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Misrak TVET College

Training, Teaching and Learning Materials Development


yes
MISRAK TVET COLLEGE
under
Ethiopian TVET-System
INFOM!TION TEC"NOLO#$
%&''OT %EVICE
Level I
LEARNING GUIDE # 29
&nit o( Competence) Operate 'ersonal Computer
Module Title ) Operating 'ersonal Computer
L# Code ) ICT IT%* M+, L+* -,
TTLM Code ) ICT IT%* TTLM+, +.**
LO *) Follo/ routine spoken messages
Learning #uide Date) +.0-+*1 'age 1 o( *1
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st
evision !uthor) ICT, IT 2 Misrak TVET College
Misrak TVET College
Training, Teaching and Learning Materials Development
INTRODUCTION Learning Guide # 29
This learning guide is developed to provide 3ou the necessar3 in(ormation regarding the (ollo/ing content
coverage and topics 2
Communication Overvie/ and Communication 'rocess
Listening
This guide /ill also assist 3ou to attain the learning outcome stated in the cover page4
%peci(icall3, upon completion o( this Learning #uide, 3ou /ill 5e a5le to 2
#ather re6uired in(ormation 53 listening attentivel3 and correctl3 interpreting or understanding
in(ormation7 instructions
'roperl3 record instructions7in(ormation
!ct upon on instructions immediatel3 in accordance /ith in(ormation received
%eek clari(ication (rom /orkplace supervisor on all occasions /hen an3 instruction7in(ormation is
not clear
Learning Actiitie!
*4 ead the speci(ic o58ectives o( this Learning #uide4
-4 ead the in(ormation /ritten in the 9In(ormation %heets *: in pages ;0<4
;4 !ccomplish the 9%el(0check: in page =4
14 I( 3ou earned a satis(actor3 evaluation proceed to 9In(ormation %heet -: in pages ,0*-4 "o/ever, i(
3our rating is unsatis(actor3, see 3our teacher (or (urther instructions or go 5ack to Learning
!ctivit3>*4
.4 ead the 9In(ormation %heet -: then accomplish the 9%el(0check: on page *;4
?4 I( 3ou earned a satis(actor3 evaluation proceed to 9Lap Test: on pages *14 "o/ever, i( 3our rating is
unsatis(actor3, see 3our teacher (or (urther instructions or go 5ack to Learning !ctivit3>-4
<4 Do the 9L!' test: @i( 3ou are read3A and sho/ 3our output to 3our teacher4 $our teacher /ill evaluate
3our output either satis(actor3 or unsatis(actor34 I( unsatis(actor3, 3our teacher shall advice 3ou on
additional /ork4 But i( satis(actor3 3ou can proceed to Learning #uide ;+4
$our teacher /ill evaluate 3our output either satis(actor3 or unsatis(actor34 I( unsatis(actor3, 3our
teacher shall advice 3ou on additional /ork4 But i( satis(actor3 3ou can proceed to the neCt topic4
Learning #uide Date) +.0-+*1 'age 2 o( *1
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evision !uthor) ICT, IT 2 Misrak TVET College
Misrak TVET College
Training, Teaching and Learning Materials Development
In"#r$ati#n S%eet 1 C#$$unicati#n and C#$$unicati#n &r#ce!!
C#$$unicati#n
4 4 4 is an active process in /hich in(ormation @including ideas, speci(ications, goals,
(eelings, /ork orders, and so onA is eCchanged among t/o or more people4
4 4 4 is an3 ver5al or non0ver5al 5ehavior /hich gives people an opportunit3 to send their
thoughts and (eelings, and to have these thoughts and (eelings received 53 someone else4
!lthough this is a simple de(inition, /hen /e think a5out ho/ /e ma3 communicate the
su58ect 5ecomes a lot more compleC4 There are various categories o( communication and more
than one ma3 occur at an3 time4
The di((erent categories o( communication are)
S'#(en #r Ver)a* C#$$unicati#n) (ace0to0(ace, telephone, radio or television or other
media4
N#n+Ver)a* C#$$unicati#n) 5od3 language, gestures, ho/ /e dress or act 0 even our
scent4
,ritten C#$$unicati#n) letters, e0mails, 5ooks, magaDines, the Internet or via other
media4
Vi!ua*i-ati#n!) graphs, charts, maps, logos and other visualiDations can communicate
messages4
Communication theor3 states that communication involves a sender and a receiver @or
receiversA conve3ing in(ormation through a communication channel4
C#$$unicati#n C%anne*!
There are multiple c#$$unicati#n c%anne*! availa5le to us toda3, (or eCample (ace0to0
(ace conversations, telephone, teCt messages, email, the Internet @including social media such
as Face5ook and T/itterA, radio and TV, /ritten letters, 5rochures and reports4
Learning #uide Date) +.0-+*1 'age . o( *1
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evision !uthor) ICT, IT 2 Misrak TVET College
Misrak TVET College
Training, Teaching and Learning Materials Development
C%##!ing an a''r#'riate c#$$unicati#n c%anne* is vital (or e((ective communication
as each communication channel has di((erent strengths and /eaknesses4 For eCample,
5roadcasting ne/s o( an upcoming event via a /ritten letter might conve3 the message clearl3
to one or t/o individuals 5ut /ill not 5e a time or cost e((ective /a3 to 5roadcast the message to
a large num5er o( people4 On the other hand, conve3ing compleC, technical in(ormation is
5etter done via a printed document than via a spoken message since the receiver is a5le to
assimilate the in(ormation at their o/n pace and revisit items that the3 do not (ull3 understand4
C#$$unicating ,it% Ot%er!
Communication needs to 5e clear and e((ective in order to achieve its aim4 Ehen it is not,
all kinds o( pro5lems can result4
Ine""ectie C#$$unicati#n
I( people /orking together are not a5le to communicate /ell, it can lead to con(usion,
unhappiness, (rustration and anno3ance4 It can also mean that an organiDationFs goals /ill not
5e met4
'oor communication ma3 lead to)
time 5eing lost 5ecause /ork needs to 5e redone
accidents
poor 6ualit3 service and7or products
/astage
people (eeling 9le(t out:
mistakes 5eing made 5ecause instructions are not clear
teams not /orking /ell
C#nce't #" E""ectie C#$$unicati#n
#ives choices regarding communication st3le to adopt
Involves creation and eCchange o( understanding
E((ective communication is achieved /hen the message received is close in meaning to
the message sent4
Learning #uide Date) +.0-+*1 'age / o( *1
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evision !uthor) ICT, IT 2 Misrak TVET College
Misrak TVET College
Training, Teaching and Learning Materials Development
0act#r! #" E""ectie C#$$unicati#n
E""ectie C#$$unicati#n
!t an3 /orkplace /here people are a5le to communicate clearl3 tends to 5e a more e((icient
/orking environment4
E((ective communication leads to)
clear instructions so people kno/ eCactl3 /hat the3 are eCpected to do and do it
properl3
people (eeling involved 5ecause the3 are /ell in(ormed
higher morale and 8o5 satis(action
people /orking 5etter as a team
time and e((ort saved as people are clear on /hat to do
T# c#$$unicate 1it% 'e#'*e e""ectie*2 2#u need t#3
make sure it is not too nois3 to hear /hat is 5eing said
sit or stand so that 3ou directl3 (ace the person /ho 3ou are talking or listening to
maintain e3e contact
use polite opening and closing greetings
speak clearl3 and at a medium pace
speak in an open and neutral tone
5e straight (or/ard and to the point
keep the message simple
5e patient
sho/ interest
use the /ords that the people 3ou are talking to can understand
Learning #uide Date) +.0-+*1 'age 4 o( *1
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evision !uthor) ICT, IT 2 Misrak TVET College
Misrak TVET College
Training, Teaching and Learning Materials Development
listen care(ull3 to the conversation so that 3ou get the right message
T%e need t# c#$$unicate

