NOME: Igor F.

Carboni Battazza/TURMA:B

RA:096866

CALCULO DIFERENCIAL E INTEGRAL 2 - LISTA 2
Exercicios 8.17
1. u = f (x, y), x = X(t), y = Y (t) e u = F (t).
(a) F (t) = f (x, y) ⇒ F ′(t) = f ′(x, y) = f ′[X(t), Y (t)] = h∇f (X(t), Y (t)), (X ′(t), Y ′(t))i
∂f

∂f

∂f

∂f

∴ F ′(t) = ∂x (X(t), Y (t))X ′(t) + ∂y (X(t), Y (t))Y ′(t) = ∂x X ′(t) + ∂y Y ′(t) 
(b) F ′′(t) =

h

i′
∂f
∂f ′

X
(t)
+
Y
(t)
=
∂x
∂y

= [D1 f (X(t), Y (t))X ′(t) + D2 f (X(t), Y (t))Y ′(t)] ′ =

= [D1 f (X(t), Y (t))X ′(t)] + [D2 f (X(t), Y (t))Y ′(t)] =
= [D1 f (X(t), Y (t))] ′X ′(t) + [D1 f (X(t), Y (t))]X ′′(t) +
+ [D2 f (X(t), Y (t))] ′Y ′(t) + [D2 f (X(t), Y (t))]Y ′′(t)

2.
(a) f (x, y) = x2 + y2, X(t) = t, Y (t) = t2
D1 f (X(t), Y (t)) = 2x = 2X(t) = 2t ⇒ [D1 f (X(t), Y (t))] ′ = 2
D2 f (X(t), Y (t)) = 2y = 2Y (t) = 2t2 ⇒ [D2 f (X(t), Y (t))] ′ = 4t
X ′(t) = 1 ⇒ X ′′(t) = 0
Y ′(t) = 2t ⇒ Y ′′(t) = 2
F ′′(t) = 2 + 2t · 0 + 4t · 2t + 2t2 · 2 = 2 + 8t2 + 4t2 = 12t2 + 2

(b) f (x, y) = exy, X(t) = cos(t), Y (t) = sin(t)
D1 f (X(t), Y (t)) = x ′ y exy = X ′(t)Y (t)eX(t)Y (t) = − sin2(t)esin(t)cos(t) ⇒
⇒ [D1 f (X(t), Y (t))] ′ = x ′′ y 2exy = X ′′(t)Y 2(t)eX(t)Y (t) = − cos(t)sin2(t)esin(t)cos(t)
D2 f (X(t), Y (t)) = y ′x exy = Y ′(t)X(t)eX(t)Y (t) = cos2(t)esin(t)cos(t) ⇒

⇒ [D2 f (X(t), Y (t))] = y ′′x2exy = Y ′′(t)X 2(t)eX(t)Y (t) = − sin(t)cos2(t)esin(t)cos(t)
X ′(t) = − sin(t) ⇒ X ′′(t) = − cos(t)
Y ′(t) = cos(t) ⇒ Y ′′(t) = − sin(t)
F ′′(t) = ( − cos(t)sin2(t)esin(t)cos(t))( − sin(t)) + ( − sin2(t)esin(t)cos(t))( − cos(t)) +
+ ( − sin(t)cos2(t)esin(t)cos(t))(cos(t)) + (cos2(t)esin(t)cos(t))( − sin(t)) =
= sin3(t)cos(t)esin(t)cos(t) + sin2(t)cos(t)esin(t)cos(t) +
− cos2(t)sin(t)esin(t)cos(t) − cos2(t)sin(t)esin(t)cos(t)
F ′′(t) = sin3(t)cos(t)esin(t)cos(t) + sin2(t)cos(t)esin(t)cos(t) − 2sin(t)cos2(t)esin(t)cos(t) = 

