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SUBMITTED TO:SUBMITTED BY:Mr. PANKAJ SHRIVASTAV P.S .BHADORIYA RANJEET
HOD OF E&C DEPT. (0904EC061088) SRCEM,GWALIOR SRCEM,GWALIOR
Words often fail to express one’s feeling towards others, still I express my sincere gratitude to Shri. S.K.SHARMA, Assistant Station Engineer DOORDARSHAN KENDRA GWALIORfor his valuable guidance without which it would have been difficult for me to complete my training. I also express my gratitude to Shri. A.K.GUPTA and Shri NIGLEKARJI, who helped me a lot in understanding the various processes and concepts involved. It was really a great experience working in the DD Kendra and learning from such experienced engineers with hands on experience on the subject.
RANJEET PRATAP SINGH BHADORIYA
(0904EC 061088) SRCEM,GWALIOR
SHRIRAM COLLEGE OF ENGG. & MGMT., GWALIOR DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Session - 2009 CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that Ranjeet pratap singh bhadoriya, student of IVth Year VIIth Sem. Pursuing Degree in electronics & communicqtion completed Engineering of this Institute has satisfactory Training in “DOORDARSHAN
KENDRA,GWALIOR” and he submitted the Training report
as a partial fulfillment for the award of Degree in electronics & communicqtion Engineering.
As prescribed by Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya (University of Technology of Madhya Pradesh), Bhopal.
Under the Guidance of:
Dr. ASHOK GUPTA SHRIVASTAV
Director communication engg. Shriram college of engg. & mgmt. & mgmt. Gwalior (M.P.) (M.P.)
HOD of Electronics & Shriram college of engg. Gwalior
The Doordarshan Kendra Gwalior
Doordarshan Kendra Gwalior is part of the DD India, the largest televisionnetwork in the world. Doordarshan with over 5 high power Terrestrial Transmitters,62 low power,5 very low power transmitter and 3 production centers serve M.P. Inaugurated on 28th may 2000 by the then broadcast minister mr. ARUN JATELY. Doordarshan Kendra gwalior currently produces and telecasts 168 hrs of local programmes per week.Now more than 85 per cent of the 60,385,118 populations of M.P., With the introduction of DTH almost cent percent of the population can now receive DDK Gwalior programmes without cable connection. Doordarshan studios have been established at Gwalior, Bhopal and Indore to foster regional diversity. People all over India are watching Doordarshan’s programmes. It is also received in 64 countries spread over the continents of Asia, Africa, Europe, Australia and America.
TV Scenario in M.P. As per the 2001 census there are 60,385,118(5.5 million) house holds in M.P., 74.9 per cent of them are in the rural sector (44,42550) the remaining 25.1 per cent (13,52656) are in the urban sector. In 2001, 38.8 per cent of the households owned TV sets . Of these 62.3 per cent were in rural areas and the remaining 37.7 per cent in urban areas. Even if we estimate 10 – 15 per cent growth per annum. Of these estimated 3 million TV households 40 – 45 per cent is estimated to have cable connection i.e., 1.3 million and the remaining 1.7 million are without cable connection, and totally depend on DDK Bhopal for their TV viewing. The introduction of DTH, DD Direct Plus has considerably increased DD viewership in MP. From the available sales estimates of set top boxes and receivers it is estimated that MP has 3 to 4 lakh DTH households.
TECHNICAL INFORMATION OF TRANSMITTING FACILITIES AT DDK, GWALIOR:-Doordarshan Kendra,
Gwalior is equipped with studio, two terrestrial transmitters and one digital up-link station. The two terrestrial transmitters are of 10 KW power each. One is for DD-National and the other is for DD-News telecasting. TERRESTRIAL TRANSMITTER PARAMETERS: DD-NEWS :CH #31 (VHF-Band-III) Pictures IF: 551.25 MHz, Sound IF: 556.75 MHz
DOWNLINK PARAMETERS OF DD-NEWS SATELLITE PROGRAMMES
Latitude Co-ordinates Longitude Co-ordinates Main Sea Level Antenna Hight Effective height of the antenna above sea level Peak power (Both DD-I & DD-II) Black power 23 14’25” ( North ) 77 23’20” ( East) 300 Mtrs. 100 Mtrs. 400 Mtrs. 10 KW each 06 KW each
