FERMENTED VEGETABLES

This is a sampling of pages from
© 2014 by Kirsten Shockey and Christopher Shockey
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Photography by © Erin Kunkel
Illustrations by © Daniel Everett
Why We Ferment, 11
PART 1
Dipping into the Brine
FERMENTATION FUNDAMENTALS
— 14 —
CHAPTER 1 Back to the Future: Vegetable Fermentation as Preservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
CHAPTER 2 The Inner Life of Pickling: The Science behind Vegetable
Fermentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
CHAPTER 3 Crocks and Rocks: The Tools of the Trade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
PART 2
Mastering the Basics
KRAUT, CONDIMENTS, PICKLES, AND KIMCHI
— 48 —
CHAPTER 4 Mastering Sauerkraut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
CHAPTER 5 Mastering Condiments: Variations on Kraut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
CHAPTER 6 Mastering Brine Pickling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
CHAPTER 7 Mastering Kimchi Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
CHAPTER 8 Practical Matters: Storage and Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
PART 3
In the Crock
FERMENTING VEGETABLES A TO Z
— 102 —
Garden Vegetables and Herbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Arugula, 109
Asparagus, 110
Basil, 113
Beans, Green, 116
Beets, 119
Broccoli, 127
Brussels Sprouts, 127
Burdock (Gobo), 129
Cabbage, Green and Savoy, 131
Cabbage, Napa or Chinese, 140
Cabbage, Red, 147
Carrots, 148
Caulifower, 151
Celeriac, 156
Celery, 158
Chard, 160
Cilantro (Coriander), 160
Collard Greens, 163
Corn, 165
Cucumbers, 166
Eggplant, 174
Escarole, 176
Fennel, 178
Garlic, 180
Garlic Scapes, 183
Grape Leaves, 184
Horseradish, 185
Jicama, 187
Kohlrabi, 189
Leeks, 191
Mushrooms, 193
Mustard Greens, 195
Okahijiki Greens (Saltwort), 197
Okra, 199
Onions, 201
Pak Choi (Bok Choy), 205
Parsley, 206
Parsnips, 208
Peas, 210
Peppers, 212
Radicchio, 218
Radishes, 219
Rapini (Broccoli Rabe), 222
Rhubarb, 223
Rutabaga, 225
Scallions (Green Onions), 226
Shiso, 228
Spinach, 233
Sunchokes, 236
Sweet Potatoes, 237
Tomatillos, 240
Tomatoes, 241
Turmeric, 243
Turnips, 245
Winter Squash, 248
Zucchini and Other Summer
Squash, 252
Foraged Vegetables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
Dandelion Flowers, Leaves, and Roots, 259
Lamb’s-Quarters, 261
Nettles, 263
Ramps, 264
Watercress, 265
Fruits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
Apples, 267
Citrus Fruits, 270
Cranberries, 273
PART 4
On the Plate
— 276 —
CHAPTER 9 Breakfast: Culture for the Gutsy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .281
CHAPTER 10 Snacks: A Pickle a Day Keeps the Doctor Away . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
CHAPTER 11 Lunch: Ferments on the Go . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
CHAPTER 12 Happy Hour: Crocktails . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
CHAPTER 13 Dinner: Brine and Dine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329
CHAPTER 14 Dessert: Really? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .349
Appendix: Scum — The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly, 356
Resources, 360
Bibliography, 363
Acknowledgments, 366
Index, 367
So You Want to Ferment without Salt?
Any serious fermentista will encounter salt-phobic people who try to make salt-free sauerkraut or want
to convince you to do the same. There are certainly a lot of recipes out there on the Web; some require
a blender, some use seaweed or celery seeds in place of salt. With care and luck, fermentation can be
accomplished without the salt, and some people do so successfully. Expect these ferments to be softer and
at times mushy.
But why not use salt in your ferments? Our bodies need salt anyway. Without it we die. A study pub-
lished in the American Journal of Medicine in 2006 reads, “Sodium intake of less than 2300 mg [the daily
recommended allowance] was associated with a 37% increase in cardiovascular disease mortality and a
28% increase of all-cause mortality.” In other words, without the correct balance of salt and water, the
systems in our body stop functioning. As with most things, common sense and balance are key.
RELISHES/CHUTNEYS/SALSAS/SALADS VISUAL GUIDE
2. Work in the salt. 1. Thinly slice the vegetables.
3. Cover the vegetables and set aside to allow brine to
develop.
