This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
https://www.scribd.com/doc/235714664/TimeDomainvsFreqDomian
08/03/2014
text
original
Based withpermission on lectures by J ohn Getty
PHSX 262Spring 2011 Lecture 5 Page 1
Today
2/15/11 Lecture 5
Fourier Series
• TimeFrequency Decomposition/Superposition
• Fourier Components (Ex. Square wave)
• Filtering
• Spectrum Analysis
– Windowing
– Fast Fourier Transform
– Sweep Frequency Analyzer
Homework: (due next Tuesday)
1) Write down the expected powers and dBVs for the 3rd harmonic of all four functions in the lab if
they were 2 Vpp functions (versus 1Vpp functions).
2) For a square wave of period 300 microseconds that goes from 1 volts to +1 volts into 50 ohms,
what are the frequencies and powers in the 4 strongest frequency components? Does it matter
how square wave is centered in time (i.e. odd or even with respect to t=0)?
3) How much power in watts is dissipated into a 50 ohm resistor by a 13dBV signal?
4) What is the ratio of the powers and the voltages of a 27dBV signal and a 33dBV signal?
Reading
• See Prelab
• Horowitz and Hill 2
nd
Ed., pages 10251038.
• Optional: see references at end of lecture.
Lab
Fourier Analysis
Do prelab before lab starts.
Based withpermission on lectures by J ohn Getty
PHSX 262Spring 2011 Lecture 5 Page 2
Fourier’s Theorem
French mathematician J oseph Fourier
(17681830), discovered that he could
represent any real functions with a
series of weighted sines and cosines.
In circuit analysis we use Fourier’s Theorem to
“decompose” a complex time domain signal into
its discrete sinusoidal parts (the frequency
domain.) Superposition of these frequency
component returns the signal to the time domain.
Based withpermission on lectures by J ohn Getty
PHSX 262Spring 2011 Lecture 5 Page 3
The Time and Frequency Domains
Amplitude
(not power)
Time domain
Measurements
(Oscilloscope)
Frequency Domain
Measurements
(Spectrum Analyzer)
Phase
(or delay)
Based withpermission on lectures by J ohn Getty
PHSX 262Spring 2011 Lecture 5 Page 4
Sine Wave in Time Domain
1.5
1
0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
milliseconds
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
V
pp
Period
2
PP
V
A =
= =
1
f frequency
period
t = ( ) sin2 V t A ft
= = = =
2
2 2
( )
2
rms
V t V A
P Power
R R R
=
2
( )
rms
V V t
For
sine
wave
only
Based withpermission on lectures by J ohn Getty
PHSX 262Spring 2011 Lecture 5 Page 5
Fr equency Domain " Stick Plot"
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Hertz
A
m
p
lit
u
d
e
Sine Wave in Frequency Domain
V=A
Frequency
1
period
frequency
=
AmplitudeSpectrum Plot
Based withpermission on lectures by J ohn Getty
PHSX 262Spring 2011 Lecture 5 Page 6
Fr equency Domain " Stick Plot"
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Hertz
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
Fourier Domain and Filtering
AmplitudeSpectrum Plot Overlaid by GainFrequency
2
Based withpermission on lectures by J ohn Getty
PHSX 262Spring 2011 Lecture 5 Page 7
Filtered Signal
Each component is transmitted at its filtered amplitude.
Filter can also introduce phase shift of each component.
Resultant signal is the sum of the transmitted components.
Frequency Domain " Stick Plot"
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Hertz
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
Based withpermission on lectures by J ohn Getty
PHSX 262Spring 2011 Lecture 5 Page 8
With permission, Agilent Technologies
0 0 0
1
( ) ( cos sin )
n n
n
V t a a n t b n t e e
·
=
= + +
¿
AC DC
Fourier Series
( )
2 2
2
n n
n
a b
P
R
+
=
(for periodic functions)
2
0 0
/ P a R =
Power in
harmonics
Based withpermission on lectures by J ohn Getty
PHSX 262Spring 2011 Lecture 5 Page 9
dBV
Since scope only measures voltage and doesn’t know what load
resistor you are using, it can’t measure power absolutely, so if
measure in dBV
dBV is a measure of relative POWER (not voltage)!!!!
A 20 dBV sinewave has 100 times more power than 0dBV
and 10 times the voltage.
dBV is relative to the power of a sinewave relative
to a 1 Volt RMS sinewave signal.
dBV =10 log
10
(<V
2
>/ 1Vrms) =10 log
10
(A
2
/2)
where A is the amplitude of the sinewave in volts
Note dBV is it independent of resistive load.
