INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS

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1
THE INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS
by
Sigmund Freud
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INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS
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F#e"tere $i ne%ueo Su&ero$' A"(eronta mo)ebo
FORE*ORD
In 1!"!# G. Stan$ey %a$$ in&ite' me to ($ark )ni&er*ity# in +orce*ter# to ,i&e t-e fir*t
$ect.re* on /*yc-oana$y*i*. In t-e *ame year# Dr 0ri$$ /.b$i*-e' t-e fir*t of -i*
tran*$ation* of my writin,*# w-ic- were *oon fo$$owe' by f.rt-er one*. If /*yc-oana$y*i*
now /$ay* a ro$e in American inte$$ect.a$ $ife# or if it 'oe* *o in t-e f.t.re# a $ar,e /art of
t-i* re*.$t wi$$ -a&e to be attrib.te' to t-i* an' ot-er acti&itie* of Dr 0ri$$1*.
%i* fir*t tran*$ation of The Interpretation of Dreams a//eare' in 1!12. Since t-en# m.c-
-a* taken /$ace in t-e wor$'# an' m.c- -a* been c-an,e' in o.r &iew* abo.t t-e
ne.ro*e*. T-i* book# wit- t-e new contrib.tion to /*yc-o$o,y w-ic- *.r/ri*e' t-e wor$'
w-en it wa* /.b$i*-e' 31!""4# remain* e**entia$$y .na$tere'. It contain*# e&en accor'in,
to my /re*ent5'ay 6.',ment# t-e mo*t &a$.ab$e of a$$ t-e 'i*co&erie* it -a* been my ,oo'
fort.ne to make. In*i,-t *.c- a* t-i* fa$$* to one1* $ot b.t once in a $ifetime.
FRE)D
Vienna
March 15, 1931
INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS
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T(e Inter&retation of Dream$
Tab#e of +ontent$:
(-a/ter 1
(-a/ter
(-a/ter 2
(-a/ter 7
(-a/ter 8
(-a/ter 8A
(-a/ter 80
(-a/ter 8(
(-a/ter 8D
(-a/ter 9
(-a/ter 9A
(-a/ter 90
(-a/ter 9(
(-a/ter 9D
(-a/ter 9E
(-a/ter 9F
(-a/ter 9G
(-a/ter 9%
(-a/ter 9I
(-a/ter :
(-a/ter :A
(-a/ter :0
(-a/ter :(
(-a/ter :D
(-a/ter :E
(-a/ter :F
INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS
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7
+HAPTER ONE
The Scientific Literature of Dream-Problems (up to 1900)
In t-e fo$$owin, /a,e*# I *-a$$ 'emon*trate t-at t-ere i* a /*yc-o$o,ica$ tec-ni;.e w-ic-
make* it /o**ib$e to inter/ret 'ream*# an' t-at on t-e a//$ication of t-i* tec-ni;.e# e&ery
'ream wi$$ re&ea$ it*e$f a* a /*yc-o$o,ica$ *tr.ct.re# f.$$ of *i,nificance# an' one w-ic-
may be a**i,ne' to a */ecific /$ace in t-e /*yc-ic acti&itie* of t-e wakin, *tate. F.rt-er# I
*-a$$ en'ea&o.r to e$.ci'ate t-e /roce**e* w-ic- .n'er$ie t-e *tran,ene** an' ob*c.rity
of 'ream*# an' to 'e'.ce from t-e*e /roce**e* t-e nat.re of t-e /*yc-ic force* w-o*e
conf$ict or co5o/eration i* re*/on*ib$e for o.r 'ream*. T-i* 'one# my in&e*ti,ation wi$$
terminate# a* it wi$$ -a&e reac-e' t-e /oint w-ere t-e /rob$em of t-e 'ream mer,e* into
more com/re-en*i&e /rob$em*# an' to *o$&e t-e*e# we m.*t -a&e reco.r*e to materia$ of a
'ifferent kin'.
I *-a$$ be,in by ,i&in, a *-ort acco.nt of t-e &iew* of ear$ier writer* on t-i* *.b6ect an'
of t-e *tat.* of t-e 'ream5/rob$em in contem/orary *cience< *ince in t-e co.r*e of t-i*
treati*e# I *-a$$ not often -a&e occa*ion to refer to eit-er. In */ite of t-o.*an'* of year* of
en'ea&o.r# $itt$e /ro,re** -a* been ma'e in t-e *cientific .n'er*tan'in, of 'ream*. T-i*
fact -a* been *o .ni&er*a$$y acknow$e',e' by /re&io.* writer* on t-e *.b6ect t-at it
*eem* -ar'$y nece**ary to ;.ote in'i&i'.a$ o/inion*. T-e rea'er wi$$ fin'# in many
*tim.$atin, ob*er&ation*# an' /$enty of intere*tin, materia$ re$atin, to o.r *.b6ect# b.t
$itt$e or not-in, t-at concern* t-e tr.e nat.re of t-e 'ream# or t-at *o$&e* 'efinite$y any of
it* eni,ma*. T-e e'.cate' $ayman# of co.r*e# know* e&en $e** of t-e matter.
T-e conce/tion of t-e 'ream t-at wa* -e$' in /re-i*toric a,e* by /rimiti&e /eo/$e*# an'
t-e inf$.ence w-ic- it may -a&e e=erte' on t-e formation of t-eir conce/tion* of t-e
.ni&er*e# an' of t-e *o.$# i* a t-eme of *.c- ,reat intere*t t-at it i* on$y wit- re$.ctance
t-at I refrain from 'ea$in, wit- it in t-e*e /a,e*. I wi$$ refer t-e rea'er to t-e we$$5known
work* of Sir >o-n ?.bbock 3?or' A&eb.ry4# %erbert S/encer# E. 0. Ty$or an' ot-er
writer*< I wi$$ on$y a'' t-at we *-a$$ not rea$i*e t-e im/ortance of t-e*e /rob$em* an'
*/ec.$ation* .nti$ we -a&e com/$ete' t-e ta*k of 'ream inter/retation t-at $ie* before .*.
A remini*cence of t-e conce/t of t-e 'ream t-at wa* -e$' in /rimiti&e time* *eem* to
.n'er$ie t-e e&a$.ation of t-e 'ream w-ic- wa* c.rrent amon, t-e /eo/$e* of c$a**ica$
anti;.ity.1 T-ey took it for ,rante' t-at 'ream* were re$ate' to t-e wor$' of t-e
*./ernat.ra$ bein,* in w-om t-ey be$ie&e'# an' t-at t-ey bro.,-t in*/iration* from t-e
,o'* an' 'emon*. Moreo&er# it a//eare' to t-em t-at 'ream* m.*t *er&e a */ecia$
/.r/o*e in re*/ect of t-e 'reamer< t-at# a* a r.$e# t-ey /re'icte' t-e f.t.re. T-e
e=traor'inary &ariation* in t-e content of 'ream*# an' in t-e im/re**ion* w-ic- t-ey
/ro'.ce' on t-e 'reamer# ma'e it# of co.r*e# &ery 'iffic.$t to form.$ate a co-erent
conce/tion of t-em# an' nece**itate' manifo$' 'ifferentiation* an' ,ro./5formation*#
accor'in, to t-eir &a$.e an' re$iabi$ity. T-e &a$.ation of 'ream* by t-e in'i&i'.a$
INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS
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/-i$o*o/-er* of anti;.ity nat.ra$$y 'e/en'e' on t-e im/ortance w-ic- t-ey were /re/are'
to attrib.te to mantici*m in ,enera$.
In t-e two work* of Ari*tot$e in w-ic- t-ere i* mention of 'ream*# t-ey are a$rea'y
re,ar'e' a* con*tit.tin, a /rob$em of /*yc-o$o,y. +e are to$' t-at t-e 'ream i* not
,o'*ent#
t-at it i* not of 'i&ine b.t of 'aimonic ori,in. For nat.re i* rea$$y 'aimonic# not
'i&ine< t-at i* to *ay# t-e 'ream i* not a *./ernat.ra$ re&e$ation# b.t i* *.b6ect to t-e $aw*
of t-e -.man */irit# w-ic- -a*# of co.r*e# a kin*-i/ wit- t-e 'i&ine. T-e 'ream i* 'efine'
a* t-e /*yc-ic acti&ity of t-e *$ee/er# ina*m.c- a* -e i* a*$ee/. Ari*tot$e wa* ac;.ainte'
wit- *ome of t-e c-aracteri*tic* of t-e 'ream5$ife< for e=am/$e# -e knew t-at a 'ream
con&ert* t-e *$i,-t *en*ation* /ercei&e' in *$ee/ into inten*e *en*ation* 3@one ima,ine*
t-at one i* wa$kin, t-ro.,- fire# an' fee$* -ot# if t-i* or t-at /art of t-e bo'y become*
on$y ;.ite *$i,-t$y warm14# w-ic- $e' -im to conc$.'e t-at 'ream* mi,-t ea*i$y betray to
t-e /-y*ician t-e fir*t in'ication* of an inci/ient /-y*ica$ c-an,e w-ic- e*ca/e'
ob*er&ation '.rin, t-e 'ay.
A* -a* been *ai'# t-o*e writer* of anti;.ity w-o /rece'e' Ari*tot$e 'i' not re,ar' t-e
'ream a* a /ro'.ct of t-e 'reamin, /*yc-e# b.t a* an in*/iration of 'i&ine ori,in# an' in
ancient time*# t-e two o//o*in, ten'encie* w-ic- we *-a$$ fin' t-ro.,-o.t t-e a,e* in
re*/ect of t-e e&a$.ation of t-e 'ream5$ife# were a$rea'y /erce/tib$e. T-e ancient*
'i*tin,.i*-e' between t-e tr.e an' &a$.ab$e 'ream* w-ic- were *ent to t-e 'reamer a*
warnin,*# or to forete$$ f.t.re e&ent*# an' t-e &ain# fra.'.$ent an' em/ty 'ream*# w-o*e
ob6ect wa* to mi*,.i'e -im or $ea' -im to 'e*tr.ction.
T-e /re5*cientific conce/tion of t-e 'ream w-ic- obtaine' amon, t-e ancient* wa*# of
co.r*e# in /erfect kee/in, wit- t-eir ,enera$ conce/tion of t-e .ni&er*e# w-ic- wa*
acc.*tome' to /ro6ect a* an e=terna$ rea$ity t-at w-ic- /o**e**e' rea$ity on$y in t-e $ife of
t-e /*yc-e. F.rt-er# it acco.nte' for t-e main im/re**ion ma'e ./on t-e wakin, $ife by
t-e mornin, memory of t-e 'ream< for in t-i* memory t-e 'ream# a* com/are' wit- t-e
re*t of t-e /*yc-ic content# *eem* to be *omet-in, a$ien# comin,# a* it were# from anot-er
wor$'. It wo.$' be an error to *.//o*e t-at t-e t-eory of t-e *./ernat.ra$ ori,in of 'ream*
$ack* fo$$ower* e&en in o.r own time*< for ;.ite a/art from /ieti*tic an' my*tica$ writer* 5
5 w-o c$in,# a* t-ey are /erfect$y 6.*tifie' in 'oin,# to t-e remnant* of t-e once
/re'ominant rea$m of t-e *./ernat.ra$ .nti$ t-e*e remnant* -a&e been *we/t away by
*cientific e=/$anation 55 we not infre;.ent$y fin' t-at ;.ite inte$$i,ent /er*on*# w-o in
ot-er re*/ect* are a&er*e to anyt-in, of a romantic nat.re# ,o *o far a* to ba*e t-eir
re$i,io.* be$ief in t-e e=i*tence an' co5o/eration of *./er-.man */irit.a$ /ower* on t-e
ine=/$icab$e nat.re of t-e /-enomena of 'ream* 3%affner4. T-e &a$i'ity a*cribe' to t-e
'ream $ife by certain *c-oo$* of /-i$o*o/-y 55 for e=am/$e# by t-e *c-oo$ of Sc-e$$in, 55
i* a 'i*tinct remini*cence of t-e .n'i*/.te' be$ief in t-e 'i&inity of 'ream* w-ic-
/re&ai$e' in anti;.ity< an' for *ome t-inker*# t-e mantic or /ro/-etic /ower of 'ream* i*
*ti$$ a *.b6ect of 'ebate. T-i* i* '.e to t-e fact t-at t-e e=/$anation* attem/te' by
/*yc-o$o,y are too ina'e;.ate to co/e wit- t-e acc.m.$ate' materia$# -owe&er *tron,$y
t-e *cientific t-inker may fee$ t-at *.c- *./er*titio.* 'octrine* *-o.$' be re/.'iate'.
INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS
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To write a -i*tory of o.r *cientific know$e',e of t-e 'ream /rob$em i* e=treme$y
'iffic.$t# beca.*e# &a$.ab$e t-o.,- t-i* know$e',e may be in certain re*/ect*# no rea$
/ro,re** in a 'efinite 'irection i* a* yet 'i*cernib$e. No rea$ fo.n'ation of &erifie' re*.$t*
-a* -it-erto been e*tab$i*-e' on w-ic- f.t.re in&e*ti,ator* mi,-t contin.e to b.i$'. E&ery
new a.t-or a//roac-e* t-e *ame /rob$em* afre*-# an' from t-e &ery be,innin,. If I were
to en.merate *.c- a.t-or* in c-rono$o,ica$ or'er# ,i&in, a *.r&ey of t-e o/inion* w-ic-
eac- -a* -e$' concernin, t-e /rob$em* of t-e 'ream# I *-o.$' be ;.ite .nab$e to 'raw a
c$ear an' com/$ete /ict.re of t-e /re*ent *tate of o.r know$e',e on t-e *.b6ect. I -a&e
t-erefore /referre' to ba*e my met-o' of treatment on t-eme* rat-er t-an on a.t-or*# an'
in attem/tin, t-e *o$.tion of eac- /rob$em of t-e 'ream# I *-a$$ cite t-e materia$ fo.n' in
t-e $iterat.re of t-e *.b6ect.
0.t a* I -a&e not *.ccee'e' in ma*terin, t-e w-o$e of t-i* $iterat.re 55 for it i* wi'e$y
'i*/er*e' an' interwo&en wit- t-e $iterat.re of ot-er *.b6ect* 55 I m.*t a*k my rea'er* to
re*t content wit- my *.r&ey a* it *tan'*# /ro&i'e' t-at no f.n'amenta$ fact or im/ortant
/oint of &iew -a* been o&er$ooke'.
In a supplement to a later German edition, the author adds:
I *-a$$ -a&e to 6.*tify my*e$f for not e=ten'in, my *.mmary of t-e $iterat.re of 'ream
/rob$em* to co&er t-e /erio' between fir*t a//earance of t-i* book an' t-e /.b$ication of
t-e *econ' e'ition. T-i* 6.*tification may not *eem &ery *ati*factory to t-e rea'er< none
t-e $e**# to me it wa* 'eci*i&e. T-e moti&e* w-ic- in'.ce' me to *.mmari*e t-e
treatment of 'ream* in t-e $iterat.re of t-e *.b6ect -a&e been e=-a.*te' by t-e fore,oin,
intro'.ction< to -a&e contin.e' t-i* wo.$' -a&e co*t me a ,reat 'ea$ of effort an' wo.$'
not -a&e been /artic.$ar$y .*ef.$ or in*tr.cti&e. For t-e inter&a$ in ;.e*tion 55 a /erio' of
nine year* 55 -a* yie$'e' not-in, new or &a$.ab$e a* re,ar'* t-e conce/tion of 'ream*#
eit-er in act.a$ materia$ or in no&e$ /oint* of &iew. In mo*t of t-e $iterat.re w-ic- -a*
a//eare' *ince t-e /.b$ication of my own work# t-e $atter -a* not been mentione' or
'i*c.**e'< it -a*# of co.r*e# recei&e' t-e $ea*t attention from t-e *o5ca$$e' @re*earc-
worker* on 'ream*1# w-o -a&e t-.* affor'e' a bri$$iant e=am/$e of t-e a&er*ion to
$earnin, anyt-in, new *o c-aracteri*tic of t-e *cienti*t. @Les savants ne sont pas curieu1#
*ai' t-e *coffer# Anato$e France. If t-ere were *.c- a t-in, in *cience a* t-e ri,-t of
re&en,e# I# in my t.rn# *-o.$' be 6.*tifie' in i,norin, t-e $iterat.re w-ic- -a* a//eare'
*ince t-e /.b$ication of t-i* book. T-e few re&iew* w-ic- -a&e a//eare' in t-e *cientific
6o.rna$* are *o f.$$ of mi*conce/tion* an' $ack of com/re-en*ion t-at my on$y /o**ib$e
an*wer to my critic* wo.$' be a re;.e*t t-at t-ey *-o.$' rea' t-i* book o&er a,ain 55 or
/er-a/* mere$y t-at t-ey *-o.$' rea' itA
!nd in a supplement to the fourth German edition "hich appeared in 191#, a $ear after I
pu%lished the first &n'lish translation of this "or(, he "rites:
Since t-en# t-e *tate of affair* -a* certain$y .n'er,one a c-an,e< my contrib.tion to t-e
@inter/retation of 'ream*1 i* no $on,er i,nore' in t-e $iterat.re of t-e *.b6ect. 0.t t-e new
*it.ation make* it e&en more im/o**ib$e to contin.e t-e fore,oin, *.mmary. The
Interpretation of Dreams -a* e&oke' a w-o$e *erie* of new contention* an' /rob$em*#
INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS
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w-ic- -a&e been e=/o.n'e' by t-e a.t-or* in t-e mo*t &arie' fa*-ion*. 0.t I cannot
'i*c.** t-e*e work* .nti$ I -a&e 'e&e$o/e' t-e t-eorie* to w-ic- t-eir a.t-or* -a&e
referre'. +-ate&er -a* a//eare' to me a* &a$.ab$e in t-i* recent $iterat.re# I -a&e
accor'in,$y re&iewe' in t-e co.r*e of t-e fo$$owin, e=/o*ition.
1 T-e fo$$owin, remark* are ba*e' on 0Bc-*en*c-BtC1* caref.$ e**ay# Traum und
Traumdeutun' im !ltertum 30er$in# 1D9D4.
T-e re$ation*-i/ between 'ream* an' 'i*ea*e i* 'i*c.**e' by %i//ocrate* in a c-a/ter of
-i* famo.* work.
INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS
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D
+HAPTER T*O
The Method of Dream Interpretation
THE ANA,-SIS OF A SPE+IMEN DREAM
T-e e/i,ra/- on t-e tit$e5/a,e of t-i* &o$.meE in'icate* t-e tra'ition to w-ic- I /refer to
a$$y my*e$f in my conce/tion of t-e 'ream. I am /ro/o*in, to *-ow t-at 'ream* are
ca/ab$e of inter/retation< an' any contrib.tion* to t-e *o$.tion of t-e /rob$em w-ic- -a&e
a$rea'y been 'i*c.**e' wi$$ emer,e on$y a* /o**ib$e by5/ro'.ct* in t-e accom/$i*-ment
of my */ecia$ ta*k. On t-e -y/ot-e*i* t-at 'ream* are *.*ce/tib$e of inter/retation# I at
once fin' my*e$f in 'i*a,reement wit- t-e /re&ai$in, 'octrine of 'ream* 55 in fact# wit-
a$$ t-e t-eorie* of 'ream*# e=ce/tin, on$y t-at of Sc-erner# for @to inter/ret a 'ream1# i* to
*/ecify it* @meanin,1# to re/$ace it by *omet-in, w-ic- take* it* /o*ition in t-e
concatenation of o.r /*yc-ic acti&itie* a* a $ink of 'efinite im/ortance an' &a$.e. 0.t# a*
we -a&e *een# t-e *cientific t-eorie* of t-e 'ream $ea&e no room for a /rob$em of
'reaminter/retation<
*ince# in t-e fir*t /$ace# accor'in, to t-e*e t-eorie*# 'reamin, i* not a
/*yc-ic acti&ity at a$$# b.t a *omatic /roce** w-ic- make* it*e$f known to t-e /*yc-ic
a//arat.* by mean* of *ymbo$*. ?ay o/inion -a* a$way* been o//o*e' to t-e*e t-eorie*.
It a**ert* it* /ri&i$e,e of /rocee'in, i$$o,ica$$y# an' a$t-o.,- it a'mit* t-at 'ream* are
incom/re-en*ib$e an' ab*.r'# it cannot *.mmon ./ t-e co.ra,e to 'eny t-at 'ream* -a&e
any *i,nificance. ?e' by a 'im int.ition# it *eem* rat-er to a**.me t-at 'ream* -a&e a
meanin,# a$beit a -i''en one< t-at t-ey are inten'e' a* a *.b*tit.te for *ome ot-er
t-o.,-t5/roce**# an' t-at we -a&e on$y to 'i*c$o*e t-i* *.b*tit.te correct$y in or'er to
'i*co&er t-e -i''en meanin, of t-e 'ream.
T-e .n*cientific wor$'# t-erefore# -a* a$way* en'ea&o.re' to @inter/ret1 'ream*# an' by
a//$yin, one or t-e ot-er of two e**entia$$y 'ifferent met-o'*. T-e fir*t of t-e*e met-o'*
en&i*a,e* t-e 'ream5content a* a w-o$e# an' *eek* to re/$ace it by anot-er content# w-ic-
i* inte$$i,ib$e an' in certain re*/ect* ana$o,o.*. T-i* i* *ymbo$ic 'ream5inter/retation<
an' of co.r*e it ,oe* to /iece* at t-e &ery o.t*et in t-e ca*e of t-o*e 'ream* w-ic- are not
on$y .ninte$$i,ib$e b.t conf.*e'. T-e con*tr.ction w-ic- t-e bib$ica$ >o*e/- /$ace' ./on
t-e 'ream of P-arao- f.rni*-e* an e=am/$e of t-i* met-o'. T-e *e&en fat kine# after
w-ic- came *e&en $ean one* t-at 'e&o.re' t-e former# were a *ymbo$ic *.b*tit.te for
*e&en year* of famine in t-e $an' of E,y/t# w-ic- accor'in, to t-e /re'iction were to
con*.me a$$ t-e *.r/$.* t-at *e&en fr.itf.$ year* -a' /ro'.ce'. Mo*t of t-e artificia$
'ream* contri&e' by t-e /oet*1 are inten'e' for *ome *.c- *ymbo$ic inter/retation# for
t-ey re/ro'.ce t-e t-o.,-t concei&e' by t-e /oet in a ,.i*e not .n$ike t-e 'i*,.i*e w-ic-
we are wont to fin' in o.r 'ream*.
T-e i'ea t-at t-e 'ream concern* it*e$f c-ief$y wit- t-e f.t.re# w-o*e form it *.rmi*e* in
a'&ance 55 a re$ic of t-e /ro/-etic *i,nificance wit- w-ic- 'ream* were once in&e*te' 55
now become* t-e moti&e for tran*$atin, into t-e f.t.re t-e meanin, of t-e 'ream w-ic-
-a* been fo.n' by mean* of *ymbo$ic inter/retation.
INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS
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A 'emon*tration of t-e manner in w-ic- one arri&e* at *.c- a *ymbo$ic inter/retation
cannot# of co.r*e# be ,i&en. S.cce** remain* a matter of in,enio.* con6ect.re# of 'irect
int.ition# an' for t-i* rea*on 'ream5inter/retation -a* nat.ra$$y been e$e&ate' into an art
w-ic- *eem* to 'e/en' ./on e=traor'inary ,ift*. T-e *econ' of t-e two /o/.$ar met-o'*
of 'ream5inter/retation entire$y aban'on* *.c- c$aim*. It mi,-t be 'e*cribe' a* t-e
@ci/-er met-o'1# *ince it treat* t-e 'ream a* a kin' of *ecret co'e in w-ic- e&ery *i,n i*
tran*$ate' into anot-er *i,n of known meanin,# accor'in, to an e*tab$i*-e' key. For
e=am/$e# I -a&e 'reamt of a $etter# an' a$*o of a f.nera$ or t-e $ike< I con*.$t a
@'reambook1#
an' I fin' t-at @$etter1 i* to be tran*$ate' by @&e=ation1 an' @f.nera$1 by
@en,a,ement1. It now remain* to e*tab$i*- a connection# w-ic- I am a,ain to a**.me a*
/ertainin, to t-e f.t.re# by mean* of t-e ri,maro$e w-ic- I -a&e 'eci/-ere'. An
intere*tin, &ariant of t-i* ci/-er /roce'.re# a &ariant in w-ic- it* c-aracter of /.re$y
mec-anica$ tran*ference i* to a certain e=tent correcte'# i* /re*ente' in t-e work on
'ream5inter/retation by Artemi'oro* of Da$'i*.2 %ere not on$y t-e 'ream5content# b.t
a$*o t-e /er*ona$ity an' *ocia$ /o*ition of t-e 'reamer are taken into con*i'eration# *o
t-at t-e *ame 'ream5content -a* a *i,nificance for t-e ric- man# t-e marrie' man# or t-e
orator# w-ic- i* 'ifferent from t-at w-ic- a//$ie* to t-e /oor man# t-e bac-e$or# or# $et .*
*ay# t-e merc-ant. T-e e**entia$ /oint# t-en# in t-i* /roce'.re i* t-at t-e work of
inter/retation i* not a//$ie' to t-e entirety of t-e 'ream# b.t to eac- /ortion of t-e
'reamcontent
*e&era$$y# a* t-o.,- t-e 'ream were a con,$omerate in w-ic- eac- fra,ment ca$$*
for */ecia$ treatment. Inco-erent an' conf.*e' 'ream* are certain$y t-o*e t-at -a&e been
re*/on*ib$e for t-e in&ention of t-e ci/-er met-o'.7
T-e wort-$e**ne** of bot- t-e*e /o/.$ar met-o'* of inter/retation 'oe* not a'mit of
'i*c.**ion. A* re,ar'* t-e *cientific treatment of t-e *.b6ect# t-e *ymbo$ic met-o' i*
$imite' in it* a//$ication# an' i* not *.*ce/tib$e of a ,enera$ e=/o*ition# In t-e ci/-er
met-o' e&eryt-in, 'e/en'* ./on w-et-er t-e @key1# t-e 'ream5book# i* re$iab$e# an' for
t-at a$$ ,.arantee* are $ackin,. So t-at one mi,-t be tem/te' to ,rant t-e contention of
t-e /-i$o*o/-er* an' /*yc-iatri*t*# an' to 'i*mi** t-e /rob$em of 'ream5inter/retation a*
a$to,et-er fancif.$.8
I -a&e# -owe&er# come to t-ink 'ifferent$y. I -a&e been force' to /ercei&e t-at -ere# once
more# we -a&e one of t-o*e not infre;.ent ca*e* w-ere an ancient an' *t.bborn$y retaine'
/o/.$ar be$ief *eem* to -a&e come nearer to t-e tr.t- of t-e matter t-an t-e o/inion of
mo'ern *cience. I m.*t in*i*t t-at t-e 'ream act.a$$y 'oe* /o**e** a meanin,# an' t-at a
*cientific met-o' of 'ream5inter/retation i* /o**ib$e. I arri&e' at my know$e',e of t-i*
met-o' in t-e fo$$owin, manner.