4. Press the vegetables under the brine.
MASTERING CONDIMENTS 67
RELISHES/CHUTNEYS/SALSAS/SALADS VISUAL GUIDE
6. Ready for long-term storage, with a piece of waxed
paper in place to impede evaporation.
5. Submerged and weighted = healthy environment for
fermentation.
68 MASTERING THE BASICS
1. Chop or pulse the veggies to a fine consistency.
3. Place a ziplock bag on the surface of the ferment,
and fill the bag to the jar rim with water to create
weight.
2. Press the paste to remove air pockets and bring brine
to the surface.
4. Ready for long-term storage, with a piece of waxed
paper in place to impede evaporation.
PASTES AND BASES VISUAL GUIDE
MASTERING CONDIMENTS 71
WHOLE-LEAF FERMENTS VISUAL GUIDE
1. Fresh leaves before salt is added. 2. Leaves wilted by salt.
The Taste Test: Navigating through the Scum to the Kraut on the Other Side
When it’s time to taste-test your ferment, be warned: there may be scum, blooms of yeasts, or molds on top
of your followers, or even on your ferment. Take your time and follow these directions.
1. Remove the weight.
2. Wipe the insides of your jar or crock with a clean towel carefully so as not to disturb the fer-
ment or the scum.
3. Gently remove the follower. There is often sediment on top of the follower; try not to disturb
it too much.
4. You will be looking at the primary follower; if it is leaves, lift them out carefully, collecting
any stray floating vegetable bits in with them; discard. If it is plastic wrap and there is brine
on top, ladle out any extra floating vegetable bits. Pull out the plastic wrap, folding it over
to catch any sediment (this sediment is not harmful but may impart a flavor).
5. If the ferment is completely under the brine, it will be good. If the brine level is low and
close to the surface of the ferment, there may be some soft or off-color areas; simply
remove these parts. The ferment underneath will be fine and ready to taste.
MASTERING CONDIMENTS 73
SEASONINGS
You can make simple savory seasonings by dehydrating fermented veggies and grinding them in a blender.
When the brine is evaporated, you are left with the original salt and the concentrated flavor of the vegetable.
For example, the Simple Beet Kraut pictured below (page 120) makes a lovely deep pink tangy spice, which
is not only stunning sprinkled on top of a salad but also delicious. If you don’t eat it too quickly, dehydrate
your kimchi for instant kimchi spice. Many a ferment can make a perfect seasoning dehydrated as is.
Some ferments are fun to jazz up even more with other herbs and spices, or even sesame seeds, like Shiso
Gomashio (page 229). And these seasonings are shelf stable, so they can live and probiotically season your
food straight from the cabinet for months. Dehydrating can also be a strategy for clearing out older krauts
from the fridge when you are ready to make more. To make seasonings:
1. Drain the brine from the ferment by letting it sit in a strainer over a bowl for 30 minutes, or
by putting it in cheesecloth and actively squeezing out the juice. You want to get the loose
drippy moisture out; you don’t need to squeeze it completely dry.
3. Spread the ferment out on a tray or baking sheet and dry for 8 to 10 hours or overnight in a
dehydrator at 100°F.
3. Shelf life for dried krauts is 6 months at room temperature. The lower the temperature, the
longer the shelf life (for example, 60°F increases viability to 12 to 18 months). Refrigerate
or freeze in airtight containers for long-term storage.
MASTERING CONDIMENTS 75
NAKED KRAUT, page 132
SWEET PEPPER SALSA,
page 215
PICKLED GARLIC SCAPES,
page 184
ONION AND PEPPER
RELISH (made with
habanero), page 203
FENNEL CHUTNEY,
page 178
SIMPLE BEET KRAUT,
page 120
CHIPOTLE SQUASH
KRAUT, page 249
FERMENTED SHISO
LEAVES, page 228
GADO GADO SCHMEAR,
page 284
HERB SCHMEAR,
page 282
KRAUTCHEESE,
page 284
SMOKY KRAUT QUICHE
KRAUT BALLS
BACON-WRAPPED DOG
FISH TACOS, page 309
SUSHI-NORIMAKI
KIMCHI LATKES, page 335
GRILLED CHICKEN WITH
FERMENTED SWEET POTATOES
AND PEANUT SAUCE

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