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AP Human Geography

Chapter Five - Language

Seth Adler

Seth Adler
I. Language
a. Language - A system of communication through the use of speech, a collection of sounds understood
by a group of people to have the same meaning.
b. Literary Tradition - A language that is written as well as spoken.
c. Official Language - The language adopted for use by the government for the conduct of business and
publication of documents.
d. The interplay between interaction and isolation helps to explain regions of individual languages and
entire language families.

II. Where Are English Language Speakers Distributed?
a. A language originates at a particular place and diffuses to other locations through the migration of
its speakers.

A. Origin and Diffusion of English
a. English is an official language in 57 countries, more than any other language.

1. English Colonies
a. English is an official language in most of the former British colonies.
b. English first diffused west from England to North America in the seventeenth century
c. English became the official language when the British took control (Ireland, South
Asia, South Pacific, Southern Africa)
d. More recently, the United States has been responsible for diffusing English to several
places (Philippines)

2. Origin of English in England
a. Tribes called the Celts arrived around 2000 B.C., speaking languages we call Celtic.
b. Then, around A.D. 450, tribes from mainland Europe invaded, pushing the Celts into the
remote northern and western parts of Britain.

- German Invasion
a. The invading tribes were the Angles, Jutes, and Saxons.
b. All three were Germanic tribesthe Jutes from northern Denmark, the Angles from
southern Denmark, and the Saxons from northwestern Germany.
c. English people and others who trace their cultural heritage back to England are often
called Anglo-Saxons, after the two larger tribes.
d. Modern English has evolved primarily from the language spoken by the Angles, Jutes,
and Saxons.
e. The name England comes from Angles land. In Old English, Angles was spelled Engles,
and the Angles language was known as englisc. The Angles came from a corner, or angle,
of Germany known as Schleswig-Holstein.
f. Other peoples subsequently invaded England and added their languages to the basic
English. (Vikings)
Seth Adler

- Norman Invasion
a. English is different from German today because England was conquered by the
Normans in 1066.
b. The Normans, who came from present-day Normandy in France, spoke French, which
they established as Englands official language for the next 300 years
c. The majority of the people who had little education did not know French, so they
continued to speak English to each other.
d. The Germanic language of the common people and the French used by the leaders
mingled to form a new language.
e. Modern English has simpler words (sky, horse, man, woman) that come from its
Germanic roots.
f. Fancy, more elegant words like celestial, equestrian, masculine, and feminine come from
French invaders.
g. England lost control of Normandy in 1204, during the reign of King John and had a long
period of conflict. As a result, people did not want to speak French.
h. Because nearly everyone in England was speaking English, Parliament enacted the
Statute of Pleading in 1362 to change the official language from French to English even
though they continued to conduct business in French until 1489.

B. Dialects of English
a. Dialect - A regional variety of a language distinguished by vocabulary, spelling, and
b. Isogloss - A boundary that separates regions in which different language usages predominate.
c. Isoglosses are determined by collecting data directly from people, particularly natives of
rural areas. People are shown pictures to identify or are given sentences to complete with a
particular word.
d. Because of its large number of speakers and widespread distribution, English has an especially
large number of dialects.
e. Standard Language - The form of a language used for official government business, education,
and mass communications.
f. British Received Pronunciation (BRP) - The dialect of English associated with upper-class
Britons living in London and now considered standard in the United Kingdom.

1. Dialects in England
a. As already discussed, English originated with three invading groups from Northern
Europe who settled in different parts of Britainthe Angles in the north, the Jutes in
the southeast, and the Saxons in the south and west.
b. The language each spoke was the basis of distinct regional dialects of Old English
Kentish in the southeast, West Saxon in the southwest, Mercian in the center of the
island, and Northumbrian in the north
Seth Adler
c. Under the control of a French-speaking government, five major regional dialects had
emergedNorthern, East Midland, West Midland, Southwestern, and Southeastern or
d. The diffusion of the upper-class London and university dialects was encouraged by the
introduction of the printing press to England in 1476.
e. Three main English Dialects in the UK - Northern, Midland, and Southern.
Southerners pronounce words like grass and path with an /ah/ sound; Northerners
and Midlanders use a short /a/, like in the US
Northerners and Midlanders pronounce butter and Sunday with /oo/, like boot.
Southwesterners pronounce thatch and thing with the /th/ sound of then, not thin.
Fresh and eggs have an /ai/ sound.
Southeasterners pronounce the /a/ in apple and cat like the short /e/ in bet.

