem nao o tren ban knh
thang pha tren tam quay. Them hoac bt mat-tt cho en khi vat quay trang
thai can bang phiem nh. Khoi lng va v tr cua khoi mat-tt la ket qua th
nghiem.
u iem: thiet b n gian, d thc hin.
Khuyet iem:
- Nng sut thp v tn kh nhiu thi gian.
- Thiu chnh xc do nh hng ma st ln gia trc quay v dao.
b. Phng phap on can:
G
B
R
C
2
3 1
Q
S2
A
l2 l1
4
S
S1
x x

Hnh 2.3: Cn bng khu quay mng dng phng php n cn.
1: Chi tit mt cn bng, 2: n cn, 3: B t, 4: Li dao.
Chi tiet khong can bang 1 co trong lng Q = m.g c at vao o truc A au
on can 2. on can t len be 3 bang li dao 4. Treo trong lng G au B va
at lc ke R iem C cua on e can bang trong lng Q cua vat khong can
bang. Quay t t vat khong can bang, trong tam S cua no se quay quanh A. khi
S en v tr S1 xa iem ta O nhat th lc ke ch lc ca ai Rmax. Gia s x la
31
khoang cach t trong tam S en truc quay A va Mmsl la momen ma sat iem
ta O ta co :
Q (l1 + x) = G.l2 + Rmax.l + Mmsl (2-2)
Tiep tuc quay vat khong can bang 1 cho en khi lc ke ch lc cc tieu
Rmin. Khi o trong tam S v tr S2 gan iem ta O nhat ta co:
Q (l1 - x) = G.l2 + Rmin.l + Mmsl (2-3)
T (6-12) va (6-13)
Q . x = (Rmax - Rmin) . l (2-4)
Cong thc nay cho ta lng mat can bang Q.x. con v tr can bang th xac nh
bang cach anh dau ng knh nam ngang khi lc ke ch cc tr.
c. Phng php th (phng php hiu s mmen)
trnh nh hng ca ma st ln, vi thit b n gin nh phng php d trc
tip, ta c th tin hnh nh sau:
- Chia mt u ca khu quay lm nhiu phn bng nhau v nh du bng
cc bn knh Oi (vi i = 1, 2, ) nh trn H.2.4a. Ln lt xoay cc bn knh Oi
v v tr nm ngang v ng vi mi v tr, trn bn knh R nh nhau ta t khi
lng mi sao cho vt bt u quay. R rng khi lng mi thay i theo v tr i v
ta v c th nh H.2.4b. Trn th ta xc nh c mmax, mmin ng vi v
tr A, B.
v?tr
1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
m
2 3 4 5 6 7 8
A B
mmax
mmin
mmax
mmin
6
gm
gmmax
Mms
m
gm
gmmax
Mms
m

Hnh 2.4: Cn bng khu quay mng dng phng php th
- Gi mr l khi lng mt cn bng ca vt quay th v tr ca mr ng
vi khi lng mmax, mmin nh H.2.4c. Ti hai v tr ny ta c hai phng trnh cn
bng lc:
32
mmaxgR = mgr + Mms
mmingR + mgr = Mms (2-5)
trong Mms l mmen ma st ln ca trc ca vt quay v dao.
T hai phng trnh trn suy ra:
mr =
2
1
R(mmax mmin) (2-6)
Nh vy phi b lng mr tnh theo (2-6) vo v tr A hay bt v tr B th vt
c cn bng.
2.2. Khau quay day Cn bng ng
Vat quay co kch thc chieu truc ang ke so vi kch thc ng knh, goi la
vat quay day, v the khong the xem toan bo trong lng cua vat quay phan bo
tren 1 mat phang vuong goc vi truc quay, cho nen 1 cach tong quat lc quan
tnh tren vat quay day thu ve khoi tam se c 1 vec t lc quan tnh ( P qt = 0)
va 1 vec t momen lc quan tnh ( M qt = 0).
Nh vay muon can bang vat quay, ta phai thoa man 2 ieu kien tng cac lc
quan tnh bang khong va tong momen cac lc quan tnh bang khong, goi la can
bang ong.
Nguyen tac can bang:
Nguyen tac can bang trong trng hp nay la phan phoi lai khoi lng tren 2
mat phang tuy y chon vuong goc vi tam quay, 2 mat phang nay goi la 2 mat
phang can bang.
Xet 1 vat quay nh hnh ve, gia s vat quay co 3 khoi lng (mat can bang) tap
trung m1, m2, m3 trong mat phang 1,2,3 c xac nh bang ban knh vec t r 1,
r 2, r 3.
+ Khi vat quay vi van toc goc e, se sinh ra cac lc quan tnh P l1, P l2
va P l3 (hnh ve).
+ Chon 2 mat phang I, II tuy y vuong goc vi truc quay, phan lc P l1,
P l2, P l3 thanh 2 thanh phan tng ng P l1, P l1, P l2 P l2, P l3, P l3 nam
trong 2 mat phang I va II.
Tren mat phang I, at oi trong e tao nen lc quan tnh ly tam P 1, sao cho
phng trnh sau c thoa man
P l1 + P l2 + P l3 + P 1 = 0 (2-7)
Cach giai phng trnh nay a c trnh bay phan trc
Mot cach tng t, se tm c khoi lng hoac v tr oi trong e can bang ca c
lc mat phang can bang II.
Nh vay, muon can bang khau quay, can phai lap tren khau quay 2 oi trong
trong 2 mat phang khac nhau, vuong goc vi truc quay. V tr mat phang can
33
bang c chon tuy y tren truc, tuy theo ieu kien cau tao cua khau quay.
Cung co the chon mat phang can bang trung vi mat phang 1,2,3.
e xac nh v tr, cung nh khoi lng cua oi trong khi can bang 1 chi tiet a
c che tao phai dung cac may can bang ong.
1 2 3
I
II
P'l1
P'l3
P'l2
P''l1
P''l3
P''l2
Pl1
Pl3
Pl2

Hnh 2.5: Cn bng khu quay dy.
Gii thieu ve may can bang ong:
May can bang ong co nhieu loai rat khac nhau, nhng ve nguyen ly, loai n
gian co cau tao nh s o tren hnh ve 2.6.
I II
2
5
O O
A
7
6
1
3
4
8

Hnh 2.6: S my cn bng ng.
1: Khung, 2: Chi tit cn cn bng, 3: ng c,
4: B phn truyn ng, 5: Khp ni mm, 6: L xo,
7: Gim chn, 8: Dng c ghi, o.
May bao gom :
+ Khung 1 co the lac quanh truc qua A, khung mang vat quay 2.
+ Vat 2 quay quanh truc OO nh ong c 3, qua bo phan truyen ong 4
va khp noi mem 5.
+ Khp mem 5 co tac dung va chuyen ong quay, va cho phep vat 2
tren khung 1 lac quanh tam i qua A.
34
+ Khung dao ong 1 noi vi lo xo 6 e tao thanh he dao ong.
+ Giam chan 7 co tac dung tat dao ong t do neu co trong he.
Khi vat mat can bang 2 quay quanh OO, se sinh ra lc quan tnh, ay la
nguyen nhan gay ra dao ong cng bc cua khung 1, dao ong nay c o,
ghi nh dung cu 8. Neu ieu chnh vat quay sao cho mat phang can bang I,
cha tam quay qua A th lng mat can bang tren mat phang I khong anh
hng ti dao ong cua khung, khi o dao ong cng bc cua khung ch do
lng mat can bang tren mat phang II gay ra.
Khao sat dao ong cua khung 1, ta hoan toan co the xac nh lng va v tr
m2 r 2. Hoan toan tng t, ta co the xac nh lng va v tr cua m1 r 1 tren mat
phang I khi cho mat phang II cha tam quay qua A.
3. CN BNG C CU:
Sau ay, se nghien cu can bang toan bo c cau, khi c cau c lap tren
mong. Bai toan can bang c cau la 1 bai toan kha phc tap. ay chung ta ch
xet trng hp c cau phang.
C cau la 1 c he, co khoi tam di ong. Neu thu gon toan bo lc quan
tnh ve khoi tam, se c 1 lc quan tnh chnh va 1 momen chnh. Tren thc
te, can bang momen chnh cua lc quan tnh rat phc tap, thng rt kho thc
hien. ay, ta han che ch nghien cu viec can bang lc quan tnh chnh.
s
a m P . = vi m : khoi lng cua c cau.