In the /ork environment, 3ou need to communicate /ith)
people /ho 5elong to 3our organiDation
people /ho 5elong outside 3our organiDation and /ish to do 5usiness /ith 3ou4
$ou communicate /ith people at /ork (or several reasons, eCample to)
take a part in (riendl3 conversations
assist customers
receive or pass on in(ormation and instructions
discuss pro5lems
ask (or in(ormation or ask 6uestions
get help
T%e C#$$unicati#n &r#ce!!
a sender /ho has a message or idea /hich the3 /ish to send
a message /hich is sent 5et/een the sender and the receiver
a method @(ace0to0(ace, telephone, letter, (ormA 53 /hich the message is sent
a receiver /ho receives and understands the message
(eed5ack passed (rom the receiver to the sender sho/ing that the message has 5een
received and understood4
Enc#ding Me!!age!
!ll messages must 5e encoded into a (orm that can 5e conve3ed 53 the communication
channel chosen (or the message4 Ee all do this ever3 da3 /hen trans(erring a5stract thoughts
into spoken /ords or a /ritten (orm4 "o/ever, other communication channels re6uire di((erent
(orms o( encoding,
e4g4 teCt /ritten (or a report /ill not /ork /ell i( 5roadcast via a radio program, and the
short, a55reviated teCt used in teCt messages /ould 5e inappropriate i( sent via a letter4
E((ective communicators encode their messages /ith their intended audience in mind as
/ell as the communication channel4 This involves an appropriate use o( language, conve3ing the
in(ormation simpl3 and clearl3, anticipating and eliminating likel3 causes o( con(usion and
misunderstanding, and kno/ing the receiversF eCperience in decoding other similar
communications4 %uccess(ul encoding o( messages is a vital skill in e((ective communication4
Dec#ding Me!!age!
Once received, the receivers need to decode the message, and success(ul decoding is also
a vital skill4 Individuals /ill decode and understand messages in di((erent /a3s 5ased upon
an3 5arriers to communication /hich might 5e present, their eCperience and understanding o(
the conteCt o( the message, their ps3chological state, and the time and place o( receipt as /ell
as man3 other potential (actors4 &nderstanding ho/ the message /ill 5e decoded, and
anticipating as man3 o( the potential sources o( misunderstanding as possi5le, is the art o( a
success(ul communicator4
Learning #uide Date) +.0-+*1 'age 5 o( *1
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evision !uthor) ICT, IT 2 Misrak TVET College
Misrak TVET College
Training, Teaching and Learning Materials Development
0eed)ac(
eceivers o( messages are likel3 to provide (eed5ack on ho/ the3 have understood the
messages through 5oth ver5al and non0ver5al reactions4 E((ective communicators should pa3
close attention to this (eed5ack as it the onl3 /a3 to assess /hether the message has 5een
understood as intended, and it allo/s an3 con(usion to 5e corrected4 Bear in mind that the
eCtent and (orm o( (eed5ack /ill var3 according to the communication channel used) (or eCample
(eed5ack during a (ace0to0(ace or telephone conversation /ill 5e immediate and direct, /hilst
(eed5ack to messages conve3ed via TV or radio /ill 5e indirect and ma3 5e dela3ed, or even
conve3ed through other media such as the Internet4
6arrier! t# G##d C#$$unicati#n
Barriers to good communication can make things di((icult and cause misunderstandings4
#ood communication is a((ected /hen the sender and the receiver do not understand the
message in the same /a34
#ood communication can 5e a((ected 53)
*4 Non ver5al communication /hich sends the opposite message to /hat is 5eing said
-4 'oor listening
;4 &se o( slang
14 !m5iguit3
.4 'eople /ho think the3 kno/ ever3thing and donFt listen
?4 Making assumptions a5out /hat people do or donFt kno/4
<4 'oor eCpression