For year* I -a&e been occ./ie' wit- t-e re*o$.tion of certain /*yc-o/at-o$o,ica$
*tr.ct.re* 55 -y*terica$ /-obia*# ob*e**iona$ i'ea*# an' t-e $ike 55 wit- t-era/e.tic
intention*. I -a&e been *o occ./ie'# in fact# e&er *ince I -ear' t-e *i,nificant *tatement of
>o*e/- 0re.er# to t-e effect t-at in t-e*e *tr.ct.re*# re,ar'e' a* morbi' *ym/tom*#
*o$.tion an' treatment ,o -an' in -an'.9 +-ere it -a* been /o**ib$e to trace a
/at-o$o,ica$ i'ea back to t-o*e e$ement* in t-e /*yc-ic $ife of t-e /atient to w-ic- it
owe' it* ori,in# t-i* i'ea -a* cr.mb$e' away# an' t-e /atient -a* been re$ie&e' of it. In
&iew of t-e fai$.re of o.r ot-er t-era/e.tic effort*# an' in t-e face of t-e my*terio.*
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c-aracter of t-e*e /at-o$o,ica$ con'ition*# it *eeme' to me tem/tin,# in */ite of a$$ t-e
'iffic.$tie*# to fo$$ow t-e met-o' initiate' by 0re.er .nti$ a com/$ete e$.ci'ation of t-e
*.b6ect -a' been ac-ie&e'. I *-a$$ -a&e occa*ion e$*ew-ere to ,i&e a 'etai$e' acco.nt of
t-e form w-ic- t-e tec-ni;.e of t-i* /roce'.re -a* fina$$y a**.me'# an' of t-e re*.$t* of
my effort*. In t-e co.r*e of t-e*e /*yc-oana$ytic *t.'ie*# I -a//ene' ./on t-e ;.e*tion of
'ream5inter/retation. My /atient*# after I -a' /$e',e' t-em to inform me of a$$ t-e i'ea*
an' t-o.,-t* w-ic- occ.rre' to t-em in connection wit- a ,i&en t-eme# re$ate' t-eir
'ream*# an' t-.* ta.,-t me t-at a 'ream may be inter/o$ate' in t-e /*yc-ic
concatenation# w-ic- may be fo$$owe' backwar'* from a /at-o$o,ica$ i'ea into a
/atient1* memory. T-e ne=t *te/ wa* to treat t-e 'ream it*e$f a* a *ym/tom# an' to a//$y
to it t-e met-o' of inter/retation w-ic- -a' been worke' o.t for *.c- *ym/tom*.
For t-i* a certain /*yc-ic /re/aration on t-e /art of t-e /atient i* nece**ary. A twofo$'
effort i* ma'e# to *tim.$ate -i* attenti&ene** in re*/ect of -i* /*yc-ic /erce/tion*# an' to
e$iminate t-e critica$ */irit in w-ic- -e i* or'inari$y in t-e -abit of &iewin, *.c- t-o.,-t*
a* come to t-e *.rface. For t-e /.r/o*e of *e$f5ob*er&ation wit- concentrate' attention it
i* a'&anta,eo.* t-at t-e /atient *-o.$' take ./ a re*tf.$ /o*ition an' c$o*e -i* eye*< -e
m.*t be e=/$icit$y in*tr.cte' to reno.nce a$$ critici*m of t-e t-o.,-t formation* w-ic- -e
may /ercei&e. %e m.*t a$*o be to$' t-at t-e *.cce** of t-e /*yc-oana$y*i* 'e/en'* ./on
-i* notin, an' comm.nicatin, e&eryt-in, t-at /a**e* t-ro.,- -i* min'# an' t-at -e m.*t
not a$$ow -im*e$f to *.//re** one i'ea beca.*e it *eem* to -im .nim/ortant or irre$e&ant
to t-e *.b6ect# or anot-er beca.*e it *eem* non*en*ica$. %e m.*t /re*er&e an ab*o$.te
im/artia$ity in re*/ect to -i* i'ea*< for if -e i* .n*.cce**f.$ in fin'in, t-e 'e*ire' *o$.tion
of t-e 'ream# t-e ob*e**iona$ i'ea# or t-e $ike# it wi$$ be beca.*e -e /ermit* -im*e$f to be
critica$ of t-em.
I -a&e notice' in t-e co.r*e of my /*yc-oana$ytica$ work t-at t-e /*yc-o$o,ica$ *tate of a
man in an attit.'e of ref$ection i* entire$y 'ifferent from t-at of a man w-o i* ob*er&in,
-i* /*yc-ic /roce**e*. In ref$ection t-ere i* a ,reater /$ay of /*yc-ic acti&ity t-an in t-e
mo*t attenti&e *e$f5ob*er&ation< t-i* i* *-own e&en by t-e ten*e attit.'e an' t-e wrink$e'
brow of t-e man in a *tate of ref$ection# a* o//o*e' to t-e mimic tran;.i$$ity of t-e man
ob*er&in, -im*e$f. In bot- ca*e* t-ere m.*t be concentrate' attention# b.t t-e ref$ecti&e
man make* .*e of -i* critica$ fac.$tie*# wit- t-e re*.$t t-at -e re6ect* *ome of t-e t-o.,-t*
w-ic- ri*e into con*cio.*ne** after -e -a* become aware of t-em# an' abr./t$y interr./t*
ot-er*# *o t-at -e 'oe* not fo$$ow t-e $ine* of t-o.,-t w-ic- t-ey wo.$' ot-erwi*e o/en
./ for -im< w-i$e in re*/ect of yet ot-er t-o.,-t* -e i* ab$e to be-a&e in *.c- a manner
t-at t-ey 'o not become con*cio.* at a$$ 55 t-at i* to *ay# t-ey are *.//re**e' before t-ey
are /ercei&e'. In *e$f5ob*er&ation# on t-e ot-er -an'# -e -a* b.t one ta*k 55 t-at of
*.//re**in, critici*m< if -e *.ccee'* in 'oin, t-i*# an .n$imite' n.mber of t-o.,-t* enter
-i* con*cio.*ne** w-ic- wo.$' ot-erwi*e -a&e e$.'e' -i* ,ra*/. +it- t-e ai' of t-e
materia$ t-.* obtaine' 55 materia$ w-ic- i* new to t-e *e$f5ob*er&er 55 it i* /o**ib$e to
ac-ie&e t-e inter/retation of /at-o$o,ica$ i'ea*# an' a$*o t-at of 'ream5formation*. A*
wi$$ be *een# t-e /oint i* to in'.ce a /*yc-ic *tate w-ic- i* in *ome 'e,ree ana$o,o.*# a*
re,ar'* t-e 'i*trib.tion of /*yc-ic ener,y 3mobi$e attention4# to t-e *tate of t-e min'
before fa$$in, a*$ee/ 55 an' a$*o# of co.r*e# to t-e -y/notic *tate. On fa$$in, a*$ee/ t-e
@.n'e*ire' i'ea*1 emer,e# owin, to t-e *$ackenin, of a certain arbitrary 3an'# of co.r*e#
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a$*o critica$4 action# w-ic- i* a$$owe' to inf$.ence t-e tren' of o.r i'ea*< we are
acc.*tome' to */eak of fati,.e a* t-e rea*on of t-i* *$ackenin,< t-e mer,in, .n'e*ire'
i'ea* are c-an,e' into &i*.a$ an' a.'itory ima,e*. In t-e con'ition w-ic- it .ti$i*e' for
t-e ana$y*i* of 'ream* an' /at-o$o,ica$ i'ea*# t-i* acti&ity i* /.r/o*e$y an' 'e$iberate$y
reno.nce'# an' t-e /*yc-ic ener,y t-.* *a&e' 3or *ome /art of it4 i* em/$oye' in
attenti&e$y trackin, t-e .n'e*ire' t-o.,-t* w-ic- now come to t-e *.rface 55 t-o.,-t*
w-ic- retain t-eir i'entity a* i'ea* 3in w-ic- t-e con'ition 'iffer* from t-e *tate of fa$$in,
a*$ee/4. )*ndesired ideas+ are thus chan'ed into )desired+ ones.
T-ere are many /eo/$e w-o 'o not *eem to fin' it ea*y to a'o/t t-e re;.ire' attit.'e
towar' t-e a//arent$y @free$y ri*in,1 i'ea*# an' to reno.nce t-e critici*m w-ic- i*
ot-erwi*e a//$ie' to t-em. T-e @.n'e*ire' i'ea*1 -abit.a$$y e&oke t-e mo*t &io$ent
re*i*tance# w-ic- *eek* to /re&ent t-em from comin, to t-e *.rface. 0.t if we may cre'it
o.r ,reat /oet5/-i$o*o/-er Frie'ric- Sc-i$$er# t-e e**entia$ con'ition of /oetica$ creation
inc$.'e* a &ery *imi$ar attit.'e. In a certain /a**a,e in -i* corre*/on'ence wit- FGrner
3for t-e tracin, of w-ic- we are in'ebte' to Otto Rank4# Sc-i$$er re/$ie* in t-e fo$$owin,
wor'* to a frien' w-o com/$ain* of -i* $ack of creati&e /ower: @T-e rea*on for yo.r
com/$aint $ie*# it *eem* to me# in t-e con*traint w-ic- yo.r inte$$ect im/o*e* ./on yo.r
ima,ination. %ere I wi$$ make an ob*er&ation# an' i$$.*trate it by an a$$e,ory. A//arent$y
it i* not ,oo' 55 an' in'ee' it -in'er* t-e creati&e work of t-e min' 55 if t-e inte$$ect
e=amine* too c$o*e$y t-e i'ea* a$rea'y /o.rin, in# a* it were# at t-e ,ate*. Re,ar'e' in
i*o$ation# an i'ea may be ;.ite in*i,nificant# an' &ent.re*ome in t-e e=treme# b.t it may
ac;.ire im/ortance from an i'ea w-ic- fo$$ow* it< /er-a/*# in a certain co$$ocation wit-
ot-er i'ea*# w-ic- may *eem e;.a$$y ab*.r'# it may be ca/ab$e of f.rni*-in, a &ery
*er&iceab$e $ink. T-e inte$$ect cannot 6.',e a$$ t-e*e i'ea* .n$e** it can retain t-em .nti$ it
-a* con*i'ere' t-em in connection wit- t-e*e ot-er i'ea*. In t-e ca*e of a creati&e min'#
it *eem* to me# t-e inte$$ect -a* wit-'rawn it* watc-er* from t-e ,ate*# an' t-e i'ea* r.*-
in /e$$5me$$# an' on$y t-en 'oe* it re&iew an' in*/ect t-e m.$tit.'e. Ho. wort-y critic*#
or w-ate&er yo. may ca$$ yo.r*e$&e*# are a*-ame' or afrai' of t-e momentary an'
/a**in, ma'ne** w-ic- i* fo.n' in a$$ rea$ creator*# t-e $on,er or *-orter '.ration of
w-ic- 'i*tin,.i*-e* t-e t-inkin, arti*t from t-e 'reamer. %ence yo.r com/$aint* of
.nfr.itf.$ne**# for yo. re6ect too *oon an' 'i*criminate too *e&ere$y1 3$etter of December
1# 1:DD4.
An' yet# *.c- a wit-'rawa$ of t-e watc-er* from t-e ,ate* of t-e inte$$ect# a* Sc-i$$er /.t*
it# *.c- a tran*$ation into t-e con'ition of .ncritica$ *e$f5ob*er&ation# i* by no mean*
'iffic.$t.
Mo*t of my /atient* accom/$i*- it after my fir*t in*tr.ction*. I my*e$f can 'o *o &ery
com/$ete$y# if I a**i*t t-e /roce** by writin, 'own t-e i'ea* t-at f$a*- t-ro.,- my min'.
T-e ;.ant.m of /*yc-ic ener,y by w-ic- t-e critica$ acti&ity i* t-.* re'.ce'# an' by
w-ic- t-e inten*ity of *e$f5ob*er&ation may be increa*e'# &arie* con*i'erab$y accor'in,
to t-e *.b6ect5matter ./on w-ic- t-e attention i* to be fi=e'.
T-e fir*t *te/ in t-e a//$ication of t-i* /roce'.re teac-e* .* t-at one cannot make t-e
'ream a* a w-o$e t-e ob6ect of one1* attention# b.t on$y t-e in'i&i'.a$ com/onent* of it*
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content. If I a*k a /atient w-o i* a* yet .n/racti*e': @+-at occ.r* to yo. in connection
wit- t-i* 'reamI1 -e i* .nab$e# a* a r.$e# to fi= ./on anyt-in, in -i* /*yc-ic fie$' of
&i*ion. I m.*t fir*t 'i**ect t-e 'ream for -im< t-en# in connection wit- eac- fra,ment# -e
,i&e* me a n.mber of i'ea* w-ic- may be 'e*cribe' a* t-e @t-o.,-t* be-in'1 t-i* /art of
t-e 'ream. In t-i* fir*t an' im/ortant con'ition# t-en# t-e met-o' of 'ream5inter/retation
w-ic- I em/$oy 'i&er,e* from t-e /o/.$ar# -i*torica$ an' $e,en'ary met-o' of
inter/retation by *ymbo$i*m an' a//roac-e* more near$y to t-e *econ' or @ci/-er
met-o'1. ?ike t-i*# it i* an inter/retation in 'etai$# not en masse< $ike t-i*# it concei&e* t-e
'ream# from t-e o.t*et# a* *omet-in, b.i$t ./# a* a con,$omerate of /*yc-ic formation*.
In t-e co.r*e of my /*yc-oana$y*i* of ne.rotic* I -a&e a$rea'y *.b6ecte' /er-a/* more
t-an a t-o.*an' 'ream* to inter/retation# b.t I 'o not wi*- to .*e t-i* materia$ now a* an
intro'.ction to t-e t-eory an' tec-ni;.e of 'ream5inter/retation. For ;.ite a/art from t-e
fact t-at I *-o.$' $ay my*e$f o/en to t-e ob6ection t-at t-e*e are t-e 'ream* of ne.ro/at-*#
*o t-at t-e conc$.*ion* 'rawn from t-em wo.$' not a//$y to t-e 'ream* of -ea$t-y
/er*on*# t-ere i* anot-er rea*on t-at im/e$* me to re6ect t-em. T-e t-eme to w-ic- t-e*e
'ream* /oint i*# of co.r*e# a$way* t-e -i*tory of t-e ma$a'y t-at i* re*/on*ib$e for t-e
ne.ro*i*. %ence e&ery 'ream wo.$' re;.ire a &ery $on, intro'.ction# an' an in&e*ti,ation
of t-e nat.re an' etio$o,ica$ con'ition* of t-e /*yc-one.ro*e*# matter* w-ic- are in
t-em*e$&e* no&e$ an' e=cee'in,$y *tran,e# an' w-ic- wo.$' t-erefore 'i*tract attention
from t-e 'ream5/rob$em /ro/er. My /.r/o*e i* rat-er to /re/are t-e way# by t-e *o$.tion
of t-e 'ream5/rob$em# for t-e *o$.tion of t-e more 'iffic.$t /rob$em* of t-e /*yc-o$o,y
of t-e ne.ro*e*. 0.t if I e$iminate t-e 'ream* of ne.rotic*# w-ic- con*tit.te my /rinci/a$
materia$# I cannot be too fa*ti'io.* in my treatment of t-e re*t. On$y t-o*e 'ream* are $eft
w-ic- -a&e been inci'enta$$y re$ate' to me by -ea$t-y /er*on* of my ac;.aintance# or
w-ic- I fin' ,i&en a* e=am/$e* in t-e $iterat.re of 'ream5$ife. )nfort.nate$y# in a$$ t-e*e
'ream* I am 'e/ri&e' of t-e ana$y*i* wit-o.t w-ic- I cannot fin' t-e meanin, of t-e
'ream. My mo'e of /roce'.re i*# of co.r*e# $e** ea*y t-an t-at of t-e /o/.$ar ci/-er
met-o'# w-ic- tran*$ate* t-e ,i&en 'ream5content by reference to an e*tab$i*-e' key< I#
on t-e contrary# -o$' t-at t-e *ame 'ream5content may concea$ a 'ifferent meanin, in t-e
ca*e of 'ifferent /er*on*# or in 'ifferent connection*. I m.*t# t-erefore# re*ort to my own
'ream* a* a *o.rce of ab.n'ant an' con&enient materia$# f.rni*-e' by a /er*on w-o i*
more or $e** norma$# an' containin, reference* to many inci'ent* of e&ery'ay $ife. I *-a$$
certain$y be confronte' wit- 'o.bt* a* to t-e tr.*twort-ine** of t-e*e @*e$f5ana$y*e*1# an'
it wi$$ be *ai' t-at arbitrarine** i* by no mean* e=c$.'e' in *.c- ana$y*e*. In my own
6.',ment# con'ition* are more $ike$y to be fa&o.rab$e in *e$f5ob*er&ation t-an in t-e
ob*er&ation of ot-er*< in any ca*e# it i* /ermi**ib$e to in&e*ti,ate -ow m.c- can be
accom/$i*-e' in t-e matter of 'ream5inter/retation by mean* of *e$f5ana$y*i*. T-ere are
ot-er 'iffic.$tie* w-ic- m.*t be o&ercome in my own inner *e$f. One -a* a
com/re-en*ib$e a&er*ion to e=/o*in, *o many intimate 'etai$* of one1* own /*yc-ic $ife#
an' one 'oe* not fee$ *ec.re a,ain*t t-e mi*inter/retation* of *tran,er*. 0.t one m.*t be
ab$e to tran*cen' *.c- con*i'eration*. @Tout ps$cholo'iste#1 write* De$boe.f# @est o%li',
de faire l+aveu m-me de ses fai%lesses s+il croit par l. /eter du /our sur 0uel0ue pro%l1me
o%scur.1 An' I may a**.me for t-e rea'er t-at -i* initia$ intere*t in t-e in'i*cretion*
w-ic- I m.*t commit wi$$ &ery *oon ,i&e way to an e=c$.*i&e en,ro**ment in t-e
/*yc-o$o,ica$ /rob$em* e$.ci'ate' by t-em.:
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I *-a$$ t-erefore *e$ect one of my own 'ream* for t-e /.r/o*e of e$.ci'atin, my met-o'
of inter/retation. E&ery *.c- 'ream nece**itate* a /re$iminary *tatement< *o t-at I m.*t
now be, t-e rea'er to make my intere*t* -i* own for a time# an' to become ab*orbe'#
wit- me# in t-e mo*t trif$in, 'etai$* of my $ife< for an intere*t in t-e -i''en *i,nificance of
'ream* im/erati&e$y 'eman'* 6.*t *.c- a tran*ference.
2reliminar$ 3tatement 55 In t-e *.mmer of 1D!8 I -a' treate' /*yc-o5ana$ytica$$y a
yo.n, $a'y w-o wa* an intimate frien' of mine an' of my fami$y. It wi$$ be .n'er*too'
t-at *.c- com/$icate' re$ation* may e=cite manifo$' fee$in,* in t-e /-y*ician# an'
e*/ecia$$y t-e /*yc-ot-era/i*t. T-e /er*ona$ intere*t of t-e /-y*ician i* ,reater# b.t -i*
a.t-ority $e**. If -e fai$*# -i* frien'*-i/ wit- t-e /atient1* re$ati&e* i* in 'an,er of bein,
.n'ermine'. In t-i* ca*e# -owe&er# t-e treatment en'e' in /artia$ *.cce**< t-e /atient wa*
c.re' of -er -y*terica$ an=iety# b.t not of a$$ -er *omatic *ym/tom*. At t-at time I wa*
not yet ;.ite *.re of t-e criteria w-ic- 'enote t-e fina$ c.re of an -y*terica$ ca*e# an' I
e=/ecte' -er to acce/t a *o$.tion w-ic- 'i' not *eem acce/tab$e to -er. In t-e mi'*t of
t-i* 'i*a,reement we 'i*contin.e' t-e treatment for t-e *.mmer -o$i'ay*. One 'ay a
yo.n,er co$$ea,.e# one of my mo*t intimate frien'*# w-o -a' &i*ite' t-e /atient 55 Irma 55
an' -er fami$y in t-eir co.ntry re*i'ence# ca$$e' ./on me. I a*ke' -im -ow Irma wa*# an'
recei&e' t-e re/$y: @S-e i* better# b.t not ;.ite we$$.1 I rea$i*e t-at t-e*e wor'* of my
frien' Otto1*# or t-e tone of &oice in w-ic- t-ey were */oken# annoye' me. I t-o.,-t I
-ear' a re/roac- in t-e wor'*# /er-a/* to t-e effect t-at I -a' /romi*e' t-e /atient too
m.c-# an' 55 ri,-t$y or wron,$y 55 I attrib.te' Otto1* a//arent @takin, *i'e*1 a,ain*t me to
t-e inf$.ence of t-e /atient1* re$ati&e*# w-o# I a**.me'# -a' ne&er a//ro&e' of my
treatment. T-i* 'i*a,reeab$e im/re**ion# -owe&er# 'i' not become c$ear to me# nor 'i' I
*/eak of it. T-at *ame e&enin, I wrote t-e c$inica$ -i*tory of Irma1* ca*e# in or'er to ,i&e
it# a* t-o.,- to 6.*tify my*e$f# to Dr M.# a m.t.a$ frien'# w-o wa* at t-at time t-e $ea'in,
/er*ona$ity in o.r circ$e. D.rin, t-e ni,-t 3or rat-er in t-e ear$y mornin,4 I -a' t-e
fo$$owin, 'ream# w-ic- I recor'e' imme'iate$y after wakin,:D
Dream of >.$y 257# 1D!8
! 'reat hall 44 a num%er of 'uests, "hom "e are receivin' 44 amon' them Irma, "hom I
immediatel$ ta(e aside, as thou'h to ans"er her letter, and to reproach her for not $et
acceptin' the )solution+5 I sa$ to her: )If $ou still have pains, it is reall$ onl$ $our o"n
fault5+ 44 3he ans"ers: )If $ou onl$ (ne" "hat pains I have no" in the throat, stomach,
and a%domen 44 I am cho(ed %$ them5+ I am startled, and loo( at her5 3he loo(s pale and
puff$5 I thin( that after all I must %e overloo(in' some or'anic affection5 I ta(e her to the
"indo" and loo( into her throat5 3he offers some resistance to this, li(e a "omen "ho
has a set of false teeth5 I thin(, surel$, she doesn+t need them5 44 The mouth then opens
"ide, end I find a lar'e "hite spot on the ri'ht, and else"here I see etensive
're$ish"hite
sca%s adherin' to curiousl$ curled formations, "hich are evidentl$ shaped li(e the
tur%inal %ones of the nose5 44 I 0uic(l$ call Dr M5, "ho repeats the eamination and
confirms it5 5 5 5 Dr M5 loo(s 0uite unli(e his usual self6 he is ver$ pale, he limps, and his
chin is clean4shaven5 5 5 5 7o" m$ friend 8tto, too, is standin' %eside her, and m$ friend
Leopold percusses her covered chest, and sa$s: )3he has a dullness %elo", on the left,+
and also calls attention to an infiltrated portion of s(in on the left shoulder 9"hich I can
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feel, in spite of the dress:5 5 5 5 M5 sa$s: )There+s no dou%t that it+s an infection, %ut it
doesn+t matter6 d$senter$ "ill follo" and the poison "ill %e eliminated5+5 5 5 5 ;e (no",
too, precisel$ ho" the infection ori'inated5 M$ friend 8tto, not lon' a'o, 'ave her, "hen
she "as feelin' un"ell, an in/ection of a preparation of prop$l 5 5 5 prop$ls 5 5 5 propionic
acid 5 5 5 trimeth$lamin 9the formula of "hich I see %efore me, printed in heav$ t$pe:5 5 5 5
8ne doesn+t 'ive such in/ections so rashl$5 5 5 5 2ro%a%l$, too, the s$rin'e "as not clean.
T-i* 'ream -a* an a'&anta,e o&er many ot-er*. It i* at once ob&io.* to w-at e&ent* of t-e
/rece'in, 'ay it i* re$ate'# an' of w-at *.b6ect it treat*. T-e /re$iminary *tatement
e=/$ain* t-e*e matter*. T-e new* of Irma1* -ea$t- w-ic- I -a' recei&e' from Otto# an' t-e
c$inica$ -i*tory# w-ic- I wa* writin, $ate into t-e ni,-t# -a' occ./ie' my /*yc-ic
acti&itie* e&en '.rin, *$ee/. Ne&ert-e$e**# no one w-o -a' rea' t-e /re$iminary re/ort#
an' -a' know$e',e of t-e content of t-e 'ream# co.$' ,.e** w-at t-e 'ream *i,nifie'.
Nor 'o I my*e$f know. I am /.CC$e' by t-e morbi' *ym/tom* of w-ic- Irma com/$ain*
in t-e 'ream# for t-ey are not t-e *ym/tom* for w-ic- I treate' -er. I *mi$e at t-e
non*en*ica$ i'ea of an in6ection of /ro/ionic aci'# an' at Dr M.1* attem/t at con*o$ation.
Towar'* t-e en' t-e 'ream *eem* more ob*c.re an' ;.icker in tem/o t-an at t-e
be,innin,. In or'er to $earn t-e *i,nificance of a$$ t-e*e 'etai$* I re*o$&e to .n'ertake an
e=-a.*ti&e ana$y*i*.
ANA,-SIS
The hall 44 a num%er of 'uests, "hom "e are receivin'. +e were $i&in, t-at *.mmer at
<ellevue# an i*o$ate' -o.*e on one of t-e -i$$* a'6oinin, t-e Fa-$enber,. T-i* -o.*e wa*
ori,ina$$y b.i$t a* a /$ace of entertainment# an' t-erefore -a* .n.*.a$$y $ofty# -a$$5$ike
room*. T-e 'ream wa* 'reame' in <ellevue# a few 'ay* before my wife1* birt-'ay.
D.rin, t-e 'ay my wife -a' mentione' t-at *-e e=/ecte' *e&era$ frien'*# an' amon,
t-em Irma# to come to .* a* ,.e*t* for -er birt-'ay. My 'ream# t-en# antici/ate* t-i*
*it.ation: It i* my wife1* birt-'ay# an' we are recei&in, a n.mber of /eo/$e# amon, t-em
Irma# a* ,.e*t* in t-e $ar,e -a$$ of <ellevue.
I reproach Irma for not havin' accepted the )solution+, I sa$, )If $ou still have pains, it is
reall$ $our o"n fault.1 I mi,-t e&en -a&e *ai' t-i* w-i$e awake< I may -a&e act.a$$y *ai'
it. At t-at time I wa* of t-e o/inion reco,ni*e' 3$ater to be incorrect4 t-at my ta*k wa*
$imite' to informin, /atient* of t-e -i''en meanin, of t-eir *ym/tom*. +-et-er t-ey
t-en acce/te' or 'i' not acce/t t-e *o$.tion ./on w-ic- *.cce** 'e/en'e' 55 for t-at I
wa* not re*/on*ib$e. I am ,ratef.$ to t-i* error# w-ic-# fort.nate$y# -a* now been
o&ercome# *ince it ma'e $ife ea*ier for me at a time w-en# wit- a$$ my .na&oi'ab$e
i,norance# I wa* e=/ecte' to effect *.cce**f.$ c.re*. 0.t I note t-at in t-e */eec- w-ic- I
make to Irma in t-e 'ream I am abo&e a$$ an=io.* t-at I *-a$$ not be b$ame' for t-e /ain*
w-ic- *-e *ti$$ *.ffer*. If it i* Irma1* own fa.$t# it cannot be mine. S-o.$' t-e /.r/o*e of
t-e 'ream be $ooke' for in t-i* ;.arterI
Irma+s complaints 44 pains in the nec(, a%domen, and stomach6 she is cho(ed %$ them.