= esin(t)cos(t)sin(t)cos(t) sin2(t) + sin(t) − 2
1  

2
1 + ex
(c) f (x, y) = log
, X(t) = et, Y (t) = e−t
y2
1+e

D1 f (X(t), Y (t)) =

2x ex
1+e

D2 f (X(t), Y (t)) = −

2

x2

⇒ [D1 f (X(t), Y (t))] ′ = − 

2y ey

2

2
1 + ey

X ′(t) = et ⇒ X ′′(t) = et

⇒ [D2 f (X(t), Y (t)] ′ = 

4x2e2x
1 + ex

4y 2e2y
1+e

2

2

2

y2 

2 

2

+

4x2ex
1+e

4y 2ey

2

x2

+

2

2
1 + ey

2ex

2

1 + ex
2e y

2

2

1 + ey

2

Y ′(t) = − e−t ⇒ Y ′′(t) = e−t

3.
(a) f (x, y, z) = 3x − 5y + 2z; P0: (2, 2, 1); C: x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 9.

I = ∇g(x, y, z) = 2x i + 2y j + 2z ⇒ |λ|kNI k = λ6 = 1 ⇒ λ = ± 6 ⇒ NI = 3 i + 3 j + 3 k
λN
1

x

y

z

I i = h3i − 5j + 2k, 23 i + 23 j + 13 k i = 2 − 103 + 23 = 4 − 103 + 1 = 53
f ′(P0; N¯ ) = h∇f (P0), N
(b) f (x, y, z) = x2 − y 2; P0: (x, y, z); C: x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 4.

I = ∇g(x, y, z) = 2x i + 2y j + 2z k ⇒ |λ| kNI k = λ6 = 1 ⇒ λ = ± 6 ⇒ NI = 3 i + 3 j + 3 k
λN
1

x

y

z

I ) = h∇f (P0), NI i = h2x i − 2y j , 3 i + 3 j + 3 ki = 3 x2 − 3 y2
f ′(P0; N
x

y

2

z

2

(c) f (x, y, z) = x2 + y 2 − z 2; P0: (3, 4, 5); C: {(x, y, z) ∈ R3: 2x2 + 2y 2 − z 2 = 25} ∩ {(x, y, z) ∈ R3:
x2 + y2 = z 2}
i) C: {(x, y, z) ∈ R3: 2x2 + 2y 2 − z 2 = 25} ∩ {(x, y, z) ∈ R3: x2 + y 2 = z 2} ≡
≡ C: {(x, y, z) ∈ R3: x2 + y 2 = 52};

I = ∇g(x, y, z) = 2x i + 2y j ⇒ |λ| kNI k = 4λ = 1 ⇒ λ = ± 2 ⇒ NI = 2 i + 2 j
ii) λN
1

x

y

I ) = h∇f (P0), NI i = h6i + 8j − 10z k, 2 i + 2 j i = 9 + 16 = 25
iii) f ′(P0; N
x

y

4.
(a) f (x, y, z) =

q
p 
3
x2 + y 2 +
x2 + y 2 − z

V (x, y, z) = ∇f (x, y, z) = D1 f (x, y, z)i + D2 f (x, y, z)j + D3 f (x, y, z)k  

 

p
p
x
y
2
2
3
2
2
3
V (x, y, z) = p 2 2 + 3x (x + y ) i + p 2 2 + 3y (x + y ) j − k
x +y

x +y

(b)
*  +  
0
h
i
0 

 0 , V =  0  · kV k cos(θ) ⇔ − z = z 3 · x2 + y 2 2 + 1 cos(θ) ⇒

z
z  

1
⇒ 3 · (x2 + y 2)2 + 1 cos(θ) = − 1 ⇒ cos(θ) = − 3 · (x2 + y2)2 + 1
lim

(x,y,z)→(0,0,0)

cos(θ) =

lim

(x,y,z)→(0,0,0)

1

− 3 · (x2 + y2) + 1 = − 1

∴ cos(θ) → − 1 ≡ θ → π(1 + 2k), quando (x, y, z) → (0, 0, 0)
2

5. 

eucos(v) = x

eusin(v) = y 

ℓn(eucos(v)) = ℓn(eu) + ℓn(cos(v)) = u + ℓn(cos(v)) = ℓn(x)(I)
ℓn(eusin(v)) = ℓn(eu) + ℓn(sin(v)) = u + ℓn(sin(v)) = ℓn(y) (II)