Learning #uide Date) +.0-+*1 'age 7 o( *1
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evision !uthor) ICT, IT 2 Misrak TVET College
Misrak TVET College
Training, Teaching and Learning Materials Development
Se*"+C%ec( 1 ,ritten Te!t
Name:____________________ Date:_________________
Instruction: Answer all the questions listed below, if you have some clarifications- feel free to ask your teacher
*4 GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGcan make things di((icult and cause misunderstandings4
-4 #ood communication can 5e a((ected 53)
;4 Ehat are Communication 'rocess
14 Dra/ the c3cle o( Factors o( E((ective Communication
.4 'oor communication ma3 lead to)
?4 List Communication Channels
<4 I( people /orking together are not a5le to communicate /ell
=4 List di((erent categories o( communication
Learning #uide Date) +.0-+*1 'age 8 o( *1
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st
evision !uthor) ICT, IT 2 Misrak TVET College
Misrak TVET College
Training, Teaching and Learning Materials Development
In"#r$ati#n S%eet 2 Li!tening
Li!tening
Man3 people think that 5eing a good communicator means 5eing a good talker4 In order to
communicate /ell, a person does need to 5e a5le to speak clearl3 and present ideas in a logical,
/ell ordered manner4 "o/ever, another (actor is also eCtremel3 important i( communication is to
5e e((ective4
! good communicator is a good listener4 &nless a person listens to /hat is 5eing said, no
communication actuall3 takes place4
In the /orkplace, e((ective listening helps 3ou to)
understand instructions clearl3
learn (rom others
conve3 clear messages
promote good listening in others @i( 3ou are prepared to listen to others, the3 /ill 5e
prepared to listen to 3ouA
o((er ideas and take part in discussions
co0operate /ith others and /ork /ell in a team
understand the ideas and suggestions o( others
respond in an appropriate manner
T%e Di""erence )et1een Li!tening and 9earing
'eople are not o(ten a/are that there is a di((erence 5et/een listening and hearing4 It is
commonl3 assumed that 5ecause people can hear the3 can also listen4

