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Chapter 5

Digestive System
The Language of Medicine

Perianal
Pertaining to surrounding the anus

Appendectomy
Excision of the appendix

Appendicitis
Inflammation of the appendix

Buccal mucosa
Mucous membrane lining the cheeks

Cecal
Pertaining to the cecum / first part of the colon

Celiac
Pertaining to abdomen

Cheilosis
Abnormal condition of the lips – swollen, cracked and bright-red

Cholecystectomy
Excision of the gallbladder

Choledochotomy
Incision of the common bile duct (for removal of a calculus)

Colostomy
New opening of the colon to the outside of the body
Colonic
Pertaining to the colon

Colonoscopy
Visual examination of the colon

Dentibuccal
Pertaining to the teeth and cheeks

Duodenal
Pertaining to the duodenum

Enterocolitis
Inflammation of the small intestine and the colon

Enterocolostomy
new surgical connection between parts of the small intestines and
the colon; anastomosis

Mesentery
A membrane that holds the intestines together; a fold of the
peritoneum attaching the small intestines to the posterior wall of
the abdomen

Parenteral
Pertaining to through some route other than through the
gastrointestinal tract, as by intravenous injection

Esophageal
Pertaining to the esophagus

Facial
Pertaining to the face
Gastrostomy
Opening of the stomach to the outside of the body

Gingivitis
Inflammation of the gums

Hypoglossal
Pertaining to under the tongue

Hepatoma
Tumor of the liver / hepatocellular carcinoma

Hepatomegaly
Enlargement of the liver

Ileocecal sphincter
A ring of muscles/valve between the ileum and the cecum (that
closes to prevent the backflow of food from the colon to the ileum)

Ileitis
Inflammation of the ileum

Ileostomy
An artificial opening from the ileum to the outside of the body
through the abdominal wall

Choledochojejunostomy
Surgical Anastomosis (artificial connection) between the common
bile duct and the jejunum

Gastrojejunostomy
A surgical operation in which the jejunum is connected to an
opening made in the stomach
Labial
Pertaining to the lips

Laparoscopy
Visual examination of the abdomen

Sublingual
Pertaining to below the tongue

Submandibular
Pertaining to below the lower jaw/mandible

Orthodontist
A dentist specialized in straightening teeth

Periodontist
A specialist in treatment of gums

Endodontist
A dentist specializing in the inner parts of the tooth (performs root
canal therapy)

Oral
Pertaining to the mouth

Palatoplasty
Surgical repair of the palate

Pancreatitis
Inflammation of the pancreas

Peritonitis
Inflammation of the peritoneum
pharyngeal
pertaining to the pharynx

palatopharyngoplasty
surgical resection of unnecessary palatal and oropharyngeal tissues
in selected cases of snoring

proctologist
a specialist in treatment of the rectum and the anus

pyloroplasty
surgical repair of the pyloric sphincter

rectocele
hernia of the rectum into the vagina

sialadenitis
inflammation of a salivary gland

sigmoidoscopy
visual examination of the sigmoid colon

stomatitis
inflammation of the mouth

uvulectomy
excision of the uvula

amylase
an enzyme in the saliva for digestion of starch

biliary
pertaining to bile or bile ducts
hyperbilirubinemia
excessive bilirubin in the blood; jaundice

cholelithiasis
the presence of gallstones

achlorhydria
absence of hydrochloric acid

gluconeogenesis
process of producing new sugar from proteins and fats (mainly in
the liver)

hyperglycemia
higher than normal level of sugar in the blood

glycogenolysis
converting glycogen into glucose in the liver

lipoma
tumor of fat cells (benign)

lithogenesis
a condition of production of stones

cholecystolithiasis
presence of stones in the gall bladder

protease
a digestive enzyme that causes breakdown of protein

sialolith
a stone in a salivary gland or duct
steatorrhea
passage of abnormally increased amount of fats in feces

lipase
an enzyme that breaks down fats into glycerol and fatty acids

hematochezia
passage of bloody stool

choledocholithiasis
abnormal condition of stones in the common bile duct

postprandial
after a meal