s
a : gia toc khoi tam cua c cau.
e can bang lc quan tnh, can tm bien phap ky thuat sao cho as = 0, ngha la
khoi tam c cau chuyen ong thang eu hoac co nh. C cau chuyen ong co
chu ky , nen S khong the chuyen ong thang eu c. Cho nen e can bang
c cau , can tm ieu kien sao cho khoi tam cua c cau luon co nh.
Lay c cau tay quay con trt lam v du. Cac khau 1, 2, 3 co khoi lng m1,
m2, m3 vi cac trong tam la S1, S2, S3 c xac nh bi
1
r ,
2
r ,
3
r nh hnh ve.
Gia s khoi tam S cua c cau c xac nh bang ban knh vect r , ta co :
l
1
s
1
r1
r2
rS
r3
s
2 l
2
s
1 rS
s
2

Hnh 2.7: vc t xc nh v tr c cu
35
mr = m1
1
r + m2
2
r + m3
3
r
mr = m1
1
S + m2
1
l + m2
2
S + m3
1
l + m3
2
l + m3
3
S

m
S m
m
l m S m
m
l m m S m
r
3 3 2 3 2 2 1 3 2 1 1
. . . ). ( .
+
+
+
+ +
= (2-8)
Trong ve phai cua phng trnh ch co
3
S la khong oi con
1
S ,
1
l ,
2
S ,
2
l eu
co phng thay oi, muon r khong oi, ch co cach triet tieu 2 so hang au
ngha la :
m1
1
S + (m2 + m3)
1
l = 0
1
1
3 2
1
.
) (
l
m
m m
S
+
=
m2
2
S + m3
2
l = 0
2
2
3
2
.l
m
m
S =
ay la ieu kien can bang tren mong cua c cau, dau am trong cong thc cho
thay trong tam cua khau 1 phai nam tren oan ke o dai ve pha A cua oan AB
va trong tam khau 2 phai nam tren oan keo dai ve pha B cua oan BC. Bo tr
khoi lng cua khau 1 va khau 2 thoa man ieu kien (6-19) th khoi tam S se
nam co nh tren ng thang AC (H.6-16)
l
1
s
1
r1
r2
rS
r3
s
2 l
2
s
1 rS
s
2

Hnh 2.8: cn bng trn mng
Ve ly thuyet ta hoan toan co the thc hien ieu kien (2-9), nhng tren thc te
viec can bang tren mong co nhng phien phc nhat nh.

Bi tp chng 2:
1. T c tt c nhng bi tp (c li gii sn), 177, 178 v 179. S gii p
tt c nhng thc mc ti lp.
2. T gii cc bi 182, 183 v 184.

(2-9)
36
Chng 3: C CU PHNG TON KHP THP
1. I CNG
1.1. n tp v cu to-ng hc-ng lc hc ca c cu thanh
1.2. C cu 4 khu bn l
- Trong cc phn trc, ly v d minh ha, ta gp nhiu loi c cu
ny, trong chng ny s nghin cu c cu nhiu thanh mt cch tng qut.
- So vi cc loi c cu khc, c cu nhiu thanh c nhng c im sau:
lu mn, tui th cao, kh nng truyn lc ln; c cu to n gin, d ch to v
lp rp; d dng thay i kch thc ng; kh thit k c cu theo 1 quy lut
chuyn ng cho trc.
- Trong c cu nhiu thanh, c cu 4 khu bn l l c cu thng gp v
in hnh nht. C cu 4 khu bn l l c cu gm c 4 khu ni vi nhau bng
cc khp quay (cn gi l khp bn l), lc hnh 3-1.
A
B
C
D
e1
1
2
3
4

Hnh 3-1: c cu 4 khu bn l
Trong :
+ Khu c nh gi l gi: khu 4.
+ Khu i din khu c nh gi l thanh truyn c chuyn ng
song phng: khu 2.
+ Hai khu cn li, nu quay c ton vng gi l tay quay, nu
khng quay c ton vng gi l cn lc.
2. CC BIN TH TRONG C CU BN KHU BN L
2.1. Thay i kch thc ng ca khu
Hnh 3-2a l c cu 4 khu bn l, cho chiu di khu 3 ln v cng, im D li
xa v tn, chuyn ng khu 3 tr thnh tnh tin theo phng trt xx. Nu xx
khng i qua tm A, ta c c cu tay quay con trt lch tm (H.3-2b), nu xx
i qua tm A, ta c c cu tay quay con trt ng tm (H.3-2c).
2.2. Thay i khu c nh
37
D
e
C
B
A
D
e1
1
2
3
e3
3
2
1
e1
D
C
B
A
a) b)
C
B
A
e1
1
2
3
D
3
2
1
e1
B
C
A
4
D
c)
d)
D
4
A
C
B
e
1
2
3
e)
3
2
1
e
B
C
A
4
D
g)
3
2
e
C
B
4
D
A
D
4
B
C
e
2
3
h)
f)
i)
3
2
e
C
B
4
D
A
A
D
4
B
C
e
3
k)
e
1
2