Antenna gainArt Direction
8 Db wide band, Jampro Antenna.
FREQUENCY OF OPERATION
Band Band Channel Video carrier Audio carrier DD-II III 31(.) 551.25 MHz 556.75 MHz
FUNDAMENTAL OF MONOCHROME AND COLOUR TV SYSTEM:Picture formation:A picture can be considered to contain a number of small elementary areas of light or shade which are called PICTURE ELEMENTS. The elements thus contain the visual image of the scene. In the case of a TV camera the scene is focused on the photosensitive surface of pick up device and a optical image is formed. The photoelectric properties of the pick up device convert the optical image to a electric charge image depending on the light and shade of the scene (picture elements). Now it is necessary to pick up this information and transmit it. For this purpose scanning is employed. Electron beam scans the charge image and produces optical image. The electron beam scans the image line by line and field by field to provide signal variations in a successive order. The scanning is simultaneously. both in horizontal and vertical direction
The horizontal scanning frequency is 15,625 Hertz. The vertical scanning frequency is 50 Hz.
The frame is divided in two fields. Odd lines are scanned first and then the even lines. The odd and even lines are interlaced. Since the frame is divided into 2 fields the flicker reduces. The field rate is 50 Hertz. The frame rate is 25 Hertz (Field rate is the same as power supply frequency).
Number of TV Lines per Frame:If the number of TV lines is high larger bandwidth of video and hence larger R.F. channel width is required. If we go for larger RF channel width the number of channels in the R.F. spectrum will be reduced. However, with more no. of TV lines on the screen the clarity of the picture i.e. resolution improves. With lesser number of TV lines per frame the clarity (quality) is poor. The capability of the system to resolve maximum number of picture elements along scanning lines determines the horizontal resolution. It means how many alternate black and white elements can be there in a line. Let us also take another factor. It is realistic to aim at equal vertical and horizontal resolution. Therefore, the number of alternate black and white dots on line can be 575 x 0.69 x 4/3 which is equal to 528. It means there are 528 divided by 2 cyclic changes i.e. 264 cycles. These 264 cycles are there during 52 micro seconds. Hence the highest frequency is 5 MHz.
fhighest = 264 × 10 6 52 = 5 MHz
Therefore the horizontal resolution of the system is 5 MHz.A similar calculation for 525 lines system limits the highest
frequency to 4 MHz and hence the horizontal resolution of same value. In view of the above the horizontal bandwidth of signal in 625 lines system is 5 MHz.
The PAL Colour Television System:The Colour Television:It is possible to obtain any desired colour by mixing three primary colours i.e. Red, Blue and green in a suitable proportion. Additive Colour Mixing
The figure 10 shows the effect of projecting red, green, blue beams of light so that they overlap on screen.
0.3 Red + 0.59 Green + 0.11 Blue
Fig. 10 Additive Colour Mixing
The Colour Television
It is possible to obtain any desired colour by mixing three primary colours i.e., red, blue and green in suitable proportion. Thus it is only required to convert optical information of these three colours to electrical signals and transmit it on different carriers to be decoded by the receiver. This can then be converted back to the optical image at the picture tube. The phosphors for all the three colours i.e. R, G and B are easily available to the manufacturers of the picture tube. So the pick up from the cameras and output for the picture tube should consists of three signals i.e. R, G and B. It is only in between the camera and the picture tube of the receiver we need a system to transmit this information.
Colour television has the constraint of compatibility and reverse compatibility with the monochrome television system which makes it slightly complicated. Compatibility means that when colour TV signal is radiated the monochrome TV sets should also display Black & White pictures. This is achieved by sending Y as monochrome information along with the chroma signal. Y is obtained by mixing R,G & B as per the well known equation :
0.3 R + 0.59 G + 0.11 B
Reverse compatibility means that when Black & White TV signal is radiated the colour TV sets should display the Black & White pictures.