2. Differences Between British and American English
a. the earliest colonists were most responsible for the dominant language patterns that
exist today in the English-speaking part of the Western Hemisphere.
b. The English language here is different because of isolation.
a. The vocabulary is different because there are many new things and experiences
in America, new physical features that needed new names. (moose, raccoon,
chipmunk) (canoe, moccasin, squash)
b. As new inventions appeared, they acquired different names on either side of the
Atlantic. (Lift/elevator, torch/flash light)
a. Spelling is different because America wants a strong sense of independence
b. Webster was determined to develop a uniquely American dialect of English.
Webster argued that spelling and grammar reforms would help establish a
national language, reduce cultural dependence on England, and inspire national
c. Elimination of U and replace S for C because of Webster
a. Words as fast, path, and half are pronounced in England like the /ah/ in father
rather than the /a/ in man. The British also eliminate the r sound from
pronunciation except before vowels. Thus lord in British pronunciation sounds
like laud.
b. Americans pronounce unaccented syllables with more clarity. (secretary and
c. Pronunciation has changed more in England than in the United States.

Seth Adler
3. Dialects in the United States
a. Major differences in U.S. dialects originated because of differences in dialects among
the original settlers

- Settlement In The East
New England
a. Settlers from England
b. Puritans from East Anglia
a. Southeast England
b. Variety of social class backgrounds ( prisoners, servants, refugees)
Middle Atlantic
a. Diverse
b. Quakers
c. Scots and Irish, Germans, Dutch, and Swedish

- Current Dialect Differences In The East
a. Two important isoglosses separate the eastern United States into three major dialect
regions, known as Northern, Midlands, and Southern. Some words are commonly used
within one of the three major dialect areas but rarely in the other two.
b. For example, the word for soft drink varies. Most people in the Northeast and
Southwest use soda to describe a soft drink. Most people in the Midwest, Great Plains,
and Northwest prefer pop. Southerners refer to all soft drinks as coke.

- Pronunciation Differences
Southern dialect makes words like half into 2 syllables
New England dialect drop the /r/ sound. Similar to England because of the amount
of contact
a. Standard pronunciation comes from the Middle Atlantic because most Westerners
came from there.
b. The pattern by which dialects diffused westward resembles the diffusion of East
Coast house types.
c. The mobility of Americans has been a major reason for the relatively uniform
language that exists throughout much of the West.

III. Why Is English Related to Other Languages?
a. Language Family - A collection of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long
before recorded history.
b. Indo-European is the worlds most extensively spoken language family by a wide margin.

Seth Adler
A. Indo-European Branches
a. Language Branch - A collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed
several thousand years ago. Differences are not as extensive or as old as with language
families, and archaeological evidence can confirm that the branches derived from the same
b. Indo-European is divided into eight branches. Four of the branchesIndo-Iranian, Romance,
Germanic, and Balto-Slavicare spoken by large numbers of people. Indo-Iranian languages
are clustered in South Asia, Romance languages in southwestern Europe and Latin America,
Germanic languages in northwestern Europe and North America, and Balto-Slavic languages in
Eastern Europe. The four less extensively used Indo-European language branches are
Albanian, Armenian, Greek, and Celtic.

1. Germanic Branch of Indo-European
a. Language Group - A collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin
in the relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammar and
b. West Germanic is the group within the Germanic branch of Indo-European to which
English belongs.
c. English and German are both languages in the West Germanic group because they are
structurally similar and have many words in common.
d. West Germanic is divided into High Germanic and Low Germanic subgroups because
they are found in high and low elevations in Germany. High German is spoken in the
mountains of Germany and started the German language. English is from the Low
Germanic subgroup of West Germanic group.
e. Other Low Germanic languages include Dutch, which is spoken in the Netherlands, as
well as Flemish, which is generally considered a dialect of Dutch spoken in northern
Belgium. Afrikaans, a language of South Africa, is similar to Dutch, because Dutch
settlers migrated to South Africa 300 years ago. Frisian is spoken by a few residents
in northeastern Netherlands. A dialect of German spoken in the northern lowlands of
Germany is also classified as Low Germanic.
f. The four Scandinavian languagesSwedish, Danish, Norwegian, and Icelandic all
derive from Old Norse, which was the principal language of Scandinavia before A.D.
1000. Four distinct languages emerged after that time because of migration and the
political organization of the region into four independent and isolated countries.

a. Indo-Iranian Branch of Indo-European The branch of the Indo-European language
family with the most speakers is Indo-Iranian.
b. The branch is divided into an eastern group (Indic) and a western group (Iranian).