Hnh 3-2: cc bin th ca c cu 4 khu bn l
38
+ Ta bit rng, chuyn ng tng i gia cc khu khng thay i khi
i gi. Trn c cu tay quay con trt chnh tm, nu chn khu 2 lm gi, ta
c c cu xy-lanh quay (cn gi l c cu cu-lt lc nh H.3-2d) v nu ly khu
1 lm gi, ta c c cu cu-lt nh H.3-2e.
+ T c cu cu-lt, nu dch tm quay B ra xa v cng th khu 2 c chuyn
ng tnh tin, khp quay B v tn tr thnh khp tnh tin gn, ta nhn c
c cu tnh tang (H.3-2f). Cng t c cu cu-lt, nu ta dch tm A ra xa v cng,
ta c c cu tnh sin (H.3-2g), c cu tnh sin ny cng c th biu din bng lc
nh H.3-2h.
+ T hnh 4-2h, nu ly khu 4 lm gi, ta c c cu Ellip (H.3-2i); nu ly
khu 2 lm gi, ta c c cu Ondam (H.3-2k).
3. C IM NG HC CA C CU 4 KHU BN L
3.1. T s truyn
C cu 4 khu bn l ABCD trn hnh 3-3a, bin chuyn ng quay ca khu 1
vi vn tc gc e1, thnh chuyn ng quay ca khu b dn 3 vi vn tc gc e3.
Mt thng s quan trng c trng cho c cu l t s truyn:
i13 =
3
1
e
e
(3-1)
P 4
A
B
C
D
e1
1
2
3
e3
P (P1=P3)
I
e3
3
2
1
e1
D
C
B
A
4
Hnh 3-3: m t t s truyn trn c cu 4 khu
a) nh l Kennedy (1847 1928)
Trong chuyn ng tng i ca khu 3 so vi khu 1 (chn khu 1 lm gi), vn
tc im C v D lun vung gc vi BC v AD. V vy tc thi c th xem
chuyn ng tng i ca khu 3 so vi khu 1 l chuyn ng quay quanh giao
im P ca BC v AD (H.3-3a). Tng t ta cng c tm quay tc thi trong
chuyn ng tng i ca khu 4 so vi khu 2 l giao im I ca AB v CD.
Pht biu nh l: Trong c cu 4 khu bn l, tm quay tc thi trong chuyn
ng tng i gia 2 khu di din l giao im 2 ng tm ca 2 khu cn li.
b) nh l Willis (1800 1875)
+ Theo khi nim tm quay tc thi, ta c im P1 thuc khu 1 v im P3
thuc khu 3 hin ang trng nhau ti P, th 1 P V = 3 P V
M khu 1 ang quay quanh A VP1 = e1.lPA
Khu 3 ang quay quanh D VP3 = e3.lPD
39
e1.lPA = e3.lPD i13 =
3
1
e
e
=
PA
PD
l
l
=
PA
PD
(3-2)
+ Pht biu nh l: Trong c cu 4 khu bn l, ng thanh truyn BC
chia ng gi AD thnh 2 on t l nghch vi vn tc gc ca 2 khu ni gi.
+ Nhn xt:
Khi lm vic, im P lun thay i, m e1 = const nn e3 = const. Ngha l
c cu bin 1 chuyn ng quay u thnh 1 chuyn ng quay khng u. Nhng
c bit vi c cu hnh bnh hnh, (im P xa v tn, lc i13 =
3
1
e
e
=
PA
PD
=
1) bin 1 chuyn ng quay u thnh 1 chuyn ng quay u.
Khi P nm ngoi on AD th e1 v e3 cng chiu nhau nn i13 = e1/e3 >
0.
Khi P nm trong on AD (H.4-3b) th e1 v e3 ngc chiu nhau nn i13 =
e1/e3 < 0.
Khi P A th i13 = PD/PA ~ PD/0 ngha l e3 = 0, khu 3 dng tc
thi 2 v tr (tay quay AB v thanh truyn BC dui thng ra hay gp li). Hai v
tr ny ca khu 3 (cng nh v tr ca c cu ti v tr ny), c gi l v tr bin
hay v tr cht.
3.2. H s nng sut

Hnh 3-4: m t h s nng sut
Trong nhng c cu m khu b dn c chuyn ng 2 chiu i v v nh trn
hnh 3-4, thng thng 1 chiu lm vic, 1 chiu chy khng. Ngi thit k phi
m bo cho thi gian chy khng cng ngn cng tt, xt n iu kin ny,
ngi ta a ra mt i lng gi l h s nng sut (cn gi l h s v nhanh,
40
h s lm vic) v c nh ngha l t s gia thi gian lm vic v thi gian
chy khng trong 1 chu k lm vic ca my.
k = tlv/tck (3-3)
Nu chn chiu lm vic, chiu chy khng v chiu quay khu dn e1 nh hnh
v th gc quay khu dn ng vi thi gian lm vic, thi gian chy khng l lv,
ck.
k =
ck
lv
ck
lv
ck
lv
t
t

e
e
= =
1
1
/
/

Gi u =
2 1
AC C l gc nhn to bi 2 v tr ca khu dn ng vi 2 v tr
bin, ta c:
lv = 180
o
+ u v ck = 180
o
- u
k =
u
u

+
o
o
180
180
(3-4)
3.3. iu kin quay ton vng ca khu ni gi

Hnh 7-5
l1
r=|l2+l3|
R=l2+l3
e3
3
2
1
e1
D
C
B
A
4

Do yu cu lm vic, mt khu ni gi buc phi quay ton vng hay khng.
Gi s ta tm iu kin khu 1 quay ton vng.
- Khu 1 quay ton vng khi qu o ca im B trn c cu l c vng
trn. im B trn c cu l v tr ni ng gia im B trn khu 1 (B1) v im B
trn khu 2 (B2), nh vy im B trn c cu n v tr no th im B1 v B2 phi
n c v tr .
- V vy ta tng tng tho khp B, ta c:
+ Qu o im B1 l vng trn tm A, bn knh l1.
41
+ Qu o im B2 quay quanh D v cch D xa nht vi bn knh (l2
+ l3), gn D nht vi bn knh (l2 l3), nh vy ta c th ni rng im B2 chuyn
ng trong min vnh khn tm D vi bn knh ln R = (l2 + l3), bn knh nh r =
(l2 l3), min ny gi l min vi ti ca im B2.
- Vy khu 1 quay ton vng th qu tch ca im B1 phi nm trong
min vi ca im B2. Kch thc cc khu phi tho mn:

>
+ s +
3 2 1 4
3 2 4 1
l l l l
l l l l
(3-5)
Lp lun tng t nh trn, ta c th tng tng tho khp C tm iu kin
quay ton vng ca khu 3.
Mt cch tng qut, c th pht biu iu kin quay ton vng theo nh l
sau: Mt khu ni gi quay ton vng khi v ch khi qu tch ca 1 im trn khu
ni gi nm trong min vi ti ca im trn thanh truyn ni vi im .
nh l ny hon ton ng cho c c cu khng gian v c c cu c nhiu bc t
do.
4. C IM NG HC CA CC BIN TH THNG GP
4.1. C cu tay quay con trt
l1
l2
l2
l2
e C
B
A
x
x
lv
ck
u
ck
lv
B2
C2 C1
B1
A
e
P
P
x
x
v3
3
2
1
e1
D
A
B
C
Hnh 3-6: m t ng hc c cu tay quay-con trt
- Quan h ng hc: (H.3-6a)
42
+ c im cu to: tm quay D xa v tn nn ng gi AD l ng
thng i qua A v vung gc vi phng trt xx ca khu 3. Tm vn tc tc
thi l P.
+ Quan h ng hc: e1.lPA = VC (3-6)
- H s nng sut: (H.3-6b)
+ Hnh trnh lm vic ca khu 3 l: HC = lC1C2; nu l c cu tay quay
con trt chnh tm th HC = 2.lAB.
+ Cc gc lm vic v chy khng c th hin hnh v.
- iu kin quay ton vng: (H.3-6c)
+ c im: lCD ln v cng nn min vnh khn ca c cu 4 khu bn l
tr thnh mt dy ca mt phng gii hn bi hai ng thng song song v cch
phng trt xx mt on bng l2.
+ iu kin quay ton vng: l1 + e s l2. (3-7)
4.2. C cu cu-lt
D
1
B
3
2
A
e1
u
u
lv
ck
B2
D
B1
A
e1
e1
P
A
3
2
e3
B
C
1
D