If we transmit R, G, B, the reverse compatibility cannot be achieved. Let us see how :
If we transmit Y, R & B and derive G then : Since G Y = = 0.3R + 0.59G + 0.11 B
1.7Y - 0.51 R - 0.19 B
In such a case what happens with a colour TV set when we transmit black and white signal. R and B are zero, but G gun gets 1.7 Y. The net result is black & white pictures on a colour TV screen appear as Green pictures. So reverse compatibility is not achieved.
Colour Difference Signals
To achieve reverse compatibility, when we transmit Y, R-Y and B-Y instead of Y, R & B, we do not take G-Y as this will always be much lower than R-Y and B-Y and hence will needs more amplification and will cause more noise into the system. G-Y can be derived electronically in the TV receiver. In the previous paragraph we have seen G So = 1.7 Y - 0.51 R - 0.19 B -0.51 (R-Y) - 0.19 (B-Y)
Thus, colour difference signals fulfill the compatibility and reverse compatibility. Because in this case the colour difference signals are zero if the original signal is monochrome (i.e. R = B = G) So if we take R - Y R - Y = R - (0.3 R + 0.59 R + 0.11 R) = 0 Similarly B - Y = 0 As such colour difference signals are zero for white or any shade of gray whereas, Y carries the entire Luminance information. It is to be noted while R, G, B signals always have positive value R-Y, B-Y and G-Y signals can either be positive or negative or even zero. The R-Y and B - Y chrominance signals may be recovered at the television receiver by suitable synchronous demodulation. But sub-carrier is to be generated by a local oscillator. This generated sub-carrier in the receiver must have same frequency as that of transmitted sub-carrier and also the same phase. This is achieved by transmitting 10 cycles of sub-carrier frequency on the back porch of H synchronizing pulse. This 10 cycles subcarrier signal is known as BURST or colour BURST.
VIDEO CHAIN IN A TYPICAL DOORDARSHAN STUDIO:STUDIO CENTRE
A Studio centre of Doordarshan has the following objectives:
To originate programmes from studios either for live telecast or for recording on a video tape. 2) To knit various other sources of programs available at the production desk i.e., camera output from studios, feed from other kendras, outdoor, playback from pre recorded tape, film based programs slides, video graphics and characters generator etc. This knitting or live editing includes generation of special effects and desired transitions between various sources. 3) Processing/distribution of different sources to various destinations in technical areas. 4) Routing of mixed programme for recording/transmission via master switching room and Micro Wave to the transmitter or any other desired destinations.
Activities in a television studio can be divided into three major areas such as :
1) Action area, 2) Production control room, and 3) Central apparatus room,
This place requires large space and ceiling as compared to any other technical area. Action in this area includes staging, lighting, performance by artists, and arrangement to pick up picture and sound. Hardware required for these activities in a studio (typical size 20 x20x8.5 cubic meters) are:
1. Very efficient air conditioning because of lot of heat dissipation by studio light and presence of large number of persons including invited audience performing artists and operational crew.
2. Uniform and even flooring for smooth operation of camera dollies and boom microphone etc. 3. Acoustic treatment Keeping in mind that a television studio is a multi purpose studio with lot of moving person and equipment during a production. Supporting facilities like properties, wardrobe, and makeup etc. 5. Effective communication facilities for the floor crew with the production control area. 6. Studio cameras (three to four) with one of the cameras fitted with teleprompter system and pressure dolly. 7. Luminaires and suspension system having grids or battens (hand/motorised operation). 8. Pick up wall sockets for audio operations.
9. Tie lines box for video and audio lines from control room 10.Cyclorama and curtain tracks for blue and black curtain for chroma keying and limbo lighting respectively. 11.Audio and video monitoring facilities. 12.Studio warning light and safety devices like fire alarm system and fire fighting equipments etc. 13.Digital clock display. Operational requirement from the technical crew may vary from programme to programme. These requirements for lighting, audio pick up and special effects etc. depends upon the programme requirement such as establishing a period, time, formal or informal situation.