Pain* in t-e *tomac- be$on,e' to t-e *ym/tom5com/$e= of my /atient# b.t t-ey were not
&ery /rominent< *-e com/$aine' rat-er of ;.a$m* an' a fee$in, of na.*ea. Pain* in t-e
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neck an' ab'omen an' con*triction of t-e t-roat /$aye' -ar'$y any /art in -er ca*e. I
won'er w-y I -a&e 'eci'e' ./on t-i* c-oice of *ym/tom* in t-e 'ream< for t-e moment I
cannot 'i*co&er t-e rea*on.
3he loo(s pale and puff$. My /atient -a' a$way* a ro*y com/$e=ion. I *.*/ect t-at -ere
anot-er /er*on i* bein, *.b*tit.te' for -er.
I am startled at the idea that I ma$ have overloo(ed some or'anic affection. T-i*# a* t-e
rea'er wi$$ rea'i$y be$ie&e# i* a con*tant fear wit- t-e */ecia$i*t w-o *ee* ne.rotic* a$mo*t
e=c$.*i&e$y# an' w-o i* acc.*tome' to a*cribe to -y*teria *o many manife*tation* w-ic-
ot-er /-y*ician* treat a* or,anic. On t-e ot-er -an'# I am -a.nte' by a faint 'o.bt 55 I 'o
not know w-ence it come* 55 w-et-er my a$arm i* a$to,et-er -one*t. If Irma1* /ain* are
in'ee' of or,anic ori,in# it i* not my '.ty to c.re t-em. My treatment# of co.r*e# remo&e*
on$y -y*terica$ /ain*. It *eem* to me# in fact# t-at I wi*- to fin' an error in t-e 'ia,no*i*<
for t-en I co.$' not be re/roac-e' wit- fai$.re to effect a c.re.
I ta(e her to the "indo" in order to loo( into her throat5 3he resists a little, li(e a "oman
"ho has false teeth5 I thin( to m$self, she does not need them. I -a' ne&er -a' occa*ion to
in*/ect Irma1* ora$ ca&ity. T-e inci'ent in t-e 'ream remin'* me of an e=amination# ma'e
*ome time before# of a ,o&erne** w-o at fir*t /ro'.ce' an im/re**ion of yo.t-f.$ bea.ty#
b.t w-o# ./on o/enin, -er mo.t-# took certain mea*.re* to concea$ -er 'ent.re. Ot-er
memorie* of me'ica$ e=amination*# an' of /etty *ecret* re&ea$e' by t-em# to t-e
embarra**ment of bot- /-y*ician an' /atient# a**ociate t-em*e$&e* wit- t-i* ca*e. 55 @S-e
*.re$y 'oe* not nee' t-em1# i* /er-a/* in t-e fir*t /$ace a com/$iment to Irma: b.t I
*.*/ect yet anot-er meanin,. In a caref.$ ana$y*i* one i* ab$e to fee$ w-et-er or not t-e
arri1re4pens,es w-ic- are to be e=/ecte' -a&e a$$ been e=-a.*te'. T-e way in w-ic-
Irma *tan'* at t-e win'ow *.''en$y remin'* me of anot-er e=/erience. Irma -a* an
intimate woman frien' of w-om I t-ink &ery -i,-$y. One e&enin,# on /ayin, -er a &i*it# I
fo.n' -er at t-e win'ow in t-e /o*ition re/ro'.ce' in t-e 'ream# an' -er /-y*ician# t-e
*ame Dr M.# 'ec$are' t-at *-e -a' a 'i/-t-eritic membrane. T-e /er*on of Dr M. an' t-e
membrane ret.rn# in'ee'# in t-e co.r*e of t-e 'ream. Now it occ.r* to me t-at '.rin, t-e
/a*t few mont-* I -a&e -a' e&ery rea*on to *.//o*e t-at t-i* $a'y too i* -y*terica$. He*#
Irma -er*e$f betraye' t-e fact to me. 0.t w-at 'o I know of -er con'itionI On$y t-e one
t-in,# t-at $ike Irma in t-e 'ream *-e *.ffer* from -y*terica$ c-okin,. T-.*# in t-e 'ream
I -a&e re/$ace' my /atient by -er frien'. Now I remember t-at I -a&e often /$aye' wit-
t-e *.//o*ition t-at t-i* $a'y# too# mi,-t a*k me to re$ie&e -er of -er *ym/tom*. 0.t e&en
at t-e time I t-o.,-t it im/robab$e *ince *-e i* e=treme$y re*er&e'. S-e resists# a* t-e
'ream *-ow*. Anot-er e=/$anation mi,-t be t-at she does not need it< in fact# .nti$ now
*-e -a* *-own -er*e$f *tron, eno.,- to ma*ter -er con'ition wit-o.t o.t*i'e -e$/. Now
on$y a few feat.re* remain# w-ic- I can a**i,n neit-er to Irma nor to -er frien'< /a$e#
/.ffy# fa$*e teet-. T-e fa$*e teet- $e' me to t-e ,o&erne**< I now fee$ inc$ine' to be
*ati*fie' wit- ba' teet-. %ere anot-er /er*on# to w-om t-e*e feat.re* may a$$.'e# occ.r*
to me. S-e i* not my /atient# an' I 'o not wi*- -er to be my /atient# for I -a&e notice'
t-at *-e i* not at -er ea*e wit- me# an' I 'o not con*i'er -er a 'oci$e /atient. S-e i*
,enera$$y /a$e# an' once# w-en *-e -a' not fe$t /artic.$ar$y we$$# *-e wa* /.ffy.1! I -a&e
t-.* com/are' my /atient Irma wit- two ot-er*# w-o wo.$' $ikewi*e re*i*t treatment.
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+-at i* t-e meanin, of t-e fact t-at I -a&e e=c-an,e' -er for -er frien' in t-e 'reamI
Per-a/* t-at I wi*- to e=c-an,e -er< eit-er -er frien' aro.*e* in me *tron,er *ym/at-ie*#
or I -a&e a -i,-er re,ar' for -er inte$$i,ence. For I con*i'er Irma foo$i*- beca.*e *-e
'oe* not acce/t my *o$.tion. T-e ot-er woman wo.$' be more *en*ib$e# an' wo.$' t-.*
be more $ike$y to yie$'. The mouth then opens readil$< *-e wo.$' te$$ more t-an Irma.1"
;hat I see in the throat: a "hite spot and sca%%$ tur%inal %ones. T-e w-ite */ot reca$$*
'i/-t-eria# an' t-.* Irma1* frien'# b.t it a$*o reca$$* t-e ,ra&e i$$ne** of my e$'e*t
'a.,-ter two year* ear$ier# an' a$$ t-e an=iety of t-at .n-a//y time. T-e *cab on t-e
t.rbina$ bone* remin'* me of my an=iety concernin, my own -ea$t-. At t-at time I
fre;.ent$y .*e' cocaine in or'er to *.//re** 'i*tre**in, *we$$in,* in t-e no*e# an' I -a'
-ear' a few 'ay* /re&io.*$y t-at a $a'y /atient w-o 'i' $ikewi*e -a' contracte' an
e=ten*i&e necro*i* of t-e na*a$ m.co.* membrane. In 1DD8 it wa* I w-o -a'
recommen'e' t-e .*e of cocaine# an' I -a' been ,ra&e$y re/roac-e' in con*e;.ence. A
'ear frien'# w-o -a' 'ie' before t-e 'ate of t-i* 'ream# -a' -a*tene' -i* en' by t-e
mi*.*e of t-i* reme'y.
I 0uic(l$ call Dr M5, "ho repeats the eamination. T-i* wo.$' *im/$y corre*/on' to t-e
/o*ition w-ic- M. occ./ie' amon, .*. 0.t t-e wor' @;.ick$y1 i* *trikin, eno.,- to
'eman' a */ecia$ e=amination. It remin'* me of a *a' me'ica$ e=/erience. 0y contin.a$$y
/re*cribin, a 'r., 3*.$/-ona$4# w-ic- at t-at time wa* *ti$$ con*i'ere' -arm$e**# I wa*
once re*/on*ib$e for a con'ition of ac.te /oi*onin, in t-e ca*e of a woman /atient# an'
-a*ti$y t.rne' for a**i*tance to my o$'er an' more e=/erience' co$$ea,.e. T-e fact t-at I
rea$$y -a' t-i* ca*e in min' i* confirme' by a *.b*i'iary circ.m*tance. T-e /atient# w-o
*.cc.mbe' to t-e to=ic effect* of t-e 'r.,# bore t-e *ame name a* my e$'e*t 'a.,-ter. I
-a' ne&er t-o.,-t of t-i* .nti$ now< b.t now it *eem* to me a$mo*t $ike a retrib.tion of
fate 55 a* t-o.,- t-e *.b*tit.tion of /er*on* -a' to be contin.e' in anot-er *en*e< t-i*
Mati$'a for t-at Mati$'a< an eye for an eye# a toot- for a toot-. It i* a* t-o.,- I were
*eekin, e&ery o//ort.nity to re/roac- my*e$f for a $ack of me'ica$ con*cientio.*ne**.
Dr M5 is pale6 his chin is shaven, and he limps. Of t-i* *o m.c- i* correct# t-at -i*
.n-ea$t-y a//earance often aro.*e* t-e concern of -i* frien'*. T-e ot-er two
c-aracteri*tic* m.*t be$on, to anot-er /er*on. An e$'er brot-er $i&in, abroa' occ.r* to
me# for -e# too# *-a&e* -i* c-in# an' if I remember -im ri,-t$y# t-e M. of t-e 'ream bear*
on t-e w-o$e a certain re*emb$ance to -im. An' *ome 'ay* /re&io.*$y t-e new* arri&e'
t-at -e wa* $im/in, on acco.nt of an art-ritic affection of t-e -i/. T-ere m.*t be *ome
rea*on w-y I f.*e t-e two /er*on* into one in my 'ream.
I remember t-at# in fact# I wa* on ba' term* wit- bot- of t-em for *imi$ar rea*on*. 0ot-
-a' re6ecte' a certain /ro/o*a$ w-ic- I -a' recent$y ma'e t-em.
M$ friend 8tto is no" standin' net to the patient, and m$ friend Leopold eamines her
and calls attention to a dullness lo" do"n on the left side. My frien' ?eo/o$' a$*o i* a
/-y*ician# an' a re$ati&e of Otto1*. Since t-e two /racti*e t-e *ame */ecia$ity# fate -a*
ma'e t-em com/etitor*# *o t-at t-ey are con*tant$y bein, com/are' wit- one anot-er.
0ot- of t-em a**i*te' me for year*# w-i$e I wa* *ti$$ 'irectin, a /.b$ic c$inic for ne.rotic
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c-i$'ren. T-ere# *cene* $ike t-at re/ro'.ce' in my 'ream -a' often taken /$ace. +-i$e I
wo.$' be 'i*c.**in, t-e 'ia,no*i* of a ca*e wit- Otto# ?eo/o$' wo.$' e=amine t-e c-i$'
anew an' make an .ne=/ecte' contrib.tion towar'* o.r 'eci*ion. T-ere wa* a 'ifference
of c-aracter between t-e two men $ike t-at between In*/ector 0ra*i, an' -i* frien' Far$.
Otto wa* remarkab$y /rom/t an' a$ert< ?eo/o$' wa* *$ow an' t-o.,-tf.$# b.t t-oro.,-. If
I contra*t Otto an' t-e ca.tio.* ?eo/o$' in t-e 'ream I 'o *o# a//arent$y# in or'er to e=to$
?eo/o$'. T-e com/ari*on i* $ike t-at ma'e abo&e between t-e 'i*obe'ient /atient Irma
an' -er frien'# w-o wa* be$ie&e' to be more *en*ib$e. I now become aware of one of t-e
track* a$on, w-ic- t-e a**ociation of i'ea* in t-e 'ream /rocee'*: from t-e *ick c-i$' to
t-e c-i$'ren1* c$inic. (oncernin, t-e '.$$ne** $ow on t-e $eft *i'e# I -a&e t-e im/re**ion
t-at it corre*/on'* wit- a certain ca*e of w-ic- a$$ t-e 'etai$* were *imi$ar# a ca*e in
w-ic- ?eo/o$' im/re**e' me by -i* t-oro.,-ne**. I t-o.,-t &a,.e$y# too# of *omet-in,
$ike a meta*tatic affection# b.t it mi,-t a$*o be a reference to t-e /atient w-om I *-o.$'
-a&e $ike' to -a&e in Irma1* /$ace. For t-i* $a'y# a* far a* I can ,at-er# e=-ibite'
*ym/tom* w-ic- imitate' t.berc.$o*i*.
!n infiltrated portion of s(in on the left shoulder. I know at once t-at t-i* i* my own
r-e.mati*m of t-e *-o.$'er# w-ic- I a$way* fee$ if I $ie awake $on, at ni,-t. T-e &ery
/-ra*in, of t-e 'ream *o.n'* ambi,.o.*: @Somet-in, w-ic- I can fee$# a* -e 'oe*# in
*/ite of t-e 're**.1 @Fee$ on my own bo'y1 i* inten'e'. F.rt-er# it occ.r* to me -ow
.n.*.a$ t-e /-ra*e @infi$trate' /ortion of *kin1 *o.n'*. +e are acc.*tome' to t-e /-ra*e
@an infi$tration of t-e .//er /o*terior $eft1< t-i* wo.$' refer to t-e $.n,*# an' t-.*# once
more# to t.berc.$o*i*.
In spite of the dress. T-i*# to be *.re# i* on$y an inter/o$ation. At t-e c$inic t-e c-i$'ren
were# of co.r*e# e=amine' .n're**e'< -ere we -a&e *ome contra*t to t-e manner in w-ic-
a'.$t fema$e /atient* -a&e to be e=amine'. T-e *tory .*e' to be to$' of an eminent
/-y*ician t-at -e a$way* e=amine' -i* /atient* t-ro.,- t-eir c$ot-e*. T-e re*t i* ob*c.re
to me< I -a&e# frank$y# no inc$ination to fo$$ow t-e matter f.rt-er.
Dr M5 sa$s: )It+s an infection, %ut it doesn+t matter6 d$senter$ "ill follo", and the poison
"ill %e eliminated.1 T-i*# at fir*t# *eem* to me ri'ic.$o.*< ne&ert-e$e**# $ike e&eryt-in,
e$*e# it m.*t be caref.$$y ana$y*e'< more c$o*e$y ob*er&e' it *eem* after a$$ to -a&e a *ort
of meanin,. +-at I -a' fo.n' in t-e /atient wa* a $oca$ 'i/-t-eriti*. I remember t-e
'i*c.**ion abo.t 'i/-t-eriti* an' 'i/-t-eria at t-e time of my 'a.,-ter1* i$$ne**.
Di/-t-eria i* t-e ,enera$ infection w-ic- /rocee'* from $oca$ 'i/-t-eriti*. ?eo/o$'
'emon*trate* t-e e=i*tence of *.c- a ,enera$ infection by t-e '.$$ne**# w-ic- a$*o
*.,,e*t* a meta*tatic foc.*. I be$ie&e# -owe&er# t-at 6.*t t-i* kin' of meta*ta*i* 'oe* not
occ.r in t-e ca*e of 'i/-t-eria. It remin'* me rat-er of /yaemia.
It doesn+t matter i* a con*o$ation. I be$ie&e it fit* in a* fo$$ow*: T-e $a*t /art of t-e 'ream
-a* yie$'e' a content to t-e effect t-at t-e /atient1* *.fferin,* are t-e re*.$t of a *erio.*
or,anic affection. I be,in to *.*/ect t-at by t-i* I am on$y tryin, to *-ift t-e b$ame from
my*e$f. P*yc-ic treatment cannot be -e$' re*/on*ib$e for t-e contin.e' /re*ence of a
'i/-t-eritic affection. Now# in'ee'# I am 'i*tre**e' by t-e t-o.,-t of -a&in, in&ente'
*.c- a *erio.* i$$ne** for Irma# for t-e *o$e /.r/o*e of e=c.$/atin, my*e$f. It *eem* *o
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cr.e$. Accor'in,$y# I nee' t-e a**.rance t-at t-e o.tcome wi$$ be beni,n# an' it *eem* to
me t-at I ma'e a ,oo' c-oice w-en I /.t t-e wor'* t-at con*o$e' me into t-e mo.t- of Dr
M. 0.t -ere I am /$acin, my*e$f in a /o*ition of *./eriority to t-e 'ream< a fact w-ic-
nee'* e=/$anation.
0.t w-y i* t-i* con*o$ation *o non*en*ica$I
D$senter$. Some *ort of far5fetc-e' t-eoretica$ notion t-at t-e to=in* of 'i*ea*e mi,-t be
e$iminate' t-ro.,- t-e inte*tine*. Am I t-ereby tryin, to make f.n of Dr M.1* remarkab$e
*tore of farfetc-e' e=/$anation*# -i* -abit of concei&in, c.rio.* /at-o$o,ica$ re$ation*I
Dy*entery *.,,e*t* *omet-in, e$*e. A few mont-* a,o I -a' in my care a yo.n, man w-o
wa* *.fferin, from remarkab$e inte*tina$ tro.b$e*< a ca*e w-ic- -a' been treate' by ot-er
co$$ea,.e* a* one of @anaemia wit- ma$n.trition1. I rea$i*e' t-at it wa* a ca*e of -y*teria< I
wa* .nwi$$in, to .*e my /*yc-ot-era/y on -im# an' *ent -im off on a *ea5&oya,e. Now a
few 'ay* /re&io.*$y I -a' recei&e' a 'e*/airin, $etter from -im< -e wrote from E,y/t#
*ayin, t-at -e -a' -a' a fre*- attack# w-ic- t-e 'octor -a' 'ec$are' to be 'y*entery. I
*.*/ect t-at t-e 'ia,no*i* i* mere$y an error on t-e /art of an i,norant co$$ea,.e# w-o i*
a$$owin, -im*e$f to be foo$e' by t-e -y*teria< yet I cannot -e$/ re/roac-in, my*e$f for
/.ttin, t-e in&a$i' in a /o*ition w-ere -e mi,-t contract *ome or,anic affection of t-e
bowe$* in a''ition to -i* -y*teria. F.rt-ermore# 'y*entery *o.n'* not .n$ike 'i/-t-eria# a
wor' w-ic- 'oe* not occ.r in t-e 'ream.
He*# it m.*t be t-e ca*e t-at wit- t-e con*o$in, /ro,no*i*# @Dy*entery wi$$ 'e&e$o/# etc.1#
I am makin, f.n of Dr M.# for I reco$$ect t-at year* a,o -e once 6e*tin,$y to$' a &ery
*imi$ar *tory of a co$$ea,.e. %e -a' been ca$$e' in to con*.$t wit- -im in t-e ca*e of a
woman w-o wa* &ery *erio.*$y i$$# an' -e fe$t ob$i,e' to confront -i* co$$ea,.e# w-o
*eeme' &ery -o/ef.$# wit- t-e fact t-at -e fo.n' a$b.men in t-e /atient1* .rine. %i*
co$$ea,.e# -owe&er# 'i' not a$$ow t-i* to worry -im# b.t an*were' ca$m$y: @That does not
matter# my 'ear *ir< t-e a$b.men wi$$ *oon be e=crete'A1 T-.* I can no $on,er 'o.bt t-at
t-i* /art of t-e 'ream e=/re**e* 'eri*ion for t-o*e of my co$$ea,.e* w-o are i,norant of
-y*teria. An'# a* t-o.,- in confirmation# t-e t-o.,-t enter* my min': @Doe* Dr M. know
t-at t-e a//earance* in Irma1* frien'# -i* /atient# w-ic- ,a&e -im rea*on to fear
t.berc.$o*i*# are $ikewi*e '.e to -y*teriaI %a* -e reco,ni*e' t-i* -y*teria# or -a* -e
a$$owe' -im*e$f to be foo$e'I1
0.t w-at can be my moti&e in treatin, t-i* frien' *o ba'$yI T-at i* *im/$e eno.,-: Dr M.
a,ree* wit- my *o$.tion a* $itt$e a* 'oe* Irma -er*e$f. T-.*# in t-i* 'ream I -a&e a$rea'y
re&en,e' my*e$f on two /er*on*: on Irma in t-e wor'*# @If yo. *ti$$ -a&e /ain*# it i* yo.r
own fa.$t#1 an' on Dr M. in t-e wor'in, of t-e non*en*ica$ con*o$ation w-ic- -a* been
/.t into -i* mo.t-.
;e (no" precisel$ ho" the infection ori'inated. T-i* /reci*e know$e',e in t-e 'ream i*
remarkab$e. On$y a moment before t-i* we 'i' not yet know of t-e infection# *ince it wa*
fir*t 'emon*trate' by ?eo/o$'.
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M$ friend 8tto 'ave her an in/ection not lon' a'o, "hen she "as feelin' un"ell. Otto -a'
act.a$$y re$ate' '.rin, -i* *-ort &i*it to Irma1* fami$y t-at -e -a' been ca$$e' in to a
nei,-bo.rin, -ote$ in or'er to ,i&e an in6ection to *omeone w-o -a' been *.''en$y taken
i$$. In6ection* remin' me once more of t-e .nfort.nate frien' w-o /oi*one' -im*e$f wit-
cocaine. I -a' recommen'e' t-e reme'y for interna$ .*e on$y '.rin, t-e wit-'rawa$ of
mor/-ia< b.t -e imme'iate$y ,a&e -im*e$f in6ection* of cocaine.
;ith a preparation of prop$l 5 5 5 prop$ls 5 5 5 propionic acid. %ow on eart- 'i' t-i* occ.r
to meI On t-e e&enin, of t-e 'ay after I -a' written t-e c$inica$ -i*tory an' 'reame'
abo.t t-e ca*e# my wife o/ene' a bott$e of $i;.e.r $abe$$e' @Anana*1#11 w-ic- wa* a
/re*ent from o.r frien'# Otto. %e -a'# a* a matter of fact# a -abit of makin, /re*ent* on
e&ery /o**ib$e occa*ion< I -o/e -e wi$$ *ome 'ay be c.re' of t-i* by a wife.1 T-i* $i;.e.r
*me$t *o *tron,$y of f.*e$ oi$ t-at I ref.*e' to 'rink it. My wife *.,,e*te': @+e wi$$ ,i&e
t-e bott$e to t-e *er&ant*#1 an' I# more /r.'ent# ob6ecte'# wit- t-e /-i$ant-ro/ic remark:
@T-ey *-an1t be /oi*one' eit-er.1 T-e *me$$ of f.*e$ oi$ 3amy$ . . .4 -a* now a//arent$y
awakene' my memory of t-e w-o$e *erie*: /ro/y$# met-y$# etc.# w-ic- f.rni*-e' t-e
/re/aration of /ro/y$ mentione' in t-e 'ream. %ere# in'ee'# I -a&e effecte' a
*.b*tit.tion: I 'reamt of /ro/y$ after *me$$in, amy$< b.t *.b*tit.tion* of t-i* kin' are
/er-a/* /ermi**ib$e# e*/ecia$$y in or,anic c-emi*try.
Trimeth$lamin. In t-e 'ream I *ee t-e c-emica$ form.$a of t-i* *.b*tance 55 w-ic- at a$$
e&ent* i* e&i'ence of a ,reat effort on t-e /art of my memory 55 an' t-e form.$a i* e&en
/rinte' in -ea&y ty/e# a* t-o.,- to 'i*tin,.i*- it from t-e conte=t a* *omet-in, of
/artic.$ar im/ortance. An' w-ere 'oe* trimet-y$amin# t-.* force' on my attention# $ea'
meI To a con&er*ation wit- anot-er frien'# w-o for year* -a* been fami$iar wit- a$$ my
,erminatin, i'ea*# an' I wit- -i*. At t-at time -e -a' 6.*t informe' me of certain i'ea*
concernin, a *e=.a$ c-emi*try# an' -a' mentione'# amon, ot-er*# t-at -e t-o.,-t -e -a'
fo.n' in trimet-y$amin one of t-e /ro'.ct* of *e=.a$ metabo$i*m. T-i* *.b*tance t-.*
$ea'* me to *e=.a$ity# t-e factor to w-ic- I attrib.te t-e ,reate*t *i,nificance in re*/ect of
t-e ori,in of t-e*e ner&o.* affection* w-ic- I am tryin, to c.re. My /atient Irma i* a
yo.n, wi'ow< if I am re;.ire' to e=c.*e my fai$.re to c.re -er# I *-a$$ /er-a/* 'o be*t to
refer to t-i* con'ition# w-ic- -er a'mirer* wo.$' be ,$a' to terminate. 0.t in w-at a
*in,.$ar fa*-ion *.c- a 'ream i* fitte' to,et-erA T-e frien' w-o in my 'ream become*
my /atient in Irma1* /$ace i* $ikewi*e a yo.n, wi'ow.
I *.rmi*e w-y it i* t-at t-e form.$a of trimet-y$amin i* *o in*i*tent in t-e 'ream. So many
im/ortant t-in,* are centre' abo.t t-i* one wor': trimet-y$amin i* an a$$.*ion# not mere$y
to t-e a$$5im/ortant factor of *e=.a$ity# b.t a$*o to a frien' w-o*e *ym/at-y I remember
wit- *ati*faction w-ene&er I fee$ i*o$ate' in my o/inion*. An' t-i* frien'# w-o /$ay* *.c-
a $ar,e /art in my $ife: wi$$ -e not a//ear yet a,ain in t-e concatenation of i'ea* /ec.$iar
to t-i* 'reamI Of co.r*e< -e -a* a */ecia$ know$e',e of t-e re*.$t* of affection* of t-e
no*e an' t-e *in.*e*# an' -a* re&ea$e' to *cience *e&era$ -i,-$y remarkab$e re$ation*
between t-e t.rbina$ bone* an' t-e fema$e *e=.a$ or,an*. 3T-e t-ree c.r$y formation* in
Irma1* t-roat.4 I ,ot -im to e=amine Irma# in or'er to 'etermine w-et-er -er ,a*tric /ain*
were of na*a$ ori,in. 0.t -e -im*e$f *.ffer* from *.//.rati&e r-initi*# w-ic- ,i&e* me
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concern# an' to t-i* /er-a/* t-ere i* an a$$.*ion in /yaemia# w-ic- -o&er* before me in
t-e meta*ta*i* of t-e 'ream.
8ne doesn+t 'ive such in/ections so rashl$. %ere t-e re/roac- of ra*-ne** i* -.r$e'
'irect$y at my frien' Otto. I be$ie&e I -a' *ome *.c- t-o.,-t in t-e afternoon# w-en -e
*eeme' to in'icate# by wor' an' $ook# t-at -e -a' taken *i'e* a,ain*t me. It wa*# /er-a/*:
@%ow ea*i$y -e i* inf$.ence'< -ow irre*/on*ib$y -e /rono.nce* 6.',ment.1 F.rt-er# t-e
abo&e *entence /oint* once more to my 'ecea*e' frien'# w-o *o irre*/on*ib$y re*orte' to
cocaine in6ection*. A* I -a&e *ai'# I -a' not inten'e' t-at in6ection* of t-e 'r., *-o.$' be
taken. I note t-at in re/roac-in, Otto I once more to.c- ./on t-e *tory of t-e .nfort.nate
Mati$'a# w-ic- wa* t-e /rete=t for t-e *ame re/roac- a,ain*t me. %ere# ob&io.*$y# I am
co$$ectin, e=am/$e* of my con*cientio.*ne**# an' a$*o of t-e re&er*e.
