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AP Human Geography

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Seth Adler
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Seth Adler


a. Ethnicity Identity with a group of people who share the cultural traditions of a
b. Race Identity with a group of people who share a biological ancestor

I. Where Are Ethnicities Distributed?

A. Distribution of Ethnicities in the United States
a. The two most numerous ethnicities in the US are Hispanic or Latinos (15%)
and African Americans (13%).

1. Clustering of Ethnicities
a. Ethnic groups may live in a particular region and they may live in
particular neighborhoods.
- Regional Concentration of Ethnicities
Hispanic or Latino:
a. Clustered in Southwest (Mostly in Arizona, New Mexico,
Texas, and California).
b. Hispanic is coined by the US government in 1973.
African Americans:
a. Clustered in Southeast (Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana,
Maryland, South Carolina, and Mississippi).
b. New England has less than 1%.
Asian Americans:
a. Clustered in the West (Hawaii and California)
American Indians and Alaska Natives:
a. Most numerous in the Southwest and Plains.
- Concentration of Ethnicities in Cities
a. African Americans and Hispanics are highly clustered in urban
b. They are mostly together in specific cities. (i.e. Detroit,
c. In 1910, when Detroits auto production was expanding, of the
city were immigrants.
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d. For descendants of Europeans, ethnic identity is found in
religion and food instead of location. (i.e. Little Italy)
2. African Americans Migration Patterns
o Forced migration from Africa to the American colonies in the
eighteenth century
o Immigration from the US South to North during the first
half of the twentieth century
o Immigration from inner-city ghettos to other urban
neighborhoods during the second half of the twentieth
- Forced Migration From Africa
a. The first African slaves arrived at Jamestown, Virginia on a
Dutch ship in 1619.
b. The British shipped about 400,000 slaves.
c. In 1808, America banned the bringing of new slaves.
d. Slavery was widespread during the time of the Roman Empire.
e. During the Middle Ages, slavery was replaced by a feudal system
where serfs had to work.
f. The height of slave trade was between 1710 and 1810 (10 million)
g. Forced migration started when Africans on the West and East
coast captured members living further inland and sold them.
h. The Spanish and Portuguese first started slave trading in the
sixteenth century and soon the British, Dutch, and French
i. The Portuguese shipped slaves from Angola and Mozambique to
j. Triangular Slave Trade European ships transported slaves from
Africa to Caribbean islands, molasses from the Caribbean to
Europe, and trade goods from Europe to Africa
k. Some ships also took molasses from the Caribbean to America
and rum from America to Europe.
l. Nearly all Africans ended up in the Southeast colonies.
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m. Sharecropper Works fields rented from landowners by giving
the landowner a portion of the crops. Caused high interest
- Immigration To The North
a. Sharecropping became less common in the 20
century because
of the invention of farm machinery, as well as landowners
heading North for economic opportunities.
o East Coast: From the Carolinas north to Baltimore,
Philadelphia, and New York along US Route 1 (I-95)
o East Central: From Alabama and eastern Tennessee north
to Detroit (US Route 25) or Cleveland (US Route 21)
o West Central: From Mississippi and western Tennessee
north to St. Lois and Chicago along US routes 61 and 66
o Southwest: From Texas west to California along US
routes 80 and 90
b. First wave in 1910s (WW1) and second in 1940s (WWII)
- Expansion of the Ghetto
a. African Americans clustered in one or two neighborhoods.
These became known as ghettos.
b. African Americans moved from ghettos to adjacent
neighborhoods during the 1950s and 1960s.

B. Differentiating Ethnicity and Race
a. In the US, there are the main ethnic groups: Asian Americans, African
Americans, and Hispanic Americans.
o Asian is a race and Asian Americans is an ethnicity. Asian
Americans include many more people.
o African Americans and Blacks are different groups.
o The term African American identifies a group with
cultural tradition. The term black just states the color of
their skin.
o Hispanic or Latino is not a race, so they choose their race
black, white.
b. Racism The belief that a race determines the humans characteristics
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c. Racist A person who believes in racism

1. Race in the United States
Black, African American, or Negro
American Indian or Alaska Native
Asian Indian
Other Asian
Native Hawaiian
Guamanian or Chamorro
Other Pacific Islander
Other Race

a. In 2000: 75% White, 12% Black and 4% Asian.