Based withpermission on lectures by J ohn Getty
PHSX 262Spring 2011 Lecture 5 Page 10
Fourier Transform (Decomposition)
0 0 0
1
( ) ( cos sin )
n n
n
V t a a n t b n t e e
·
=
= + +
¿
Fourier series:
0
0
2
0
0 2
1
( )
T
T
a V t dt
T
+
÷
=
}
0
0
2
0
0 2
2
( )cos(2 )
T
n
T
a V t nt T dt
T
t
+
÷
=
}
0
0
2
0
0 2
2
( )sin(2 )
T
n
T
b V t nt T dt
T
t
+
÷
=
}
DC
Even
part of
V(t)
Odd
part of
V(t)
0
0
2
T period
t
e
= =
Based withpermission on lectures by J ohn Getty
PHSX 262Spring 2011 Lecture 5 Page 11
Odd and Even Symmetry
cos(x)
even sym.
( ) ( ) f x f x = ÷
sin(x)
odd sym.
( ) ( ) f x f x = ÷ ÷
Based withpermission on lectures by J ohn Getty
PHSX 262Spring 2011 Lecture 5 Page 12
Fourier’s a
0
for a Square Wave
T
0
0
0
0 /2
( )
 /2 0
A t T
V t
A T t
< < ¦
=
´
÷ < <
¹
0
0
/2
0
0 /2
1
( )
T
T
a V t dt
T
+
÷
=
}
0
0
2 0
0 0 0 2
1 1
( )
T
T
Adt A dt
T T
+
÷
= + ÷
} }
0 0
0
0
2 2
A T T
T
(
= ÷ =
(
¸ ¸
A
A ÷
For this waveform,
DC component is
precisely zero
3
Based withpermission on lectures by J ohn Getty
PHSX 262Spring 2011 Lecture 5 Page 13
Fourier’s a
n
for a Square Wave
0
0
/2
0
0 /2
2
( )cos(2 )
T
n
T
a V t nt T dt
T
t
+
÷
=
}
( ) is odd 0 for all n
n
V t a =
Based withpermission on lectures by J ohn Getty
PHSX 262Spring 2011 Lecture 5 Page 14
n=1
1
4A
b
t
=
Fourier’s b
n
for a Square Wave
0
0
/2
0
0 /2
2
( )sin(2 )
T
n
T
b V t nt T dt
T
t
+
÷
=
}
Based withpermission on lectures by J ohn Getty
PHSX 262Spring 2011 Lecture 5 Page 15
n=2
Fourier b
2
2
0 b =
0
0
/2
0
0 /2
2
( )sin(2 )
T
n
T
b V t nt T dt
T
t
+
÷
=
}
Based withpermission on lectures by J ohn Getty
PHSX 262Spring 2011 Lecture 5 Page 16
n=3
Fourier b
3
1
3
3
b
b =
0
0
/2
0
0 /2
2
( )sin(2 )
T
n
T
b V t nt T dt
T
t
+
÷
=
}
3
4
3
A
b
t
=
Based withpermission on lectures by J ohn Getty
PHSX 262Spring 2011 Lecture 5 Page 17
Fourier Series for Square Wave
0 0 0
4 1 1
( ) sin( ) sin(3 ) sin(5 )
3 5
A
V t t t t e e e
t
 
= + + + · · ·

\ .
0 0 0
1
( ) ( cos sin )
n n
n
V t a a n t b n t e e
·
=
= + +
¿
Fourier’s infinite series:
For a square
wave centered
around ground
and time=0:
Fundamental
Third Harmonic
Fifth Harmonic
0
0; 0 (odd function);
4
(n odd) 0 (n even)
n
n n
a a
A
b b
nt
= =
= =
Based withpermission on lectures by J ohn Getty
PHSX 262Spring 2011 Lecture 5 Page 18
1.5
1
0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
milliseconds
A
m
p
l
it
u
d
e
Frequency Domain " Stick Plot"
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Hertz
A
m
p
litu
d
e
Constructing a Square Wave
e e e
t
 
= + + + · · ·

\ .
