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Linux has only one root file system denoted by “/” (forward Slash) Underline Disk structure is transparent for

users which mean even if you have five hard disks, user can access as one disk.

Ex: /var = is a directory under ? Physically var can be i) A directory Under / var ii) A Disk Partition iii) A complete Hard disk iv) Logical Hard disk (combination Of Hard disk)
Is Call Mount point

v) A disk /partition/directory in another machine of your network * When nothing is mounted this is on empty

How Linux name partition Ex IDE Primary Master /dev/hda1 /dev/hda2 /dev/hda3 /dev/hda4 Logical Partitions Reserved for Primary Partitions


Scenario : I have one primary and two logical partitions in my windows system How would I can access these partition is Linux
hda5 hda1 /boot /home hda6 /

D: C: E:



What is a SWAP Partitions? A Partition to be use as Virtual Memory In Linux we able to give a spend physical Partitions. This Partition. This Partition is not formatted in to regular Linux file system and hence user cant access it. There is no strict rule about the size of SWAP Partition, but twice your RAM is recommended

Lab1 How to use Linux Command Linux command has may options or Arguments which can be supplied at command prompt t o get various task done.

These options/Arguments sometime get implicitly (as a default)

Ex:- useradd –d /home/debian –s /bin/bash debian Single letter options are supplied with a arguments are separated by one more space. More than one letter options are supplied with each option and arguments are separated by at least one space.

1.Using Argument cd /usr Command 2. Implicit Argument cd pwd home } cd $HOME env variable for users home Argument

When you type some command alone if it has no default argument option. It will provide basic syntax help or prompt user to view help. mv update-re.d

Using options
ls –a ls –a –l => ls –al netstat –tnpl = netstat –t –n –l –p

More than one character option mv --help ≠ mv -h -e -l -p

Kernel Version 1.To view the Kernel version uname –r 2.6.12 -9 -386
Minor Major version version Patch version Vendor Distributor specific