- Separate But Equal Doctrine
a. The US Supreme Court, in 1896, said blacks and whites must
ride in separate railway cars. This is because they are both
b. These are called the Jim Crow laws named after an offensive
- White Flight
a. Segregation laws were eliminated in the 1950s and 1960s.
b. In the Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas in 1954,
the court stated that separate schools were unconstitutional.
c. The expansion of the black ghettos occurred because of white
flight, the large immigration of whites.
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d. Blockbusting A real estate technique that convinces white
homeowners living near black communities to sell their houses at
cheap prices so they wont be surrounded by blacks and then
selling the houses for high prices to the blacks looking to leave
the ghetto

2. Division by Race in South Africa
a. Discrimination reached its peak in the late 20
b. Apartheid The physical separation of different races into different
geographical areas.
c. In South Africa, a baby is classified as black, white, colored, or Asian.
The apartheid laws determine where the baby could live, work, shop,
d. The apartheid system was created by whites from Holland in 1652.
e. When all South Africans were permitted to vote, Mandela was the
first black president in 1994.

II. Why Have Ethnicities Been Transformed into Nationalities?
a. Nationality Identity with a group of people who come from the same country

A. Rise of Nationalities
o Nationality determines where a citizen is born (i.e. The
United States).
o Ethnicity identifies groups with distinct ancestry (i.e.
African Americans).
o Race distinguishes colors (i.e. blacks).
a. The United States forged a nationality through the Declaration of
Independence and the Bill of Rights.

1. Nation-States
a. To preserve and enhance distinctive cultural characteristics,
ethnicities seek to govern themselves.
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b. Nation-State A state whose borders coincides with the
c. Self-Determination The concept that ethnicities have the
right to govern themselves.
- Denmark: There Are No Perfect Nation-States
a. The territory occupied by the Danish ethnicity closely
corresponds with the state of Denmark.
b. Nearly all Danes speak the same language and nearly all of the
worlds speakers of Danish live in Denmark.
c. 10% of Denmarks population consist of the ethnic minorities of
Turkey and Yugoslavia.
d. Denmark also controls the Faeroe Islands and Greenland.
e. Only 12% of Greenland are Dutch, the rest are native born.
- Nation-States In Europe
a. Ethnicities were transformed into nationalities in the 19

b. Germany became a nation-state in 1871, it used to be small
c. In 1871, Prussia (The most powerful German state) forced
others to join the Prussian empire.
d. Germany lost much of its territory after WWI.
e. During the 1930s, the Nazis claimed that all German-speaking
parts of Europe are one nationality and should be one state.
Other European powers did not stop Germany from taking over
Austria and Czechoslovakia. Not until Germany invaded Poland
(Which was clearly not a German-speaking country) in 1939 did
England and France try to stop them. This started WWII.

2. Nationalism
a. Nationalism Loyalty to a nationality. It emphasizes its culture
and interests.
b. States use flags and symbols.
c. Nationality can have a negative impact. In a nation-state, they
usually have negative images of other nation-states.
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d. Centripetal Force An attitude that tends to unify people and
support a state

B. Multinational States
a. Multiethnic State A state that contains more than one ethnicity (The
United States)
b. Multinational States Contains two ethnic groups that live together
peacefully. They contain two or more nationalities.
c. The United Kingdom consists of four nationalities: England, Scotland,
Whales, and Northern Ireland
o Wales: Conquered by England in 1282. Welsh laws were
abolished when it joined England in 1536.
o Scotland: In 1603, when King James VI of Scotland
became King James I of England, the two countries united.
The Act of Union in 1707 formally merged them. England,
Wales, and Scotland comprise Great Britain and are the
term that British refers to.
o Northern Ireland: During the 1920s, Northern Ireland
split from Ireland because they were Protestant and
wanted to remain with Great Britain.
d. The strongest unity of them is in sports. The most important rugby
tournament is the Six Nations Championship and includes Italy and