- Indic (Eastern) Group Of Indo-Iranian Language Branch
a. Most widely used languages in India
b. Official language in India is Hindi because British encouraged its use
Seth Adler
c. When India because independent, Hindi was proposed as the national language but
other languages disagreed so English, the language of British colonial rulers, became
the official language
d. India also recognizes 22 so-called scheduled languages, including 15 Indo-European
(Assamese, Bengali, Dogri, Gujarati, Hindi, Kashmiri, Konkani, Maithili, Marathi, Nepali,
Oriya, Panjabi, Sanskrit, Sindhi, and Urdu), four Dravidian (Kannada, Malayalam, Tamil,
and Telugu), two Sino-Tibetan (Bodo and Manipuri), and one Austro-Asiatic (Santali).
The government of India is obligated to encourage the use of these languages.
e. Urdu is spoken very much like Hindi, but it is recognized as a distinct language (it uses
the Arabic alphabet)

- Iranian (Western) Group Of Indo-Iranian Language Branch
a. The major Iranian group languages include Persian (sometimes called Farsi) in Iran,
Pashto in eastern Afghanistan and western Pakistan, and Kurdish, used by the Kurds of
western Iran, northern Iraq, and eastern Turkey.
b. Use Arabic alphabet
2. Balto-Slavic Branch of Indo-European
a. Another Indo-European branch
b. Slavic was once a single language, but differences developed in the seventh century
when Slaves migrated from Asia and lived in isolation.
c. As a result, this branch can be further divided into East, West and South Slavic groups
as well as a Baltic group

- East Slavic And Baltic Groups Of The Balto-Slavic Language Branch
a. Most widely used (Russian)
b. Importance of Russian increased when Soviet Union rose to power at the end of WWII
in 1945. They forced others to speak Russian to form cultural unity.
c. After Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusan are the 2 most important East Slavic languages.
d. Ukraine means Border and Bela- means white.

- West And South Slavic Groups Of The Balto-Slavic Language Branch
a. Most spoken is Polish, followed by Czech and Slovak
b. Czechoslovakia tried to balance the 2 languages even though there were twice as many
Czechs. They would use one language in the first half of spots and then switch to the
other. They were effective during the communist era.
c. With the fall of communism, Slovakia split and had the dominant language
d. The most important South Slavic language is the one spoken in Bosnia and Herzegovina,
Croatia, Montenegro, and Serbia. Bosnians and Croats write the language in the Roman
alphabet (what you are reading now), whereas Montenegrans and Serbs use the Cyrillic
alphabet (for example, Yugoslavia is written JyOCaB Na.
e. Serbo-Croation offends Bosnians and Croatians because it referres to when they were
a country ruled by serbs.
Seth Adler
f. The Serbo-Croatian word for martyr or hero junakhas been changed to heroj by
Croats and shahid by Bosnian Muslims.
g. In general, differences among all of the Slavic languages are relatively small.

3. Romance Branch of Indo-European
a. The Romance language branch evolved from the Latin language spoken by the Romans
2,000 years ago.
b. Most widely used: Spanish, Portuguese, French, and Italian. Romanian (Moldova) is also
important. Two other ones are Romansh (Switzerland) and Catalan (Andorra). Others:
Sardinian, Ladin, Friulian, Ladino.
c. Physical boundaries such as mountains are strong intervening obstacles, creating
barriers to communication between people living on opposite sides.
d. The distribution of Romance languages shows the difficulty in trying to establish the
number of distinct languages in the world.

