ARCHITECTURAL DRAWING

INFORMATION
ARCHITECTURAL SYMBOLS
The drawing of an architectural working drawing requires a knowledge of the sym-
bols and terms commonly used in the design and construction industry. All architectural
working drawings must communicate in a clear and concise manner to the builders.
In order to simplify the details on a drawing and to speed drawing time it is neces-
sary to use architectural symbols. Many symbols are designed to approximate the ap-
'pearance of an item, or the material from which it is constructed (Fig. 1 ). Some
symbols however, may have no graphic resemblance to the material or item that they
are to represent (fig. 2 ).
riel

Fig. 1 Some architectural symbols are similar
to the item they represent
Fig. 2 Some architectural symbols have no
similarity to the item they represent
SYMBOL CONVENTIONS
The American Institute of Architect (AlA) and the American National Standard In-
stitute (ANSI) have each set standard conventions for architectural symbols. Since
many new and different types ,of construction materials, appliances and fixtures are con-
tinually being developed and IJsed in construction, many architectural drafters will use
symbols of their own design and show their meaning in a legend or symbol chart on the
drawing. While there are some different symbols being used, there is an overall accep-
tance of the AlA and ANSI symbol conventions.
As a general rule when a symbol is not clear or a new type of material is to be noted
on a drawing, a notation should be used with the symbol (Rg. 3 ,). This Will clarify the
communication to the builders. It must be remembered that architectural working draw-
ings must be read by many persons in the building trades. Everything must be clear so
no guess work will be involved with the design, ordering of materials or construction
phases.
z:
Rg. 3 For clarity, if it is needed,
I use a notation with the symbol
DOUBLE THERMAL PANES
RULES FOR DRAWING SYMBOLS
1. Always use drawing instruments. Never draw the symbols freehand on a working
drawing. Use anarchitectural drawing template to increase the speed and clarity of the
symbols (Fig. 4 ). Be certain that the template figures are the same scale as your
drawing's scale.
2. The location of the symbol on the working drawing is closely approximated. If an
exact location is required, dimensions must be added to the symbol on the drawing
(Fig. 5 ).
3, Symbols are not drawn to the exact size of the actual item. The general size of the
architectural symbols will vary with the scale of the drawing. The symbol should be of
convenient reading size, It should 110t be too small or large (Fig. 6).
4. Material symbols need not cover the full surface as shown in figure 7
Repetitious drawing symbols need not be completely drawn.
5. Have references for architectural symbols available.
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Fig. 4 Use an architectural template
for the drawing of symbols
Fig. 5 Add dimensions if exact
locations are required
SCALE TOO
GOOD
SMALL
SCALE
SCALE TOO
LARGE
CEDAR SHINGLES
'1,6' VERTICAL SIDING
Fig.. 7
Symbols for surface cover materials
need not cover the entire surface
Fig. 6·
Good symbol proportions are important
for architectural working drawings
ARCHITECTURAL DRAWJNG 
INFORMATION SHEET 
PLUMBING SYMBOLS
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WINDOW SYMBOLS 
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DOOR SYMBOLS   °
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ARCHITECTURAL 
VARIOUS ARCHITECTURAL SYMBOLS  
Abbreviation, plan  symbol, elevation  and  pictorial 
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BUILDING MATERIAL SYMBOLS: 
SECTION SECTION SECTION SECTION
NAME ABBRV SYMBOL ELEVATION NA"'E ABBRV SYMBOL ELEVATiON NAME ABBRV SYMBOL ELEVATION NAME ABBRV SYMBOL ELEVATION
COM CUT STONE, CTSTN COMMON WELDED WWM EARTH
BRK ASHLAR ASH BRICK WIRE MESH
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FC CUT STONE, CT STN FACE
ROCK FAB RK FABRIC
BRK BRICK


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COMP GRAVEL COMPOSITION GV GL GLASS '.
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INSULATION
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QUILT
LIMESTONE LM ST CONCRETE CONC FRST FROSTED
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CERAMIC CEMENT CEM SND SOUND
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STEEL STl TILE LId I[:.;::<\:>'ili INSULATION. INS

CRK TERAZZO TER TERRA-COTTA CORK
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CST IR CAST IRON CONCRETE CONC TILE INS INSULATION
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BlK '1:: :10'1':   BLOCK CLAY TilE Cl TL WL BRZ WALL .:' .•.:.';:J..i:.;J. BRONZE
m'!rnHE