2ro%a%l$ too the s$rin'e "as not clean. Anot-er re/roac- 'irecte' at Otto# b.t
ori,inatin, e$*ew-ere. On t-e /re&io.* 'ay I -a//ene' to meet t-e *on of an o$' $a'y of
ei,-ty5two# to w-om I am ob$i,e' to ,i&e two in6ection* of mor/-ia 'ai$y. At /re*ent *-e
i* in t-e co.ntry# an' I -a&e -ear' t-at *-e i* *.fferin, from /-$ebiti*. I imme'iate$y
t-o.,-t t-at t-i* mi,-t be a ca*e of infi$tration ca.*e' by a 'irty *yrin,e. It i* my /ri'e
t-at in two year* I -a&e not ,i&en -er a *in,$e infi$tration< I am a$way* caref.$# of co.r*e#
to *ee t-at t-e *yrin,e i* /erfect$y c$ean. For I am con*cientio.*. From t-e /-$ebiti* I
ret.rn to my wife# w-o once *.ffere' from t-rombo*i* '.rin, a /erio' of /re,nancy# an'
now t-ree re$ate' *it.ation* come to t-e *.rface in my memory# in&o$&in, my wife# Irma#
an' t-e 'ea' Mati$'a# w-o*e i'entity -a* a//arent$y 6.*tifie' my /.ttin, t-e*e t-ree
/er*on* in one anot-er1* /$ace*.
I -a&e now com/$ete' t-e inter/retation of t-e 'ream.12 In t-e co.r*e of t-i* inter/retation
I -a&e taken ,reat /ain* to a&oi' a$$ t-o*e notion* w-ic- m.*t -a&e been *.,,e*te' by a
com/ari*on of t-e 'ream5content wit- t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* -i''en be-in' t-i* content.
Meanw-i$e t-e @meanin,1 of t-e 'ream -a* 'awne' ./on me. I -a&e note' an intention
w-ic- i* rea$i*e' t-ro.,- t-e 'ream# an' w-ic- m.*t -a&e been my moti&e in 'reamin,.
T-e 'ream f.$fi$* *e&era$ wi*-e*# w-ic- were awakene' wit-in me by t-e e&ent* of t-e
/re&io.* e&enin, 3Otto1* new*# an' t-e writin, of t-e c$inica$ -i*tory4. For t-e re*.$t of
t-e 'ream i*# t-at it i* not I w-o am to b$ame for t-e /ain w-ic- Irma i* *ti$$ *.fferin,# b.t
t-at Otto i* to b$ame for it. Now Otto -a* annoye' me by -i* remark abo.t Irma1*
im/erfect c.re< t-e 'ream a&en,e* me ./on -im# in t-at it t.rn* t-e re/roac- ./on
-im*e$f. T-e 'ream ac;.it* me of re*/on*ibi$ity for Irma1* con'ition# a* it refer* t-i*
con'ition to ot-er ca.*e* 3w-ic- 'o# in'ee'# f.rni*- ;.ite a n.mber of e=/$anation*4. T-e
'ream re/re*ent* a certain *tate of affair*# *.c- a* I mi,-t wi*- to e=i*t< the content of the
dream is thus the fulfilment of a "ish6 its motive is a "ish.
T-i* m.c- i* a//arent at fir*t *i,-t. 0.t many ot-er 'etai$* of t-e 'ream become
inte$$i,ib$e w-en re,ar'e' from t-e *tan'/oint of wi*-5f.$fi$ment. I take my re&en,e on
Otto# not mere$y for too rea'i$y takin, *i'e* a,ain*t me# in t-at I acc.*e -im of care$e**
me'ica$ treatment 3t-e in6ection4# b.t I re&en,e my*e$f a$*o for t-e ba' $i;.e.r w-ic-
*me$$* of f.*e$ oi$# an' I fin' an e=/re**ion in t-e 'ream w-ic- .nite* bot- t-e*e
re/roac-e*: t-e in6ection of a /re/aration of /ro/y$. Sti$$ I am not *ati*fie'# b.t contin.e
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to a&en,e my*e$f by com/arin, -im wit- -i* more re$iab$e co$$ea,.e. T-ereby I *eem to
*ay: @I $ike -im better t-an yo..1 0.t Otto i* not t-e on$y /er*on w-o m.*t be ma'e to fee$
t-e wei,-t of my an,er. I take my re&en,e on t-e 'i*obe'ient /atient# by e=c-an,in, -er
for a more *en*ib$e an' more 'oci$e one. Nor 'o I /a** o&er Dr M.1* contra'iction< for I
e=/re**# in an ob&io.* a$$.*ion# my o/inion of -im: name$y# t-at -i* attit.'e in t-i* ca*e
i* t-at of an i,noram.* 3@Dy*entery wi$$ 'e&e$o/# etc.14. In'ee'# it *eem* a* t-o.,- I were
a//ea$in, from -im to *omeone better informe' 3my frien'# w-o to$' me abo.t
trimet-y$amin4# 6.*t a* I -a&e t.rne' from Irma to -er frien'# an' from Otto to ?eo/o$'. It
i* a* t-o.,- I were to *ay: Ri' me of t-e*e t-ree /er*on*# re/$ace t-em by t-ree ot-er* of
my own c-oice# an' I *-a$$ be ri' of t-e re/roac-e* w-ic- I am not wi$$in, to a'mit t-at I
'e*er&eA In my 'ream t-e .nrea*onab$ene** of t-e*e re/roac-e* i* 'emon*trate' for me in
t-e mo*t e$aborate manner. Irma1* /ain* are not attrib.tab$e to me# *ince *-e -er*e$f i* to
b$ame for t-em# in t-at *-e ref.*e* to acce/t my *o$.tion. T-ey 'o not concern me# for
bein, a* t-ey are of an or,anic nat.re# t-ey cannot /o**ib$y be c.re' by /*yc-ic
treatment. 55 Irma1* *.fferin,* are *ati*factori$y e=/$aine' by -er wi'ow-oo'
3trimet-y$aminA4< a *tate w-ic- I cannot a$ter. 55 Irma1* i$$ne** -a* been ca.*e' by an
inca.tio.* in6ection a'mini*tere' by Otto# an in6ection of an .n*.itab$e 'r.,# *.c- a* I
*-o.$' ne&er -a&e a'mini*tere'. 55 Irma1* com/$aint i* t-e re*.$t of an in6ection ma'e
wit- an .nc$ean *yrin,e# $ike t-e /-$ebiti* of my o$' $a'y /atient# w-erea* my in6ection*
-a&e ne&er ca.*e' any i$$ effect*. I am aware t-at t-e*e e=/$anation* of Irma1* i$$ne**#
w-ic- .nite in ac;.ittin, me# 'o not a,ree wit- one anot-er< t-at t-ey e&en e=c$.'e one
anot-er. T-e w-o$e /$ea 55 for t-i* 'ream i* not-in, e$*e 55 reca$$* &i&i'$y t-e 'efence
offere' by a man w-o wa* acc.*e' by -i* nei,-bo.r of -a&in, ret.rne' a kett$e in a
'ama,e' con'ition. In t-e fir*t /$ace# -e *ai'# -e -a' ret.rne' t-e kett$e .n'ama,e'< in
t-e *econ' /$ace it a$rea'y -a' -o$e* in it w-en -e borrowe' it< an' in t-e t-ir' /$ace# -e
-a' ne&er borrowe' it at a$$. A com/$icate' 'efence# b.t *o m.c- t-e better< if on$y one
of t-e*e t-ree $ine* of 'efence i* reco,ni*e' a* &a$i'# t-e man m.*t be ac;.itte'.
Sti$$ ot-er t-eme* /$ay a /art in t-e 'ream# an' t-eir re$ation to my non5re*/on*ibi$ity for
Irma1* i$$ne** i* not *o a//arent: my 'a.,-ter1* i$$ne**# an' t-at of a /atient wit- t-e *ame
name< t-e -armf.$ne** of cocaine< t-e affection of my /atient# w-o wa* tra&e$$in, in
E,y/t< concern abo.t t-e -ea$t- of my wife< my brot-er# an' Dr M.< my own /-y*ica$
tro.b$e*# an' an=iety concernin, my ab*ent frien'# w-o i* *.fferin, from *.//.rati&e
r-initi*. 0.t if I kee/ a$$ t-e*e t-in,* in &iew# t-ey combine into a *in,$e train of t-o.,-t#
w-ic- mi,-t be $abe$$e': concern for t-e -ea$t- of my*e$f an' ot-er*< /rofe**iona$
con*cientio.*ne**. I reca$$ a &a,.e$y 'i*a,reeab$e fee$in, w-en Otto ,a&e me t-e new* of
Irma1* con'ition. ?a*t$y# I am inc$ine'# after t-e e&ent# to fin' an e=/re**ion of t-i*
f$eetin, *en*ation in t-e train of t-o.,-t* w-ic- form* /art of t-e 'ream. It i* a* t-o.,-
Otto -a' *ai' to me: @Ho. 'o not take yo.r me'ica$ '.tie* *erio.*$y eno.,-< yo. are not
con*cientio.*< yo. 'o not /erform w-at yo. /romi*e.1 T-ere./on t-i* train of t-o.,-t
/$ace' it*e$f at my *er&ice# in or'er t-at I mi,-t ,i&e /roof of my e=treme
con*cientio.*ne**# of my intimate concern abo.t t-e -ea$t- of my re$ati&e*# frien'* an'
/atient*. (.rio.*$y eno.,-# t-ere are a$*o *ome /ainf.$ memorie* in t-i* materia$# w-ic-
confirm t-e b$ame attac-e' to Otto rat-er t-an my own e=c.$/ation. T-e materia$ i*
a//arent$y im/artia$# b.t t-e connection between t-i* broa'er materia$# on w-ic- t-e
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'ream i* ba*e'# an' t-e more $imite' t-eme from w-ic- emer,e* t-e wi*- to be innocent
of Irma1* i$$ne**# i*# ne&ert-e$e**# .nmi*takab$e.
I 'o not wi*- to a**ert t-at I -a&e entire$y re&ea$e' t-e meanin, of t-e 'ream# or t-at my
inter/retation i* f$aw$e**.
I co.$' *ti$$ */en' m.c- time ./on it< I co.$' 'raw f.rt-er e=/$anation* from it# an'
'i*c.** f.rt-er /rob$em* w-ic- it *eem* to /ro/o.n'. I can e&en /ercei&e t-e /oint* from
w-ic- f.rt-er menta$ a**ociation* mi,-t be trace'< b.t *.c- con*i'eration* a* are a$way*
in&o$&e' in e&ery 'ream of one1* own /re&ent me from inter/retin, it fart-er. T-o*e w-o
are o&er5rea'y to con'emn *.c- re*er&e *-o.$' make t-e e=/eriment of tryin, to be more
*trai,-tforwar'. For t-e /re*ent I am content wit- t-e one fre*- 'i*co&ery w-ic- -a* 6.*t
been ma'e: If t-e met-o' of 'ream5inter/retation -ere in'icate' i* fo$$owe'# it wi$$ be
fo.n' t-at 'ream* 'o rea$$y /o**e** a meanin,# an' are by no mean* t-e e=/re**ion of a
'i*inte,rate' cerebra$ acti&ity# a* t-e writer* on t-e *.b6ect wo.$' -a&e .* be$ie&e. ;hen
the "or( of interpretation has %een completed the dream can %e reco'nised as a
"ishfulfilment.
E JKir,i$# !eneid KII# 21L
1 In a no&e$ Gradiva# by t-e /oet +. >en*en# I c-ance' to 'i*co&er *e&era$ fictitio.*
'ream*# w-ic- were /erfect$y correct in t-eir con*tr.ction# an' co.$' be inter/rete' a*
t-o.,- t-ey -a' not been in&ente'# b.t -a' been 'reamt by act.a$ /er*on*. T-e /oet
'ec$are'# ./on my in;.iry# t-at -e wa* .nac;.ainte' wit- my t-eory of 'ream*. I -a&e
ma'e .*e of t-i* a,reement between my in&e*ti,ation* an' t-e creation* of t-e /oet a* a
/roof of t-e correctne** of my met-o' of 'ream5ana$y*i* 3Der ;ahn und die Tr=ume in
;5 >ensen+s Gradiva# &o$. i of t-e 3chriften ?ur an'e"andten 3eelen(unde# 1!"9# e'ite'
by my*e$f# Ges5 3chriften# &o$. i=4.
Ari*tot$e e=/re**e' -im*e$f in t-i* connection by *ayin, t-at t-e be*t inter/reter of
'ream* i* -e w-o can be*t ,ra*/ *imi$aritie*. For 'ream5/ict.re*# $ike /ict.re* in water#
are 'i*fi,.re' by t-e motion 3of t-e water4# *o t-at -e -it* t-e tar,et be*t w-o i* ab$e to
reco,ni*e t-e tr.e /ict.re in t-e 'i*torte' one 30Bc-*en*c-BtC# /. 984.
2 Artemi'oro* of Da$'i*# born /robab$y in t-e be,innin, of t-e *econ' cent.ry of o.r
ca$en'ar# -a* f.rni*-e' .* wit- t-e mo*t com/$ete an' caref.$ e$aboration of
'reaminter/retation
a* it e=i*te' in t-e Graeco5Roman wor$'. A* Gom/ertC -a* em/-a*i*e'# -e
a*cribe' ,reat im/ortance to t-e con*i'eration t-at 'ream* o.,-t to be inter/rete' on t-e
ba*i* of ob*er&ation an' e=/erience# an' -e 'rew a 'efinite $ine between -i* own art an'
ot-er met-o'*# w-ic- -e con*i'ere' fra.'.$ent. T-e /rinci/$e of -i* art of inter/retation
i*# accor'in, to Gom/ertC# i'entica$ wit- t-at of ma,ic: i.e. t-e /rinci/$e of a**ociation.
T-e t-in, 'reame' meant w-at it reca$$e' to t-e memory 55 to t-e memory# of co.r*e# of
t-e 'ream5inter/reterA T-i* fact 55 t-at t-e 'ream may remin' t-e inter/reter of &ario.*
t-in,*# an' e&ery inter/reter of 'ifferent t-in,* 55 $ea'*# of co.r*e# to .ncontro$$ab$e
arbitrarine** an' .ncertainty. T-e tec-ni;.e w-ic- I am abo.t to 'e*cribe 'iffer* from
t-at of t-e ancient* in one e**entia$ /oint# name$y# in t-at it im/o*e* ./on t-e 'reamer
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-im*e$f t-e work of inter/retation. In*tea' of takin, into acco.nt w-ate&er may occ.r to
t-e 'ream5inter/reter# it con*i'er* on$y w-at occ.r* to t-e 'reamer in connection wit- t-e
'ream5e$ement concerne'. Accor'in, to t-e recent recor'* of t-e mi**ionary Tfink'6it
3!nthropos# 1!124# it wo.$' *eem t-at t-e mo'ern 'ream5inter/reter* of t-e Orient
$ikewi*e attrib.te m.c- im/ortance to t-e co5o/eration of t-e 'reamer. Of t-e
'reaminter/reter*
amon, t-e Me*o/otamian Arab* t-i* writer re$ate* a* fo$$ow*: @2our
interpreter eactement un son'e les oniromanciens les plus ha%iles s+informent de ceu
0ui les consultent de toutes les circonstances 0u+ils re'ardent n,cessaires pour la %onne
eplication 5 5 5 &n un mot, nos oniromanciens ne laissent aucune circonstance leur
,chapper et ne donnent l+interpr,tation d,sir, avant d+avoir parfaitement saisi et re@u
toutes les interro'ations d,sira%les51 Amon, t-e*e ;.e*tion* one a$way* fin'* 'eman'*
for /reci*e information in re*/ect to near re$ati&e* 3/arent*# wife# c-i$'ren4 a* we$$ a* t-e
fo$$owin, form.$a: ha%istine in hac nocte copulam con/u'alem ante vel post somniumA 44
)L+id,e dominante dans l+interpr,tation des son'es consiste . epli0uer le r-ve par son
oppos,.1
7 Dr A$fre' Robit*ek ca$$* my attention to t-e fact t-at Orienta$ 'ream5book*# of w-ic-
o.r* are /itif.$ /$a,iari*m*# common$y .n'ertake t-e inter/retation of 'ream5e$ement* in
accor'ance wit- t-e a**onance an' *imi$arity of wor'*. Since t-e*e re$ation*-i/* m.*t be
$o*t by tran*$ation into o.r $an,.a,e# t-e incom/re-en*ibi$ity of t-e e;.i&a$ent* in o.r
/o/.$ar @'ream5book*1 i* -ereby e=/$aine'. Information a* to t-e e=traor'inary
*i,nificance of /.n* an' t-e /$ay ./on wor'* in t-e o$' Orienta$ c.$t.re* may be fo.n' in
t-e writin,* of %.,o +inck$er. T-e fine*t e=am/$e of a 'ream5inter/retation w-ic- -a*
come 'own to .* from anti;.ity i* ba*e' on a /$ay ./on wor'*. Artemi'oro* re$ate* t-e
fo$$owin, 3/. 84: @0.t it *eem* to me t-at Ari*tan'ro* ,a&e a mo*t -a//y inter/retation
to A$e=an'er of Mace'on. +-en t-e $atter -e$' Tyro* encom/a**e' an' in a *tate of
*ie,e# an' wa* an,ry an' 'e/re**e' o&er t-e ,reat wa*te of time# -e 'reame' t-at -e *aw
a Satyr 'ancin, on -i* *-ie$'. It -a//ene' t-at Ari*tan'ro* wa* in t-e nei,-bo.r-oo' of
Tyro*# an' in t-e e*cort of t-e kin,# w-o wa* wa,in, war on t-e Syrian*. 0y 'i&i'in, t-e
wor' Satyro* into σα an' τνρος# -e in'.ce' t-e kin, to become more a,,re**i&e in t-e
*ie,e. An' t-.* A$e=an'er became ma*ter of t-e city.1 3ΣαΤνρος M t-ine i* Tyro*.4 T-e
'ream# in'ee'# i* *o intimate$y connecte' wit- &erba$ e=/re**ion t-at FerencCi 6.*t$y
remark* t-at e&ery ton,.e -a* it* own 'ream5$an,.a,e. A 'ream i*# a* a r.$e# not to be
tran*$ate' into ot-er $an,.a,e*.
8 After t-e com/$etion of my man.*cri/t# a /a/er by St.m/f came to my notice w-ic-
a,ree* wit- my work in attem/tin, to /ro&e t-at t-e 'ream i* f.$$ of meanin, an' ca/ab$e
of inter/retation. 0.t t-e inter/retation i* .n'ertaken by mean* of an a$$e,ori*in,
*ymbo$i*m# an' t-ere i* no ,.arantee t-at t-e /roce'.re i* ,enera$$y a//$icab$e.
9 3elected 2apers on B$steria and other 2s$choneuroses. Mono,ra/- *erie*# >ourn5 of
7ervous and Mental Diseases.
: %owe&er# I wi$$ not omit to mention# in ;.a$ification of t-e abo&e *tatement# t-at I -a&e
/ractica$$y ne&er re/orte' a com/$ete inter/retation of a 'ream of my own. An' I wa*
/robab$y ri,-t not to tr.*t too far to t-e rea'er1* 'i*cretion.
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D T-i* i* t-e fir*t 'ream w-ic- I *.b6ecte' to an e=-a.*ti&e inter/retation.
! T-e com/$aint of /ain* in t-e ab'omen# a* yet .ne=/$aine'# may a$*o be referre' to t-i*
t-ir' /er*on. It i* my own wife# of co.r*e# w-o i* in ;.e*tion< t-e ab'omina$ /ain*
remin' me of one of t-e occa*ion* on w-ic- -er *-yne** became e&i'ent to me. I m.*t
a'mit t-at I 'o not treat Irma an' my wife &ery ,a$$ant$y in t-i* 'ream# b.t $et it be *ai'#
in my 'efence# t-at I am mea*.rin, bot- of t-em a,ain*t t-e i'ea$ of t-e co.ra,eo.* an'
'oci$e fema$e /atient.
1" I *.*/ect t-at t-e inter/retation of t-i* /ortion -a* not been carrie' far eno.,- to fo$$ow
e&ery -i''en meanin,. If I were to contin.e t-e com/ari*on of t-e t-ree women# I *-o.$'
,o far afie$'. E&ery 'ream -a* at $ea*t one /oint at w-ic- it i* .nfat-omab$e< a centra$
/oint# a* it were# connectin, it wit- t-e .nknown.
11 @Anana*1# moreo&er# -a* a remarkab$e a**onance wit- t-e fami$y name of my /atient
Irma.
1 In t-i* t-e 'ream 'i' not t.rn o.t to be /ro/-etic. 0.t in anot-er *en*e it /ro&e' correct#
for t-e @.n*o$&e'1 *tomac- /ain*# for w-ic- I 'i' not want to be b$ame'# were t-e
forer.nner* of a *erio.* i$$ne**# '.e to ,a$$*tone*.
12 E&en if I -a&e not# a* mi,-t be e=/ecte'# acco.nte' for e&eryt-in, t-at occ.rre' to me
in connection wit- t-e work of inter/retation.
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8
+HAPTER THREE
The Dream as a ish-!ulfilment
+-en# after /a**in, t-ro.,- a narrow 'efi$e# one *.''en$y reac-e* a -ei,-t beyon'
w-ic- t-e way* /art an' a ric- /ro*/ect $ie* o.t*/rea' in 'ifferent 'irection*# it i* we$$ to
*to/ for a moment an' con*i'er w-it-er one *-a$$ t.rn ne=t. +e are in *omew-at t-e
*ame /o*ition after we -a&e ma*tere' t-i* fir*t inter/retation of a 'ream. +e fin'
o.r*e$&e* *tan'in, in t-e $i,-t of a *.''en 'i*co&ery. T-e 'ream i* not com/arab$e to t-e
irre,.$ar *o.n'* of a m.*ica$ in*tr.ment# w-ic-# in*tea' of bein, /$aye' by t-e -an' of a
m.*ician# i* *tr.ck by *ome e=terna$ force< t-e 'ream i* not meanin,$e**# not ab*.r'#
'oe* not /re*.//o*e t-at one /art of o.r *tore of i'ea* i* 'ormant w-i$e anot-er /art
be,in* to awake. It i* a /erfect$y &a$i' /*yc-ic /-enomenon# act.a$$y a wi*-5f.$fi$ment< it
may be enro$$e' in t-e contin.ity of t-e inte$$i,ib$e /*yc-ic acti&itie* of t-e wakin, *tate<
it i* b.i$t ./ by a -i,-$y com/$icate' inte$$ect.a$ acti&ity. 0.t at t-e &ery moment w-en
we are abo.t to re6oice in t-i* 'i*co&ery a -o*t of /rob$em* be*et* .*. If t-e 'ream# a* t-i*
t-eory 'efine* it# re/re*ent* a f.$fi$$e' wi*-# w-at i* t-e ca.*e of t-e *trikin, an'
.nfami$iar manner in w-ic- t-i* f.$fi$ment i* e=/re**e'I +-at tran*formation -a*
occ.rre' in o.r 'ream5t-o.,-t* before t-e manife*t 'ream# a* we remember it on wakin,#
*-a/e* it*e$f o.t of t-emI %ow -a* t-i* tran*formation taken /$aceI +-ence come* t-e
materia$ t-at i* worke' ./ into t-e 'reamI +-at ca.*e* many of t-e /ec.$iaritie* w-ic-
are to be ob*er&e' in o.r 'ream5t-o.,-t*< for e=am/$e# -ow i* it t-at t-ey are ab$e to
contra'ict one anot-erI 3*ee t-e ana$o,y of t-e kett$e# /. 24. I* t-e 'ream ca/ab$e of
teac-in, .* *omet-in, new concernin, o.r interna$ /*yc-ic /roce**e*# an' can it* content
correct o/inion* w-ic- we -a&e -e$' '.rin, t-e 'ayI I *.,,e*t t-at for t-e /re*ent a$$
t-e*e /rob$em* be $ai' a*i'e# an' t-at a *in,$e /at- be /.r*.e'. +e -a&e fo.n' t-at t-e
'ream re/re*ent* a wi*- a* f.$fi$$e'. O.r ne=t /.r/o*e *-o.$' be to a*certain w-et-er t-i*
i* a ,enera$ c-aracteri*tic of 'ream*# or w-et-er it i* on$y t-e acci'enta$ content of t-e
/artic.$ar 'ream 3@t-e 'ream abo.t Irma1* in6ection14 wit- w-ic- we -a&e be,.n o.r
ana$y*i*< for e&en if we conc$.'e t-at e&ery 'ream -a* a meanin, an' /*yc-ic &a$.e# we
m.*t ne&ert-e$e** a$$ow for t-e /o**ibi$ity t-at t-i* meanin, may not be t-e *ame in
e&ery 'ream. T-e fir*t 'ream w-ic- we -a&e con*i'ere' wa* t-e f.$fi$ment of a wi*-<
anot-er may t.rn o.t to be t-e rea$i*ation of an a//re-en*ion< a t-ir' may -a&e a
ref$ection a* it* content< a fo.rt- may *im/$y re/ro'.ce a remini*cence. Are t-ere# t-en#
'ream* ot-er t-an wi*-5'ream*< or are t-ere none b.t wi*-5'ream*I
It i* ea*y to *-ow t-at t-e wi*-5f.$fi$ment in 'ream* i* often .n'i*,.i*e' an' ea*y to
reco,ni*e# *o t-at one may won'er w-y t-e $an,.a,e of 'ream* -a* not $on, *ince been
.n'er*too'. T-ere i*# for e=am/$e# a 'ream w-ic- I can e&oke a* often a* I /$ea*e#
e=/erimenta$$y# a* it were. If# in t-e e&enin,# I eat anc-o&ie*# o$i&e*# or ot-er *tron,$y
*a$te' foo'*# I am t-ir*ty at ni,-t# an' t-erefore I wake. T-e wakin,# -owe&er# i*
/rece'e' by a 'ream# w-ic- -a* a$way* t-e *ame content# name$y# t-at I am 'rinkin,. I
am 'rinkin, $on, 'ra.,-t* of water< it ta*te* a* 'e$icio.* a* on$y a coo$ 'rink can ta*te
w-en one1* t-roat i* /arc-e'< an' t-en I wake# an' fin' t-at I -a&e an act.a$ 'e*ire to
'rink. T-e ca.*e of t-i* 'ream i* t-ir*t# w-ic- I /ercei&e w-en I wake. From t-i*
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*en*ation ari*e* t-e wi*- to 'rink# an' t-e 'ream *-ow* me t-i* wi*- a* f.$fi$$e'. It
t-ereby *er&e* a f.nction# t-e nat.re of w-ic- I *oon *.rmi*e. I *$ee/ we$$# an' am not
acc.*tome' to bein, wake' by a bo'i$y nee'. If I *.ccee' in a//ea*in, my t-ir*t by
mean* of t-e 'ream t-at I am 'rinkin,# I nee' not wake ./ in or'er to *ati*fy t-at t-ir*t. It
i* t-.* a dream of convenience. T-e 'ream take* t-e /$ace of action# a* e$*ew-ere in $ife.