- Origin And Diffusion Of Romance Languages
a. All came from Latin, during the rise of Rome
b. during the period of the Roman Empire, Latin varied to some extent from one province
to another. (Based on the army that controlled their region)
c. Vulgar Latin - A form of Latin used in daily conversation by ancient Romans, as opposed
to the standard dialect, which was used for official documents.
d. Following the collapse of the Roman Empire in the fifth century, communication among
the former provinces declined, creating greater regional variation in spoken Latin.
e. When migrants were unable to communicate with speakers of the same language back
home, major differences emerged between the languages spoken in the old and new
locations, leading to the emergence of new languages.

- Romance Language Dialects
a. The creation of standard national languages, such as French and Spanish, was relatively
b. The French dialect was Francien because that region included Paris.
c. The most important dialect difference is of the North and South. This is because of
the different ways yes was said. Kept shortening hoc illud est.
d. At the time Spain grew into its present boundaries, Castilian was the official language.
e. Spanish and Portuguese have achieved worldwide importance because of the colonial
activities of their European speakers.
f. These two Romance languages were diffused to the Americas by Spanish and
Portuguese explorers.
g. The Treaty of Tordesillas split the New Worlds languages
h. The standardized way of Portuges was mande in 1994. Portugal was upset because it
got rid of mose accent marks such as tildes (So Paulo), cedillas (Alcobaa),
circumflexes (Estncia), and hyphens.
Seth Adler
i. The standardization of Portuguese is a reflection of the level of interaction that is
possible in the modern world between groups of people who live tens of thousands of
kilometers apart.

- Distinguishing Between Dialects And Languages
a. Moldovan is the official language of Moldova yet is a dialect of Romanian.
b. Flemish, the official language of Belgium, is considered a dialect of Dutch.
c. Several languages of Italy are viewed as different enough to merit consideration as
languages distinct from Italian according to Ethnologue.
d. Distinguishing individual languages from dialects is difficult, because many speakers
choose to regard their languages as distinct.
e. Romance languages spoken in some former colonies can also be classified as separate
languages because they differ substantially from the original introduced by European
f. Creole or Creolized Language A language that results from the mixing of a colonizers
language with the indigenous language of the people being dominated.

B. Origin and Diffusion of Indo-European
a. Proto-Indo-European is the language that Indo-European languages came from. This cannot be
b. The words for animals and trees have a common root (beech, oak, bear, deer, pheasant, bee)
c. Probably liven in a cold climate because there were many words for winter and snow, but not
Nomadic Warrior Thesis
a. Marija Gimbutas
b. The first Proto-Indo-European speakers were the Kurgan people in the borders
of Russia and Kazakhstan. Earliest evidence dates back to 4300 BC.
c. Kurgan warriors, using their horses, conquered much of Europe.
Sedentary Farmer Thesis
a. Colin Renfrew
b. 2,000 years before Kurgans, in Eastern Antolia (Modern day Turkey)
c. Diffused towards Greece
d. Migration
e. Renfrew argues that Indo-European diffused into Europe and South Asia along
with agricultural practices

IV. Where Are Other Language Families Distributed

A. Classification of Languages
a. Indo-European (English) 46%
b. Sino-Tibetan (Mandarin) 21% (China)
c. Afro-Asiatic (Arabic) 6% (Middle East)
Seth Adler
d. Austronesian 6% (Southeast Asia)
e. Niger-Congo 6% (Africa)
f. Dravidan 4% (India)
g. Altaic 2% (Asia)
h. Austro-Asiatic 2% (Southeast Asia)
i. Japanese 2%
j. Other 5%

B. Distribution of Language Families

1. Sino-Tibetan Family
a. Peoples Republic of China, S.E. Asia
b. No Chinese language, mostly Mandarin (pu tong hua) (most used language in the world)
c. The relatively small number of languages in China is a source of national strength and unity
d. Based on 420 one-syllable words. This number far exceeds the possible one-syllable sounds
that humans can make, so Chinese languages use each sound to denote more than one thing.
e. Kan jiana combination of the words for look and see, which would be redundant in
Englishclarifies that to see is the intended meaning for the multiple meanings of jian.
f. The Chinese languages are written with a collection of thousands of characters.
g. Ideograms - The system of writing used in China and other East Asian countries in which each
symbol represents an idea or a concept rather than a specific sound, as is the case with
letters in English.
h. The Chinese government reports that 16 percent of the population over age 16 is unable to
read or write more than a few characters.