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")LlANCE AND  FIXTURE  SYMBOLS  
DOOR SYMBOLS 
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NAME  ABBRV   SECTION  ELEVATION  PICTORIAL  NAME  ABBRV  SECTION  ELEVATION  PICTORIAL 
SYMBOL  .  SYMBOL 
NAME  ABBRV   SECTION  ELEVATION  PICTORIAL  NAME  ABBRV  .  SECTION  ELEVATION  PICTORIAL 
SYMBOL  SYMBOL  AWN  •
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HINGED DOOR
HOUOWCOllE
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EXTERIOR
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SANITATION  FACILITY SYMBOLS  
WINDOW SYMBOLS 
NAME  ABBRV   SECTION  ELEVATION  PICTORIAL
NAME  ABBRV  SECTION  ELEVATION  PICTORIAL   NAME  ABBRV  SECTION  ELEVATION  PICTORIAL  NAME  ABBRV  SECTION  ELEVATION  PICTORIAL
SYMBOL
SYMBOL   SYMBOL  SYMBOL 
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ARCHITECTURAL DRAWING
INFORMATION SHEET
FLOOR-PLAN DIMENSIONING
Dimensions show the builder the width and length of the building. Dimensioning
architectural drawings differ from dimensioning mechanical drawings in many ways.
The DIMENSIONING system most commonly used in architectural drafting is known
as aligned dimensioning. With this system, dimensions are placed in line with the
dimension lines and are read from the bottom or right side of the sheet. Dimension
numerals are centered on and placed above the solid dimension lines:
41'_0"
15'-0.
"
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BASEMENT F-LOOQ. PLAN
ALIGNED DIMENSIONING ON A FLOOR PLAN
RULES  FOR  DIMENSIONING  
1. Architectural dimension lines are unbroken lines with dimensions placed above the line.
2. In drawing plans, feet and inch marks may be omitted as a general rule, (Do not omit dash).
a. Dimensions over l' are expressed in feet and inches.
b. Dimensions less than l' are shown in inches.
3. A slash is often used with fractional dimensions to conserve vertical space.
4. Dimensions should be placed to read from the right or from the bottom of the drawing.
5. You should place dimensions so that the drawing does not appear crowded.
a. Space dimension fines a minimum of 3/8" from the object and from each other.
b. If there is room, it is preferred to start the first dimension line 1/2" from the plan.
6. Be consistent  so that dimension lines are evenly spaced (regardless of distance chosen).
7. Dimension lines terminate at the extension lines with dots, arrowheads, or slash marks.
8. Dimension numerals are drawn 1/8" high with the aid of guidelines.
9. Line and arrowhead weights are the same as those used in dimensioning mechanical drawings.
10. Overall building dimension are placed outside the other dimension Jines.
a. The first line of dimensions on the plan is the smallest distance from the exterior wall the
the center of windows, doors and partition (interior) wails.
b. The second lines of dimensions generally gives the distance from the outside walls to the
partition (interior) walls.
c. The third fine of dimensions is usually the overall distance between the two exterior walls.
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17'-0
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.,- INTERIOR 1
SP/lDE DEPENDS !
EXTENSION
UPON ,iWlIILABLE
LINES, TO I
,900fVI 3/8" TO 1" CENTER OF
FEATURE -".,
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,-- .,\PPRO)(IIV1ATELY 1/8"
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EXTERIOR EXTENSIOf\1 L1II JE,
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ASSUMED TO OUTSiDE
FACE OF STUDS
DIMENSION  LINE  SPACING  
11. Room sizes maybeshown bystatingwidthand length.
12. Whenan areato be dimensioned is too small forthe numerals, theyareplacedoutsidethe
extension lines.
13. Windowand doorsizes maybe shown directlyon the doororwindowsymbol ormaybe indexed
to adoororwirldowscheduIe.
14. Curved leadersare sometimesused to eliminateconfusionwith otherdimension lines.
15. Whenan area is too small foran arrowhead, dots maybe used to indicatethe dimension limits.
16. Whenthe space is small, arrowheadsmaybe placed outsidetheextension lines.
17. Adotwith aleaderreferstothe largeareanoted.
18. Dimensionsthatcannot be seen on thefloorplan orthosetoo small to placeon the objectare
placed on leadersforeasierreading.
19. In dimensioning stairs, the numberofrisers is placed on a linewith an arrowindicatingthe
direction(upordown).
20. Windows, doors, pilasters, beams andareaways aredimensionedto theircenterlines.
21. Use abbreviationswhensymbols donotshowclearlywhatis intended.
22. Sub-dimensionsmust add uptooverall dimensions (14'-0" +12'-0"=26'-0").
23. Architectural dimensionsalways referto theactual sizeofthe buildingregardless ofthe scaleof
the drawing.
24. Aligned dimensionsare placed in alignmentwith an angledwall orfeature.
OPEN ARROWHEADS
CLOSED ARROWHEADS
PERPENDICULAR LINES
SLASH LINES
..... TRIANGLES
v
CIRCLES
..... "-
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v
DOOR CENTERED
IN HALLWAY, ASSUMED

