[Investigatory Project] CITRUS FRUITS AS A BACTERIAL HAND SANITIZER | Citrus | Wellness

Manila Cathedral School

287 Tayuman, St. Tondo, Manila

An Investigatory Project
To be submitted to the Science Department

In partial fulfilment of the
Course Requirement in Biology

Submitted to
Mrs. Agnes Cruz

Bernabe, Nicole Czerena
Desierto, Germeign Ann
Maliclic, Chelsea Anne
Manglangit, Treb Miguel
Marasigan, Austin

Second Year - Maximillian Kolbe

February 2013






CITRUS FRUITS AS A
BACTERIAL HAND
SANITIZER








ABSTRACT
The researchers’ main purpose in conducting this study is to help create a product
which is cheaper and could use the same quality as the one through the use of
oranges. This study aims to help people who do not have enough money to buy
expensive hand sanitizer. It also helps the researchers determine the similarities
and differences of the two products have by comparing their qualities. The
procedure in making this product is simple. First, scrape the gel inside the Aloe
Vera leaves. After scraping the gel, the group put it a plastic container and added
1 cup of Ethyl alcohol and 2 teaspoons of Glycerin. Next, grate the orange to get
the zest and add it to the mixture, then, mix till well blended. Lastly, the group
recycled a small bottle that was used as a container for the mixture. The
researchers concluded that the Aloe Vera gel can be used to make the hand
sanitizer more jelly and the zest of the orange more hydrating to the skin. It is
easy to make since the materials used are found in stores and have the cheapest
price. The group is confident that the product is effective because of the Ethyl
alcohol. The researchers advised to use more Aloe Vera for the product to be more
jelly.




i
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The researchers would like to give their heartfelt gratitude to the people who
helped in making and considering this study and for the success of the
researchers. First, the parents who gave their time to help and support their child
in conducting this study. Second, the researcher’s teacher who was always there
when the researchers have questions or problems that needs to be solved. And
last but not the least, to our dear God who guided the researchers in the right
path and for all the blessings that the researchers have received.











ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Abstract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i
Acknowledgement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii
Chapter I: The Problem and its Background
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Background of the Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Statement of the Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Significance of the Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Scope and Limitations of the Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Chapter II: Review of Related Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Chapter III: Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 - 6
Chapter IV: Results and Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Chapter V: Conclusion and Recommendation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Appendix
Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Curriculum Vitae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-14



CHAPTER I: THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND
Introduction
Earlier, whenever the people’s hands used to get dirty, people used to go in
search of a good soap and water. This used to become a great inconvenience
especially when travelling. Water spills and soap not getting rinsed properly and
of course, water wastage, all these factors contributed to the discovery of
something called as hand sanitizer.

Background of the Study
The researchers chose the citrus fruits to make it into a Citrus Hand Sanitizer
because the season today is where most citrus fruits bloom. Another factor why
the researchers chose this study because of the protein of Vitamin C most citrus
fruits have from common illnesses like colds, cough, etc. Third, Citrus fruits are
easy to find and are cheap. Fourth, you can easily find them from local grocery
stores and/or markets per kilo, sliced, peeled, mixed with other fruits, canned,
and/or juiced.

Statement of the Problem
The researchers need to solve the following problems:
1. How cheap will it be compared to other hand sanitizer?
2. How effective is the citric hand sanitizer compared with other products?
3. Does it have side effects?
4. Does the Citrus Hand Sanitizer can make hands dry?
2
Significance of the Study
The people who will benefit from the hand sanitizer are students, from
pre-school to college. People who live in squatter’s area, condominium units,
small and big houses. People who work as part-time or full-time. People who
work on hospitals like odctors, nurses, janitors, and even patients. Bank
employees, security guards, salesman or women, police officers, etc. Even
people who don’t have jobs and senior citizens!

The Citrus Hand Sanitizer can be significant by helping our hands to be clean and
germ
free. Instead of using soap and water, we can use this hand sanitizer in
travelling, in school, in malls, etc. whenever, wherever.

Scope and Limitations of the Study
The study covers how citrus fruits can be used as a hand sanitizer and to know the
health benefits when it is used to be a hand sanitizer, the side effects arise when
using the hand sanitizer. Other than that, the study will not cover topics beyond
the scope of the research.







3
CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Citrus is a common term and genus of flowering plants in the rue family,
Rutaceae. These plants are large shrubs or small trees, reaching 5-15 m tall, with
spiny shoots and alternately arranged evergreen leaves with an entire margin. The
flowers are solitary or in small corymbs, each flower 2-4 cm diameter, with five
(rarely four) white petals and numerous stamens; they are often very strongly
scented.
Citrus fruits are notable for their fragrance. The juice contains a high quality of
citric acid giving them their characteristic sharp flavour. The genus is commercially
important as many species are cultivated for their fruit, which is eaten fresh,
pressed for juice, or preserved in marmalades and pickles.
The invention of hand sanitizer was from Lupe Hernandez of Bakersfield, CA. In
1996, he called an invention hotline off of the TV, and ordered a package for an
idea he had on how he would create system in hospitals, to where all sinks would
have an alcohol solutions, at the bottom of the sink connected to the pipe,
outgoing water reaching our hands with cleaning solution and a sanitizer gel
making it easier for hospital staff and quicker to get patients. This idea came to
mind because he was attending school to become a RN.