Subtraindo (I) de (II), obtemos:
y

ℓn(sin(v)) − ℓn(cos(v)) = ℓn(y) − ℓn(x) ⇔ tan(v) = x ⇔ arctan(tan(v)) = v = arctan
y
∴ V (x, y) = arctan x .

y
x

Somando (I) e (II), obtemos:  

y 
xy
y 
cos atan x = 2u + ℓn x2 + y2 = ℓn(x y) ⇔
2u + ℓn(sin(v)cos(v)) = 2u + ℓn sin atan x   

p  

xy
⇔ 2u = ℓn(x y) − ℓn x2 + y2 = ℓn x2 + y 2 ⇔ u = ℓn
x2 + y 2  

p
∴ U (x, y) = ℓn
x2 + y 2 .
h∇U (x, y), ∇V (x, y)i =

6. f (x, y) =
(a)
∂f
∂x

=

∂f
∂y

=


3/2

2|x|

p

p

|x|

p

2|y|

y

x2 +

y2

E
x
x
y
i − x2 + y 2 j , x2 + y 2 i + x2 + y 2 j =

xy
(x2 + y 2)2

xy
(x2 + y 2)2

p
|x y|

p
x |y|

y

D


3/2

|y |

2 x

|x|

2 y

(b)
z = f (x, y) =

p
|x y|

Fazendo x = y, temos:
p
z = f (x, x) = |x2| = |x|

Portanto, ∄f ′(0, 0).

7.
8. f (x, y, z) = x y z = a3; P0: (x0, y0, z0)
π: D1 f (P0)(x − x0) + D2 f (P0)(y − y0) + D3 f (P0)(z − z0) = 0
π: y0z0(x − x0) + x0z0(y − y0) + x0 y0(z − z0) = 0
π: y0z0x + x0z0 y + x0 y0z = 3a3

x
x0

y

z

+y +z =x
0

0

3a3
0 y0z0

=3

Os vertices do tetraedro sao P0: (x0, y0, z0), P1: (0, 0, z0), P2: (0, y0, 0), P3: (x0, 0, 0).
1

V = 3B · H 
x + x 2 
2  z + z 2 4 

0
0
y
+ 30 − y0 + 0 3 0 = 9 · x20 + y02 + z02
H 2 = d(G, P2)2 =
3
 
2

2

2 
x0 x0 0
y0 x 0
z0 0 0
 (y z )2 + (x0z0)2 + (x0 y0)2
1
B 2 = 4 det y0 0 0  + det z0 0 z  + det x0 x 0  = 0 0
4
1 1 1
1 1 1
1 1 1
3

=0 

∴ V 2=

(x y z)2
27 

1
+ 81 y02z04 + x20z04 + y04z02 + x20 y04 + x40 y02 + x40z02 ⇔ V = 9a3/2 

9. S1: f (x, y, z) = x2 + y 2 + 2z 2 = 4; S2: g(x, y, z) = ex−y − z = 0; P : (1, 1, 1).
∇S1 = D1 f (x, y, z)i + D2 f (x, y, z)j + D3 f (x, y, z)k
= 2x i + 2y j + 4z k
∇S2 = D1 g(x, y, z)i + D2 g(x, y, z)j + D3 g(x, y, z)k
= ex− yi + ex− yj − z k
E
π1: OP, ∇S1 = 2x + 2y + 4z = 0
D

D
E
π2: OP, ∇S2 = 2ex− y − z = 0

(

z

x − y = ℓn 2
λ
⇔z = 2 >0 ⇔
x + y + 2z = 0

(

1
ℓn − λ
x − y = ℓnλ
⇔ 2x = ℓnλ − λ ∧ y = λ2
x+y+λ=0

 

 

ℓnλ − λ
1
+
t


 
12 
1+tx


ℓn λ − λ 

Portanto a reta r: 1 + t y ≡ r: 1 + t
.
2


1+tz
1+tλ  

x − y = ℓn2σ
− 4σ − ℓn2σ
Tomando z = 2σ, temos:
⇔ 2x = ℓn2σ − 4σ ∧ y =
2
x + y + 4σ = 0

  