Hnh 3-7: m t ng hc c cu cu-lt
- Quan h ng hc: (H.3-7a)
+ c im cu to: ng thanh truyn BC l ng thng i qua B v
vung gc vi BD v tm quay C xa v tn. Tm vn tc tc thi l P.
+ Quan h ng hc: e1.lPA = e3.lPD (3-8)
a)
b) c)
Chy khng Lm vic
43
- H s nng sut: (H.3-7b)
+ Hai v tr bin ca c cu l v tr tay quay OA vung gc vi cu-lt 3 v
th gc lc ca cu-lt bng vi gc u.
+ Cc gc lm vic v chy khng c th hin hnh v.
- iu kin quay ton vng: (H.3-7c)
+ c im: Tng tng tho khp B, min vi ca B2 l c mt phng.
nh vy c cu cu-lt, khu i din vi cu-lt (khu 1) bao gi cng quay c
ton vng.
+ Cu-lt 3 quay c ton vng khi im B trn c cu n c v tr trn
phng AD v pha D nh hnh v, ngha l khu 3 quay ton vng khi:
lAB > lAD (3-9)
5. GC P LC
Ngoi cc ch tiu ng hc nu trn, v phng din ng lc hc, mt ch tiu
quan trng trong c cu phng ton khp thp l gc p lc. Gc p lc l gc
hp gi vect lc tc dng v vect vn tc ca im t lc.
c cu 4 khu bn l, tay quay con trt nu b qua trng lng ca cc
khu v ma st cc khp th lc P truyn t khu dn sang khu b dn nm dc
theo thanh truyn (H.3-8). Gc o c gi l gc p lc.
o
VC
P
3
2
1
e1
D
C
B
A
4

VC
P
e1
3
2
1
o
A
B
C

Hnh 3-8: m t gc p lc trn c cu 4 khu bn l & tay quay-con trt
ngha ca gc p lc:
+ Ta bit cng sut ca lc tc dng P l:
NP = P .V = P.VC.coso (3-10)
Nh vy gc o phn nh tc dng gy ra chuyn ng ca lc P . Gc o cng ln
th NP cng nh. Khi o = 90
o
th NP = 0. V th khi thit k phi m bo sao ch
gc p lc o nh hn 1 gi tr nht nh v c gng o cng nh cng tt.
+ Trong qu trnh chuyn ng, kh trnh khi c cu v tr c o = 90
o
, v
d c cu 4 khu bn l (H.3-9a), c cu tay quay con trt (H.3-9b), vi khu 1
l khu dn v tr tay quay dui thng ra hay gp li, trong trng hp ny lc
tc dng t khu dn sang khu b dn khng c tc dng lm cho khu b dn
chuyn ng (y chnh l v tr bin), c cu tip tc chuyn ng c l nh
44
qun tnh v khi qua khi v tr ny th o = 90
o
v lc tc dng li gy ra chuyn
ng.
e1
2
1
o
VC2
P
o
VC1
P
A
B1
C1
D
C2
B2

o
VC1
C1
C2
O
o
e3
VC2
P
2
B2 B1
1


Hnh 3-9: gc p lc ti nhng v tr c bit
6. MT S NG DNG CA C CU NHIU THANH
C cu nhiu thanh c ng dng rng ri trong k thut. Sau y l mt s v
d:
- C cu ng c 2 xylanh kiu ch V (H.3-10), bin chuyn ng tnh
tin ca 2 piston 3 v 5 thnh chuyn ng quay ca khu 1 quanh A. Cng c
cu ny nu dng bin chuyn ng tnh tin ca khu 3 thnh chuyn ng
quay ca khu 1 (lm nhim v ca ng c n) ri bin chuyn ng quay ca
khu 1 thnh chuyn ng tnh tin ca khu 5 (lm nhim v nh bm piston);
trong trng hp ny ta c ng c nn kh.

5
4
3
2
1
E C
D
B
A

Hnh 3-10: lc ng c 2 xy-lanh kiu ch V

- C cu thanh khng gian trong my nng nghip.
Trong my nng nghip, c bit l trong cc my thu hoch, thng gp c cu
thanh khng gian, phn ln cc c cu ny l cc c cu khng gian 4 khu kt
hp vi mt chui ng phng. Trn hnh 3-11a l s ng ca c cu thc
OABKC dng dn ng cho dao trn my gt p lin hp C.4. y cn lu
45
rng do c im ca my nng nghip nn cc khu c tc lm vic thp v
khng i hi phi c chnh xc chuyn ng cao. V vy chuyn ng khng
gian tng i ca cc khu trong phm vi nh c th thc hin nh khe h
khp ng v n hi ca cc khu. Nh m kt cu ca cc khp ng v
cc khu trong c cu s rt n gin. V d s trn, nh khe h cc khp
A v C nn n bo m cho cc khu c chuyn ng khng gian tng i vi
chuyn v nh. Thc ra c th hnh dung ng chuyn ng ca cc khu trong
c cu, cc khp ny phi c thay th bng cc khp cu A v cu-lt C.
Hnh 3-11b l s ng ca c cu thanh khng gian OA1A2BO1O2CDE
c trc lc BO1O2C dn ng cho dao trong my ct c KH.1.4.
Dao
A'
C'
C
K
B
O
A

a)
O2
C
E
D
O1
B
A2
A1
Dao

b)
Hnh 3-11: cc c cu dn ng dao ct
- C cu my ca sc (H.3-12)
y l c cu 4 khu phng, dng tay quay con trt. Tay quay 1 dn ng cho
con trt 3 chuyn ng tnh tin theo phng ng. Con trt 3 mang khung ca
v li ca 4. Cy g cn ca 6 c con ln 5 y vo. Hnh trnh lm vic l
hnh trnh li ca chuyn ng t trn xung.
5
6 4
Vs
1
2
3
e1

Hnh 3-12: mt lc c cu my ca sc
- C cu my sng lc phng (H.3-13)
y l dng c cu 4 khu bn l phng.
+ Hnh 3-13a l s my sng lc phng c khung sng t nghin trn
cc thanh treo.
46
+ Hnh 3-13b l s my sng lc phng c khung sng t nghin trn
cc thanh ng.
+ Hnh 3-13c l s my sng lc phng c khung sng t ngang trn
cc thanh n hi.
c)
b)
a)

Hnh 3-13: mt s lc c cu sng

Bi tp chng 3
1. c hiu bi tp (gii sn) 188. Tt c nhng thc mc s c gii
thch ti lp.
2. Tng t bi tp 188, hy t gii cc bi tp 191 v 192.
47
Chng 4: C CU BNH RNG
Ch :
- Trong chng ny, tt c nhng mc c ghi ch t n tp, l nhng ni
dung m sinh vin c hc trong cc mn hc trc . Sinh vin phi t c
nhng ni dung trong cc mc . Nu thc mc, s c gii p ti lp.
- Thi lng chnh ca chng ny s tp trung vo vic hng dn gii nhng
bi tp cho.
1. I CNG V TRUYN NG BNH RNG
(SV t n tp)
- Gii thiu: C cu bnh rng l c cu c khp cao dng bin i hoc truyn
chuyn ng theo nguyn tc n khp trc tip gia hai khu.
- Phn loi:
+ Theo v tr tng i gia hai trc quay: bnh rng ni tip v bnh rng
ngoi tip.
+ Theo s phn b ca rng trn bnh rng: bnh rng thng, bnh rng
xon (nghing), bnh rng ch V.
+ Theo bin dng rng: bnh rng thn khai, bnh rng xyclt, bnh rng
N-vi-cp.
+ Theo tnh cht chuyn ng: cp bnh rng phng, cp bnh rng khng
gian.