Production control area
Activities in this area are:-
Direction to the production crew by the producer of the programme. 2. Timing a production/telecast. 3. Editing of different sources available at the production desk. 4. Monitoring of output/off air signal. Hardware provided in this area include:
1. 1. 2. 3.
Monitoring facilities for all the input and output sources(audio/video). Remote control for video mixer, telecine and library store and special effect (ADO) etc. Communication facilities with technical areas and studio floor.
Vision mixing and switching
Unlike films, television media allows switching between different sources simultaneously at the video switcher in Production control room operated by the Vision Mixer on the direction of the program producer. The producer directs the cameramen for proper shots on various cameras through intercom and the vision mixer (also called VM engineer) switches shots from the selected camera/cameras with split second accuracy, in close cooperation with the producer. The shots can be switched from one video source to another video source, superimposed, cross faded, faded in or faded out electronically with actual switching being done during the vertical intervals between the picture frames. Electronics special effects are also used now days as a transition between the two sources.
Vision Mixer (or Video Switcher)
Though the video switching is done by the VM at the remote panel, the electronics is located in CAR. The vision mixer is typically a 10 x 6 or 20 x 10 cross bar switcher selecting anyone of the 10 or 20 input sources to 6 or 10 different output lines. The input sources include: Camera 1, camera 2, camera 3, VTR1, VTR2, Telecine 1, Telecine 2, Test signal etc. The vision mixer provides for the following operational facilities for editing of TV programs:-
Selection of any input source
Cut: switching clearly from one source to another. (ii) DISSOLVE: Fading out of one source of video and fading in another source of video. SUPERPOSITION OF TWO SOURCES: Keyed caption when selected inlay is superimposed on the background picture. (iv) SPECIAL EFFECTS: A choice of a number of wipe patterns for split screen or wipe effects. The selected output can be monitored in the corresponding preview monitor. All the picture sources are available on the monitors. The preview monitors can be used for previewing the telecine, VTR; test signals etc. with any desired special effect, prior to its actual switching.
The switcher also provides cue facilities to switch camera tally lights as an indication to the cameraman whether his camera is on output of the switcher.
Present day PCR’s have:
• • •
24 input video special effects switchers (CD 680 or CD 682-SP) Character generators Telecine/DLS remote controls Adequate monitoring equipment
Character Generator provides titles and credit captions during production in Roman script. It provides high resolution characters, different colours for colorizing characters,
background, edges etc. At present bilingual and trilingual C.G are also being used by Doordarshan. Character Generator is a microcomputer with Texts along instructions when typed in at the keyboard is stored on a floppy or a Hard disk. Many pages of scripts can be stored on the disk and recalled when needed, by typing the addresses for the stored pages, to appear as one of the video sources.
It is essential that all the video sources as input to the switcher are in synchronism i.e., start and end of each line or all the frames of video sources is concurrent. This requirement is ensured by the sync pulse generator (SPG). SPG consists of highly stable crystal oscillator. Various pulses of standard width and frequency are derived from this crystal electronically which form clock for the generation of video signal. These pulses are fed to all the video generating equipment to achieve this objective of synchronism. Because of its importance, SPG is normally duplicated for change over in case of failure.
It provide the following outputs:
• • • •
Line drive Field drive Mixed blanking Mixed sync colour subcarrier A burst insertion pulse PAL phase Indent pulses
Camera Control Unit (CCU)
The television cameras which include camera head with its optical focusing lens, pan and tilt head, video signal pre-amplifier
view finder and other associated electronic circuitry are mounted on cameras trolleys and operate inside the studios. The output of cameras is pre-amplified in the head and then connected to the camera control unit (CCU) through long multi-core cable (35 to 40 cores), or triax cable. All the camera control voltages are fed from the CCU to the camera head over the multi-core camera cable. The view-finder signal is also sent over the camera cable to the camera head view-finder for helping the cameraman in proper focusing, adjusting and composing the shots. The video signal so obtained is amplified, H.F. corrected, equalized for cable delays, D.C. clamped, horizontal, and vertical blanking pulses are added to it. The peak white level is also clipped to avoid overloading of the following stages and avoiding over modulation in the transmitter. The composite sync signals are then added and these video signals are fed to a distribution amplifier, which normally gives multiple outputs for monitoring etc.