1. Former Soviet Union: The Largest Multinational State
a. Collapsed in 1990s.
b. Contained 15 republics.
o Three Baltic: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania
o Three European: Belarus, Moldova, Ukraine
o Five Central Asian: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan,
Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan
o Three Caucasus: Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia
o Russia
- New Baltic Nation-States
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a. Named because of location by the Baltic Sea.
b. Lithuania most closely represents a nation-state because
Lithuanians compromise 85% percent of the population.
c. Most Estonians are Protestant, most Lithuanians are Roman
Catholics, and Latvians are Lutheran.
- New European Nation-States
a. The ethnic distinctions between the three countries are blurred.
They speak East Slavic languages and are Orthodox Christians.
b. Belarusians and Ukrainians became distinct wthnicities because
they are isolated from Russia because of the Mongolians.
c. Moldova was once part of Romania until captured by Soviet
Russia. Now it wants to join band to Romania because of how
ethnically similar. This is a problem because Moldovas boarders
were extended when it was seized.
- New Central Asian States
a. In Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, the leading ethnic group has an
overwhelming majority. Both are Muslims and were captured in
the 19
b. Kazakhstan, the largest, is a recipe for ethnic conflict. The
Kazakhs are Muslim, while the Russians are Orthodox Christians.
c. Tajikistan should be stable but has been in a civil war.

2. Russia: Now the Largest Nultinational State
a. 39 nationslities are in Russia.
b. Some located at the boarders and others in central Russia.
c. There are a lot of independence movements , especially with the
d. Chechens declared independence. Russia ingnored them and sent in
an army. If they were to become independent, so would others.
That area also contains petroleum.

3. Turmoil in the Caucasus
a. It is the size of Colorodo, between the Black and Caspian Seas.
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b. Azeris, Armenians, and Georgians are the major ethnicities. Each
nation wants their own state.
- Azerbaijan
a. Azeris came from Turnkish invaders.
b. 91% of their population lives in Nakhichevan, and piece of land
separated from Azerbaijan.
c. Azeris hold positions of responisbilty in Iran, but Iran does not
teach the Azeri language.
- Armenia
a. They lived under the rule of Turkish Muslims.
b. Hundreds of thousands of Armenians were killed by the Turks
and were forced to migrate.
c. After WWI, the allies created Armenia, but the surrounding
neighbors tok control over it. In 1921, Turkey and The Soviet
Union divided Armenia between them.
d. It is the most ethnically homogeneous country in the region.
e. Azerbaijan and Armenia went to war over the part of
- Georgians
a. More diverse, unrest.
b. Fighting among the Ossetians and Abkhazians. Abkhazians want
Northern Georgia to be independent and the Ossetians fought a
war with Georgia to declase the South Ossertia peotion of
Georgia independent. Russia recognizes their independence but
only a few others.

C. Revival of Ethnic Identity
a. Europeans thought ethnicity has been left behind as insignificant relics.
b. Karl Marx wrote that nationalism was a means for dominant social classes
to maintain power over workers and that workers would identify with
other working class people instead of with an ethnicity.
c. Writers and artists were conformed to a style known as socialist
realism, which emphasized Communist values.
d. Ethnic Identity has became more important that nationality.
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e. The Soviet Unior, Yugoslavia, and Czechloslovakia were dismantled
because of minority ethicities opposing the government. (Russians in
Soviet Union, Serbs in Yugoslavia, ans Czechs in Czechloslovakia)
f. They wanted complete nation-states.
III. Why Do Ethnicities Clash?

A. Ethnic Competition to Dominate Nationality
a. Sub-Saharan Africa

1. Ethnic Competition in the Horn of Africa
a. Countries of Djibouti, Ethiopia, Eretrea, and Somalia
- Ethiopia and Eritrea
a. Eritrea became an Italian colony in 1890. Ethiopea was captured
by Italy in the 1930s.
b. After WWII, Ethiopia regained independence and the UN
awarded Eritrea to Ethiopea. They expected that Ethiopia
would let Eritrea govern themselves, but instead, Ethiopea
dissolved the use of their major language, Tigrinya.
c. The Eritreans rebelled in a civil war (30 years).
d. Eritrea won and became an independent country in 1991. There
was then a dispute about the boarder and Ethiopa won that in
e. During the first years of independence, Eritrea experienced a
stron sence of nationality.
f. Even with the loss of Eritrea, Ethiopia remained a complex
multiethnic state. Until the 1990s, it was controlled by
Christian Amharas. The Oromo (Muslim) are the strongest
ethnic group in the South.
- Sudan
a. Several civil wars have been raged since the 1980s between the
Arab north and other thnicities in the east, south, and west.
o South: The Black Cristain South fought a civil war
between 1983 and 2005, which resulted in South Sudan, a
country of its own.
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o West: Black Muslim groups fought against the government
in 2003. The US considers the mass murders and rapes
by the Sudanese troops to be genocide.
o East: Ethnicities fought against the government with the
help of Eritrea because of the profits of oil.
- Somalia
a. Somalia should face fewer conflicts. They are overwhelmingly
Sunni Muslim and speak Somali.
b. The population is divided into clans and when the dictatorship
collapsed in 1991, Several major clans wanted to separate
including the state of Somaliland in the north, Puntland in the
northeast, Galmudug in the center, and Southwestern Somalia in
the south.
c. The US tried to help by sending in troops to protect food
delivery to refugees and women but when peace talks between
the clans collapsed in 1994, the US withdrew.
d. Islamist militias took control over much of the country between
204 and 2006. Eritrea was with them and Ethiopea was against
them. The US also opposed the Islamists, saying that their
leaders are terrorists and lauched an airstrike in 2007 causing
several hundred thousand refugees. Islam withdrew, but then
took control again in 2006.