2. Other East and Southeast Asian Language Families
a. Clustered on islands and peninsulas
a. 6%
b. Indonesia
c. Because there are many islands, there are many languages
d. Most widely used is Javanese
e. Madagascar speaks Malagasy, an Austonesian family, even though is is far from
others. This show migration.
a. 2%
b. Southeast Asia
c. Vietnamese is most spoken (Roman alphabet)
d. The Vietnamese alphabet was devised in the seventh century by Roman Catholic

Seth Adler
Tai Kadai
a. Once classified as a branch of Sino-Tibetan
b. Thailand and parts of China
c. Similar to the Austronesian family
d. May have migrated from the Philippines
a. Uses ideograms and phonetic symbols
a. Related to the Altaic languages of Central Asia or to Japanese
b. Not ideograms, but a system known as hankul
c. Hankul each letter represents a sound
d. Chinese and Japanese words are the principal sources for creating new words to
describe new technology and concepts.

3. Languages of the Middle East and Central Asia
a. Arabic
b. Muslims (Quran)
c. Hebrew (Judeo-Christian Bible)
a. Between Tibet and China
b. Turkish
c. Turkish was once written with Arabic letters. But in 1928 the Turkish
government, led by Kemal Ataturk, ordered that the language be written with
the Roman alphabet instead. (Wanted to modernize the country and be like the
rest of Europe)
d. One element of Soviet policy was to force everyone to write with the Russian
Cyrillic alphabet
a. Estonia, Finland, and Hungary are not dominated by Indo-European speakers.
b. Migrants carried the Uralic languages to Europe.

4. African Language Families
a. No one knows the precise number of languages spoken in Africa, and scholars disagree on
classifying those known into families.
b. Most lack a written tradition.
c. This great number of languages results from at least 5,000 years of minimal interaction
among the thousands of cultural groups inhabiting the African continent. Each group
developed its own language, religion, and other cultural traditions in isolation from other

Seth Adler
a. 95% of sub-Saharan Africa
b. Swahili (Tanzania)
c. In rural areas, local languages is used to communicate with people from the same
village and Swahili is used for outsiders.
d. Swahili originally developed through interaction among African groups and Arab
e. Swahili is one of the few African languages with an extensive literature.
a. North-central Africa
b. 6 branches with numerous groups and subgroups with very small speaking each
a. Clicking sounds
b. Southern Africa
c. Hottentot language

V. Why Do People Preserve Local Languages?
a. The distribution of a language is a measure of the fate of an ethnic group.

A. Preserving Language Diversity
a. Extinct Languages - A language that was once used by people in daily activities but is no longer
b. 473 languages are nearly extinct (46 of these nearly extinct languages are in Africa, 182 in
the Americas, 84 in Asia, 9 in Europe, and 152 in the Pacific)
c. Of Perus 92 surviving indigenous languages, only Cusco, a Quechuan language, is currently used
by more than 1 million people.
d. Gothic was widely spoken by people in Eastern and Northern Europe in the third century. (Now
it, and its group, the East Germanic group are extinct)
e. Many Gothic people switched to speaking the Latin language after their conversion to
f. The European Union has established the European Bureau for Lesser Used Languages (EBLUL).
g. Only 300 languages are safe

1. Hebrew: Reviving Extinct Languages
a. Hebrew is a rare case of an extinct language that has been revived
b. Hebrew diminished in use in the fourth century B.C. and was thereafter retained only
for Jewish religious services.
c. When Israel was established as an independent country in 1948, Hebrew became one of
the new countrys two official languages, along with Arabic.
d. The revival effort was initiated by Eliezer Ben-Yehuda (created 4,000 new words and
the first modern Hebrew dictionary)
Seth Adler

2. Celtic: Preserving Endangered Languages
a. Major language in the British Isles before it was invaded
b. Today, Celtic languages survive only in remoter parts of Scotland, Wales, and Ireland
and on the Brittany peninsula of France.
c. The Celtic language branch is divided into Goidelic (Gaelic) and Brythonic groups. Two
Goidelic languages surviveIrish Gaelic and Scottish Gaelic. Speakers of Brythonic
(also called Cymric or Britannic) fled westward during the Germanic invasions to Wales
Irish Gaelic
a. Official language of the Republic of Ireland
Scottish Gaelic
a. 1% of Scotland
b. Auld Lang Syne (old long since) poem by Robert Burns
c. Came from Ireland
Brythonic (Welsh)
a. 22% of Wales
a. Extinct in 1777, Dolly Pentreath who lived in Mousehole