a) n khp ngoi tip b) n khp ni tip

c) Bnh rng thng d) Bnh rng xon (nghing) e) Bnh rng ch V
48






f) Bnh rng nn g) Bnh rng tr
cho
h)Bnh rng nn cho k) C cu trc vt
bnh vt
Hnh 4-1: s phn loi
1.1. nh l n khp
- T s vn tc gc gia hai bnh rng, gi l t s truyn.
K hiu: i12 = e1/e2
i12 > 0 khi 2 bnh rng quay cng chiu, v i12 < 0 khi 2 bnh rng quay
ngc chiu.
- Xt 2 khu 1 v 2 ang tip xc nhau ti K, quay quanh O1, O2 tng ng vi
vn tc gc l e1 v e2.
e1
e2
|2
|1
b1
b2
|1
|2
K
K2
K1
P
N1
02
n
01
n
N2

Hnh 4-2: m t s n khp
- iu kin 2 bin hnh lun tip xc (khng ri nhau, khng ln vo nhau)
l hnh chiu ca cc vn tc tc thi ln phng php tuyn phi bng nhau.
Ngha l:
VK1.cos|1 = VK2.cos|2 e1.O1N1 = e2.O2N2
49
- T s truyn: |i12| = |
2
1
e
e
| =
1 1
2 2
N O
N O
(=
P O
P O
1
2
) (4-1)
Vi P l giao im ca php tuyn chung ca 2 bin hnh ti tip im c
xt v ng ni 2 tm quay O1 v O2; P c gi l cc n khp.
- nh l n khp c bn: Php tuyn chung ca 2 bin hnh ti im n
khp (im tip xc gia 2 bin hnh) chia ng ni tm thnh nhng on
thng t l nghch vi t s truyn.
- Nhn xt: cho t s truyn gia 2 khu khng thay i, cc n khp phi
c v tr c nh trn ng ni tm.
- Cc bnh rng c bin hnh l ng thn khai, ng xyclt (pi-xyclt v
hyp-xyclt) u tho mn iu kin ny.
1.2. n khp thn khai
- ng thn khai ca ng trn l qu tch ca mt im nm trn ng
thng ln khng trt trn ng trn (gi l ng trn c s), H.4.3.


M'
ro
x
N'o
No
ux
ox
rx
n
M
N
n
0

r02
r2
r01 r1
N2
n
01
n
02
N1
P
K
os
os
e2
e1

Hnh 4-3: bin hnh thn khai Hnh 4-4: n khp thn khai
- Tnh cht ca ng thn khai:
+ Lun nm ngoi ng trn c s.
+ Php tuyn ca ng thn khai l tip tuyn ca ng trn c s.
+ Bn knh cong mi im bng chiu di cung trn vng trn c s nm
gia im gc ca ng thn khai (No) v tm quay tc thi. Ta c, chiu di
on NM bng chiu di cung Nno.
+ Phng trnh ca ng thn khai:
Xt trn h to cc (Ox, u); do ln khng trt ta c
ro.tgox = ro(ox + ux) hay
ux = tgox - ox = invox (4-2)
Mc khc: rx = OM = ro/cosox (4-3)
50
Phng trnh (4-2) v (4-3) l phng trnh ng thn khai trong h to
cc.
- Tnh cht ca n khp thn khai (H.4.4):
+ T s truyn trong n khp thn khai l hng s.
|i12| = |
2
1
e
e
| =
P O
P O
1
2
=
1 1
2 2
N O
N O
=
01
02
r
r
= const
+ dch tm khng nh hng n t s truyn.
+ im n khp K lun nm trn ng n-n cha N1N2.
2. CC THNG S HNH HC C BN CA BNH RNG THN KHAI TIU
CHUN
(SV t n tp)
2.1. Gii thiu
- Cc ng trn tm O1 v O2, bn knh O1P v O2P (H.4-4) nu c gn
lin vi 2 bnh rng ang n khp s lun tip xc vi nhau v ln khng trt ln
nhau, v c gi l cc vng trn ban u (cn gi l vng trn ln).
- ng trn tm O1, O2 bn knh O1N1, O2N2 chnh l cc vng trn c s.
- Quan h: r1 = ro1/coso; r2 = r02/coso
Vi o: gc n khp, trong n khp tiu chun, o = 20
o

2.2. Cc thng s hnh hc c bn
D
i
D
h
D
e
t
S
'
S"
h"
h'
0

Sx
S'
ux
u
x

ox
o
r
x
0
r
r
0
Se

a) b)
Hnh 4-5: cc thng s hnh hc
- Khong cch gia 2 bin hnh lin tip ca rng o theo vng trn ban u
gi l bc rng. K hiu: t
- Mun ca rng: t s t/t gi l mun ca rng, k hiu: m
m = t/t (4-5)
tin vic thit k v ch to, cc kch thc ca bnh rng u c tnh
thng qua mun. Tr s ca mun c chn theo iu kin bn, tnh theo
51
milimt v c tiu chun ho: 1; 1,25; 1,5; 2; 2,5; 3; 4; 5; 6; 8; 10; 12; 16; 20;
25; 32; 40; 50; 60; 80; 100.
- Kch thc v chiu cao:
+ Chiu cao u rng: h = f.m (vi f = 1) (4-6)
+ Chiu cao chn rng: h = f.m (vi f = 1,25) (4-7)
Ch : i vi rng ct ngn, f = 0,8; f = 1
+ Chiu cao ca rng: h = h + h (4-8)
- ng knh vng trn ban u: D
Gi Z l s rng ca bnh rng Z.t = t.D D = m.Z (4-9)
- ng knh vng trn nh rng: De = D + 2h (4-10)
- ng knh vng trn chn rng: Di = D 2h (4-11)
- Chiu rng ca rng S; chiu rng k rng S
S = S = t/2 (4-12)
Sx = 2rx.[(S/2r) + invo - invox] (4-13)
Se = 2re[(S/2r) + invo - invoe] (4-14)
- Khi 2 bnh rng n khp nhau th t s truyn |i12| = r02/r01 = r2/r1 = mZ2/mZ1
|i12| = Z2/Z1 (4-15)
- Khong cch gia 2 trc quay: A = O1O2 = m(Z1 Z2) (4-16)
Du +: n khp ngoi; du : n khp trong.
3. NG N KHP CUNG N KHP H S TRNG KHP
a2
a1
b1
b2
N'1
N'2
re1
re2
e1
e2
os
os
P
N1
02
n
01
n
N2
r1
r01
r2
r02

Hnh 4-6: ng n khp-cung n khp
52
- Khi 2 bnh rng n khp vi nhau, im n khp thay i v tr trong qu
trnh n khp nhng vn lun lun nm trn php tuyn n-n gi l ng n khp.
- N1N2 gi l on n khp l thuyt.
- N1N2 gi l on n khp thc.
- Hnh 4-6 th hin 1 cp bnh rng khi bt u v khi thi n khp. Trong qu
trnh , cc im a1, a2 thuc cc bin hnh v nm trn vng trn ban u s
chuyn ti cc v tr b1, b2.
- Cc cung a1b1, a2b2 l cung trn vng trn ban u do cc im a1, a2 v ra
trong thi gian 1 i rng n khp gi l cung n khp.
a1b1 = a2b2
- H s trng khp:
+ Nhn xt: truyn ng c lin tc gia cc bnh rng th cp rng
sau phi vo khp trc khi cp rng trc ra khp v cng c nhiu cp rng
ng thi n khp th s n khp cng m du.
+ Kh nng lm vic m du ca 1 cp bnh rng c nh gi bng h s
trng khp:
c = a1b1/t = a2b2/t (4-17)
Nhn thy: a1b1/m1n1 = r1/r01 = 1/coso; m1n1 = N1N2
c =
o cos . t
' N ' N
2 1
(4-18)
dch tm nh hng n c.
Bin i cng thc (4-18) ta c:
c =
o t
o + o + + + o +
cos . 2
sin ). Z Z ( cos . Z ) ' f . 2 Z ( cos Z ) ' f . 2 Z (
2 1
2 2
2
2
2 2
2 2
1
2
1 1
(4-19)
Qua cng thc (4-19), ta thy rng:
+ H s trng khp khng ph thuc vo mun m ph thuc vo gc n
khp v chiu di on n khp thc t. (s rng v h s chiu cao rng)
+ m bo truyn ng lin tc gia 2 bnh rng, phi tho mn iu
kin c > 1. Do ch to v lp rp khng hon ton chnh xc, cc rng li b mn
trong qu trnh lm vic, ngi ta thng ly c > 1,05.
Ch : h s trng khp (c), hay h s tip xc (CR) chnh l s (cp) rng
trung bnh trong tip xc, khi mt cp BR n khp, cn c th c tnh bi cng
thc sau:
2 2 2 2
e1 01 e2 02
0
sin r r r r A
CR
t
o +
=
Trong t0 l bc rng trn vng trn c s (t01 = t02 = t0)