2. Ethnic Competition in Lebanon
a. Lebonon has 4 milion people in a 4,000 square country.
b. Lebabon has recently been damaged by fighting between ethnic groups
in the 1970s.
c. It is divided by 60% Muslims and 39% Christians. No census has been
taked since 1932.
d. Lebanons diversity appears to be religious instead of ethnic.
e. When Lebanon became independent in 1943, it required each religion to
be present in the Chamber of Deputies. The president was a Maronite
Christian, the premier a Sunni Muslim, the speaker a Shiite Muslim, and
the foreign minister a Greek Orthodox Christian.
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f. Different religion groups live in different regions of the country.
Maronites in the west and east, Sunnies in the northwest and Shiites in
the south and east. During the civil war, each religious group formed
its own militia.

B. Dividing Ethnicities Among More Than One State

1. India and Pakistan
a. When the British ended their rule on the India Subcontinent in 1947,
they divided the colony into two irregularly shaped countries, India and
b. East Pakistan became the independent state of Bangledesh in 1971.
c. The people living in the two areas of Pakistan were primarily Muslim
and the people living in India were primarly Hindu.
d. After Brisish took over India in the 1800s, a thre-way struggle began
with Hindus, Muslims, and the British rulers.
e. When Mahatma Gandhi was assassinated, it ended the abiliy to live
together, peacefully.
f. About 17 million people caught on the wrong side of the religion
boundary were forced to migrate in the 1940s. Both types of refuges
were murdered while migrating.
g. Pakistan and India have never agreed on a boundary location in the
region of Kashmir. Muslims, who compromise a majority, attack the
Indian troops. India blames Pakistan for the unrest and will not give up
Kashmir. Pakistan says the people of Kashmir should vote and Pakistan
feels confident that they will choose to be a part of Pakistan.
h. India also has 25 million Sikhs who are angry that they were not given
a state.

2. Sinhalese and Tamil in Sri Lanka
a. Sri Lanka is home to 2 principle ethnicities, the Sinhalese and Tamil.
They have been in a war between 1983 and 2009.
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b. Sinhalese compromise 82% of the island and migrated from Northern
India to the Southern part of the island in the 5
century. Later, they
were converted to Buddhism.
c. Tamils consist of 14% of the population and migrated across the Palk
Strait to the Northern part of the island in the 3
century. They are
d. When it became independent in 1948, the Sinhalese have dominated
the government and the Tamils feel they suffer from discrimination. A
rebellion began in 1983 with suppot from Tamils living in other
e. After their defeat in 2009, the Tamils fear their ethnic identity. The
Sinhalese leaders made Buddhism the official religion and Sinhala the
official language.

IV. What Is Ethnic Cleansing?
a. Ethnic Cleansning Process in which a more powerful ethnicity forces out a
lesser ethnicity in order to creat a homogenous region
b. Ethnic cleansing has primarily happened in Europe and Africa.

A. Ethnic Cleansing in Europe
a. The largest forced migration came during WWII (1939-1945).
b. When a portion of eastern Germany became part of Poland, the Germans
were forced to migrate out.