The scene to be televised must be well illuminated to produce a clear and noise free picture. The lighting should also give the depth, the correct contrast and artistic display of various shades without multiple shadows. The lighting arrangements in a TV studio have to be very elaborate. A large number of lights are used to meet the needs of ‘key’, ‘fill’, and ‘back’ lights etc. Lights are classified as spot and soft lights. These are suspended from motorized hoists and telescopes. The up and down movement is remotely controlled. The switching on and off the lights at the required time and their dimming is controlled from the light control panel inside a lighting control room using SCR dimmer controls. These remotely control various lights are inside the studios.
Sound mixing and control
As a rule, in television, sound accompanies the picture. Several microphones are generally required for production of complex television programs besides other audio sources also called marred sound from telecine, VTR, and audio tape/disc replays. All these audio sources are connected to the sound control console. The sounds from different sources are controlled and mixed in accordance with the requirement of the program. Split second accuracy is required for providing the correct audio source in synchronisation with the picture thus requiring lot of skill from the engineer. Even the level of sound sometimes is varied in accordance with the shot composition called prospective.
An audio mixing console, with a number of inputs, say about 32 inputs is provided in major studio. This includes special facilities such as equalisation, PFL, phase reversal, echo send/receive and digital reverberation units at some places Meltron console tape recorders and EMI 938 disc reproducers are provided for playing back/creating audio effects as independent sources (Unmarried) to the switcher.
Video Tape recorders
VTR room is provided at each studio center. It houses a few Broadcast standard Videocassette recorders (VCRs). In these recorders, sound and video signals are recorded simultaneously on the same tape. Most of the TV centers have professional quality B-Format BCN-51 One inch VTRs. For broadcast quality playback it is equipped with correction electronics i.e. a processor which comprises velocity error compensation, drop-out compensation and time base correction. It also comprises a digital variable motion unit
enabling still reproduction, slow motion and visible search operation. New centers are being supplied with Sony U-matic high band VCRs along with ½” Sony Betacam SP VCRs, DVC Pro.
Post Production Suites
Modern videotape editing has revolutionised the production of television programs over the years. The latest trend all over the world is to have more of fully equipped post production suites than number of studios. Most of the present day shootings are done on locations using single camera. The actual production is done in these suites. The job for a post production suites is:a. b. To knit program available on various sources. While doing editing with multiple sources, it should be possible to have any kind of transition. c. Adding/Mixing sound tracks. d. Voice over facilities. e. Creating special effects. The concept of live editing on vision mixer is being replaced by “to do it at leisure” in post production suites. A well equipped post production suite will have:1.
4. 5. 6.
Five VTRs/VCRs, may be of different format remotely controlled by the editor. Vision mixing with special effect and wipes etc. with control from a remote editor panel. Ampex Digital Optics (ADO) for special effects. Audio mixer with remote control from the editor remote panel. Multi-track audio recorder with time code facilities and remote operation. Character generator for titles.
7. 8. 9.
Adequate monitoring facilities. Supported by “Offline editing systems” to save time in post production suites. One man operation.
Coverage of Outside events :
Outside broadcasts(or OBs) provide an important part of the television programs. Major events like sports, important functions and performances are covered with an O.B. van which contains all the essential production facilities.
Video Chain :
The block diagram on facing page connects all these sections and it can be observed that the CAR is the nodal area. Now let us follow a CAM-I signal. CAM-I first goes to a Camera electronics in CAR via a multi-core cable, the signal is then matched/adjusted for quality in CCU and then like any other sources it goes to video switcher via PP (Patch Panel) and respective VDAs(Video Distribution Amplifiers) and optional Hum compensator/Cable equilizers. Output from the switcher goes to stabilizing amplifier via PP and VDAs. Output from the stab. Is further distributed to various destinations.