&nless people have a ph3sical disa5ilit3 then the3 /ere not a5le to hear4 !t an3 one time,
a person is a5le to hear man3 di((erent sounds4 "earing is something /hich 8ust happens4
&r#ce!!ing S#und!
Listening involves (ar more than hearing all these sounds4 It re6uires 3ou to translate
them, to make sense out o( them, to sort out /hat is important (rom /hat is irrelevant4
Inter"erence 1it% E""ectie Li!tening
Learning #uide Date) +.0-+*1 'age 9 o( *1
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evision !uthor) ICT, IT 2 Misrak TVET College
Misrak TVET College
Training, Teaching and Learning Materials Development
N#i!e 0 it is ver3 hard to listen in a nois3 environment4
Te$'erature 0 i( 3ou are (eeling uncom(orta5l3 hot it is hard to concentrate on listening4
C*#!ene!! 0 /hen a speaker is too close to 3ou, 3our mind ma3 5e on the invasion o(
3our space rather than /hat is 5eing said4
Ti$e 0 Ehen people are tired or hurried the3 are less a5le to (ull3 concentrate on
/hat is 5eing said
I$'atience 0 i( 3ou are (eeling impatient and /ant to get a/a3 to do other things 3our
mind /ill not 5e concentrating on the speaker4

Di!tracti#n! 0 an3 t3pe o( distraction /hether it 5e something going on outside, /ork or
personal /orries tends to stop 3ou (rom pa3ing (ull attention to /hat a
speaker sa3s4

Attitude 0 i( 3ou do not like a speaker or do not like /hat the3 are sa3ing 3ou ma3
6uickl3 tune out4

Lac( #" intere!t 0 /hen 3ou are not interested in a topic it is di((icult to pa3 (ull attention4
&er!#na* &erce'ti#n 0 o(ten people think the3 alread3 kno/ /hat is a5out to 5e said and so
the3 donFt 5other to listen4
,a2! t# i$'r#e 2#ur *i!tening !(i**! are3
al/a3s give 3our (ull attention to the speaker
eact 53 using positive 5od3 language such as)
! looking at the speaker
! sitting up straight
! slightl3 leaning to/ards the speaker
! nodding as the speaker talks
! responding /ith appropriate (acial eCpressions
donFt think a5out /hat 3ou /ant to sa3 /hile the speaker is speaking 2 listen (irst
tr3 not to interrupt the speaker and start talking 3oursel( 0 concentrate on listening
give the speaker (eed5ack so the3 kno/ that 3ou are listening, (or eCample) 3ou ma3 ask
6uestions to get more in(ormation
ask 6uestions to check that 3ou have understood
! 3ou ma3 repeat 5ack /hat the speaker has 5een sa3ing, e4g4 9%o /hat 3ouFre
sa3ing is HH:
keep an open mind a5out /hat the speaker is sa3ing 2 3ou do not need to agree /ith
ever3thing 5ut it is important to listen (irst and then make decisions4
empathiDe /ith the speaker 2 this means tr3ing to see the situation (rom their point o(
vie/4

Learning #uide Date) +.0-+*1 'age 1: o( *1
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evision !uthor) ICT, IT 2 Misrak TVET College
Misrak TVET College
Training, Teaching and Learning Materials Development
;ue!ti#ning
!t /ork /e need to ask 6uestions (or man3 reasons like)
/e need to (ind out /hat to do
/e need to get in(ormation
/e need to check that /e have understood correctl3

Iuestions can 5e divided into t/o main categories)
closed 6uestions
open 6uestions
C*#!ed ;ue!ti#n!

Closed 6uestions are used to (ind out 6uite particular in(ormation4 The3 are 6uestions
/hich can 5e ans/ered /ith a simple 3es, no or one /ord4 %uch 6uestions do not need a long
and detailed response4 The3 are ver3 use(ul i( 3ou need to (ind out simple in(ormation or need to
check speci(ic details4

ECamples o( closed 6uestions are)
Is this /here I can store the 5oCesJ
Can I use this toolJ
Is it lunch timeJ
O'en ;ue!ti#n!