53
4. S TRT CA CC RNG
- Xt 2 bin hnh thn khai ang n khp vi nhau ti im K.
VK2
VK1
1
2
C12
N2
n
01
n
02
N1
P
|2
|1
N'2
N'1

Hnh 4-7: s trt trn b mt rng
Gi V K1, V K2 l vn tc im K1 v K2 ang trng nhau ti im n khp
K.
V
n
K1 = V
n
K2 (do 2 bin hnh tip xc nhau)
V V K1 - V K2 = V 21 chnh l vn tc trt gia bin hnh th 2 v bin
hnh th 1. N l nguyn nhn gy ra mn rng v tn ph nng lng do ma st.
- nh gi hao mn ny, ngi ta a ra h s trt (C):
C12 =
t
1 K
t
2 K
t
1 K
V
V V
v C21 =
t
2 K
t
1 K
t
2 K
V
V V

Bin i cng thc trn, ta c:
C12 = 1 -
t
1 K
t
2 K
V
V
= 1 -
1 1 1
2 2 2
sin . .
sin . .
| e
| e

C12 = 1- i21.
K N
K N
1
2
; C21 = 1 i12.
K N
K N
2
1
(4-20)
Gi R1 (hay R2) l bn knh cong ca ng tn thn khai (ti im K) trn
bnh rng 1 (hay bnh rng 2) N1K = R1 v N2K = R2.
- V th trt (rng), th hin hnh 4-7.
+ i vi bnh rng nh:
Ti N2 (xem nh u rng quy c): R2 = 0 C12 = 1.
54
Ti P (cc n khp):
1
2
1
2
r
r
R
R
= C12 = 0.
Ti N1 (chn rng quy c): R1 = 0 C12 = .
+ i vi bnh rng ln (tng t)
- Nhn xt:
+ Thc t ch n khp trong on L1L2 th on .
+ Chn rng mn nhiu hn u rng, c bit l chn rng ca bnh rng
nh.
+ Mun iu chnh s bt li ny, ta dch on lm vic sang tri, ngha l
tng chiu cao u rng ca bnh rng nh, v gim chiu cao chn rng ca bnh
rng ln, hoc dch chnh cc bnh rng.
5. NHNG PHNG PHP C BN CH TO BNH RNG THN KHAI
5.1. Cc phng php ct c bn
a) Phng php ct nh hnh (chp hnh).





Hnh 4-8: cc phng php ct rng
- Li ct c hnh dng tit din ngang ging nh hnh dng rnh rng.
- Dng u phn quay phi 1 gc 2t/Z, ct bnh rng c Z rng.
- Ct bnh rng c mun ln ta dng dao phay ngn (do dng dao phay a b
rung ng).
- V l thuyt, mun ch to 1 bnh rng c s rng Z phi dng li ct ring
c cng mun . Song gim bt s li ct i vi tng mun ngi ta
dng b li ct gm 8, 15 hay 26 ci cho tng mun. V d: li ct s 5 trongv
55
b 8 ci, dng ct bnh rng c t 26 n 34 rng, c hnh dng rnh rng ca
bnh rng c Z = 26. i vi nhng bnh rng cn li ( Z = 27 n 34) s c ct
nhng bin hnh gn ng m thi. Ngoi ra cn c sai lch v bc rng lm tng
thm nhng sai lch v bin hnh. V vy phng php ny c chnh xc khng
cao v ch dng ch to nhng bnh rng c tc chm.
- Phng php ct nh hnh cn c 1 nhc im na l nng sut thp hn
phng php ct bao hnh.
b) Phng php ct bao hnh.
- Phng php ct bao hnh vi cc dao ct loi thanh rng, bnh rng hay trc
vt trn cc my phay. u im ni bt ca n l cng 1 dao, ct c nhiu bnh
rng c s rng khc nhau vi cng mun, t chnh cao v nng sut cao.


a) Gia cng bnh rng bng dao ct
dng bnh rng thn khai
b) Gia cng bnh rng bng dao ct
dng thanh rng
0,25md
h'=md
d
t
2
2
t
d
od
r
r
H H

c) Hnh dng dao thanh rng
Hnh 4-9: phng php ct bao hnh
- c im:
+ Trong qu trnh ct, dao v phi c chuyn ng quay tng i nh 1
cp bnh rng ang n khp, bin hnh rng ca bnh rng c ch to s l bao
hnh ca cc v tr ni tip nhau ca li ct (H.4-9a).
+ Khi dao ct c s rng ln v hn ta c loi dao thanh rng (H.4-9c).
Bin hnh ca dao khi , t ng thn khai bin thnh ng thng. Trong khi
ch to bnh rng, dao thanh rng s tnh tin qua li dc trc ca phi ct rng,
cn phi s va quay va tnh tin dc theo thanh rng. Dng dao thanh rng ch
c th ch to nhng bnh rng n khp ngoi.
56
+ Ch to bnh rng bng my phay rng vi dao phay trc vt c nng sut
cao hn c. Dao phay trc vt t nghing vi mt cnh ca phi mt gc bng
(bng gc nng ca ng xon c trung bnh trn dao phay). Trn mt phng ct
vung gc vi trc ca phi, dao phay trc vt c dng rng l thanh rng. Khi ct
rng, chuyn ng tnh tin ca dao thanh rng s c thay th bng chuyn ng
quay ca dao trc vt.
5.2 Bnh rng tiu chun v bnh rng c dch dao
a) Bnh rng tiu chun v bnh rng c dch dao
- Dao thanh rng: bin hnh ca dao thanh rng (hay tit din dao trc vt ni
trn) c kch thc tiu chun ho (H.4-9c). Ta thy rng bc ca thanh rng (td)
xt trn tt c cc ng nm ngang u bng nhau. Song ring trn ng thng
H-H, b dy ca rng bng b rng ca k rng. ng H-H gi l ng trung
bnh ca thanh rng. Bc ca dao thanh rng l:
td = md.t (4-21)
Trong , mun ca thanh rng md c ly trong s mun tiu chun.
T ng trung bnh H-H ta tnh c chiu cao l thuyt u rng ca thanh rng
(h = md), chiu cao thc t u rng thanh rng ln hn chiu cao l thuyt
0,25md. Cn phi tng ln nh th chn rng ca bnh rng c ch to c
chiu cao bng 1,25md. Bin hnh rng thanh rng l ng thng nghing 1 gc
od = 20
o
. u rng thanh rng c ln trn.
- Bnh rng c dch chnh: trong qu trnh ch to bnh rng thn khai bng
dao thanh rng, ch chuyn ng (tc l t s V/e) quyt nh bn knh vng
chia. Ni cch khc: ta c nh ng chia trn dao thng rng bng cch nh ch
chuyn ng trong qu trnh ch to (H-4-10). Nu ta t dao thanh rng sao
cho ng trung bnh ca n trng vi ng chia, tc l tip xc vi vng trn
chia trn phi th bnh rng c ch to ra l bnh rng tiu chun; nu ng
trung bnh khng trng vi ng chia th ta nhn c bnh rng khng tiu
chun (cn gi l bnh rng dch chnh, bnh rng c dch dao).