3"MINIMUM II
-------r!'-
i\illNIMUM DISTANCE
DOOR TO WALL ASSUMED
I
DIFFERENT STYLES OF
ARROWHEADS
  LINE CURVED FREEHAND OR
WITH IRREGULAR CURVE, OR STRAIGHT.
CENTER AT BEGINNING OR END OF NOTE.
TERMINATE WITH ARROWHEAD.
36"*
COMMON SIZES OF ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES  
1.  Base  cabinets generally are  not dimensioned  as  they are typically 24" deep. 
2.  Closet poles  are generally 15" from the  back wall and  are  dashed  lines. 
3.  Closet shelves are solid  lines  12" from the  back wall. 
4.  Room  components:  
-exterior walls:  6"  
-exterior unheated walls  (garage,  shop):  4"  
-Interior:  4"  
-Interior plumbing wall  (ie.. toilet):  6"  
-Hallway:  36"  minimum wide  
-entry  hallways:  42 - 60"  
-bedroom  closets:  24"  minimum  depth;  48"  length  
-linen  closets:  14-24" deep  (not over 3D")  
-Washer/dryer space:  36"  deep;  5'-6"  long  minimum  
-Stairways:  36"  minimum wide;  10.5" tread(typical);  11 '-4"  total  run  
5.  Plumbing: 
-Bathroom  sink:  19" x  16"  (oval);  provide 9"  from  edge to wall  and  about  12"  between  two  sinks;  36" 
minimum  length 
-Kitchen  sink:  32"  x 21" for a  double,  42"  x 21" for a triple 
-Laundry  sink:  21"  x 21" 
-Shower:  36"  square;  42"  square;  or a combination  of 36",  42",  48"  and  60"  for fiberglass;  any size  for 
ceramic tile 
-Toilet space:  30" wide (minimum),  24"  clearance in  front  
- Washer/Dryer:  2'-4"  square (approXimately)  
6. Appliances: 
-Forced  air unit:  gas- 18"  square (minimum) with 6"  space all  around  (can  NOT go under the stairs) ; 
electric- 24" x  30"  (same space  reqUirements  as  gas) 
- Water heater:  gas- 18-24" diameter (can  NOT go  under the stairs) 
-Refrigerator:  36" wide space;  approximately 27-30"  deep;  4"  from  wall,  4"  from the base cabinet. 
-Stove/cooktop:  30"  x 21"  deep 
-Built-in  oven:  27" x 24"  deep 
-Dishwasher:  24"  x 24" 
-Trash  compactor:  15" x 24"  deep;  near sink,  away from  stove 
-Broom/pantry:  12"  minimum x  24"  deep,  increasing  by 3"  increments 
-Desk:  30" x 24"  deep  (minimum);  not within the work triangle  
-Built-in  vacuum:  24" x 30" diameter  
7. Doors: 
-Entry:  36"  x 6'_8";  42" x  8'-0" 
-Slider or French:  5',  6',  8'  (double);  9',  10' (triple);  12' (four panel) 
-Garage,  utility,  kitchen  and  bedrooms on  custom  houses:  2'-8" 
-Bedrooms  and  bathrooms of nice homes:  2'-6" 
-Bathroom closets:  2'-4"  
-Garage:  8' x  1', 9' x 8',  16' x  l' and  18' x  l'  
8.  Windows:  
- Living,  family:  8'  - 10'  
-Dining:  6'  - 8'  
-Bedrooms:  4'  - 6'  
-Kitchens:  3'  - 5'  
-Bathrooms:  2'  - 3'  
-Sliding:  4',  5'  6'  8'  10'  12'  
-Single hung:  24",  30",  36"  42"  
-Casement:  same as  sliding  
-Fixed  awning:  24",  30",  36"  42",  48"  
-Fixed  sliding:  24",  30",  36"  42",  48"  
-Picture:  4',  5',  6',  8'  
-Bay:  8'  - 10' total;  sides- 18-24" wide  
SOME  METHODS OF  DIMENSIONING FLOOR PLANS 
,.  Method  B is  preferred  for this  class  (deviation will  require teacher approval) 
A
B·  
*/n summary, a floor plan must be completely dimensioned to ensure that
the house will be constructed precisely as designed. Many construction
mistakes result from errors in architectural drawing, and most of those
errors are in dimensioning! One of the best ways to learn how
experienced drafters layout dimensions is to study and evaluate existing
plans.
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--

NAME  _  ARCHITECTURAL DRAWING 
WORKSHEET: MEASUREMENT
MEASURING A  FLOOR PLAN  
MAKE  ALL  MEASUREMENTS  WITH  SCALE:  1/4"= 1'-0".
SUB  DIMENSIONS  MUST  TOTAL  CORRECTLY. 
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