)nfort.nate$y# t-e nee' of water to ;.enc- t-e t-ir*t cannot be *ati*fie' by a 'ream# a*
can my t-ir*t for re&en,e ./on Otto an' Dr M.# b.t t-e intention i* t-e *ame. Not $on,
a,o I -a' t-e *ame 'ream in a *omew-at mo'ifie' form. On t-i* occa*ion I fe$t t-ir*ty
before ,oin, to be'# an' em/tie' t-e ,$a** of water w-ic- *too' on t-e $itt$e c-e*t be*i'e
my be'. Some -o.r* $ater# '.rin, t-e ni,-t# my t-ir*t ret.rne'# wit- t-e con*e;.ent
'i*comfort. In or'er to obtain water# I *-o.$' -a&e -a' to ,et ./ an' fetc- t-e ,$a** w-ic-
*too' on my wife1* be'5tab$e. I t-.* ;.ite a//ro/riate$y 'reamt t-at my wife wa* ,i&in,
me a 'rink from a &a*e< t-i* &a*e wa* an Etr.*can cinerary .rn# w-ic- I -a' bro.,-t
-ome from Ita$y# an' -a' *ince ,i&en away. 0.t t-e water in it ta*te' *o *a$t 3a//arent$y
on acco.nt of t-e a*-e*4 t-at I wa* force' to wake. It may be ob*er&e' -ow con&enient$y
t-e 'ream i* ca/ab$e of arran,in, matter*. Since t-e f.$fi$ment of a wi*- i* it* on$y
/.r/o*e# it may be /erfect$y e,oi*tic. ?o&e of comfort i* rea$$y not com/atib$e wit-
con*i'eration for ot-er*. T-e intro'.ction of t-e cinerary .rn i* /robab$y once a,ain t-e
f.$fi$ment of a wi*-< I re,ret t-at I no $on,er /o**e** t-i* &a*e< it# $ike t-e ,$a** of water
at my wife1* *i'e# i* inacce**ib$e to me. T-e cinerary .rn i* a//ro/riate a$*o in connection
wit- t-e *en*ation of an increa*in,$y *a$ty ta*te# w-ic- I know wi$$ com/e$ me to wake.1
S.c- con&enience5'ream* came &ery fre;.ent$y to me in my yo.t-. Acc.*tome' a* I -a'
a$way* been to workin, .nti$ $ate at ni,-t# ear$y wakin, wa* a$way* a matter of 'iffic.$ty.
I .*e' t-en to 'ream t-at I wa* o.t of be' an' *tan'in, at t-e wa*-*tan'. After a w-i$e I
co.$' no $on,er *-.t o.t t-e know$e',e t-at I wa* not yet ./< b.t in t-e meantime I -a'
contin.e' to *$ee/. T-e *ame *ort of $et-ar,y5'ream wa* 'reame' by a yo.n, co$$ea,.e
of mine# w-o a//ear* to *-are my /ro/en*ity for *$ee/. +it- -im it a**.me' a
/artic.$ar$y am.*in, form. T-e $an'$a'y wit- w-om -e wa* $o',in, in t-e
nei,-bo.r-oo' of t-e -o*/ita$ -a' *trict or'er* to wake -im e&ery mornin, at a ,i&en
-o.r# b.t *-e fo.n' it by no mean* ea*y to carry o.t -i* or'er*. One mornin, *$ee/ wa*
e*/ecia$$y *weet to -im. T-e woman ca$$e' into -i* room: @%err Pe/i# ,et ./< yo.1&e ,ot
to ,o to t-e -o*/ita$.1 +-ere./on t-e *$ee/er 'reamt of a room in t-e -o*/ita$# of a be' in
w-ic- -e wa* $yin,# an' of a c-art /inne' o&er -i* -ea'# w-ic- rea' a* fo$$ow*: @Pe/i M.#
me'ica$ *t.'ent# year* of a,e.1 %e to$' -im*e$f in t-e 'ream: @If I am a$rea'y at t-e
-o*/ita$# I 'on1t -a&e to ,o t-ere#1 t.rne' o&er# an' *$e/t on. %e -a' t-.* frank$y a'mitte'
to -im*e$f -i* moti&e for 'reamin,.
%ere i* yet anot-er 'ream of w-ic- t-e *tim.$.* wa* acti&e '.rin, *$ee/: One of my
women /atient*# w-o -a' been ob$i,e' to .n'er,o an .n*.cce**f.$ o/eration on t-e 6aw#
wa* in*tr.cte' by -er /-y*ician* to wear by 'ay an' ni,-t a coo$in, a//arat.* on t-e
affecte' c-eek< b.t *-e wa* in t-e -abit of t-rowin, it off a* *oon a* *-e -a' fa$$en
a*$ee/. One 'ay I wa* a*ke' to re/ro&e -er for 'oin, *o< *-e -a' a,ain t-rown t-e
a//arat.* on t-e f$oor. T-e /atient 'efen'e' -er*e$f a* fo$$ow*: @T-i* time I rea$$y
co.$'n1t -e$/ it< it wa* t-e re*.$t of a 'ream w-ic- I -a' '.rin, t-e ni,-t. In t-e 'ream I
wa* in a bo= at t-e o/era# an' wa* takin, a $i&e$y intere*t in t-e /erformance. 0.t %err
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Far$ Meyer wa* $yin, in t-e *anatori.m an' com/$ainin, /itif.$$y on acco.nt of /ain* in
-i* 6aw. I *ai' to my*e$f# @@Since I -a&en1t t-e /ain*# I 'on1t nee' t-e a//arat.* eit-er11<
t-at1* w-y I t-rew it away.1 T-e 'ream of t-i* /oor *.fferer remin'* me of an e=/re**ion
w-ic- come* to o.r $i/* w-en we are in a 'i*a,reeab$e *it.ation: @+e$$# I can ima,ine
more am.*in, t-in,*A1 T-e 'ream /re*ent* t-e*e @more am.*in, t-in,*A1 %err Far$ Meyer#
to w-om t-e 'reamer attrib.te' -er /ain*# wa* t-e mo*t ca*.a$ ac;.aintance of w-om *-e
co.$' t-ink.
It i* ;.ite a* *im/$e a matter to 'i*co&er t-e wi*-5f.$fi$ment in *e&era$ ot-er 'ream*
w-ic- I -a&e co$$ecte' from -ea$t-y /er*on*. A frien' w-o wa* ac;.ainte' wit- my
t-eory of 'ream*# an' -a' e=/$aine' it to -i* wife# *ai' to me one 'ay: @My wife a*ke'
me to te$$ yo. t-at *-e 'reamt ye*ter'ay t-at *-e wa* -a&in, -er men*e*. Ho. wi$$ know
w-at t-at mean*.1 Of co.r*e I know: if t-e yo.n, wife 'ream* t-at *-e i* -a&in, -er
men*e*# t-e men*e* -a&e *to//e'. I can we$$ ima,ine t-at *-e wo.$' -a&e $ike' to en6oy
-er free'om a $itt$e $on,er# before t-e 'i*comfort* of maternity be,an. It wa* a c$e&er way
of ,i&in, notice of -er fir*t /re,nancy. Anot-er frien' write* t-at -i* wife -a' 'reamt not
$on, a,o t-at *-e notice' mi$k5*tain* on t-e front of -er b$o.*e. T-i* a$*o i* an in'ication
of /re,nancy# b.t not of t-e fir*t one< t-e yo.n, mot-er -o/e' *-e wo.$' -a&e more
no.ri*-ment for t-e *econ' c-i$' t-an *-e -a' for t-e fir*t.
A yo.n, woman w-o for week* -a' been c.t off from a$$ *ociety beca.*e *-e wa*
n.r*in, a c-i$' w-o wa* *.fferin, from an infectio.* 'i*ea*e 'reamt# after t-e c-i$' -a'
reco&ere'# of a com/any of /eo/$e in w-ic- A$/-on*e Da.'et# Pa.$ 0o.r,et# Marce$
PrN&o*t an' ot-er* were /re*ent< t-ey were a$$ &ery /$ea*ant to -er an' am.*e' -er
enormo.*$y. In -er 'ream t-e*e 'ifferent a.t-or* -a' t-e feat.re* w-ic- t-eir /ortrait*
,i&e t-em. M. PrN&o*t# wit- w-o*e /ortrait *-e i* not fami$iar# $ooke' $ike t-e man w-o
-a' 'i*infecte' t-e *ickroom t-e 'ay before# t-e fir*t o.t*i'er to enter it for a $on, time.
Ob&io.*$y t-e 'ream i* to be tran*$ate' t-.*: @It i* abo.t time now for *omet-in, more
entertainin, t-an t-i* eterna$ n.r*in,.1
Per-a/* t-i* co$$ection wi$$ *.ffice to /ro&e t-at fre;.ent$y# an' .n'er t-e mo*t com/$e=
con'ition*# 'ream* may be note' w-ic- can be .n'er*too' on$y a* wi*-5f.$fi$ment*# an'
w-ic- /re*ent t-eir content wit-o.t concea$ment. In mo*t ca*e* t-e*e are *-ort an' *im/$e
'ream*# an' t-ey *tan' in /$ea*ant contra*t to t-e conf.*e' an' o&er$oa'e'
'reamcom/o*ition*
w-ic- -a&e a$mo*t e=c$.*i&e$y attracte' t-e attention of t-e writer* on t-e
*.b6ect. 0.t it wi$$ re/ay .* if we ,i&e *ome time to t-e e=amination of t-e*e *im/$e
'ream*. T-e *im/$e*t 'ream* of a$$ are# I *.//o*e# to be e=/ecte' in t-e ca*e of c-i$'ren
w-o*e /*yc-ic acti&itie* are certain$y $e** com/$icate' t-an t-o*e of a'.$t*.
(-i$' /*yc-o$o,y# in my o/inion# i* 'e*tine' to ren'er t-e *ame *er&ice* to t-e
/*yc-o$o,y of a'.$t* a* a *t.'y of t-e *tr.ct.re or 'e&e$o/ment of t-e $ower anima$*
ren'er* to t-e in&e*ti,ation of t-e *tr.ct.re of t-e -i,-er or'er* of anima$*. %it-erto b.t
few 'e$iberate effort* -a&e been ma'e to make .*e of t-e /*yc-o$o,y of t-e c-i$' for *.c-
a /.r/o*e.
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T-e 'ream* of $itt$e c-i$'ren are often *im/$e f.$fi$ment* of wi*-e*# an' for t-i* rea*on
are# a* com/are' wit- t-e 'ream* of a'.$t*# by no mean* intere*tin,. T-ey /re*ent no
/rob$em to be *o$&e'# b.t t-ey are in&a$.ab$e a* affor'in, /roof t-at t-e 'ream# in it*
inmo*t e**ence# i* t-e f.$fi$ment of a wi*-. I -a&e been ab$e to co$$ect *e&era$ e=am/$e* of
*.c- 'ream* from t-e materia$ f.rni*-e' by my own c-i$'ren.
For two 'ream*# one t-at of a 'a.,-ter of mine# at t-at time ei,-t an' a -a$f year* of a,e#
an' t-e ot-er t-at of a boy of fi&e an' a ;.arter# I am in'ebte' to an e=c.r*ion to
%a$$*tatt# in t-e *.mmer of 1D!9. I m.*t fir*t e=/$ain t-at we were $i&in, t-at *.mmer on
a -i$$ near A.**ee# from w-ic-# w-en t-e weat-er wa* fine# we en6oye' a */$en'i' &iew
of t-e Dac-*tein. +it- a te$e*co/e we co.$' ea*i$y 'i*tin,.i*- t-e Simony -.t. T-e
c-i$'ren often trie' to *ee it t-ro.,- t-e te$e*co/e 55 I 'o not know wit- w-at *.cce**.
0efore t-e e=c.r*ion I -a' to$' t-e c-i$'ren t-at %a$$*tatt $ay at t-e foot of t-e Dac-*tein.
T-ey $ooke' forwar' to t-e o.tin, wit- t-e ,reate*t 'e$i,-t. From %a$$*tatt we entere'
t-e &a$$ey of E*c-ern# w-ic- enc-ante' t-e c-i$'ren wit- it* con*tant$y c-an,in, *cenery.
One of t-em# -owe&er# t-e boy of fi&e# ,ra'.a$$y became 'i*contente'. A* often a* a
mo.ntain came into &iew# -e wo.$' a*k: @I* t-at t-e Dac-*teinI1 w-ere./on I -a' to
re/$y: @No# on$y a foot-i$$.1 After t-i* ;.e*tion -a' been re/eate' *e&era$ time* -e fe$$
;.ite *i$ent# an' 'i' not wi*- to accom/any .* ./ t-e *te/* $ea'in, to t-e waterfa$$. I
t-o.,-t -e wa* tire'. 0.t t-e ne=t mornin, -e came to me# /erfect$y -a//y# an' *ai':
@?a*t ni,-t I 'reamt t-at we went to t-e Simony -.t.1 I .n'er*too' -im now< -e -a'
e=/ecte'# w-en I */oke of t-e Dac-*tein# t-at on o.r e=c.r*ion to %a$$*tatt -e wo.$'
c$imb t-e mo.ntain# an' wo.$' *ee at c$o*e ;.arter* t-e -.t w-ic- -a' been *o often
mentione' w-en t-e te$e*co/e wa* .*e'. +-en -e $earne' t-at -e wa* e=/ecte' to
content -im*e$f wit- foot-i$$* an' a waterfa$$ -e wa* 'i*a//ointe'# an' became
'i*contente'. 0.t t-e 'ream com/en*ate' -im for a$$ t-i*. I trie' to $earn *ome 'etai$* of
t-e 'ream< t-ey were *canty. @Ho. ,o ./ *te/* for *i= -o.r*#1 a* -e -a' been to$'.
On t-i* e=c.r*ion t-e ,ir$ of ei,-t an' a -a$f -a' $ikewi*e c-eri*-e' wi*-e* w-ic- -a' to
be *ati*fie' by a 'ream. +e -a' taken wit- .* to %a$$*tatt o.r nei,-bo.r1* twe$&e5yearo$'
boy< ;.ite a /o$i*-e' $itt$e ,ent$eman# w-o# it *eeme' to me# -a' a$rea'y won t-e
$itt$e woman1* *ym/at-ie*. Ne=t mornin, *-e re$ate' t-e fo$$owin, 'ream: @>.*t t-ink# I
'reamt t-at Emi$ wa* one of t-e fami$y# t-at -e *ai' @@/a/a11 an' @@mamma11 to yo.# an'
*$e/t at o.r -o.*e# in t-e bi, room# $ike one of t-e boy*. T-en mamma came into t-e
room an' t-rew a -an'f.$ of bi, bar* of c-oco$ate# wra//e' in b$.e an' ,reen /a/er#
.n'er o.r be'*.1 T-e ,ir$1* brot-er*# w-o e&i'ent$y -a' not in-erite' an .n'er*tan'in, of
'ream5inter/retation# 'ec$are'# 6.*t a* t-e writer* we -a&e ;.ote' wo.$' -a&e 'one: @T-at
'ream i* non*en*e.1 T-e ,ir$ 'efen'e' at $ea*t one /art of t-e 'ream# an' from t-e
*tan'/oint of t-e t-eory of t-e ne.ro*e* it i* intere*tin, to $earn w-ic- /art it wa* t-at *-e
'efen'e': @T-at Emi$ wa* one of t-e fami$y wa* non*en*e# b.t t-at /art abo.t t-e bar* of
c-oco$ate wa*n1t.1 It wa* 6.*t t-i* $atter /art t-at wa* ob*c.re to me# .nti$ my wife
f.rni*-e' t-e e=/$anation. On t-e way -ome from t-e rai$way5*tation t-e c-i$'ren -a'
*to//e' in front of a *$ot5mac-ine# an' -a' wante' e=act$y *.c- bar* of c-oco$ate#
wra//e' in /a/er wit- a meta$$ic $.*tre# *.c- a* t-e mac-ine# in t-eir e=/erience#
/ro&i'e'. 0.t t-e mot-er t-o.,-t# an' ri,-t$y *o# t-at t-e 'ay -a' bro.,-t t-em eno.,-
wi*-5f.$fi$ment*# an' t-erefore $eft t-i* wi*- to be *ati*fie' in t-e 'ream. T-i* $itt$e *cene
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-a' e*ca/e' me. T-at /ortion of t-e 'ream w-ic- -a' been con'emne' by my 'a.,-ter I
.n'er*too' wit-o.t any 'iffic.$ty. I my*e$f -a' -ear' t-e we$$5be-a&e' $itt$e ,.e*t
en6oinin, t-e c-i$'ren# a* t-ey were wa$kin, a-ea' of .*# to wait .nti$ @/a/a1 or @mamma1
-a' come ./. For t-e $itt$e ,ir$ t-e 'ream t.rne' t-i* tem/orary re$ation*-i/ into a
/ermanent a'o/tion. %er affection co.$' not a* yet concei&e of any ot-er way of en6oyin,
-er frien'1* com/any /ermanent$y t-an t-e a'o/tion /ict.re' in -er 'ream# w-ic- wa*
*.,,e*te' by -er brot-er*. +-y t-e bar* of c-oco$ate were t-rown .n'er t-e be' co.$'
not# of co.r*e# be e=/$aine' wit-o.t ;.e*tionin, t-e c-i$'.
From a frien' I -a&e $earne' of a 'ream &ery m.c- $ike t-at of my $itt$e boy. It wa*
'reame' by a $itt$e ,ir$ of ei,-t. %er fat-er# accom/anie' by *e&era$ c-i$'ren# -a' *tarte'
on a wa$k to Dornbac-# wit- t-e intention of &i*itin, t-e Ro-rer -.t# b.t -a' t.rne' back#
a* it wa* ,rowin, $ate# /romi*in, t-e c-i$'ren to take t-em *ome ot-er time. On t-e way
back t-ey /a**e' a *i,n/o*t w-ic- /ointe' to t-e %amea.. T-e c-i$'ren now a*ke' -im to
take t-em to t-e %amea.# b.t once more# an' for t-e *ame rea*on# t-ey -a' to be content
wit- t-e /romi*e t-at t-ey *-o.$' ,o t-ere *ome ot-er 'ay. Ne=t mornin, t-e $itt$e ,ir$
went to -er fat-er an' to$' -im# wit- a *ati*fie' air: @Pa/a# I 'reame' $a*t ni,-t t-at yo.
were wit- .* at t-e Ro-rer -.t# an' on t-e %amea..1 T-.*# in t-e 'ream -er im/atience
-a' antici/ate' t-e f.$fi$ment of t-e /romi*e ma'e by -er fat-er.
Anot-er 'ream# wit- w-ic- t-e /ict.re*;.e bea.ty of t-e A.**ee in*/ire' my 'a.,-ter# at
t-at time t-ree an' a ;.arter year* of a,e# i* e;.a$$y *trai,-tforwar'. T-e $itt$e ,ir$ -a'
cro**e' t-e $ake for t-e fir*t time# an' t-e tri/ -a' /a**e' too ;.ick$y for -er. S-e 'i' not
want to $ea&e t-e boat at t-e $an'in,# an' crie' bitter$y. T-e ne=t mornin, *-e to$' .*:
@?a*t ni,-t I wa* *ai$in, on t-e $ake.1 ?et .* -o/e t-at t-e '.ration of t-i* 'ream5&oya,e
wa* more *ati*factory to -er.
My e$'e*t boy# at t-at time ei,-t year* of a,e# wa* a$rea'y 'reamin, of t-e rea$i*ation of
-i* fancie*. %e -a' ri''en in a c-ariot wit- Ac-i$$e*# wit- Diome'e* a* c-arioteer. On t-e
/re&io.* 'ay -e -a' *-own a $i&e$y intere*t in a book on t-e myt-* of Greece w-ic- -a'
been ,i&en to -i* e$'er *i*ter.
If it can be a'mitte' t-at t-e ta$kin, of c-i$'ren in t-eir *$ee/ be$on,* to t-e */-ere of
'ream*# I can re$ate t-e fo$$owin, a* one of t-e ear$ie*t 'ream* in my co$$ection: My
yo.n,e*t 'a.,-ter# at t-at time nineteen mont-* o$'# &omite' one mornin,# an' wa*
t-erefore ke/t wit-o.t foo' a$$ 'ay. D.rin, t-e ni,-t *-e wa* -ear' to ca$$ e=cite'$y in
-er *$ee/: @Anna F3r4e.'# *t1awbewy# wi$' *t1awbewy# om1$ette# /a/A1 S-e .*e' -er name
in t-i* way in or'er to e=/re** t-e act of a//ro/riation< t-e men. /re*.mab$y inc$.'e'
e&eryt-in, t-at wo.$' *eem to -er a 'e*irab$e mea$< t-e fact t-at two &arietie* of
*trawberry a//eare' in it wa* a 'emon*tration a,ain*t t-e *anitary re,.$ation* of t-e
-o.*e-o$'# an' wa* ba*e' on t-e circ.m*tance# w-ic- *-e -a' by no mean* o&er$ooke'#
t-at t-e n.r*e -a' a*cribe' -er in'i*/o*ition to an o&er5/$entif.$ con*.m/tion of
*trawberrie*< *o in -er 'ream *-e a&en,e' -er*e$f for t-i* o/inion w-ic- met wit- -er
'i*a//ro&a$.
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+-en we ca$$ c-i$'-oo' -a//y beca.*e it 'oe* not yet know *e=.a$ 'e*ire# we m.*t not
for,et w-at a fr.itf.$ *o.rce of 'i*a//ointment an' ren.nciation# an' t-erefore of
'ream*tim.$ation# t-e ot-er ,reat &ita$ im/.$*e may be for t-e c-i$'.2 %ere i* a *econ'
e=am/$e. My ne/-ew# twenty5two mont-* of a,e# -a' been in*tr.cte' to con,rat.$ate me
on my birt-'ay# an' to ,i&e me a /re*ent of a *ma$$ ba*ket of c-errie*# w-ic- at t-at time
of t-e year were *carce# bein, -ar'$y in *ea*on. %e *eeme' to fin' t-e ta*k a 'iffic.$t one#
for -e re/eate' a,ain an' a,ain: @(-errie* in it1# an' co.$' not be in'.ce' to $et t-e $itt$e
ba*ket ,o o.t of -i* -an'*. 0.t -e knew -ow to in'emnify -im*e$f. %e -a'# .nti$ t-en#
been in t-e -abit of te$$in, -i* mot-er e&ery mornin, t-at -e -a' 'reamt of t-e w-ite
*o$'ier# an officer of t-e ,.ar' in a w-ite c$oak# w-om -e -a' once a'mire' in t-e *treet.
On t-e 'ay after t-e *acrifice on my birt-'ay -e woke ./ 6oyf.$$y wit- t-e
anno.ncement# w-ic- co.$' -a&e referre' on$y to a 'ream: @%eJrL man eaten a$$ t-e
c-errie*A17
+-at anima$* 'ream of I 'o not know. A /ro&erb for w-ic- I am in'ebte' to one of my
/./i$* /rofe**e* to te$$ .*# for it a*k* t-e ;.e*tion: @+-at 'oe* t-e ,oo*e 'ream ofI1 an'
an*wer*: @Of maiCe.18 T-e w-o$e t-eory t-at t-e 'ream i* t-e f.$fi$ment of a wi*- i*
containe' in t-e*e two *entence*.9
+e now /ercei&e t-at we *-o.$' -a&e reac-e' o.r t-eory of t-e -i''en meanin, of
'ream* by t-e *-orte*t ro.te -a' we mere$y con*.$te' t-e &ernac.$ar. Pro&erbia$ wi*'om#
it i* tr.e# often */eak* contem/t.o.*$y eno.,- of 'ream* 55 it a//arent$y *eek* to 6.*tify
t-e *cienti*t* w-en it *ay* t-at @'ream* are b.bb$e*1< b.t in co$$o;.ia$ $an,.a,e t-e 'ream
i* /re'ominant$y t-e ,racio.* f.$fi$$er of wi*-e*. @I *-o.$' ne&er -a&e ima,ine' t-at in
my wi$'e*t 'ream*1# we e=c$aim in 'e$i,-t if we fin' t-at t-e rea$ity *.r/a**e* o.r
e=/ectation*.
1 T-e fact* re$atin, to 'ream* of t-ir*t were known a$*o to +ey,an't# w-o */eak* of t-em
a* fo$$ow*: @It i* 6.*t t-i* *en*ation of t-ir*t w-ic- i* re,i*tere' mo*t acc.rate$y of a$$< it
a$way* ca.*e* a re/re*entation of ;.enc-in, t-e t-ir*t. T-e manner in w-ic- t-e 'ream
re/re*ent* t-e act of ;.enc-in, t-e t-ir*t i* manifo$'# an' i* */ecifie' in accor'ance wit-
*ome recent reco$$ection. A .ni&er*a$ /-enomenon noticeab$e -ere i* t-e fact t-at t-e
re/re*entation of ;.enc-in, t-e t-ir*t i* imme'iate$y fo$$owe' by 'i*a//ointment in t-e
inefficacy of t-e ima,ine' refre*-ment.1 0.t -e o&er$ook* t-e .ni&er*a$ c-aracter of t-e
reaction of t-e 'ream to t-e *tim.$.*. If ot-er /er*on* w-o are tro.b$e' by t-ir*t at ni,-t
awake wit-o.t 'reamin, before-an'# t-i* 'oe* not con*tit.te an ob6ection to my
e=/eriment# b.t c-aracteri*e* t-em a* /er*on* w-o *$ee/ $e** *o.n'$y. cf. -ere Isaiah
i# D: @It *-a$$ e&en be a* w-en an -.n,ry man 'reamet-# an'# be-o$'# -e eatet-< b.t -e
awaket-# an' -i* *o.$ i* em/ty: or a* w-en a t-ir*ty man 'reamet-# an'# be-o$' -e
'rinket-< b.t -e awaket-# an'# be-o$' -e i* faint. . . .1
T-e 'ream afterwar'* accom/$i*-e' t-e *ame /.r/o*e in t-e ca*e of t-e c-i$'1*
,ran'mot-er# w-o i* o$'er t-an t-e c-i$' by abo.t *e&enty year*. After *-e -a' been
force' to ,o -.n,ry for a 'ay on acco.nt of t-e re*t$e**ne** of -er f$oatin, ki'ney# *-e
'reame'# bein, a//arent$y tran*$ate' into t-e -a//y year* of -er ,ir$-oo'# t-at *-e -a'
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been @a*ke' o.t1# in&ite' to $.nc- an' 'inner# an' -a' at eac- mea$ been *er&e' wit- t-e
mo*t 'e$icio.* titbit*.
2 A more *earc-in, in&e*ti,ation into t-e /*yc-ic $ife of t-e c-i$' teac-e* .*# of co.r*e#
t-at *e=.a$ moti&e*# in infanti$e form*# /$ay a &ery con*i'erab$e /art# w-ic- -a* been too
$on, o&er$ooke'# in t-e /*yc-ic acti&ity of t-e c-i$'. T-i* /ermit* .* to 'o.bt to *ome
e=tent t-e -a//ine** of t-e c-i$'# a* ima,ine' $ater by a'.$t*. cf. Three Contri%utions to
the Theor$ of 3e.