ℓn2σ
1+k


2
 
1 

1+kx


ℓn 2σ − 4σ 



Portanto a reta s: 1 + k y ≡ s:  1 + k
, logo, r e s passam por P e tangenciam
2


1+kz
1 + k(2 σ)
S1 e S2.
10.
Γ1: (x − c)2 + y 2 + z 2 = 2, Γ2: x2 + (y − 1)2 + z 2 = 1
Sejam π1 e π2 os planos tangentes as esferas Γ1 e Γ2, respectivamente e seja ainda,
P : (x0, y0, z0) = Γ1 ∩ Γ2, temos:
i)
π1: hD1Γ1(P )i + D2Γ1(P )j + D3Γ1(P )k, (x − x0) i + (y − y0) j + (z − z0) k i = 0
π1: h(2x0 − 2c)i + 2y0 + 2z0, (x − x0)i + (y − y0)j + (z − z0)k i = 0
π1: (2x0 − 2c)(x − x0) + 2y0(y − y0) + 2z0(z − z0) = 0
π1: x0x + y0 y + z0z − c x + c x0 = x20 + y02 + z02
ii)
π2: hD1Γ2(P )i + D2Γ2(P )j + D3Γ3(P ), (x − x0)i + (y − y0)j + (z − z0)ki = 0
π2: h2x0 i + (2y0 − 2)j + 2z 0 k, (x − x0)i + (y − y0)j + (z − z0)ki = 0
π2 = 2x0(x − x0) + 2(y0 − 1)(y − y0) + 2z0(z − z0) = 0
π2 = x0x + y0 y + z0z − y = x20 + y02 + z02 + y0
4

iii) Portanto, os vetores diretores vI1 e vI2 dos planos π1 e π2, respectivamente, sao
vI1 = (x0 − c)i + y0 j + z0k e vI2 = x0i + (y0 − 1)j + z0k
Para que vI1⊥vI2 e suficiente que satisfaca a condicao abaixo:
hvI1, vI2i = 0 ⇔ x0(x0 − c) + y0(y0 − 1) + z02 = 0 ⇔ c =
x2

11. Seja E: a2 +

y2
b2

x20 + y0(y0 − 1) + z02
x0

= 1, fazendo rI1 = F P e rI2 = F ′P , com P : (x, y), F : (c, 0) e F ′: ( − c, 0).

Portanto,
F P + F ′P = rI1 + rI2 = 2a (1)
cte.

Vamos calcular o vetor gradiente da elipse E em P0: (x0, y0):
∇E[P0] = D1E[P0]i + D2E[P0]j
=

2x0
2y
i + b20 j
a2

I , tangente a elipse E, e’ dado por:
O vetor T
E
D
I = ∇E[P0], P0P = xa02x i + yb02y j, kTI k = 1. (2)
T

Logo, de (2) e (1), obtemos que

D
E D
E
I i = ∇(2a), TI = 0, TI = 0.
h∇(rI1 + rI2), T 

12. ∇f (x, y, z)//x i + y j + z k ⇒ ∇f (x, y, z) = λx i + λy j + λz k
∇f (0, 0, a) = D1 f (0, 0, a)i + D2 f (0, 0, a)j + D3 f (0, 0, a)k = λz k
∇f (0, 0, − a) = D1 f (0, 0, − a)i + D2 f (0, 0, − a)j + D3 f (0, 0, − a)k = − λz k
∴ ∇f (0, 0, a) − ∇f (0, 0, − a) = D1[f (0, 0, a) − f (0, 0, − a)]i +  = 0i + 
Portanto,
D1[f (0, 0, a) − f (0, 0, − a)] = 0, entao:
f (0, 0, a) − f (0, 0, − a) = t (1)
Novamente:
∇f (0, 0, a) − ∇f (0, 0, − a) =  + D3[f (0, 0, a) − f (0, 0, − a)]k +  =  + 2λz k
E com o mesmo argumento, temos que
f (0, 0, a) − f (0, 0, − a) = λz 2 (2)
De (1) e (2) obtemos λz 2 = t, para todo z ∈ D f , portanto t = 0 e dai:
f (0, 0, a) = f (0, 0, − a)

5 

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