Open 6uestions are used to (ind out detailed in(ormation4 These 6uestions encourage the
receiver to eCplain a longer ans/er4 Open 6uestions start /ith /ords like 9Ehat, Ehen, Ehere,
Eh3, and "o/:4 The3 are used to open up a discussion or conversation4 $ou cannot give one
/ord ans/er to these 6uestions4

ECamples o( open 6uestions are)
"o/ should I sort this ca5inet (ull o( di((erent paintsJ
Ehat training /ill I need to use this e6uipmentJ
Ehat did 3ou mean /hen 3ou asked me to check the suppliesJ

Intenti#n! #" a!(ing <ue!ti#n!
!sking 6uestions to clari(3 understanding
Learning #uide Date) +.0-+*1 'age 11 o( *1
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evision !uthor) ICT, IT 2 Misrak TVET College
Misrak TVET College
Training, Teaching and Learning Materials Development
!sking 6uestions sho/s interest, not ignorance

$ou /ill al/a3s need to ask 6uestions to clari(3 in(ormation and check instructions4
emem5er 3ou have a responsi5ilit3 to make sure 3ou have understood the in(ormation
correctl34

It is much 5etter to ask 6uestions to make sure 3ou are doing the 8o5 right than to
muddle on and make a mistake4 $ou /ill (eel upset i( 3ou make a mistake, especiall3 i( it could
have 5een avoided 53 asking a simple 6uestion4
S#$e#ne 1%# i! giing 2#u !#$e in"#r$ati#n #r in!tructi#n! $a2 n#t d# it er2
1e** )ecau!e t%e23
think 3ou alread3 kno/ more a5out the su58ect than 3ou actuall3 do no/
assume that 3ou understand their a55reviations and 8argons
have not planned the instructions or thought a5out ho/ to give 3ou the in(ormation or
instructions
are too rushed or hurried, the3 ma3 leave out important pieces o( detail
I" a 'er!#n i! giing 2#u in"#r$ati#n #r in!tructi#n! and 2#u are n#t c*ear 1%at
t%e2 $ean= a*1a2! a!( <ue!ti#n!3
Do 3ou mean HHJ
Ehere is that eCactl3J
The large ones or the small onesJ
Do 3ou /ant me to do right a/a3 or /hen I have (inished thisJ
,%en 2#u a!( a <ue!ti#n= it i! #"ten a g##d idea t# re'eat )ac( t%e an!1er t#
$a(e !ure 2#u %ae %eard it c#rrect*2>

To check that 3ou have heard and interpreted the message properl3, put the message into
3our o/n /ords and ask /hether that is /hat the3 meant4
For eCample)
%o 3ou /ant me to HHH
Can I 8ust check the detailsJ I need to HHH
Let me see i( IFve understood properl3, this goesH
econ(irming that 3ou /ould like me to HHH

S#$eti$e! t%e in!tructi#n! 2#u are )eing gien are <uite *#ng> In t%i! !ituati#n
2#u $ig%t need t# interru't t# !ee( c*ari"icati#n )e"#re t%e !'ea(er $#e! #nt# t%e
ne?t in!tructi#n> 0#r e?a$'*e3

ECcuse me4 I donFt understand /here the 5oCes are4
Could 3ou repeat that pleaseJ
I didnFt catch the name o( the item 3ou /ant me to move4

Learning #uide Date) +.0-+*1 'age 12 o( *1
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st
evision !uthor) ICT, IT 2 Misrak TVET College
Misrak TVET College
Training, Teaching and Learning Materials Development
S#$eti$e! 'e#'*e gie ague in!tructi#n! t%at 2#u $a2 1ant t# c*ari"23
"o/ (ar do/n there do 3ou /ant me to put itJ
"o/ man3 o( them do 3ou /ant me to 5ringJ
Ehat time this a(ternoon do 3ou /ant that done 53J
Se*"+C%ec( 2 ,ritten Te!t
Name:____________________ Date:_________________
Instruction: Answer all the questions listed below, if you have some clarifications- feel free to ask your teacher
*4 GGGGGGGGGGGare used to (ind out 6uite particular in(ormation4
-4 9Do 3ou mean HHJ: /hat kinds o( 6uestion
;4 9think 3ou alread3 kno/ more a5out the su58ect than 3ou actuall3 do no/ 9/hat kinds o(
6uestion
14 eact 53 using positive 5od3 language such as)
.4 9!sking 6uestions to clari(3 understanding: /hat kind o( 6uestion
?4 The3 are Inter(erence /ith E((ective Listening
<4 Man3 people think that 5eing a GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG means 5eing a good talker
Learning #uide Date) +.0-+*1 'age 1. o( *1
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evision !uthor) ICT, IT 2 Misrak TVET College
Misrak TVET College
Training, Teaching and Learning Materials Development
$our teacher /ill evaluate 3our output either satis(actor3 or unsatis(actor34 I(
unsatis(actor3, 3our trainer shall advice 3ou on additional /ork4 But i( satis(actor3, 3ou
can proceed to the neCt topic4
Learning #uide Date) +.0-+*1 'age 1/ o( *1
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evision !uthor) ICT, IT 2 Misrak TVET College