1. Creation of Multiethnic Yugoslavia
a. The Balkan Peninsula has been a hotbed of unrest. Northern
portions were claimed by the Austro-Hungarian Empire, southern
porions were ruled by the Ottomans.
b. In June 1914, the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary was
assassinated by a Serb who wanted independence in Bosnia. This
started WWI. After WWI, Yugoslavia was created for the Slavics.
c. Yugoslavia has 7 neighbors, 6 republics, 5 nationalities, 4 languages,
3 religions, 2 alphabets and 1 dinar
Seven neighbors
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a. 3 democracies: Austria, Greece, and Italy
b. 4 communists: Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary, and Romania
Six republics:
a. Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro,
Serbia, and Slovenia.
Five nationalities:
a. Croats, Macedonians, Montenegrens, Serbs, and Slovenians.
Four languages:
a. Croatian, Macedonian, Serbian, and Slevene.
Three religions:
a. Roman Catholic in the North. (Croats and Slovenes)
b. Orthodox in the East. (Serbs and Macedonians)
c. Islam in the South. (Bosnians and Montenegrens)
Two alphebets:
a. Croatian and Slovene were written in the Roman alphabet.
b. Macedonian and Serbian were written in Cyrillic.
c. Serbian and Croation are the same languages, but with
different alphabets.
One dinar:
a. One type of currency kept them united.

2. Destruction of Multiethnic Yugoslavia
a. Rivalries resurfaced in the 1980s when Tito died and the country
went bankrupt.
b. When Yugoslavia was one country, the six republics were fine. But
when the country split into five separate countries, wthnicities
fought to redefine the boundaries.
- Ethnic Cleansing in Bosnia
a. The population of Bosnia & Herzegovnia was 48% Bosnian Muslim,
37% Serb, ad 14% Croat.
b. Bosnian Muslim was considered an ethnicity instead of a
nationality. Rather than live in a country dominated by Muslims,
the Serbs and Croats fought for portions for their own
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c. Serbs and Croats engaged in ethnic cleansing of Bosnian Muslims.
This allowed them to connect with Serbia and Croatia.
d. Bosnia & Herzegovnia was split into three sections, each
dominated by Croats, Muslims, and Serbs. The Bosnian Croat
and Muslim regions formed a federation, but the Serb region
becam independent in everything but its name.
- Ethnic Cleansing in Kosovo
a. After the breakup of Yugoslavia, Serbia remained a multiethnic
b. Serbia was given control of Kosovo when Yugoslavia was created
in the early 12
c. When Yugoslovia broke up, Serbia took control of Kosovo and
used ethnic cleansing to get rid of the Albanian majority.
d. The US and Western European countries were outrage so they
formed the Noth Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and
launched an air attack over Serbia. It ended when Serbia
agreed to withdraw all of its soldiers from Kosovo. Kosovo
became independent in 2008, but only 60 countries recognize its
independence. Russia does not.
- Balkanization
a. Balkanized A small geographic area that could not successfully
be organized into one or more states because it was inhabited by
more than one ethnicities with antagonisms between them
b. Balkanization The process by which a state breaks down
through conflicts among ethnicities

B. Ethnic Cleansing in Central Africa
a. Ethnic cleansing is widespread in Africa because the boundaries do not
math the boundaries of ethnic groups. During the late 19
European countries divided the land with little regard for distribution of
b. The most important unit of African society was the tribe rather than the
state. There are several thousand ethnicities (tribes) with a common
language and religion.
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c. When the European colonies in Africa became independent states in the
1950s, the boundaries typically matched those of the Europeans which
split tribes up.
d. A major conflict exists between the Hutus and Tutsis. The Hutus were
famers in present-day Rwanda and Burundi. The Tutsis were herders who
migrated there 400 years ago. The Tutsis tok control of Rwanda and
made the Hutus their surfs.
e. When Rwanda gained independence in 1962, they were ably to vote and
since they were the majority, they won. Once in power, they killed many
Tutsis. This is ethnic cleansing. The Tutsis who survived launched a
conter attack and took control of Rwanda. Recently, they have been calm.
f. The Democating Republic of Congo has also been in a war. It is thought to
have been the deadliest war since WWII.
g. Tutsis were able to overthrow Congos longtime president, Joseph Mobutu
in 1997. He was wealth from minerals while impoverishing the rest of the
country. After succeeding him, Laurent Kabila relied of the Tutsis and
allowed them to kill some of the Hutus. When Kabila split with the Tutsis,
they supported the rebels and assassinated him in 2001. His son tried to
negotiate a peace with the rebels, but fighting still continues, especially in
the east.