0 0 0
4 1 1
( ) sin( ) sin(3 ) sin(5 )
3 5
A
V t t t t
1.5
1
0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
milliseconds
A
m
p
l
it
u
d
e
Fr equency Domain " Stick Plot"
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Hertz
A
m
p
litu
d
e
1.5
1
0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
milliseconds
A
m
p
lit
u
d
e
Frequency Domain " Stick Plot"
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Hertz
A
m
p
litu
d
e
4
Based withpermission on lectures by J ohn Getty
PHSX 262Spring 2011 Lecture 5 Page 19
Some Fourier Coefficients
1
1
Thomas andRosa (2004). “TheAnalysis and Designof Linear Circuits,”4th Ed., J ohnWileyand Sons, Inc
Based withpermission on lectures by J ohn Getty
PHSX 262Spring 2011 Lecture 5 Page 20
More Fourier Coefficients
1
1
Thomas andRosa (2004). “TheAnalysis and Designof Linear Circuits,”4th Ed., J ohnWileyand Sons, Inc
Based withpermission on lectures by J ohn Getty
PHSX 262Spring 2011 Lecture 5 Page 21
Computing Discrete Fourier Transforms
If there are N sampled points per period in time domain
¬ Requires N Fourier components to fully represent
¬Components a
n
and b
n
count as one Fourier frequency component
¬ Components can be expressed as
¬A(e) =A(e)exp(i¢(e))
¬A(e) is complex
Requires N x N complex multiplies to compute discete
Fourier series of N sample long time series.
Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)
 Use math tricks to minimize number of multiplies
¬ N log
2
(N) multiplies to compute Fourier Series
¬ Your scopes do FFTs
Based withpermission on lectures by J ohn Getty
PHSX 262Spring 2011 Lecture 5 Page 22
Filtered signal
0 0 0
1
( ) ( cos sin )
n n
n
V t a a n t b n t e e
·
=
= + +
¿
Fourier series:
0 0 0 0
1
( ) (0) ( )( cos sin )
out n n
n
V t a T T nf a n t b n t e e
·
=
= + +
¿
Assume V(t) is filtered by filter T(f) to produce V
out
(t)
( ) ( ) ( )
0
0 0 0 0 0
1
( ) (0)
( ) cos ( ) sin ( )
out
n n
n
V t a A
A nf a n t nf b n t nf e u e u
·
=
= +
+ + +
¿
If filter T(f) is real
If filter T(f) is complex: A(f)exp(ju(f))
0 0
/(2 ) f e t =
Based withpermission on lectures by J ohn Getty
PHSX 262Spring 2011 Lecture 5 Page 23
Hanning
Window
Windows for the FFT
Rectangular
Window
(Boxcar)
Discontinuities
create sidebands
Smooth up and
down limits
sidebands
Based withpermission on lectures by J ohn Getty
PHSX 262Spring 2011 Lecture 5 Page 24
Center frequency of a hiQ filter is swept
across the frequency band.
Could miss components that come and go, like
frequency hopper.
Swept Spectrum Analyzer
Good for high frequency signals. Typically expensive.
Depends on signals being repetitive.
f
0
3f
0
5f
0
P
o
w
e
r
freq
5
Based withpermission on lectures by J ohn Getty
PHSX 262Spring 2011 Lecture 5 Page 25
Behaves like simultaneous parallel filters:
Does miss any nonconstant components.
P
o
w
e
r
Fast Fourier Transform Analyzer
Captures full signal, but limited in bandwidth.
Low cost. Built into some oscilloscopes.
f
0
3f
0
5f
0
freq
Time domain signal is first digitized, then FFT is performed
Based withpermission on lectures by J ohn Getty
PHSX 262Spring 2011 Lecture 5 Page 26
Fourier in the Audio
http://www.falstad.com/fourier/
Helpful applet:
Based withpermission on lectures by J ohn Getty
PHSX 262Spring 2011 Lecture 5 Page 27
References
1. Paul Horowitz and Winfield Hill (1989). “The Art of Electronics,”2
nd
Ed., Cambridge,
pages 10251038.
2. Roland E. Thomas and Albert J . Rosa (2004). “The Analysis and Design of Linear
Circuits,”4
TH
Ed., J ohn Wileyand Sons
3. Paul Falstad, “some applets … to help visualize various concepts in math and
physics”, http://www.falstad.com/mathphysics.html, 15 Feb 2010
4. “Efunda, Engineering Fundamentals”web site; accessed 15 Feb 2010
http://www.efunda.com/designstandards/sensors/methods/DSP_nyquist.cfm
5. “The Fundamentals of FFTBased Signal Analysis and Measurment in LabVIEW
and LabWindows”; 15 Feb 2010, http://zone.ni.com/devzone/cda/tut/p/id/4278
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?