7 It *-o.$' be mentione' t-at yo.n, c-i$'ren often -a&e more com/$e= an' ob*c.re
'ream*# w-i$e# on t-e ot-er -an'# a'.$t*# in certain circ.m*tance*# often -a&e 'ream* of a
*im/$e an' infanti$e c-aracter. %ow ric- in .n*.*/ecte' content t-e 'ream* of c-i$'ren no
more t-an fo.r or fi&e year* of a,e may be i* *-own by t-e e=am/$e* in my !nal$se der
2ho%ie eines fDnf/=hri'en Ena%en 9>ahr%uch von <lealer4Freud# &o$. i# 1!"!4# an' >.n,1*
@E=/erience* (oncernin, t-e P*yc-ic ?ife of t-e (-i$'1# tran*$ate' by 0ri$$# !merican
>ournal of 2s$cholo'$# A/ri$# 1!1". For ana$ytica$$y inter/rete' 'ream* of c-i$'ren# *ee
a$*o &on %.,5%e$$m.t-# P.tnam# Raa$te# S/ie$rein an' Ta.*k< ot-er* by 0anc-ieri#
0.*emann# Do,$ia# an' e*/ecia$$y +i,am# w-o em/-a*i*e* t-e wi*-5f.$fi$$in, ten'ency
of *.c- 'ream*. On t-e ot-er -an'# it *eem* t-at 'ream* of an infanti$e ty/e rea//ear wit-
e*/ecia$ fre;.ency in a'.$t* w-o are tran*ferre' into t-e mi'*t of .nfami$iar con'ition*.
T-.* Otto Nor'en*k6G$'# in -i* book# !ntarctic 31!"7# &o$. i# /. 2294# write* a* fo$$ow* of
t-e crew w-o */ent t-e winter wit- -im: @Kery c-aracteri*tic of t-e tren' of o.r inmo*t
t-o.,-t* were o.r 'ream*# w-ic- were ne&er more &i&i' an' more n.mero.*. E&en t-o*e
of o.r comra'e* wit- w-om 'reamin, wa* former$y e=ce/tiona$ -a' $on, *torie* to te$$ in
t-e mornin,# w-en we e=c-an,e' o.r e=/erience* in t-e wor$' of fanta*y. T-ey a$$ -a'
reference to t-at o.t*i'e wor$' w-ic- wa* now *o far remo&e' from .*# b.t t-ey often
fitte' into o.r imme'iate circ.m*tance*. An e*/ecia$$y c-aracteri*tic 'ream wa* t-at in
w-ic- one of o.r comra'e* be$ie&e' -im*e$f back at *c-oo$# w-ere t-e ta*k wa* a**i,ne'
to -im of *kinnin, miniat.re *ea$*# w-ic- were man.fact.re' e*/ecia$$y for /.r/o*e* of
in*tr.ction. Eatin, an' 'rinkin, con*tit.te' t-e /i&ot aro.n' w-ic- mo*t of o.r 'ream*
re&o$&e'. One of .*# w-o wa* e*/ecia$$y fon' of ,oin, to bi, 'inner5/artie*# wa*
'e$i,-te' if -e co.$' re/ort in t-e mornin, @@t-at -e -a' -a' a t-ree5co.r*e 'inner11.
Anot-er 'reame' of tobacco# w-o$e mo.ntain* of tobacco< yet anot-er 'reame' of a *-i/
a//roac-in, on t-e o/en *ea .n'er f.$$ *ai$. Sti$$ anot-er 'ream 'e*er&e* to be
mentione': T-e /o*tman bro.,-t t-e /o*t an' ,a&e a $on, e=/$anation of w-y it wa* *o
$on, 'e$aye'< -e -a' 'e$i&ere' it at t-e wron, a''re**# an' on$y wit- ,reat tro.b$e wa* -e
ab$e to ,et it back. To be *.re# we were often occ./ie' in o.r *$ee/ wit- *ti$$ more
im/o**ib$e t-in,*# b.t t-e $ack of fanta*y in a$mo*t a$$ t-e 'ream* w-ic- I my*e$f
'reame'# or -ear' ot-er* re$ate# wa* ;.ite *trikin,. It wo.$' certain$y -a&e been of ,reat
/*yc-o$o,ica$ intere*t if a$$ t-e*e 'ream* co.$' -a&e been recor'e'. 0.t one can rea'i$y
.n'er*tan' -ow we $on,e' for *$ee/. T-at a$one co.$' affor' .* e&eryt-in, t-at we a$$
mo*t ar'ent$y 'e*ire'.1 I wi$$ contin.e by a ;.otation from D. Pre$ 3/. 214: @M.n,o
Park# near$y 'yin, of t-ir*t on one of -i* African e=/e'ition*# 'reame' con*tant$y of t-e
we$$5watere' &a$$ey* an' mea'ow* of -i* -ome. Simi$ar$y Trenck# tort.re' by -.n,er in
t-e fortre** of Ma,'eb.r,# *aw -im*e$f *.rro.n'e' by co/io.* mea$*. An' Geor,e 0ack#
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a member of Frank$in1* fir*t e=/e'ition# w-en -e wa* on t-e /oint of 'eat- by *tar&ation#
'reame' contin.a$$y an' in&ariab$y of /$enteo.* mea$*.1
8 A %.n,arian /ro&erb cite' by FerencCi *tate* more e=/$icit$y t-at @t-e /i, 'ream* of
acorn*# t-e ,oo*e of maiCe.1 A >ewi*- /ro&erb a*k*: @Of w-at 'oe* t-e -en 'reamI1 55 @Of
mi$$et1 33ammlun' /Dd5 3prich"5 u5 Gedensarten# e'it. by 0ern*tein# n' e'.# /. 1194.
9 I am far from wi*-in, to a**ert t-at no /re&io.* writer -a* e&er t-o.,-t of tracin, a
'ream to a wi*-. 3cf. t-e fir*t /a**a,e* of t-e ne=t c-a/ter.4 T-o*e intere*te' in t-e
*.b6ect wi$$ fin' t-at e&en in anti;.ity t-e /-y*ician %ero/-i$o*# w-o $i&e' .n'er t-e
Fir*t Pto$emy# 'i*tin,.i*-e' between t-ree kin'* of 'ream*: 'ream* *ent by t-e ,o'*<
nat.ra$ 'ream* 55 t-o*e w-ic- come abo.t w-ene&er t-e *o.$ create* for it*e$f an ima,e of
t-at w-ic- i* beneficia$ to it# an' wi$$ come to /a**< an' mi=e' 'ream* 55 t-o*e w-ic-
ori,inate */ontaneo.*$y from t-e 6.=ta/o*ition of ima,e*# w-en we *ee t-at w-ic- we
'e*ire. From t-e e=am/$e* co$$ecte' by Sc-erner# >. StOrcke cite* a 'ream w-ic- wa*
'e*cribe' by t-e a.t-or -im*e$f a* a wi*-5f.$fi$ment 3/. 2!4. Sc-erner *ay*: @T-e fanta*y
imme'iate$y f.$fi$* t-e 'reamer1* wi*-# *im/$y beca.*e t-i* e=i*te' &i&i'$y in t-e min'.1
T-i* 'ream be$on,* to t-e @emotiona$ 'ream*1. Akin to it are 'ream* '.e to @ma*c.$ine
an' feminine erotic $on,in,1# an' to @irritab$e moo'*1. A* wi$$ rea'i$y be *een# Sc-erner
'oe* not a*cribe to t-e wi*- any f.rt-er *i,nificance for t-e 'ream t-an to any ot-er
/*yc-ic con'ition of t-e wakin, *tate< $ea*t of a$$ 'oe* -e in*i*t on t-e connection
between t-e wi*- an' t-e e**entia$ nat.re of t-e 'ream.
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+HAPTER FO.R
Distortion in Dreams
If I now 'ec$are t-at wi*-5f.$fi$ment i* t-e meanin, of ever$ 'ream# *o t-at t-ere cannot
be any 'ream* ot-er t-an wi*-5'ream*# I know before-an' t-at I *-a$$ meet wit- t-e mo*t
em/-atic contra'iction. My critic* wi$$ ob6ect: @T-e fact t-at t-ere are 'ream* w-ic- are
to be .n'er*too' a* f.$fi$ment* of wi*-e* i* not new# b.t -a* $on, *ince been reco,ni*e'
by *.c- writer* a* Ra'e*tock# Ko$ke$t# P.rkin6e# Grie*in,er an' ot-er*.1 T-at t-ere can be
no ot-er 'ream* t-an t-o*e of wi*-5f.$fi$ment* i* yet one more .n6.*tifie' ,enera$i*ation<
w-ic-# fort.nate$y# can be ea*i$y ref.te'. Dream* w-ic- /re*ent t-e mo*t /ainf.$ content#
an' not t-e $ea*t trace of wi*-5f.$fi$ment# occ.r fre;.ent$y eno.,-. T-e /e**imi*tic
/-i$o*o/-er# E'.ar' &on %artmann# i* /er-a/* mo*t com/$ete$y o//o*e' to t-e t-eory of
wi*-5f.$fi$ment. In -i* 2hilosoph$ of the *nconscious# Part II 3Stereoty/e' German
e'ition# *. 2774# -e *ay*: @@A* re,ar'* t-e 'ream# wit- it a$$ t-e tro.b$e* of wakin, $ife
/a** o&er into t-e *$ee/in, *tate< a$$ *a&e t-e one t-in, w-ic- may in *ome 'e,ree
reconci$e t-e c.$t.re' /er*on wit- $ife 55 *cientific an' arti*tic en6oyment.. . .11 0.t e&en
$e** /e**imi*tic ob*er&er* -a&e em/-a*i*e' t-e fact t-at in o.r 'ream* /ain an' 'i*,.*t
are more fre;.ent t-an /$ea*.re 3Sc-o$C# /. 22< Ko$ke$t# /. D"# et al54. Two $a'ie*# Sara-
+ee' an' F$orence %a$$am# -a&e e&en worke' o.t# on t-e ba*i* of t-eir 'ream*# a
n.merica$ &a$.e for t-e /re/on'erance of 'i*tre** an' 'i*comfort in 'ream*. T-ey fin'
t-at 8D /er cent of 'ream* are 'i*a,reeab$e# an' on$y D.9 /er cent /o*iti&e$y /$ea*ant.
0e*i'e* t-o*e 'ream* t-at con&ey into o.r *$ee/ t-e many /ainf.$ emotion* of $ife# t-ere
are a$*o an=iety5'ream*# in w-ic- t-i* mo*t terrib$e of a$$ t-e /ainf.$ emotion* torment*
.* .nti$ we wake. Now it i* /reci*e$y by t-e*e an=iety5'ream* t-at c-i$'ren are *o often
-a.nte' 3cf. Debacker on 2avor nocturnus4< an' yet it wa* in c-i$'ren t-at yo. fo.n' t-e
wi*-5f.$fi$ment 'ream in it* mo*t ob&io.* form.1
T-e an=iety5'ream 'oe* rea$$y *eem to /rec$.'e a ,enera$i*ation of t-e t-e*i* 'e'.ce'
from t-e e=am/$e* ,i&en in t-e $a*t c-a/ter# t-at 'ream* are wi*-5f.$fi$ment*# an' e&en to
con'emn it a* an ab*.r'ity.
Ne&ert-e$e**# it i* not 'iffic.$t to /arry t-e*e a//arent$y in&incib$e ob6ection*. It i* mere$y
nece**ary to ob*er&e t-at o.r 'octrine i* not ba*e' ./on t-e e*timate* of t-e ob&io.*
'ream5content# b.t re$ate* to t-e t-o.,-t5content# w-ic-# in t-e co.r*e of inter/retation# i*
fo.n' to $ie be-in' t-e 'ream. ?et .* com/are an' contra*t t-e manifest an' t-e latent
dream4content. It i* tr.e t-at t-ere are 'ream* t-e manife*t content of w-ic- i* of t-e
mo*t /ainf.$ nat.re. 0.t -a* anyone e&er trie' to inter/ret t-e*e 'ream* 55 to 'i*co&er
t-eir $atent t-o.,-t5contentI If not# t-e two ob6ection* to o.r 'octrine are no $on,er &a$i'<
for t-ere i* a$way* t-e /o**ibi$ity t-at e&en o.r /ainf.$ an' terrifyin, 'ream* may# ./on
inter/retation# /ro&e to be wi*-5f.$fi$ment*.
In *cientific re*earc- it i* often a'&anta,eo.*# if t-e *o$.tion of one /rob$em /re*ent*
'iffic.$tie*# to a'' to it a *econ' /rob$em< 6.*t a* it i* ea*ier to crack two n.t* to,et-er
in*tea' of *e/arate$y. T-.*# we are confronte' not on$y wit- t-e /rob$em: %ow can
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/ainf.$ an' terrifyin, 'ream* be t-e f.$fi$ment* of wi*-e*I b.t we may a'' to t-i* a
*econ' /rob$em w-ic- ari*e* from t-e fore,oin, 'i*c.**ion of t-e ,enera$ /rob$em of t-e
'ream: +-y 'o not t-e 'ream* t-at *-ow an in'ifferent content# an' yet t.rn o.t to be
wi*-5f.$fi$ment*# re&ea$ t-eir meanin, wit-o.t 'i*,.i*eI Take t-e e=-a.*ti&e$y treate'
'ream of Irma1* in6ection: it i* by no mean* of a /ainf.$ c-aracter# an' it may be
reco,ni*e'# ./on inter/retation# a* a *trikin, wi*-5f.$fi$ment. 0.t w-y i* an inter/retation
nece**ary at a$$I +-y 'oe* not t-e 'ream *ay 'irect$y w-at it mean*I A* a matter of fact#
t-e 'ream of Irma1* in6ection 'oe* not at fir*t /ro'.ce t-e im/re**ion t-at it re/re*ent* a
wi*- of t-e 'reamer1* a* f.$fi$$e'. T-e rea'er wi$$ not -a&e recei&e' t-i* im/re**ion# an'
e&en I my*e$f wa* not aware of t-e fact .nti$ I -a' .n'ertaken t-e ana$y*i*. If we ca$$ t-i*
/ec.$iarity of 'ream* 55 name$y# t-at t-ey nee' e$.ci'ation 55 t-e /-enomenon of
'i*tortion in 'ream*# a *econ' ;.e*tion t-en ari*e*: +-at i* t-e ori,in of t-i* 'i*tortion in
'ream*I
If one1* fir*t t-o.,-t* on t-i* *.b6ect were con*.$te' *e&era$ /o**ib$e *o$.tion* mi,-t
*.,,e*t t-em*e$&e*: for e=am/$e# t-at '.rin, *$ee/ one i* inca/ab$e of fin'in, an
a'e;.ate e=/re**ion for one1* 'ream5t-o.,-t*. T-e ana$y*i* of certain 'ream*# -owe&er#
com/e$* .* to offer anot-er e=/$anation. I *-a$$ 'emon*trate t-i* by mean* of a *econ'
'ream of my own# w-ic- a,ain in&o$&e* n.mero.* in'i*cretion*# b.t w-ic- com/en*ate*
for t-i* /er*ona$ *acrifice by affor'in, a t-oro.,- e$.ci'ation of t-e /rob$em.
2reliminar$ 3tatement 55 In t-e */rin, of 1D!: I $earnt t-at two /rofe**or* of o.r
.ni&er*ity -a' /ro/o*e' me for t-e tit$e of 2rofessor etraordinarius 3a**i*tant
/rofe**or4. T-e new* came a* a *.r/ri*e to me# an' /$ea*e' me con*i'erab$y a* an
e=/re**ion of a//reciation on t-e /art of two eminent men w-ic- co.$' not be e=/$aine'
by /er*ona$ intere*t. 0.t I to$' my*e$f imme'iate$y t-at I m.*t not e=/ect anyt-in, to
come of t-eir /ro/o*a$. For *ome year* /a*t t-e Mini*try -a' 'i*re,ar'e' *.c- /ro/o*a$*#
an' *e&era$ co$$ea,.e* of mine# w-o were my *enior*# an' at $ea*t my e;.a$* in 'e*ert#
-a' been waitin, in &ain a$$ t-i* time for t-e a//ointment. I -a' no rea*on to *.//o*e t-at
I *-o.$' fare any better. I re*o$&e'# t-erefore# to re*i,n my*e$f to 'i*a//ointment. I am
not# *o far a* I know# ambitio.*# an' I wa* fo$$owin, my /rofe**ion wit- ,ratifyin,
*.cce** e&en wit-o.t t-e recommen'ation of a /rofe**oria$ tit$e. +-et-er I con*i'ere'
t-e ,ra/e* to be *weet or *o.r 'i' not matter# *ince t-ey .n'o.bte'$y -.n, too -i,- for
me.
One e&enin, a frien' of mine ca$$e' to *ee me< one of t-o*e co$$ea,.e* w-o*e fate I -a'
re,ar'e' a* a warnin,. A* -e -a' $on, been a can'i'ate for /romotion to t-e /rofe**orate
3w-ic- in o.r *ociety make* t-e 'octor a 'emi,o' to -i* /atient*4# an' a* -e wa* $e**
re*i,ne' t-an I# -e wa* acc.*tome' from time to time to remin' t-e a.t-oritie* of -i*
c$aim* in t-e -o/e of a'&ancin, -i* intere*t*. It wa* after one of t-e*e &i*it* t-at -e ca$$e'
on me. %e *ai' t-at t-i* time -e -a' 'ri&en t-e e=a$te' ,ent$eman into a corner# an' -a'
a*ke' -im frank$y w-et-er con*i'eration* of re$i,io.* 'enomination were not rea$$y
re*/on*ib$e for t-e /o*t/onement of -i* a//ointment. T-e an*wer wa*: %i* E=ce$$ency
-a' to a'mit t-at in t-e /re*ent *tate of /.b$ic o/inion -e wa* not in a /o*ition# etc. @Now
at $ea*t I know w-ere I *tan'1# my frien' conc$.'e' -i* narrati&e# w-ic- to$' me not-in,
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new# b.t w-ic- wa* ca$c.$ate' to confirm me in my re*i,nation. For t-e *ame
'enominationa$ con*i'eration* wo.$' a//$y to my own ca*e.
On t-e mornin, after my frien'1* &i*it I -a' t-e fo$$owin, 'ream# w-ic- wa* notab$e a$*o
on acco.nt of it* form. It con*i*te' of two t-o.,-t* an' two ima,e*# *o t-at a t-o.,-t an'
an ima,e emer,e' a$ternate$y. 0.t -ere I *-a$$ recor' on$y t-e fir*t -a$f of t-e 'ream#
*ince t-e *econ' -a$f -a* no re$ation to t-e /.r/o*e for w-ic- I cite t-e 'ream.
I. M$ friend G5 is m$ uncle 55 I have a 'reat affection for him.
II. I see %efore me his face, some"hat altered5 It seems to %e elon'ated6 a $ello" %eard,
"hich surrounds it, is seen "ith peculiar distinctness.
T-en fo$$ow t-e ot-er two /ortion* of t-e 'ream# a,ain a t-o.,-t an' an ima,e# w-ic- I
omit.
T-e inter/retation of t-i* 'ream wa* arri&e' at in t-e fo$$owin, manner:
+-en I reco$$ecte' t-e 'ream in t-e co.r*e of t-e mornin,# I $a.,-e' o.tri,-t an' *ai'#
@T-e 'ream i* non*en*e1. 0.t I co.$' not ,et it o.t of my min'# an' I wa* /.r*.e' by it a$$
'ay# .nti$ at $ea*t# in t-e e&enin,# I re/roac-e' my*e$f in t-e*e wor'*: @If in t-e co.r*e of
a 'ream5inter/retation one of yo.r /atient* co.$' fin' not-in, better to *ay t-an @@T-at i*
non*en*e11# yo. wo.$' re/ro&e -im# an' yo. wo.$' *.*/ect t-at be-in' t-e 'ream t-ere
wa* -i''en *ome 'i*a,reeab$e affair# t-e e=/o*.re of w-ic- -e wante' to */are -im*e$f.
A//$y t-e *ame t-in, to yo.r own ca*e< yo.r o/inion t-at t-e 'ream i* non*en*e /robab$y
*i,nifie* mere$y an inner re*i*tance to it* inter/retation. Don1t $et yo.r*e$f be /.t off.1 I
t-en /rocee'e' wit- t-e inter/retation.
G5 is m$ uncle. +-at can t-at meanI I -a' on$y one .nc$e# my .nc$e >o*e/-.2 %i* *tory# to
be *.re# wa* a *a' one. Once# more t-an t-irty year* a,o# -o/in, to make money# -e
a$$owe' -im*e$f to be in&o$&e' in tran*action* of a kin' w-ic- t-e $aw /.ni*-e* *e&ere$y#
an' /ai' t-e /ena$ty. My fat-er# w-o*e -air t.rne' ,rey wit- ,rief wit-in a few 'ay*#
.*e' a$way* to *ay t-at .nc$e >o*e/- -a' ne&er been a ba' man# b.t# after a$$# -e wa* a
*im/$eton. If# t-en# my frien' R. i* my .nc$e >o*e/-# t-at i* e;.i&a$ent to *ayin,: R. i* a
*im/$eton. %ar'$y cre'ib$e# an' &ery 'i*a,reeab$eA 0.t t-ere i* t-e face t-at I *aw in t-e
'ream# wit- it* e$on,ate' feat.re* an' it* ye$$ow bear'. My .nc$e act.a$$y -a' *.c- a face
55 $on,# an' frame' in a -an'*ome ye$$ow bear'. My frien' R. wa* e=treme$y *wart-y#
b.t w-en b$ack5-aire' /eo/$e be,in to ,row ,rey t-ey /ay for t-e ,$ory of t-eir yo.t-.
T-eir b$ack bear'* .n'er,o an .n/$ea*ant c-an,e of co$o.r# -air by -air< fir*t t-ey t.rn a
re''i*- brown# t-en a ye$$owi*- brown# an' t-en 'efinite$y ,rey. My frien' R.1* bear' i*
now in t-i* *ta,e< *o# for t-at matter# i* my own# a fact w-ic- I note wit- re,ret. T-e face
t-at I *ee in my 'ream i* at once t-at of my frien' R. an' t-at of my .nc$e. It i* $ike one
of t-o*e com/o*ite /-oto,ra/-* of Ga$ton1*< in or'er to em/-a*i*e fami$y re*emb$ance*
Ga$ton -a' *e&era$ face* /-oto,ra/-e' on t-e *ame /$ate. No 'o.bt i* now /o**ib$e< it i*
rea$$y my o/inion t-at my frien' R. i* a *im/$eton 55 $ike my .nc$e >o*e/-.
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I -a&e *ti$$ no i'ea for w-at /.r/o*e I -a&e worke' o.t t-i* re$ation*-i/. It i* certain$y
one to w-ic- I m.*t .nre*er&e'$y ob6ect. Het it i* not &ery /rofo.n'# for my .nc$e wa* a
crimina$# an' my frien' R. i* not# e=ce/t in *o far a* -e wa* once fine' for knockin,
'own an a//rentice wit- -i* bicyc$e. (an I be t-inkin, of t-i* offenceI T-at wo.$' make
t-e com/ari*on ri'ic.$o.*. %ere I reco$$ect anot-er con&er*ation# w-ic- I -a' *ome 'ay*
a,o wit- anot-er co$$ea,.e# N.< a* a matter of fact# on t-e *ame *.b6ect. I met N. in t-e
*treet< -e# too# -a* been nominate' for a /rofe**or*-i/# an' -a&in, -ear' t-at I -a' been
*imi$ar$y -ono.re' -e con,rat.$ate' me. I ref.*e' -i* con,rat.$ation*# *ayin,: @Ho. are
t-e $a*t man to 6e*t abo.t t-e matter# for yo. know from yo.r own e=/erience w-at t-e
nomination i* wort-.1 T-ere./on -e *ai'# t-o.,- /robab$y not in earne*t: @Ho. can1t be
*.re of t-at. T-ere i* a */ecia$ ob6ection in my ca*e. Don1t yo. know t-at a woman once
bro.,-t a crimina$ acc.*ation a,ain*t meI I nee' -ar'$y a**.re yo. t-at t-e matter wa*
/.t ri,-t. It wa* a mean attem/t at b$ackmai$# an' it wa* a$$ I co.$' 'o to *a&e t-e /$aintiff
from /.ni*-ment. 0.t it may be t-at t-e affair i* remembere' a,ain*t me at t-e Mini*try.
Ho.# on t-e ot-er -an'# are abo&e re/roac-.1 %ere# t-en# I -a&e t-e crimina$# an' at t-e
*ame time t-e inter/retation an' ten'ency of my 'ream. My .nc$e >o*e/- re/re*ent* bot-
of my co$$ea,.e* w-o -a&e not been a//ointe' to t-e /rofe**or*-i/ 55 t-e one a* a
*im/$eton# t-e ot-er a* a crimina$. Now# too# I know for w-at /.r/o*e I nee' t-i*
re/re*entation. If 'enominationa$ con*i'eration* are a 'eterminin, factor in t-e
/o*t/onement of my two frien'*1 a//ointment# t-en my own a//ointment i* $ikewi*e in
6eo/ar'y. 0.t if I can refer t-e re6ection of my two frien'*1 to ot-er ca.*e*# w-ic- 'o not
a//$y to my own ca*e# my -o/e* are .naffecte'. T-i* i* t-e /roce'.re fo$$owe' by my
'ream: it make* t-e one frien'# R.# a *im/$eton# an' t-e ot-er# N.# a crimina$. 0.t *ince I
am neit-er one nor t-e ot-er# t-ere i* not-in, in common between .*. I -a&e a ri,-t to
en6oy my a//ointment to t-e tit$e of /rofe**or# an' -a&e a&oi'e' t-e 'i*tre**in,
a//$ication to my own ca*e of t-e information w-ic- t-e officia$ ,a&e to my frien' R.
I m.*t /.r*.e t-e inter/retation of t-i* 'ream *ti$$ fart-er< for I -a&e a fee$in, t-at it i* not
yet *ati*factori$y e$.ci'ate'. I *ti$$ fee$ 'i*;.iete' by t-e ea*e wit- w-ic- I -a&e 'e,ra'e'
two re*/ecte' co$$ea,.e* in or'er to c$ear my own way to t-e /rofe**or*-i/. My
'i**ati*faction wit- t-i* /roce'.re -a*# of co.r*e# been miti,ate' *ince I -a&e $earne' to
e*timate t-e te*timony of 'ream* at it* tr.e &a$.e. I *-o.$' contra'ict anyone w-o
*.,,e*te' t-at I rea$$y con*i'ere' R. a *im/$eton# or t-at I 'i' not be$ie&e N.1* acco.nt of
t-e b$ackmai$in, inci'ent. An' of co.r*e I 'o not be$ie&e t-at Irma -a* been ma'e
*erio.*$y i$$ by an in6ection of a /re/aration of /ro/y$ a'mini*tere' by Otto. %ere# a*
before# w-at t-e 'ream e=/re**e* i* on$y my "ish that thin's mi'ht %e so. T-e *tatement
in w-ic- my wi*- i* rea$i*e' *o.n'* $e** ab*.r' in t-e *econ' 'ream t-an in t-e fir*t< it i*
-ere ma'e wit- a *ki$f.$ .*e of act.a$ /oint* of *.//ort in e*tab$i*-in, *omet-in, $ike a
/$a.*ib$e *$an'er# one of w-ic- one co.$' *ay @t-at t-ere i* *omet-in, in it1. For at t-at
time my frien' R. -a' to conten' wit- t-e a'&er*e &ote of a .ni&er*ity /rofe**or of -i*
own 'e/artment# an' my frien' N. -a' -im*e$f# a$$ .n*.*/ectin,$y# /ro&i'e' me wit-
materia$ for t-e ca$.mny. Ne&ert-e$e**# I re/eat# it *ti$$ *eem* to me t-at t-e 'ream
re;.ire* f.rt-er e$.ci'ation.