TV LIGHTING:GENERAL PRINCIPLES
Lighting for television is very exciting and needs creative talent. There is always a tremendous scope for doing experiments to achieve the required effect. Light is a kind of electromagnetic radiation with a visible spectrum from red to violet i.e. wave length from 700 nm to 380 nm respectively. However to effectively use the hardware and software connected with lighting it is important to know more about this energy.
Any light source has a Luminance intensity (I) which is measured in Candelas. Candela is equivalent to an intensity released by standard one candle source of light.
Basic Three Point Lighting
Key light : This is the principal light source of illumination. It gives shape
and modeling by casting shadows. It is treated like "sun" in the sky and it should cast only one shadow. Normally it is a hard source.
Fill Light : Controls the lighting contrast by filling in shadows. It can also
provide catch lights in the eyes. Normally it is a soft source.
Back light : Separates the body from the background, gives roundness to
the subject and reveals texture. Normally it is hard source.
Background Light : Separates the person from the background, reveals
background interest and shape. Normally it is a hard source.In three point lighting the ratio of 3/2/1 (Back/Key/Fill) for mono and 3/2/2 for colour provides good portrait lighting.
A TV Camera consists of three sections : a) A Camera lens and optics face : To form optical image on the plate of a pick up device. b) an A transducer or pick up device : To convert optical image into electrical signal. c) Electronics transducer to : To process output of a
get a CCVS signal.
Any camera will need a device to convert optical image into an electrical signal. Now let us consider a picture frame made of small picture element. For more sharpness or better resolution we have to increase these elements. This picture frame can now be focused on to a structure of so many CCD elements. Each CCD element will now convert the light information on it to a charge signal. All we need now is to have an arrangement to collect this charge and convert it to voltage. This is the basic principle on which CCD cameras are based.
Latest CCD Cameras
CCD were launched in 1983 for broadcasting with pixel count from a mere 2,50,000 which increased to 20,00,000 in 1994 for HDTV application. Noise and aliasing has been reduced to
negligible level. CCD cameras now offers fully modulated video output at light level as low as 6.0 lumens. A typical specification for a studio camera now available in market are some thing like 2/3 inch, FIT, lens on chip CCD with 6,00,000 pixel, 850 lines H resolution, S/N more than 60 dB, sensitivity F-8 (2000 lux) etc.
Block Diagram of a typical Camera
HIGH POWER TV TRANSMITTER:Design:All the TV transmitters have the same basic design. They consist of an exciter followed by power amplifiers which boost the exciter power to the required level.
The exciter stage determines the quality of a transmitter. It contains pre-corrector units both at base band as well as at IF stage, so that after passing through all subsequent transmitter stages, an acceptable signal is available. Since the number and type of amplifier stages, may differ according to the required output power, the characteristics of the pre-correction circuits can be varied over a wide range.
Vision and Sound Signal Amplification:In HPTs the vision and sound carriers can be generated, modulated and amplified separately and then combined in the diplexer at the transmitter output. In LPTs, on the other hand, sound and vision are modulated separately but amplified jointly. This is common vision and aural amplification. A special group delay equalization circuit is needed in the first case because of errors caused by TV diplexer. In the second case the intermodulation products are more prominent and special filters for suppressing them is required. As it is difficult to meet the intermodulation requirements particularly at higher power ratings, separate amplification is used in HPTs though combined amplification requires fewer amplifier stages.
Power Amplifier Stages
In BEL mark I & II transmitters three valve stages (BEL 450 CX, BEL 4500 CX and BEL 15000 CX) are used in vision transmitter chain and two valves (BEL 450 CX and BEL 4500 CX) in aural transmitter chain. In BEL mark III transmitter only two valve stages (BEL 4500 CX and BEL 15000 CX) are used in vision
transmitter chain. Aural transmitter chain is fully solid state in Mark III transmitter.