a. Brittany is a peninsula in the Atlantic Ocean
b. More French words
c. a
d. The survival of any language depends on the political and military strength of its
e. In the 1300s, the Irish were forbidden to speak their own language in the
presence of their English masters
f. Britains 1988 Education Act made Welsh language training a compulsory subject
in all schools in Wales.
g. Irish revival
h. Irish bands have begun singing in Gaelic
i. Cornish revived in 1920s
j. Impossible to know how to pronounce Cornish words

3. Multilingual States
a. Difficulties rise at the border between two languages
b. Southern Belgians (known as Walloons) speak French, whereas northern Belgians (known
as Flemings) speak a dialect of the Germanic language, Dutch, called Flemish
c. Motorists in Belgium clearly see the language boundary on expressways. When heading
north, signs change from French to Flemish. Brussels is an exception. It is bilingual.
d. Belgium is divided into 2 regions, Flanders and Wallonia. Flanders wants to split the
country. It would then be one of Europes richest countries.
Seth Adler
e. Switzerland peacefully exists as multilingual languages. 4 languages: German (65%),
French (18%), Italian (10%), and Romansh(1% and voting language).

4. Isolated Languages
a. Isolated Language - A language that is unrelated to any other languages and therefore not
attached to any language family.
b. The diffusion of Indo-European languages demonstrates that a common ancestor
dominated much of Europe before recorded history.
c. Isolated languages arise through lack of interaction with speakers of other languages.
- A Pre-Indo-European Survivor: Basque
a. Isolated language in Europe before the arrival of Indo-European speakers
b. Pyrenees Mountains in Spain and southwestern France
c. This isolation has helped them preserve their language in the face of the wide
diffusion of Indo-European languages.
- An Unchanging Language: Icendic
a. Related to other languages in the North Germanic group of the Germanic branch of the
Indo-European family.
b. Changed less than any other Germanic language
c. The Norwegian immigrants had little contact with speakers of other languages when
they arrived in Iceland, and they did not have contact with speakers of their language
back in Norway. They did not learn new words.

B. Global Dominance of English
a. One of the most fundamental needs in a global society is a common language for

1. English: An Example of a Lingua Franca
a. Lingua Franca - A language mutually understood and commonly used in trade by people who
have different native languages. (English)
b. To facilitate trade
c. Pidgin Language - A form of speech that adopts a simplified grammar and limited vocabulary
of a lingua franca; used for communications among speakers of two different languages.
d. Each learn a few grammar and vocabulary rules
e. No native speaker
f. English, Swahili (East Africa), Hindi (South Asia), Indonesian (Southeast Asia), and Russian
(former Soviet Union)
g. The rapid growth in importance of English is reflected in the percentage of students learning
English as a second language in school.
h. Students around the world want to learn in English because they believe it is the most
effective way to work in a global economy and participate in a global culture.

Seth Adler
2. Expansion Diffusion of English
a. The spread of a trait through the snowballing effect of an idea rather than through the
relocation of people.
b. English is changing through diffusion of new vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation
c. English words are fusing with other languages
d. Recent changes in English have percolated up from common usage and ethnic dialects rather
than being directed down to the masses by elite people.
e. Ebonics - Dialect spoken by some African Americans.
f. Double negatives
g. Some see it as a lack of education while others see it as language
h. Bidialetic - they speak standard English outside Appalachia and slip back into their regional
dialect at home.

3. Diffusion to Other Languages
- Franglais
a. Official language in 29 countries
b. Upset with English being the dominant language
c. Franglais - A term used by the French for English words that have entered the French
language; a combination of franais and anglais, the French words for French and
English, respectively.
d. In 1635, the French Academy controls the French language
e. Cannot ban franglais
- Spanglish
a. Spanglish - Combination of Spanish and English, spoken by Hispanic Americans.
b. Cubonics
c. Richer integration of English instead of using English words
d. Song lyrics
e. Not promoted in schools
f. Enriching both languages
- Denglish
a. Denglish - Combination of German and English.
b. The Institute for the German Language did not want telephone company to change to 2
c. English has diffused into other languages as well.