I remember now t-at t-e 'ream containe' yet anot-er /ortion w-ic- -a* -it-erto been
i,nore' by t-e inter/retation. After it occ.rre' to me t-at my frien' R. wa* my .nc$e# I
INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS
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fe$t in t-e 'ream a ,reat affection for -im. To w-om i* t-i* fee$in, 'irecte'I For my
.nc$e >o*e/-# of co.r*e# I -a&e ne&er -a' any fee$in,* of affection. R. -a* for many year*
been a 'ear$y $o&e' frien'# b.t if I were to ,o to -im an' e=/re** my affection for -im in
term* a//roac-in, t-e 'e,ree of affection w-ic- I fe$t in t-e 'ream# -e wo.$'
.n'o.bte'$y be *.r/ri*e'. My affection# if it wa* for -im# *eem* fa$*e an' e=a,,erate'# a*
'oe* my 6.',ment of -i* inte$$ect.a$ ;.a$itie*# w-ic- I e=/re**e' by mer,in, -i*
/er*ona$ity in t-at of my .nc$e< b.t e=a,,erate' in t-e o//o*ite 'irection. Now# -owe&er#
a new *tate of affair* 'awn* ./on me.
T-e affection in t-e 'ream 'oe* not be$on, to t-e $atent content# to t-e t-o.,-t* be-in'
t-e 'ream< it *tan'* in o//o*ition to t-i* content< it i* ca$c.$ate' to concea$ t-e know$e',e
con&eye' by t-e inter/retation. Probab$y t-i* i* /reci*e$y it* f.nction. I remember wit-
w-at re$.ctance I .n'ertook t-e inter/retation# -ow $on, I trie' to /o*t/one it# an' -ow I
'ec$are' t-e 'ream to be *-eer non*en*e. I know from my /*yc-oana$ytic /ractice -ow
*.c- a con'emnation i* to be inter/rete'. It -a* no informati&e &a$.e# b.t mere$y
e=/re**e* an affect. If my $itt$e 'a.,-ter 'oe* not $ike an a//$e w-ic- i* offere' -er# *-e
a**ert* t-at t-e a//$e i* bitter# wit-o.t e&en ta*tin, it. If my /atient* be-a&e t-.*# I know
t-at we are 'ea$in, wit- an i'ea w-ic- t-ey are tryin, to repress. T-e *ame t-in, a//$ie*
to my 'ream. I 'o not want to inter/ret it beca.*e t-ere i* *omet-in, in t-e inter/retation
to w-ic- I ob6ect. After t-e inter/retation of t-e 'ream i* com/$ete'# I 'i*co&er w-at it
wa* to w-ic- I ob6ecte'< it wa* t-e a**ertion t-at R. i* a *im/$eton. I can refer t-e
affection w-ic- I fee$ for R. not to t-e $atent 'ream5t-o.,-t*# b.t rat-er to t-i*
.nwi$$in,ne** of mine. If my 'ream# a* com/are' wit- it* $atent content# i* 'i*,.i*e' at
t-i* /oint# an' act.a$$y mi*re/re*ent* t-in,* by /ro'.cin, t-eir o//o*ite*# t-en t-e
manife*t affection in t-e 'ream *er&e* t-e /.r/o*e of t-e mi*re/re*entation< in ot-er
wor'*# t-e 'i*tortion i* -ere *-own to be intentiona$ 55 it i* a mean* of dis'uise. My
'ream5t-o.,-t* of R. are 'ero,atory# an' *o t-at I may not become aware of t-i* t-e &ery
o//o*ite of 'efamation 55 a ten'er affection for -im 55 enter* into t-e 'ream.
T-i* 'i*co&ery may /ro&e to be ,enera$$y &a$i'. A* t-e e=am/$e* in (-a/ter T-ree -a&e
'emon*trate'# t-ere are# of co.r*e# 'ream* w-ic- are .n'i*,.i*e' wi*-5f.$fi$ment*.
+-ere&er a wi*-5f.$fi$ment i* .nreco,ni*ab$e an' 'i*,.i*e' t-ere m.*t be /re*ent a
ten'ency to 'efen' one*e$f a,ain*t t-i* wi*-# an' in con*e;.ence of t-i* 'efence t-e wi*-
i* .nab$e to e=/re** it*e$f *a&e in a 'i*torte' form. I wi$$ try to fin' a /ara$$e$ in *ocia$ $ife
to t-i* occ.rrence in t-e inner /*yc-ic $ife. +-ere in *ocia$ $ife can a *imi$ar
mi*re/re*entation be fo.n'I On$y w-ere two /er*on* are concerne'# one of w-om
/o**e**e* a certain /ower w-i$e t-e ot-er -a* to act wit- a certain con*i'eration on
acco.nt of t-i* /ower. T-e *econ' /er*on wi$$ t-en 'i*tort -i* /*yc-ic action*< or# a* we
*ay# -e wi$$ mas( -im*e$f. T-e /o$itene** w-ic- I /racti*e e&ery 'ay i* $ar,e$y a 'i*,.i*e
of t-i* kin'< if I inter/ret my 'ream* for t-e benefit of my rea'er*# I am force' to make
mi*re/re*entation* of t-i* kin'. T-e /oet e&en com/$ain* of t-e nece**ity of *.c-
mi*re/re*entation: Das <este, "as du "issen (annst, darfst du den <u%en doch nicht
sa'en< @T-e be*t t-at t-o. can*t know t-o. may*t not te$$ to boy*.1
T-e /o$itica$ writer w-o -a* .n/$ea*ant tr.t-* to te$$ to t-o*e in /ower fin'* -im*e$f in a
$ike /o*ition. If -e te$$* e&eryt-in, wit-o.t re*er&e# t-e Go&ernment wi$$ *.//re** t-em 55
INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS
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retro*/ecti&e$y in t-e ca*e of a &erba$ e=/re**ion of o/inion# /re&enti&e$y if t-ey are to be
/.b$i*-e' in t-e /re**. T-e writer *tan'* in fear of t-e cen*or*-i/< -e t-erefore mo'erate*
an' 'i*,.i*e* t-e e=/re**ion of -i* o/inion*. %e fin'* -im*e$f com/e$$e'# in accor'ance
wit- t-e *en*ibi$itie* of t-e cen*or# eit-er to refrain a$to,et-er from certain form* of
attack# or to e=/re** -im*e$f in a$$.*ion* in*tea' of by 'irect a**ertion*< or -e m.*t
concea$ -i* ob6ectionab$e *tatement in an a//arent$y innocent 'i*,.i*e. %e may# for
in*tance# te$$ of a contretem/* between two (-ine*e man'arin*# w-i$e -e rea$$y -a* in
min' t-e officia$* of -i* own co.ntry. T-e *tricter t-e 'omination of t-e cen*or*-i/# t-e
more t-oro.,- become* t-e 'i*,.i*e# an'# often eno.,-# t-e more in,enio.* t-e mean*
em/$oye' to /.t t-e rea'er on t-e track of t-e act.a$ meanin,.
T-e 'etai$e' corre*/on'ence between t-e /-enomena of cen*or*-i/ an' t-e /-enomena
of 'ream5'i*tortion 6.*tifie* .* in /re*.//o*in, *imi$ar con'ition* for bot-. +e *-o.$'
t-en a**.me t-at in e&ery -.man bein, t-ere e=i*t# a* t-e /rimary ca.*e of 'ream
formation# two /*yc-ic force* 3ten'encie* or *y*tem*4# one of w-ic- form* t-e wi*-
e=/re**e' by t-e 'ream# w-i$e t-e ot-er e=erci*e* a cen*or*-i/ o&er t-i* 'ream5wi*-#
t-ereby enforcin, on it a 'i*tortion. T-e ;.e*tion i*# w-at i* t-e nat.re of t-e a.t-ority of
t-i* *econ' a,ency by &irt.e of w-ic- it i* ab$e to e=erci*e it* cen*or*-i/I If we
remember t-at t-e $atent 'ream5t-o.,-t* are not con*cio.* before ana$y*i*# b.t t-at t-e
manife*t 'ream5content emer,in, from t-em i* con*cio.*$y remembere'# it i* not a
farfetc-e' a**.m/tion t-at a'mittance to t-e con*cio.*ne** i* t-e /rero,ati&e of t-e
*econ' a,ency. Not-in, can reac- t-e con*cio.*ne** from t-e fir*t *y*tem w-ic- -a* not
/re&io.*$y /a**e' t-e *econ' in*tance< an' t-e *econ' in*tance $et* not-in, /a** wit-o.t
e=erci*in, it* ri,-t*# an' forcin, *.c- mo'ification* a* are /$ea*in, to it*e$f ./on t-e
can'i'ate* for a'mi**ion to con*cio.*ne**. %ere we arri&e at a &ery 'efinite conce/tion
of t-e @e**ence1 of con*cio.*ne**< for .* t-e *tate of becomin, con*cio.* i* a */ecia$
/*yc-ic act# 'ifferent from an' in'e/en'ent of t-e /roce** of becomin, fi=e' or
re/re*ente'# an' con*cio.*ne** a//ear* to .* a* a *en*ory or,an w-ic- /ercei&e* a
content /rocee'in, from anot-er *o.rce. It may be *-own t-at /*yc-o/at-o$o,y *im/$y
cannot 'i*/en*e wit- t-e*e f.n'amenta$ a**.m/tion*. 0.t we *-a$$ re*er&e for anot-er
time a more e=-a.*ti&e e=amination of t-e *.b6ect.
If I bear in min' t-e notion of t-e two /*yc-ic in*tance* an' t-eir re$ation to t-e
con*cio.*ne**# I fin' in t-e */-ere of /o$itic* a /erfect$y a//ro/riate ana$o,y to t-e
e=traor'inary affection w-ic- I fee$ for my frien' R.# w-o i* *o 'i*/ara,e' in t-e
'reaminter/retation.
I refer to t-e /o$itica$ $ife of a State in w-ic- t-e r.$er# 6ea$o.* of -i* ri,-t*#
an' an acti&e /.b$ic o/inion are in m.t.a$ conf$ict. T-e /eo/$e# /rote*tin, a,ain*t t-e
action* of an .n/o/.$ar officia$# 'eman' -i* 'i*mi**a$. T-e a.tocrat# on t-e ot-er -an'# in
or'er to *-ow -i* contem/t for t-e /o/.$ar wi$$# may t-en 'e$iberate$y confer ./on t-e
officia$ *ome e=ce/tiona$ 'i*tinction w-ic- ot-erwi*e wo.$' not -a&e been conferre'.
Simi$ar$y# my *econ' in*tance# contro$$in, t-e acce** to my con*cio.*ne**# 'i*tin,.i*-e*
my frien' R. wit- a r.*- of e=traor'inary affection# beca.*e t-e wi*-5ten'encie* of t-e
fir*t *y*tem# in &iew of a /artic.$ar intere*t on w-ic- t-ey are 6.*t t-en intent# wo.$' $ike
to 'i*/ara,e -im a* a *im/$eton.7
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+e may now /er-a/* be,in to *.*/ect t-at 'ream5inter/retation i* ca/ab$e of yie$'in,
information concernin, t-e *tr.ct.re of o.r /*yc-ic a//arat.* w-ic- we -a&e -it-erto
&ain$y e=/ecte' from /-i$o*o/-y. +e *-a$$ not# -owe&er# fo$$ow ./ t-i* trai$# b.t *-a$$
ret.rn to o.r ori,ina$ /rob$em a* *oon a* we -a&e e$.ci'ate' t-e /rob$em of
'ream'i*tortion.
T-e ;.e*tion aro*e# -ow 'ream* wit- a 'i*a,reeab$e content can be ana$y*e'
a* wi*-5f.$fi$ment*. +e *ee now t-at t-i* i* /o**ib$e w-ere a 'ream5'i*tortion -a*
occ.rre'# w-en t-e 'i*a,reeab$e content *er&e* on$y to 'i*,.i*e t-e t-in, wi*-e' for.
+it- re,ar' to o.r a**.m/tion* re*/ectin, t-e two /*yc-ic in*tance*# we can now a$*o
*ay t-at 'i*a,reeab$e 'ream* contain# a* a matter of fact# *omet-in, w-ic- i* 'i*a,reeab$e
to t-e *econ' in*tance# b.t w-ic- at t-e *ame time f.$fi$* a wi*- of t-e fir*t in*tance.
T-ey are wi*-5'ream* in *o far a* e&ery 'ream emanate* from t-e fir*t in*tance# w-i$e t-e
*econ' in*tance be-a&e* towar'* t-e 'ream on$y in a 'efen*i&e# not in a con*tr.cti&e
manner.8 +ere we to $imit o.r*e$&e* to a con*i'eration of w-at t-e *econ' in*tance
contrib.te* to t-e 'ream we *-o.$' ne&er .n'er*tan' t-e 'ream# an' a$$ t-e /rob$em*
w-ic- t-e writer* on t-e *.b6ect -a&e 'i*co&ere' in t-e 'ream wo.$' -a&e to remain
.n*o$&e'.
T-at t-e 'ream act.a$$y -a* a *ecret meanin,# w-ic- /ro&e* to be a wi*-5f.$fi$ment# m.*t
be /ro&e' afre*- in e&ery ca*e by ana$y*i*. I wi$$ t-erefore *e$ect a few 'ream* w-ic-
-a&e /ainf.$ content*# an' en'ea&o.r to ana$y*e t-em. Some of t-em are 'ream* of
-y*terica$ *.b6ect*# w-ic- t-erefore ca$$ for a $on, /re$iminary *tatement# an' in *ome
/a**a,e* an e=amination of t-e /*yc-ic /roce**e* occ.rrin, in -y*teria. T-i*# t-o.,- it
wi$$ com/$icate t-e /re*entation# i* .na&oi'ab$e.
+-en I treat a /*yc-one.rotic /atient ana$ytica$$y# -i* 'ream* re,.$ar$y# a* I -a&e *ai'#
become a t-eme of o.r con&er*ation*. I m.*t t-erefore ,i&e -im a$$ t-e /*yc-o$o,ica$
e=/$anation* wit- w-o*e ai' I my*e$f -a&e *.ccee'e' in .n'er*tan'in, -i* *ym/tom*.
An' -ere I enco.nter .n*/arin, critici*m# w-ic- i* /er-a/* no $e** *-rew' t-an t-at
w-ic- I -a&e to e=/ect from my co$$ea,.e*. +it- /erfect .niformity my /atient*
contra'ict t-e 'octrine t-at 'ream* are t-e f.$fi$ment* of wi*-e*. %ere are *e&era$
e=am/$e* of t-e *ort of 'ream5materia$ w-ic- i* a''.ce' in ref.tation of my t-eory.
@Ho. are a$way* *ayin, t-at a 'ream i* a wi*- f.$fi$$e'#1 be,in* an inte$$i,ent $a'y /atient.
@Now I *-a$$ te$$ yo. a 'ream in w-ic- t-e content i* ;.ite t-e o//o*ite# in w-ic- a wi*-
of mine i* not f.$fi$$e'. %ow 'o yo. reconci$e t-at wit- yo.r t-eoryI T-e 'ream wa* a*
fo$$ow*: I "ant to 'ive a supper, %ut I have nothin' availa%le ecept some smo(ed
salmon5 I thin( I "ill 'o shoppin', %ut I remem%er that it is 3unda$ afternoon, "hen all
the shops are closed5 I then tr$ to rin' up a fe" caterers, %ut the telephone is out of order5
!ccordin'l$ I have to renounce m$ desire to 'ive a supper.1
I re/$y# of co.r*e# t-at on$y t-e ana$y*i* can 'eci'e t-e meanin, of t-i* 'ream# a$t-o.,- I
a'mit t-at at fir*t *i,-t it *eem* *en*ib$e an' co-erent an' $ook* $ike t-e o//o*ite of a
wi*-5f.$fi$ment. @0.t w-at occ.rrence ,a&e ri*e to t-i* 'reamI1 I a*k. @Ho. know t-at t-e
*tim.$.* of a 'ream a$way* $ie* amon, t-e e=/erience* of t-e /rece'in, 'ay.1
INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS
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!nal$sis 55 T-e /atient1* -.*ban'# an -one*t an' ca/ab$e meat *a$e*man# -a' to$' -er t-e
'ay before t-at -e wa* ,rowin, too fat# an' t-at -e meant to .n'er,o treatment for
obe*ity. %e wo.$' ri*e ear$y# take /-y*ica$ e=erci*e# kee/ to a *trict 'iet# an' abo&e a$$
acce/t no more in&itation* to *.//er. 55 S-e /rocee'* 6e*tin,$y to re$ate -ow -er -.*ban'#
at a ta%le d+hHte# -a' ma'e t-e ac;.aintance of an arti*t# w-o in*i*te' ./on /aintin, -i*
/ortrait# beca.*e -e# t-e /ainter# -a' ne&er *een *.c- an e=/re**i&e -ea'. 0.t -er -.*ban'
-a' an*were' in -i* 'ownri,-t fa*-ion# t-at w-i$e -e wa* m.c- ob$i,e'# -e wo.$' rat-er
not be /ainte'< an' -e wa* ;.ite con&ince' t-at a bit of a /retty yo.n, ,ir$1* /o*terior
wo.$' /$ea*e t-e arti*t better t-an -i* w-o$e face.9 55 S-e i* &ery m.c- in $o&e wit- -er
-.*ban'# an' tea*e* -im a ,oo' 'ea$. S-e -a* a*ke' -im not to ,i&e -er any ca&iar. +-at
can t-at meanI
A* a matter of fact# *-e -a' wante' for a $on, time to eat a ca&iar *an'wic- e&ery
mornin,# b.t -a' ,r.',e' t-e e=/en*e. Of co.r*e *-e co.$' ,et t-e ca&iar from -er
-.*ban' at once if *-e a*ke' for it. 0.t *-e -a*# on t-e contrary# be,,e' -im not to ,i&e
-er any ca&iar# *o t-at *-e mi,-t tea*e -im abo.t it a $itt$e $on,er.
3To me t-i* e=/$anation *eem* t-in. )nconfe**e' moti&e* are wont to concea$ t-em*e$&e*
be-in' 6.*t *.c- .n*ati*fyin, e=/$anation*. +e are remin'e' of t-e *.b6ect* -y/noti*e'
by 0ern-eim# w-o carrie' o.t a /o*t5-y/notic or'er# an' w-o# on bein, ;.e*tione' a* to
t-eir moti&e*# in*tea' of an*werin, @I 'o not know w-y I 'i' t-at1# -a' to in&ent a rea*on
t-at wa* ob&io.*$y ina'e;.ate. T-ere i* /robab$y *omet-in, *imi$ar to t-i* in t-e ca*e of
my /atient1* ca&iar. I *ee t-at in wakin, $ife *-e i* com/e$$e' to in&ent an .nf.$fi$$e'
wi*-. %er 'ream a$*o *-ow* -er t-e non5f.$fi$ment of -er wi*-. 0.t w-y 'oe* *-e nee' an
.nf.$fi$$e' wi*-I4
T-e i'ea* e$icite' *o far are in*.fficient for t-e inter/retation of t-e 'ream. I /re** for
more. After a *-ort /a.*e# w-ic- corre*/on'* to t-e o&ercomin, of a re*i*tance# *-e
re/ort* t-at t-e 'ay before *-e -a' /ai' a &i*it to a frien' of w-om *-e i* rea$$y 6ea$o.*
beca.*e -er -.*ban' i* a$way* /rai*in, t-i* $a'y *o -i,-$y. Fort.nate$y t-i* frien' i* &ery
t-in an' $anky# an' -er -.*ban' $ike* f.$$ fi,.re*. Now of w-at 'i' t-i* t-in frien' */eakI
Of co.r*e# of -er wi*- to become rat-er /$.m/er. S-e a$*o a*ke' my /atient: @+-en are
yo. ,oin, to in&ite .* a,ainI Ho. a$way* -a&e *.c- ,oo' foo'.1
Now t-e meanin, of t-e 'ream i* c$ear. I am ab$e to te$$ t-e /atient: @It i* 6.*t a* t-o.,-
yo. -a' t-o.,-t at t-e moment of -er a*kin, yo. t-at: @@Of co.r*e# I1m to in&ite yo. *o
t-at yo. can eat at my -o.*e an' ,et fat an' become *ti$$ more /$ea*in, to my -.*ban'A I
wo.$' rat-er ,i&e no more *.//er*A11 T-e 'ream t-en te$$* yo. t-at yo. cannot ,i&e a
*.//er# t-ereby f.$fi$$in, yo.r wi*- not to contrib.te anyt-in, to t-e ro.n'in, o.t of yo.r
frien'1* fi,.re. Ho.r -.*ban'1* re*o$.tion to acce/t no more in&itation* to *.//er in or'er
t-at -e may ,row t-in teac-e* yo. t-at one ,row* fat on foo' eaten at ot-er /eo/$e1*
tab$e*.1 Not-in, i* $ackin, now b.t *ome *ort of coinci'ence w-ic- wi$$ confirm t-e
*o$.tion. T-e *moke' *a$mon in t-e 'ream -a* not yet been trace'. 55 @%ow 'i' yo. come
to t-ink of *a$mon in yo.r 'reamI1 55 @Smoke' *a$mon i* my frien'1* fa&o.rite 'i*-#1 *-e
re/$ie'. It -a//en* t-at I know t-e $a'y# an' am ab$e to affirm t-at *-e ,r.',e* -er*e$f
*a$mon 6.*t a* my /atient ,r.',e* -er*e$f ca&iar.
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T-i* 'ream a'mit* of yet anot-er an' more e=act inter/retation 55 one w-ic- i* act.a$$y
nece**itate' on$y by a *.b*i'iary circ.m*tance. T-e two inter/retation* 'o not contra'ict
one anot-er# b.t rat-er 'o&etai$ into one anot-er# an' f.rni*- an e=ce$$ent e=am/$e of t-e
.*.a$ ambi,.ity of 'ream*# a* of a$$ ot-er /*yc-o/at-o$o,ica$ formation*. +e -a&e -ear'
t-at at t-e time of -er 'ream of a 'enie' wi*- t-e /atient wa* im/e$$e' to 'eny -er*e$f a
rea$ wi*- 3t-e wi*- to eat ca&iar *an'wic-e*4. %er frien'# too# -a' e=/re**e' a wi*-#
name$y# to ,et fatter# an' it wo.$' not *.r/ri*e .* if o.r /atient -a' 'reamt t-at t-i* wi*-
of -er frien'1* 55 t-e wi*- to increa*e in wei,-t 55 wa* not to be f.$fi$$e'. In*tea' of t-i*#
-owe&er# *-e 'reamt t-at one of -er own wi*-e* wa* not f.$fi$$e'. T-e 'ream become*
ca/ab$e of a new inter/retation if in t-e 'ream *-e 'oe* not mean -er*e$f# b.t -er frien'#
if *-e -a* /.t -er*e$f in t-e /$ace of -er frien'# or# a* we may *ay# -a* identified -er*e$f
wit- -er frien'.
I t-ink *-e -a* act.a$$y 'one t-i*# an' a* a *i,n of t-i* i'entification *-e -a* create' for
-er*e$f in rea$ $ife an .nf.$fi$$e' wi*-. 0.t w-at i* t-e meanin, of t-i* -y*terica$
i'entificationI To e$.ci'ate t-i* a more e=-a.*ti&e e=/o*ition i* nece**ary. I'entification
i* a -i,-$y im/ortant moti&e in t-e mec-ani*m of -y*terica$ *ym/tom*< by t-i* mean*
/atient* are enab$e' to e=/re** in t-eir *ym/tom* not mere$y t-eir own e=/erience*# b.t
t-e e=/erience* of ;.ite a n.mber of ot-er /er*on*< t-ey can *.ffer# a* it were# for a
w-o$e ma** of /eo/$e# an' fi$$ a$$ t-e /art* of a 'rama wit- t-eir own /er*ona$itie*. It wi$$
-ere be ob6ecte' t-at t-i* i* t-e we$$5known -y*terica$ imitation# t-e abi$ity of -y*terica$
*.b6ect* to imitate a$$ t-e *ym/tom* w-ic- im/re** t-em w-en t-ey occ.r in ot-er*# a*
t-o.,- /ity were aro.*e' to t-e /oint of re/ro'.ction. T-i*# -owe&er# on$y in'icate* t-e
/at- w-ic- t-e /*yc-ic /roce** fo$$ow* in -y*terica$ imitation. 0.t t-e /at- it*e$f an' t-e
/*yc-ic act w-ic- fo$$ow* t-i* /at- are two 'ifferent matter*. T-e act it*e$f i* *$i,-t$y
more com/$icate' t-an we are /rone to be$ie&e t-e imitation of t-e -y*terica$ to be< it
corre*/on'* to an .ncon*cio.* en'5/roce**# a* an e=am/$e wi$$ *-ow. T-e /-y*ician w-o
-a*# in t-e *ame war' wit- ot-er /atient*# a fema$e /atient *.fferin, from a /artic.$ar
kin' of twitc-in,# i* not *.r/ri*e' if one mornin, -e $earn* t-at t-i* /ec.$iar -y*terica$
affection -a* fo.n' imitator*. %e mere$y te$$* -im*e$f: T-e ot-er* -a&e *een -er# an' -a&e
imitate' -er< t-i* i* /*yc-ic infection. 55 He*# b.t /*yc-ic infection occ.r* *omew-at in
t-e fo$$owin, manner: A* a r.$e# /atient* know more abo.t one anot-er t-an t-e
/-y*ician know* abo.t any one of t-em# an' t-ey are concerne' abo.t one anot-er w-en
t-e 'octor1* &i*it i* o&er. One of t-em -a* an attack to'ay: at once it i* known to t-e re*t
t-at a $etter from -ome# a recr.'e*cence of $o&e*ickne**# or t-e $ike# i* t-e ca.*e. T-eir
*ym/at-y i* aro.*e'# an' a$t-o.,- it 'oe* not emer,e into con*cio.*ne** t-ey form t-e
fo$$owin, conc$.*ion: @If it i* /o**ib$e to *.ffer *.c- an attack from *.c- a ca.*e# I too
may *.ffer t-i* *ort of an attack# for I -a&e t-e *ame occa*ion for it.1 If t-i* were a
conc$.*ion ca/ab$e of becomin, con*cio.*# it wo.$' /er-a/* e=/re** it*e$f in dread of
*.fferin, a $ike attack< b.t it i* forme' in anot-er /*yc-ic re,ion# an' con*e;.ent$y en'*
in t-e rea$i*ation of t-e 'rea'e' *ym/tom*. T-.* i'entification i* not mere imitation# b.t
an a**imi$ation ba*e' ./on t-e *ame etio$o,ica$ c$aim# it e=/re**e* a @6.*t $ike1# an' refer*
to *ome common con'ition w-ic- -a* remaine' in t-e .ncon*cio.*.
In -y*teria i'entification i* mo*t fre;.ent$y em/$oye' to e=/re** a *e=.a$ comm.nity.