BEL 10 kW TV TRANSMITTER
A block diagram of BEL 10 kW TV Transmitter is shown in Fig. 10. It consists of : a) b) c) d) Input Equipment Rack Monitoring Equipment Rack Control Console Indoor Co-axial Equipment comprising of : • U-link Rack with U-link panel A and B, T-Transformer and 10 kW Dummy Load. • Aural Harmonic Filter. • CIN Diplexer • Aural Notch Filter and Band Pass Filter. Antenna system with junction box, feeder cables etc.
Block Diagram of 10kW TV Transmitter
SOLID STATE POWER AMPLIFIERS
1) Has got two identical sections. Each capable of delivering 10 W.
Gets 28 V power supply through relay in 80 W AMP. Sample of output is available at front panel for RF monitoring. Provides A DC output corresponding to sync peak out put for vision monitoring unit. Thermostat on heat sink is connected in series with thermostat or 80 W AMP and provides thermal protection. (Operating temp. 70oC.)
TX. Block Diagram
Vision Chain of Exciter
TRANSMITTER CONTROL SYSTEM:-
The transmitter control unit performs the task of transmitter interlocking and control. Also it supports operation from control console. The XTR control unit (TCU) has two independent system viz. 1. 2. Main control system. (MCS) Back-up Control System (BCS)
System Description of Exciter :
Block Diagram of TV Exciter
input video signal is fed to a video processor. In VHF transmitters LPF, Delay equalizer and receiver pre-corrector precede the video processor.
Low Pass Filter
: Limits incoming video signal to 5 MHz.
Delay Equalizer :
Group delay introduced by LPF is corrected. It also pre-distorts the video for compensating group delay errors introduced in the subsequent stages and diplexer.
Receiver pre-corrector : Pre-distorts the signal providing
partial compensation of GD which occurs in domestic receivers.Both the delay equaliser and receiver precorrector are combined in the delay equaliser module in Mark III version.
This is also used in the exciter preceding LPF (mark III) for precorrecting the differential gain and differential phase errors occurring in the transmitter.
The block diagram of video processor is given in fig. 3. Functions • Amplification of Video signal • Clamping at back porch of video signal. Clamping gives constant peak power. Zero volt reference line is steady irrespective of video signal pattern when clamping takes place otherwise the base line starts an excursion about the zero reference depending on the video signal.
Block Diagram of Video Processor
The block diagram of Vision modulator is given in fig. 4 and schematic diagram is shown in fig. 5 Functions
Amplification of Vision IF at 38.9 MHz. Linear amplitude modulation of Vision IF by video from the video processor in a balanced modulator.
IF is amplified to provide sufficient level to the modulator. It operates as an amplitude limiter for maintaining constant output.
A balanced modulator using two IS-1993 diodes is used in the modulator.
Band pass amplifier
Modulated signal is amplified to 10 mW in double tuned amplifier which provides a flat response within 0.5 dB in 7 MHz band.
Block Diagram of Vision Modulator
Schematic Diagram of Vision Modulator
VSBF and Mixer :
The block diagram of VSBF and Mixer is given in fig. 6. It consists of following stages : • • • •
VSB filter ALC amplifier Mixer Helical Filter Mixer Amplfier
Block Diagram of VSBF Mixer
Surface Acoustic wave (SAW) filter provide a very steep side band response with high attenuation outside designated channel. It has a linear phase characteristic with a low amplitude and group delay ripple. (Fig. 7.)
Block Diagram of V.S.B.Filter .
The block diagram of Local Oscillator is given in fig. 8. It supplies three equal outputs of + 8 dBm each at a frequency of fv + fvif. This unit has 3 sub units.
fc/4 oscillator : Generates frequency which is 1/4 of desired channel frequency. Fine freq. control is done by VC1.
LO Mixer/Power divider : Here the above fc/4 frequency is multiplied by four to obtain channel frequency of fc and then mixed with fvif. Power divider is also incorporated to provide three isolated outputs of equal level.
Block Diagram of Local Oscillator
AUDIO CHAIN:Aural Modulator
The aural modulator unit consists of audio amplifier, VCO, mixer and APC. The block diagram of Aural modulator is given in fig. 9.