4
CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY
In this chapter, the group will be making a hand sanitizer out of materials that can
be found in homes and that are cheap to buy.
The group found out that Citrus fruits are cheap and easy to buy especially when it
is in season. Citrus fruits also have a high quantity of Vitamin C that make the skin
healthy and prevent it from drying that’s why the researches chose this as their
primary ingredient for their product – home-made Citrus hand sanitizer.
Alcohols that have 70%-up solution are mostly found on homes and are cheap in
the market. The researchers chose this ingredient because of its cleaning
properties when it comes to germs and bacteria that can cause sickness in people.
The group did was, first, researched the materials needed and the procedures on
making a hand sanitizer. Second, the group bought the materials needed to be
able to make a hand sanitizer.
The group will be making a hand sanitizer out of the following materials: ½ cup of
Aloe Vera gel, 2 teaspoons of Glycerin, 1 cup of Ethyl alcohol, zest of a 1 whole
orange.
The researchers did was, first, scrape the gel inside the Aloe Vera leaves. After
scraping the gel, the group put it a plastic container and added 1 cup of Ethyl
alcohol and 2 teaspoons of Glycerin. Next, grate the orange to get the zest and
add it to the mixture, then, mix till well blended. Lastly, the group recycled a small
bottle that was used as a container for the mixture.
5






6
CHAPTER IV: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Findings
The researchers conducted a list of findings on the product
Features Citric Hand
Sanitizer
Commercial Hand
Sanitizer
Colour brownish-yellowish
color
clear color
Fragrance orange-y fruity
Texture sticky smooth

This table showed the results of the survey. 5 different people tested the Citric
Hand Sanitizer in each trial.
Criteria Citric Hand
Sanitizer
Commercial Hand
Sanitizer
Affordable ///// -
Fragrance /// //
Effectivity // ///

4.2 Results
In Criteria #1, 5 different people agreed that the group’s product was affordable.
In Criteria #2, 5 people tested the product by smelling. 3 out of 5 agreed that the
fragrance was not harsh on the nose when it’s being smelled.
In Criteria #3, 2 out of 5 people agreed that the product was effective to use.

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CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Conclusions
The researchers therefore conclude that the citrus hand sanitizer was confidently a
success because of the presence of Ethyl alcohol that made it more disinfectant
and the ingredients used to make the hand sanitizer were readily available and
easily accessible in the market.
5.2 Recommendations
In the findings the group have conducted, the researchers respectfully recommend
some instructions for better results.
1. It is optional to put essential oil for the sake of your nose not to be irritated
with the smellof the original essence.
2. You should put more Aloe Vera gel than the ethyl alcohol to make the hand
sanitizer jelly.






8
APPENDIX
BIBLIOGRAPHY
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hand_sanitizer
http://biology.about.com/od/microbiology/a/handsanitizers.htm
http://www.humantouchofchemistry.com/how-hand-sanitizers-made-their-
debut.htm
http://wiki.answers.com/Q/Who_is_the_first_person_to_formulate_hand_sanitizer
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Citrus











9
CURRICULUM VITAE
Name: BERNABE, Nicole Czerena D.
Age: 13
Educational Attainment
Primary: South Crest School
Secondary: Manila Cathedral School
Honors/Awards received:
Elementary – 2
nd
honor
Highschool – Top 3 on English (subject proficiency)
Organization: Biotechnicians Club








10
Name: DESIERTO, Germeign Ann S.
Age: 14
Educational Attainment
Primary: EMD Carmelite School
Secondary: Manila Cathedral School
Honors/Awards received:
Nursery – 1
st
Honor
Kinder – 2
nd
Honor
– Best in Music
– Most Cooperative
Organization: Hiyas Ng Sining Club







11
Name: MALICLIC, Chelsea Anne J.
Age: 14
Educational Attainment
Primary: Manila Cathedral School
Secondary: Manila Cathedral School
Honors/Awards received:
Grade 2 – Top 7
2
nd
Year – Top 6 on Science (subject proficiency)
Organization: Biotechnicians Club









12
Name: MANGLANGIT, Treb Miguel V.
Age: 13
Educational Attainment
Primary: Shilloh Christian Academy
Secondary: Manila Cathedral School
Honors/Awards received: --
Organization: Biotechnicians Club











13
Name: MARASIGAN, April Austin C.
Age: 14
Educational Attainment
Primary: St. Anne De Beaupre School

Secondary: Manila Cathedral School
Honors/Awards received:
1
st
to 3
rd
Grade – Champion in Elocution Test
Organization: Earth Savers Club










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