a b c
ng trung bnh; ng chia, vng chia
Hnh 4-10: m t bnh rng tiu chun & dch dao
57
- Khong cch gia ng trung bnh v ng chia gi l dch dao, k
hiu: o. dch dao o c tnh theo cng thc:
o = .md (4-22)
Qui c dch dao v h s dch dao l m khi ng trung bnh nm
trong ng chia (H.4-10a) v l dng khi ng trung bnh nm ngoi ng
chia (H.4-10c).
- Khi dch dao, vng c s ca ng thn khai l khng i. Ch khc nhau
ch: dng on no ca ng thn khai lm bin dng lm vic ca rng.
- c im c bn ca cc b truyn dch chnh:
+ B truyn dch chnh u (1 + 2 = 0) cn gi l b truyn dch chnh
cao, chiu cao u rng v chn rng thay i, chiu dy rng ca thay i.
+ B truyn dch chnh dng hoc m (1 + 2 = 0) cn gi l b truyn
dch chnh gc, gc n khp thay i, khong cch tm thay i, h s f v f
thay i, chiu dy v chiu rng rnh rng thay i.
b) Hin tng ct chn rng v s rng ti thiu
- Hin tng ct chn rng:
Trong qu trnh ch to bnh rng bng dao thanh rng, c th thay i v
tr ca dao thanh rng i vi phi, song khng th t dao thanh rng gn phi
qu mt v tr gii hn, v nh vy s xy ra hin tng chn rng b ct lm (H.4-
11a).
- Ngi ta chng minh c rng, trong qu trnh ch to, nu ng nh ca
dao thanh rng ct ng n khp ngoi on n khp l thuyt th s xy ra
hin tng ct chn rng.
P
o
o
l
m
N
Q
o
n
0
n

Hnh 4-11: hin tng ct chn rng khi ch to
- iu kin khng ct chn rng (H.4-11b)
58
Gi l l khong cch t ng nh rng l thuyt (ch phn tham gia ct)
ca dao thanh rng ti ng chia; Q l hnh chiu ca N ln phng OP.
khng xy ra hin tng ct chn rng th:
l s PQ
M PQ = PN.sino = OP.sin
2
o = r.sin
2
o = (m.Z/2).sin
2
o
Gi s bnh rng c ch to vi h s dch dao l , ta c:
l = m o = m .m = m.(1 )
m.(1 ) s (m.Z/2).sin
2
o
Thng thng o = 20
o
, nn iu kin khng ct chn rng s l:
1 s Z/17 (4-23)
- Nhn xt:
+ Nu h s dch dao chn th s rng phi bo m:
Z > Zmin = 17(1 ) (4-24)
i vi bnh rng tiu chun ( = 0) th Zmin = 17. C th dch dao s
rng nh hn (khi c yu cu bnh rng nh gn).
+ Nu s rng Z c quyt nh th h s dch dao phi bo m:
> min = (17-Z)/17 (4-25)
+ Zmin, min l s rng ti thiu v h s dch dao ti thiu khng xy ra
hin tng ct chn rng.
Trong thc t, khi ct bng dao thanh rng hay ct bao hnh; mt s ti liu
(Fundamentals of Machine Component Design) ngh rng, nu BR l tiu
chun th s rng khng nh hn 18 (vi gc p lc 20) v khng nh hn 12 (vi
gc p lc 25) khng xy ra hin tng ct chn rng.
-Hin tng chn rng
Khi 1 cp BR n khp, c th xy ra hin tng chn rng (khi im n khp nm
ngoi on n khp l thuyt). Chn rng lm cn tr chuyn ng ca cp BR.
Hiu chun thch hp l ct b phn u rng b chn, tuy nhin, vic ny c th
lm rng yu i v lm gim h s tip xc (CR).
Phng trnh v bn knh vng nh ti a khng xy ra hin tng chn rng
(khi n khp) l:
2 2 2
(max) 0
sin
e
r r A o = +
Trong A l khong cch trc
Phng trnh ny cho thy rng :
+ Chn rng dng nh ch lin quan n phn nh rng ca BR ln hn l nh
ca BR nh (bnh dn).
+ Chn rng c kh nng xy ra khi s rng ca BR nh qu nh hay s rng ca
bnh rng ln qu ln, hay gc p lc qu nh.
5.3. Cc kch thc ca bnh rng dch chnh
Gi s c 2 bnh rng c s rng Z1 v Z2, cng mun m, c ch to cng 1
dao thanh rng vi cc h s dch dao l 1 v 2 ang n khp vi nhau khng c
khe h.
- B dy ca rng S:
59
+ B dy ca rng trn ng trn chia ca 2 bnh rng (Sd1 v Sd2):
Sd1 = (t.md/2) + 2.md.1.tgod (4-26)
Sd2 = (t.md/2) + 2.md.2.tgod (4-27)
+ B dy ca rng trn ng trn ban u (S1 v S2)
T cng thc Sx phn trc, ta chng minh c:
S1 = Sd1.(m/md) + mZ1.(invod - invo) (4-28)
S2 = Sd2.(m/md) + mZ2.(invod - invo) (4-29)
Trong , m l mun ng vi vng trn ban u.
- Bn knh cc vng trn ban u (r1, r2)
r1 = m.Z1/2; r2 = m.Z2/2 (4-30)
- Gc n khp gia 2 bnh rng l o = oL, c xc nh bi:
invo = [2(1 + 2)tgod/(Z1 + Z2) + invod (4-31)
- Khong cch trc A:
+ i vi cp bnh rng tiu chun, n khp khng c khe h, khong cch
gia cc trc l:
Ao = (r01 + r02)/coso = [md(Z1 + Z2)/2] (4-32)
+ i vi cp bnh rng dch chnh th:
A = (r01 + r02)/cosod = Ao.(cosod/coso) = [md(Z1 + Z2)/2].(cosod/coso) (4-33)
- Bc n khp: t = t.m (4-34)
- Chiu cao chn rng:
h1 = 1,25.md md.1 + r1 rd1 (4-35)
h2 = 1,25.md md.2 + r2 rd2 (4-36)
vi rd1,2 = md.Z1,2
- Chiu cao u rng:
h1 = h2 0,25.md (4-37)
h2 = h1 0,25.md (4-38)
- ng knh ca phi:
De1 = 2.r1 + 2.h1 (4-39)
De2 = 2.r2 + 2.h2 (4-40)
- H s trng khp:
c = ) sin . A r R r R (
cos . t
1
o
2
02
2
2 e
2
01
2
1 e
o +
o
(4-41)
- Dng cng thc tnh Se phn trc kim tra nhn ca u rng.
6. BNH RNG TR TRN RNG NGHING
(SV t n tp)
6.1. Cu to mt rng
- Mt rng ca bnh rng l 1 mt xon c thn khai, mt ny l qu tch ca
mt ng thng MM nm trong mt phng (P), khi mt phng (P) ln khng
trt trn mt hnh tr trn xoay bn knh ro. Khi ng thng MM to vi trc 1
gc |o, nu |o = 0, ta c bnh rng tr trn rng nghing. Khi |o = 0, ng thng
MM song song vi trc hnh tr, ta c bnh rng tr trn rng thng.
60
P
r
0