Block Diagram of Aural Modulator
A balanced audio signal at + 10 dBm from studio is converted to unbalanced signal by audio transformer T4. The output of this is
taken through potentiometer to the input of Hybrid Audio Amp BMC 1003. A 50 micro second pre-emphasis is also provided.
This is a varactor tuned oscillator. Its frequency can be varied by coil L4. Transistor TR-17 forms the oscillator. VCO output is frequency modulated by the audio signal. Output level is 0 dBm.
TV TRANSMITTER ANTENNA SYSTEM:TV Antenna System is that part of the Broadcasting Network which accepts RF Energy from transmitter and launches electromagnetic waves in space. The polarization of the radiation as adopted by Doordarshan is linear horizontal. The system is installed on a supporting tower and consists of antenna panels, power dividers, baluns, branch feeder cable, junction boxes and main feeder cables. Dipole antenna elements, in one or the other form are common at VHF frequencies where as slot antennae are mostly used at UHF frequencies. Omni directional radiation pattern is obtained by arranging the dipoles in the form of turnstile (Fig.15) and exciting the same in quadrature phase. Desired gain is obtained by stacking the dipoles in vertical plane. As a result of stacking, most of the RF energy is directed in the horizontal plane. Radiation in vertical plane is minimized. The installed antenna system should fulfil the following requirements : a)
It should have required gain and provide desired field strength at the point of reception. It should have desired horizontal radiation pattern and directivity for serving the planned area of interest. The radiation pattern should be omni directional if the location of the transmitting station is at the center of the service area and directional one, if the location is otherwise.
It should offer proper impedance to the main feeder cable and thereby to the transmitter so that optimum RF energy is transferred into space. Impedance mismatch results into reflection of power and formation of standing waves. The standard RF impedance at VHF/UHF is 50 ohms.
Turnstile Antenna and its Horizontal Pattern
Radiation Pattern and Gain
The horizontal and vertical radiation pattern are shown in fig. 19 and 20. The total gain depends upon the type of the antenna panel and no. of stacks as given in table-1.
Fig. 19 Typical Horizontal radiation pattern
VESTIGIAL SIDE BAND TRANSMISSION:Another feature of present day TV Transmitters is vestigial side band transmission. If normal amplitude modulation technique is used for picture transmission, the minimum transmission channel bandwidth should be around 11 MHz taking into account the space for sound carrier and a small guard band of around 0.25 MHz. Using such large transmission BW will limit the number of channels in the spectrum allotted for TV transmission. To accommodate large number of channels in the allotted spectrum, reduction in transmission BW was considered necessary. The transmission BW could be reduced to around 5.75 MHz by using single side band (SSB) AM technique, because in principle one side band of the double side band (DSB) AM could be suppressed, since the two side bands have the same signal content. It was not considered feasible to suppress one complete side band in the case of TV signal as most of the energy is contained in lower frequencies and these frequencies contain the most important information of the picture. If these frequencies are removed, it causes objectionable phase distortion at these frequencies which will affect picture quality. Thus as a compromise only a part of lower side band is suppressed while taking full advantage of the fact that: Visual disturbance due to phase errors are severe and unacceptable where large picture areas are concerned (i.e. at LF) but ii) Phase errors become difficult to see on small details (i.e. in HF region) in the picture. Thus low modulating frequencies must minimize phase distortion where as high frequencies are tolerant of phase distortions as they are very difficult to see. The radiated signal thus contains full upper side band together with carrier and the vestige (remaining part) of the partially suppressed LSB. The lower side band contains i)
frequencies up to 0.75 MHz with a slope of 0.5 MHz so that the final cut off is at 1.25 MHz.
Standards The characteristics of the TV signal is sections 1 and 2 refer to CCIR B/G standards. Various other standards are given in Table 1. Table 1 Frequency Range Vision sound carrier spacing Channel width Sound Modulation FM deviation (maximum) Vision/sound carrier spacing channel width 5.5 MHz 7 MHz (B) in VHF OR 8 MHz (G) in UHF FM + 50 kHz
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