N
o
N
o
M
M
P
r
0
N
o
N
o
M
M
P
r
0

a) b)
2tr
S
|
|o

2tro



tn
|
ts
ta

c) d)
Hnh 4 -12: cu to & thng s hnh hc ca bnh rng nghing
- Mt s c im ca mt xon c thn khai (H.4-12b)
+ Mt phng (P) l mt phng tip xc vi hnh tr c s, cng chnh l mt
phng php tuyn ca mt xon c thn khai.
+ Mt phng vung gc vi trc ca hnh tr c s, ct mt xon c thn
khai theo 1 ng thn khai (ng NoM, NoM).
+ Cc mt tr trn xoay ng trc vi hnh tr c s s ct mt xon c
thn khai theo nhng ng xon c. l cc ng rng trn cc mt tr khc
nhau (v d: trn hnh tr c s, ng rng l ng NoNo). Cc ng rng ny
c bc bng nhau, nhng v nm trn cc hnh tr khc nhau, nn gc nghing |
ca cc ng ny s khc nhau.
61
Nu tri 1 ng xon c ln mt phng, ta s c ng nm nghing
(H.4-12c).
K hiu S l bc ca ng xon c trn hnh tr trn bn knh r, l gc
nng ca ng xon c.
Ta c: S = 2tr.cotg| = 2tro.cotg|o (4-42)
6.2. Cc thng s c bn ca bnh rng nghing
Ta nghin cu cc thng s trn 1 tit din vung gc vi trc bnh rng, chng
ta c th p dng i vi bnh rng tr trn (thng, nghing) vi ch : yu t
im tr thnh yu t ng, yu t ng tr thnh yu t mt).
i vi bnh rng nghing, ta ch thm mt s thng s khc:
- Gc nghing ca rng: trn mt tr c s, k hiu l |o, trn mt tr chia l |.
T cng thc (4-42):
tg| = (r/ro).tg|o = tg|o/coso (4-43)
Vi o l gc n khp.
Ch : khi 2 bnh rng nghing n khp th |1 = -|2
- Bc rng trn hnh tr chia (ln, ban u)
Mt tr chia s ct rng ca bnh rng nghing theo nhng mt ct no .
Khai trin hnh tr chia trn mt phng. Cc mt ct ny l nhng vt nm nghing
(H.4-12d). Cc thng s ca bnh rng nghing c xc nh trong nhng tit
din khc nhau.
+ Trn tit din vung gc vi trc bnh rng (tit din ngang).
Bc rng ts gi l bc ngang.
Mun ms = ts/t gi l mun ngang.
+ Trn tit din dc theo chiu trc ca bnh rng (tit din dc).
Bc rng ta gi l bc dc.
Mun ma = ta/t gi l mun dc.
+ Trn tit din php, vung gc vi cc ng rng.
Bc rng tn gi l bc php (tuyn).
Mun mn = tn/t gi l mun php.
Mun php mn c tiu chun ho, chn md = mn khi ch to.
+ Quan h gia cc bc v mun:
tn = ts.cos| = ta.sin| (4-44)
mn = ms.cos| = ma.sin| (4-45)
- Cc thng s khc:
r = ms.Z = (mn/cos|).Z (4-46)
re = r + f.mn (4-47)
ri = r f.mn (4-48)
6.3. u nhc im ca bnh rng nghing so vi bnh rng thng tng
ng
- Hnh 4-13 th hin qu trnh tip xc ca 2 mt rng ca bnh rng nghing
(vi (P) l mt phng n khp). Trn hnh 4-13b, B1 v B2 l im vo khp v
im ra khp ca tit din ngang, qu trnh tip xc bt u ch l 1 im B1, tng
62
dn n tip xc hon ton theo chiu di ca rng (MM) v gim dn, ch cn
tip xc ti B2 trc khi thi tip xc, v th trong thi gian tip xc, xem nh
im tip xc M di chuyn t B1 n B.
r02
r01
P
M'
M

B2
B' B2 M
M'
B1
B1
P

a) b)

Hnh 4-13: m t u nhc im
- Gi c l h s trng khp ca cp bnh rng nghing v co l h s trng khp
cp bnh rng thng tng ng th:
c = co + (B2B/tn) (4-49)
- u im:
+ Lm vic m du.
+ Kh nng ti ln hn.
- Nhc im: xut hin lc dc trc, c th khc phc bng cch dng bnh
rng ch V.
- Thng thng ngi ta chn | = 8
o
15
o


Hnh 4-14: lc dc trc & bnh rng hnh ch V

63
7. PHN TCH LC TRN BNH RNG TR TRN
(SV t n tp)
4.4.1. Phn tch lc tc dng
Khi tnh ton c th xem nh lc ma st sinh ra trn b mt rng khng ng k.
a. Bnh rng tr rng thng
+ Lc vng:
2 t 1 w 1 1 t
F d / T 2 F = =
(4-50)
+ Lc hng tm:
2 r w 2 t 1 r
F tg F F = o =
(4-51)
+ Lc php tuyn:
w 1 t 2 n 1 n
cos / F F F o = =
(4-52)

Hnh 4.15: Lc tc dng ln rng ca bnh rng thng
b. Bnh rng tr rng nghing:
+ Lc vng:
2 t 1 w 1 1 t
F d / T 2 F = =

+ Lc hng tm: 2 r w w 1 t 1 r
F cos / tg F F = | o =
(4-53)

+ Lc dc trc: 2 a w 1 t 1 a
F tg F F = | =
(4-54)

64
+ Lc php tuyn: w nw 1 t 2 n 1 n
cos cos / F F F | o = =
(4-55)
onw: gc n khp trong mt phng php
Lu
- Chiu lc vng Ft trn bnh dn lun ngc chiu quay, trn bnh b dn
cng chiu quay.
- Phng lc dc trc ph thuc vo chiu nghing rng v chiu quay:

Hnh 4.16: Chiu tc dng ca lc ln bnh rng
- Chiu Fr lun hng vo tm.
4.4.2. T n tp thm da vo nhng ti liu sau
* file Bo_truyen_banh_rng.pdf
* file Bai_tap_chuong_bo_truyen_banh_rang.pdf
(Bi ging Chi Tit My, TS. Bi Trng Hiu)






















65
TI LIU THAM KHO
1. Bi ging Nguyn L My; Vng Thnh Tin-Trng Quang Trng,
HNL Th c, TpHCM.
2. Bi ging Nguyn L-Chi Tit My; Vng Thnh Tin, HNL Th c,
TpHCM.
3. Bi ging Chi Tit My; Bi Trng Hiu; HBK Nng.
4. Bi Tp Nguyn L My; T Ngc Hi, NXBKHKT, ti bn ln th 7
(2005).
5. Fundamentals of Machine Component Design; R.C. Junival K.M.
Marshek; Fourth edition; John Wiley & Sons, INC.
6. Gio trnh C Hc My; Li Khc Lim; HBK tpHCM.
7. C s Thit K My-Phn 1; Nguyn Hu Lc; HBK tpHCM.