T-e -y*terica$ woman i'entifie* -er*e$f by -er *ym/tom* mo*t rea'i$y 55 t-o.,- not
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e=c$.*i&e$y 55 wit- /er*on* wit- w-om *-e -a' -a' *e=.a$ re$ation*# or w-o -a&e -a'
*e=.a$ interco.r*e wit- t-e *ame /er*on* a* -er*e$f. ?an,.a,e take* co,ni*ance of t-i*
ten'ency: two $o&er* are *ai' to be @one1. In -y*terica$ fanta*y# a* we$$ a* in 'ream*#
i'entification may en*.e if one *im/$y t-ink* of *e=.a$ re$ation*< t-ey nee' not
nece**ari$y become act.a$. T-e /atient i* mere$y fo$$owin, t-e r.$e* of t-e -y*terica$
/roce**e* of t-o.,-t w-en *-e e=/re**e* -er 6ea$o.*y of -er frien' 3w-ic-# for t-at
matter# *-e -er*e$f a'mit* to be .n6.*tifie'4 by /.ttin, -er*e$f in -er frien'1* /$ace in -er
'ream# an' i'entifyin, -er*e$f wit- -er by fabricatin, a *ym/tom 3t-e 'enie' wi*-4. One
mi,-t f.rt-er e$.ci'ate t-e /roce** by *ayin,: In t-e 'ream *-e /.t* -er*e$f in t-e /$ace of
-er frien'# beca.*e -er frien' -a* taken -er own /$ace in re$ation to -er -.*ban'# an'
beca.*e *-e wo.$' $ike to take -er frien'1* /$ace in -er -.*ban'1* e*teem.:
T-e contra'iction of my t-eory of 'ream* on t-e /art of anot-er fema$e /atient# t-e mo*t
inte$$i,ent of a$$ my 'reamer*# wa* *o$&e' in a *im/$er fa*-ion# t-o.,- *ti$$ in accor'ance
wit- t-e /rinci/$e t-at t-e non5f.$fi$ment of one wi*- *i,nifie' t-e f.$fi$ment of anot-er. I
-a' one 'ay e=/$aine' to -er t-at a 'ream i* a wi*-5f.$fi$ment. On t-e fo$$owin, 'ay *-e
re$ate' a 'ream to t-e effect t-at *-e wa* tra&e$$in, wit- -er mot-er5in5$aw to t-e /$ace in
w-ic- t-ey were bot- to */en' t-e *.mmer. Now I knew t-at *-e -a' &io$ent$y /rote*te'
a,ain*t */en'in, t-e *.mmer in t-e nei,-bo.r-oo' of -er mot-er5in5$aw. I a$*o knew t-at
*-e -a' fort.nate$y been ab$e to a&oi' 'oin, *o# *ince *-e -a' recent$y *.ccee'e' in
rentin, a -o.*e in a /$ace ;.ite remote from t-at to w-ic- -er mot-er5in5$aw wa* ,oin,.
An' now t-e 'ream re&er*e' t-i* 'e*ire' *o$.tion. +a* not t-i* a f$at contra'iction of my
t-eory of wi*-5f.$fi$mentI One -a' on$y to 'raw t-e inference* from t-i* 'ream in or'er
to arri&e at it* inter/retation. Accor'in, to t-i* 'ream# I wa* wron,< %ut it "as her "ish
that I should %e "ron', and this "ish the dream sho"ed her as fulfilled. 0.t t-e wi*- t-at
I *-o.$' be wron,# w-ic- wa* f.$fi$$e' in t-e t-eme of t-e co.ntry -o.*e# referre' in
rea$ity to anot-er an' more *erio.* matter. At t-at time I -a' inferre'# from t-e materia$
f.rni*-e' by -er ana$y*i*# t-at *omet-in, of *i,nificance in re*/ect to -er i$$ne** m.*t
-a&e occ.rre' at a certain time in -er $ife. S-e -a' 'enie' t-i*# beca.*e it wa* not /re*ent
in -er memory. +e *oon came to *ee t-at I wa* ri,-t. T-.* -er wi*- t-at I *-o.$' /ro&e
to be wron,# w-ic- wa* tran*forme' into t-e 'ream t-at *-e wa* ,oin, into t-e co.ntry
wit- -er mot-er5in5$aw# corre*/on'e' wit- t-e 6.*tifiab$e wi*- t-at t-o*e t-in,* w-ic-
were t-en on$y *.*/ecte' -a' ne&er occ.rre'.
+it-o.t an ana$y*i*# an' mere$y by mean* of an a**.m/tion# I took t-e $iberty of
inter/retin, a $itt$e inci'ent in t-e $ife of a frien'# w-o -a' been my com/anion t-ro.,-
ei,-t c$a**e* at *c-oo$. %e once -ear' a $ect.re of mine# 'e$i&ere' to a *ma$$ a.'ience# on
t-e no&e$ i'ea t-at 'ream* are wi*-5f.$fi$ment*. %e went -ome# 'reamt that he had lost
all his la"suits 55 -e wa* a $awyer 55 an' t-en com/$aine' to me abo.t it. I took ref.,e in
t-e e&a*ion: @One can1t win a$$ one1* ca*e*1< b.t I t-o.,-t to my*e$f: @If# for ei,-t year*# I
*at a* primus on t-e fir*t benc-# w-i$e -e mo&e' ./ an' 'own *omew-ere in t-e mi''$e
of t-e c$a**# may -e not nat.ra$$y -a&e -a' t-e wi*-# e&er *ince -i* boy-oo'# t-at I too
mi,-t for once make a foo$ of my*e$fI1
Het anot-er 'ream of a more ,$oomy c-aracter wa* offere' me by a fema$e /atient in
contra'iction of my t-eory of t-e wi*-5'ream. T-i* /atient# a yo.n, ,ir$# be,an a*
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fo$$ow*: @Ho. remember t-at my *i*ter -a* now on$y one boy# (-ar$e*. S-e $o*t t-e e$'er
one# Otto# w-i$e I wa* *ti$$ $i&in, wit- -er. Otto wa* my fa&o.rite< it wa* I w-o rea$$y
bro.,-t -im ./. I $ike t-e ot-er $itt$e fe$$ow# too# b.t# of co.r*e# not near$y *o m.c- a* -i*
'ea' brot-er. Now I 'reamt $a*t ni,-t t-at I sa" Charles l$in' dead %efore me5 Be "as
l$in' in his little coffin, his hands folded, there "ere candles all a%out6 and, in short, it
"as /ust as it "as at the time of little 8tto+s death, "hich 'ave me such a shoc(. Now te$$
me# w-at 'oe* t-i* meanI Ho. know me 55 am I rea$$y *o ba' a* to wi*- t-at my *i*ter
*-o.$' $o*e t-e on$y c-i$' *-e -a* $eftI Or 'oe* t-e 'ream mean t-at I wi*- t-at (-ar$e*
-a' 'ie' rat-er t-an Otto# w-om I $ike' *o m.c- betterI1
I a**.re' -er t-at t-i* $atter inter/retation wa* im/o**ib$e. After *ome ref$ection# I wa*
ab$e to ,i&e -er t-e inter/retation of t-e 'ream# w-ic- *-e *.b*e;.ent$y confirme'. I wa*
ab$e to 'o *o beca.*e t-e w-o$e /re&io.* -i*tory of t-e 'reamer wa* known to me.
%a&in, become an or/-an at an ear$y a,e# t-e ,ir$ -a' been bro.,-t ./ in t-e -ome of a
m.c- o$'er *i*ter# an' -a' met# amon, t-e frien'* an' &i*itor* w-o fre;.ente' t-e -o.*e#
a man w-o ma'e a $a*tin, im/re**ion ./on -er affection*. It $ooke' for a time a* t-o.,-
t-e*e bare$y e=/$icit re$ation* wo.$' en' in marria,e# b.t t-i* -a//y c.$mination wa*
fr.*trate' by t-e *i*ter# w-o*e moti&e* were ne&er com/$ete$y e=/$aine'. After t-e
r./t.re t-e man w-om my /atient $o&e' a&oi'e' t-e -o.*e< *-e -er*e$f attaine' -er
in'e/en'ence *ome time after t-e 'eat- of $itt$e Otto# to w-om# meanw-i$e# -er affection*
-a' t.rne'. 0.t *-e 'i' not *.ccee' in freein, -er*e$f from t-e 'e/en'ence '.e to -er
affection for -er *i*ter1* frien'. %er /ri'e ba'e -er a&oi' -im# b.t *-e fo.n' it im/o**ib$e
to tran*fer -er $o&e to t-e ot-er *.itor* w-o *.cce**i&e$y /re*ente' t-em*e$&e*. +-ene&er
t-e man *-e $o&e'# w-o wa* a member of t-e $iterary /rofe**ion# anno.nce' a $ect.re
anyw-ere# *-e wa* certain to be fo.n' amon, t-e a.'ience< an' *-e *eiCe' e&ery ot-er
o//ort.nity of *eein, -im .nob*er&e'. I remembere' t-at on t-e /re&io.* 'ay *-e -a'
to$' me t-at t-e Profe**or wa* ,oin, to a certain concert# an' t-at *-e too wa* ,oin,# in
or'er to en6oy t-e *i,-t of -im. T-i* wa* on t-e 'ay before t-e 'ream< an' t-e concert
wa* to be ,i&en on t-e 'ay on w-ic- *-e to$' me t-e 'ream. I co.$' now ea*i$y *ee t-e
correct inter/retation# an' I a*ke' -er w-et-er *-e co.$' t-ink of any /artic.$ar e&ent
w-ic- -a' occ.rre' after Otto1* 'eat-. S-e re/$ie' imme'iate$y: @Of co.r*e< t-e Profe**or
ret.rne' t-en# after a $on, ab*ence# an' I *aw -im once more be*i'e $itt$e Otto1* coffin.1 It
wa* 6.*t a* I -a' e=/ecte'. I inter/rete' t-e 'ream a* fo$$ow*: @If now t-e ot-er boy were
to 'ie# t-e *ame t-in, wo.$' -a//en a,ain. Ho. wo.$' */en' t-e 'ay wit- yo.r *i*ter< t-e
Profe**or wo.$' certain$y come to offer -i* con'o$ence*# an' yo. wo.$' *ee -im once
more .n'er t-e *ame circ.m*tance* a* before. T-e 'ream *i,nifie* not-in, more t-an t-i*
wi*- of yo.r* to *ee -im a,ain 55 a wi*- a,ain*t w-ic- yo. are fi,-tin, inwar'$y. I know
t-at yo. -a&e t-e ticket for to'ay1* concert in yo.r ba,. Ho.r 'ream i* a 'ream of
im/atience< it -a* antici/ate' by *e&era$ -o.r* t-e meetin, w-ic- i* to take /$ace to'ay.1
In or'er to 'i*,.i*e -er wi*- *-e -a' ob&io.*$y *e$ecte' a *it.ation in w-ic- wi*-e* of t-e
*ort are common$y *.//re**e' 55 a *it.ation *o *orrowf.$ t-at $o&e i* not e&en t-o.,-t of.
An' yet it i* entire$y /o**ib$e t-at e&en in t-e act.a$ *it.ation be*i'e t-e coffin of t-e
e$'er# more 'ear$y $o&e' boy# *-e -a' not been ab$e to *.//re** -er ten'er affection for
t-e &i*itor w-om *-e -a' mi**e' for *o $on,.
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A 'ifferent e=/$anation wa* fo.n' in t-e ca*e of a *imi$ar 'ream of anot-er /atient# w-o
in ear$ier $ife -a' been 'i*tin,.i*-e' for -er ;.ick wit an' -er c-eerf.$ 'i*/o*ition# an'
w-o *ti$$ 'i*/$aye' t-e*e ;.a$itie*# at a$$ e&ent* in t-e free a**ociation* w-ic- occ.rre' to
-er '.rin, treatment. In t-e co.r*e of a $on,er 'ream# it *eeme' to t-i* $a'y t-at *-e *aw
-er fifteen year5o$' 'a.,-ter $yin, 'ea' before -er in a bo=. S-e wa* *tron,$y inc$ine' to
.*e t-i* 'ream5ima,e a* an ob6ection to t-e t-eory of wi*-5f.$fi$ment# a$t-o.,- *-e
-er*e$f *.*/ecte' t-at t-e 'etai$ of t-e bo= m.*t $ea' to a 'ifferent conce/tion of t-e
'ream.D For in t-e co.r*e of t-e ana$y*i* it occ.rre' to -er t-at on t-e /re&io.* e&enin,
t-e con&er*ation of t-e /eo/$e in w-o*e com/any *-e fo.n' -er*e$f -a' t.rne' on t-e
En,$i*- wor' @bo=1# an' ./on t-e n.mero.* tran*$ation* of it into German *.c- a*
3chachtel 3bo=4# Lo'e 3bo= at t-e t-eatre4# Easten 3c-e*t4# 8hrfei'e 3bo= on t-e ear4# etc.
From ot-er com/onent* of t-e *ame 'ream it wa* now /o**ib$e to a'' t-e fact t-at t-e
$a'y -a' ,.e**e' at t-e re$ation*-i/ between t-e En,$i*- wor' @bo=1 an' t-e German
<Dchse# an' -a' t-en been -a.nte' by t-e reco$$ection t-at <Dchse# i* .*e' in &.$,ar
/ar$ance to 'enote t-e fema$e ,enita$*. It wa* t-erefore /o**ib$e# treatin, -er know$e',e
of to/o,ra/-ica$ anatomy wit- a certain in'.$,ence# to a**.me t-at t-e c-i$' in t-e bo=
*i,nifie' a c-i$' in t-e mot-er1* womb. At t-i* *ta,e of t-e e=/$anation *-e no $on,er
'enie' t-at t-e /ict.re in t-e 'ream act.a$$y corre*/on'e' wit- a wi*- of -er*. ?ike *o
many ot-er yo.n, women# *-e wa* by no mean* -a//y on fin'in, t-at *-e wa* /re,nant#
an' *-e -a' confe**e' to me more t-an once t-e wi*- t-at -er c-i$' mi,-t 'ie before it*
birt-< in a fit of an,er# fo$$owin, a &io$ent *cene wit- -er -.*ban'# *-e -a' e&en *tr.ck
-er ab'omen wit- -er fi*t*# in or'er to in6.re t-e c-i$' wit-in. T-e 'ea' c-i$' wa*#
t-erefore# rea$$y t-e f.$fi$ment of a wi*-# b.t a wi*- w-ic- -a' been /.t a*i'e for fifteen
year*# an' it i* not *.r/ri*in, t-at t-e f.$fi$ment of t-e wi*- wa* no $on,er reco,ni*e'
after *o $on, an inter&a$. For t-ere -a' been many c-an,e* in t-e meantime.
T-e ,ro./ of 'ream* 3-a&in, a* content t-e 'eat- of be$o&e' re$ati&e*4 to w-ic- be$on,
t-e $a*t two mentione' wi$$ be con*i'ere' a,ain .n'er t-e -ea' of @Ty/ica$ Dream*1. I
*-a$$ t-en be ab$e to *-ow by new e=am/$e* t-at in */ite of t-eir .n'e*irab$e content a$$
t-e*e 'ream* m.*t be inter/rete' a* wi*-5f.$fi$ment*. For t-e fo$$owin, 'ream# w-ic-
a,ain wa* to$' me in or'er to 'eter me from a -a*ty ,enera$i*ation of my t-eory# I am
in'ebte'# not to a /atient# b.t to an inte$$i,ent 6.ri*t of my ac;.aintance. @I dream#1 my
informant te$$* me# @that I am "al(in' in front of m$ house "ith a lad$ on m$ arm5 Bere a
closed carria'e is "aitin'6 a man steps up to me, sho"s me his authorisation as a police
officer, and re0uests me to follo" him5 I as( onl$ for time in "hich to arran'e m$ affairs.1
T-e 6.ri*t t-en a*k* me: @(an yo. /o**ib$y *.//o*e t-at it i* my wi*- to be arre*te'I1 55
@Of co.r*e not#1 I -a&e to a'mit. @Do yo. -a//en to know ./on w-at c-ar,e yo. were
arre*te'I1 55 @He*< I be$ie&e for infantici'e.1 55 @Infantici'eI 0.t yo. know t-at on$y a
mot-er can commit t-i* crime ./on -er new5born c-i$'I1 55 @T-at i* tr.e.1! 55 @An' .n'er
w-at circ.m*tance* 'i' yo. 'ream t-i*I +-at -a//ene' on t-e e&enin, beforeI1 55 @I
wo.$' rat-er not te$$ yo. 55 it i* a 'e$icate matter.1 55 @0.t I nee' it# ot-erwi*e we m.*t
for,o t-e inter/retation of t-e 'ream.1 55 @+e$$# t-en# I wi$$ te$$ yo.. I */ent t-e ni,-t# not
at -ome# b.t in t-e -o.*e of a $a'y w-o mean* a ,reat 'ea$ to me. +-en we awoke in t-e
mornin,# *omet-in, a,ain /a**e' between .*. T-en I went to *$ee/ a,ain# an' 'reamt
w-at I -a&e to$' yo..1 55 @T-e woman i* marrie'I1 55 @He*.1 55 @An' yo. 'o not wi*- -er to
concei&eI1 55 @No< t-at mi,-t betray .*.1 55 @T-en yo. 'o not /ractice norma$ coit.*I1 55 @I
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take t-e /reca.tion to wit-'raw before e6ac.$ation.1 55 @Am I to a**.me t-at yo. took t-i*
/reca.tion *e&era$ time* '.rin, t-e ni,-t# an' t-at in t-e mornin, yo. were not ;.ite *.re
w-et-er yo. -a' *.ccee'e'I1 55 @T-at mi,-t be *o.1 55 @T-en yo.r 'ream i* t-e f.$fi$ment
of a wi*-. 0y t-e 'ream yo. are a**.re' t-at yo. -a&e not be,otten a c-i$'# or# w-at
amo.nt* to t-e *ame t-in,# t-at yo. -a&e ki$$e' t-e c-i$'. I can ea*i$y 'emon*trate t-e
connectin,5$ink*. Do yo. remember# a few 'ay* a,o we were ta$kin, abo.t t-e tro.b$e*
of matrimony# an' abo.t t-e incon*i*tency of /ermittin, coit.* *o $on, a* no
im/re,nation take* /$ace# w-i$e at t-e *ame time any /re&enti&e act committe' after t-e
o&.m an' t-e *emen meet an' a foet.* i* forme' i* /.ni*-e' a* a crimeI In t-i*
connection we reca$$e' t-e me'ie&a$ contro&er*y abo.t t-e moment of time at w-ic- t-e
*o.$ act.a$$y enter* into t-e foet.*# *ince t-e conce/t of m.r'er become* a'mi**ib$e on$y
from t-at /oint onwar'*. Of co.r*e# too# yo. know t-e ,r.e*ome /oem by ?ena.# w-ic-
/.t* infantici'e an' birt-5contro$ on t-e *ame /$ane.1 55 @Stran,e$y eno.,-# I -a//ene'# a*
t-o.,- by c-ance# to t-ink of ?ena. t-i* mornin,.1 55 @Anot-er ec-o of yo.r 'ream. An'
now I *-a$$ *-ow yo. yet anot-er inci'enta$ wi*-5f.$fi$ment in yo.r 'ream. Ho. wa$k ./
to yo.r -o.*e wit- t-e $a'y on yo.r arm. So yo. take -er -ome# in*tea' of */en'in, t-e
ni,-t at -er -o.*e# a* yo. 'i' in rea$ity. T-e fact t-at t-e wi*-5f.$fi$ment# w-ic- i* t-e
e**ence of t-e 'ream# 'i*,.i*e* it*e$f in *.c- an .n/$ea*ant form# -a* /er-a/* more t-an
one e=/$anation. From my e**ay on t-e etio$o,y of an=iety ne.ro*i*# yo. wi$$ *ee t-at I
note coitus interruptus a* one of t-e factor* re*/on*ib$e for t-e 'e&e$o/ment of ne.rotic
fear. It wo.$' be con*i*tent wit- t-i* if# after re/eate' coit.* of t-i* kin'# yo. were $eft in
an .ncomfortab$e frame of min'# w-ic- now become* an e$ement of t-e com/o*ition of
yo.r 'ream. Ho. e&en make .*e of t-i* .ncomfortab$e *tate of min' to concea$ t-e
wi*-f.$fi$ment.
At t-e *ame time# t-e mention of infantici'e -a* not yet been e=/$aine'. +-y
'oe* t-i* crime# w-ic- i* /ec.$iar to fema$e*# occ.r to yo.I1 55 @I wi$$ confe** to yo. t-at I
wa* in&o$&e' in *.c- an affair year* a,o. I wa* re*/on*ib$e for t-e fact t-at a ,ir$ trie' to
/rotect -er*e$f from t-e con*e;.ence* of a $iai*on wit- me by /roc.rin, an abortion. I
-a' not-in, to 'o wit- t-e carryin, o.t of -er /$an# b.t for a $on, time I wa* nat.ra$$y
worrie' in ca*e t-e affair mi,-t be 'i*co&ere'.1 55 @I .n'er*tan'. T-i* reco$$ection
f.rni*-e' a *econ' rea*on w-y t-e *.//o*ition t-at yo. -a' /erforme' coitus interruptus
c$.m*i$y m.*t -a&e been /ainf.$ to yo..1
A yo.n, /-y*ician# w-o -ear' t-i* 'ream re$ate' in my $ect.re5room# m.*t -a&e fe$t t-at
it fitte' -im# for -e -a*tene' to imitate it by a 'ream of -i* own# a//$yin, it* mo'e of
t-inkin, to anot-er t-eme. On t-e /re&io.* 'ay -e -a' f.rni*-e' a *tatement of -i*
income< a ;.ite *trai,-tforwar' *tatement# beca.*e -e -a' $itt$e to *tate. %e 'reamt t-at
an ac;.aintance of -i* came from a meetin, of t-e ta= commi**ion an' informe' -im t-at
a$$ t-e ot-er *tatement* -a' /a**e' .n;.e*tione'# b.t t-at -i* own -a' aro.*e' ,enera$
*.*/icion# wit- t-e re*.$t t-at -e wo.$' be /.ni*-e' wit- a -ea&y fine. T-i* 'ream i* a
/oor$y 'i*,.i*e' f.$fi$ment of t-e wi*- to be known a* a /-y*ician wit- a $ar,e income. It
a$*o ca$$* to min' t-e *tory of t-e yo.n, ,ir$ w-o wa* a'&i*e' a,ain*t acce/tin, -er *.itor
beca.*e -e wa* a man of ;.ick tem/er# w-o wo.$' a**.re'$y beat -er after t-eir
marria,e. %er an*wer wa*: @I wi*- -e "ould *trike meA1 %er wi*- to be marrie' wa* *o
inten*e t-at *-e -a' taken into con*i'eration t-e 'i*comfort* /re'icte' for t-i* marria,e<
*-e -a' e&en rai*e' t-em to t-e /$ane of a wi*-.
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If I ,ro./ to,et-er t-e &ery fre;.ent 'ream* of t-i* *ort# w-ic- *eem f$at$y to contra'ict
my t-eory# in t-at t-ey embo'y t-e 'enia$ of a wi*- or *ome occ.rrence ob&io.*$y
.n'e*ire'# .n'er t-e -ea' of @co.nter5wi*-5'ream*1# I fin' t-at t-ey may a$$ be referre' to
two /rinci/$e*# one of w-ic- -a* not yet been mentione'# t-o.,- it /$ay* a $ar,e /art in
wakin, a* we$$ a* 'ream5$ife. One of t-e moti&e* in*/irin, t-e*e 'ream* i* t-e wi*- t-at I
*-o.$' a//ear in t-e wron,. T-e*e 'ream* occ.r re,.$ar$y in t-e co.r*e of treatment
w-ene&er t-e /atient i* in a *tate of re*i*tance< in'ee'# I can wit- a ,reat 'ea$ of certainty
co.nt on e&okin, *.c- a 'ream once I -a&e e=/$aine' to t-e /atient my t-eory t-at t-e
'ream i* a wi*-5f.$fi$ment.1" In'ee'# I -a&e rea*on to e=/ect t-at many of my rea'er* wi$$
-a&e *.c- 'ream*# mere$y to f.$fi$ t-e wi*- t-at I may /ro&e to be wron,. T-e $a*t 'ream
w-ic- I *-a$$ reco.nt from amon, t-o*e occ.rrin, in t-e co.r*e of treatment once more
'emon*trate* t-i* &ery t-in,. A yo.n, ,ir$ w-o -a' *tr.,,$e' -ar' to contin.e my
treatment# a,ain*t t-e wi$$ of -er re$ati&e* an' t-e a.t-oritie* w-om t-ey -a' con*.$te'#
'reamt t-e fo$$owin, 'ream: !t home she is for%idden to come to me an$ more5 3he then
reminds me of the promise I made to treat her for nothin' if necessar$, and I tell her: )I
can sho" no consideration in mone$ matters.1
It i* not at a$$ ea*y in t-i* ca*e to 'emon*trate t-e f.$fi$ment of a wi*-# b.t in a$$ ca*e* of
t-i* kin' t-ere i* a *econ' /rob$em# t-e *o$.tion of w-ic- -e$/* a$*o to *o$&e t-e fir*t.
+-ere 'oe* *-e ,et t-e wor'* w-ic- *-e /.t* into my mo.t-I Of co.r*e# I -a&e ne&er
to$' -er anyt-in, of t-e kin'< b.t one of -er brot-er*# t-e one w-o -a* t-e ,reate*t
inf$.ence o&er -er# -a* been kin' eno.,- to make t-i* remark abo.t me. It i* t-en t-e
/.r/o*e of t-e 'ream to *-ow t-at -er brot-er i* ri,-t< an' *-e 'oe* not try to 6.*tify t-i*
brot-er mere$y in t-e 'ream< it i* -er /.r/o*e in $ife an' t-e moti&e of -er i$$ne**.
A 'ream w-ic- at fir*t *i,-t /re*ent* /ec.$iar 'iffic.$tie* for t-e t-eory of wi*-f.$fi$ment
wa* 'reame' by a /-y*ician 3A.,. StOrcke4 an' inter/rete' by -im: @I have
and see on the last phalan'e of m$ left forefin'er a primar$ s$philitic affection.1
One may /er-a/* be inc$ine' to refrain from ana$y*in, t-i* 'ream# *ince it *eem* c$ear
an' co-erent# e=ce/t for it* .nwi*-e'5for content. %owe&er# if one take* t-e tro.b$e to
make an ana$y*i*# one $earn* t-at @/rimary affection1 re'.ce* it*e$f to @prima affectio1
3fir*t $o&e4# an' t-at t-e re/.$*i&e *ore# in t-e wor'* of StOrke# /ro&e* to be @t-e
re/re*entati&e of wi*-5f.$fi$ment* c-ar,e' wit- inten*e emotion.111
T-e ot-er moti&e for co.nter5wi*-5'ream* i* *o c$ear t-at t-ere i* a 'an,er of o&er$ookin,
it# a* -a//ene' in my own ca*e for a $on, time. In t-e *e=.a$ con*tit.tion of many
/er*on* t-ere i* a ma*oc-i*tic com/onent# w-ic- -a* ari*en t-ro.,- t-e con&er*ion of t-e
a,,re**i&e# *a'i*tic com/onent into it* o//o*ite. S.c- /eo/$e are ca$$e' @i'ea$1 ma*oc-i*t*
if t-ey *eek /$ea*.re not in t-e bo'i$y /ain w-ic- may be inf$icte' ./on t-em# b.t in
-.mi$iation an' /*yc-ic c-a*ti*ement. It i* ob&io.* t-at *.c- /er*on* may -a&e
co.nterwi*-5
'ream* an' 'i*a,reeab$e 'ream*# yet t-e*e are for t-em not-in, more t-an
wi*-f.$fi$ment*#
w-ic- *ati*fy t-eir ma*oc-i*tic inc$ination*. %ere i* *.c- a 'ream: A yo.n,
man# w-o in ear$ier yo.t- ,reat$y tormente' -i* e$'er brot-er# towar' w-om -e wa*
-omo*e=.a$$y inc$ine'# b.t w-o -a* *ince .n'er,one a com/$ete c-an,e of c-aracter# -a*
t-e fo$$owin, 'ream# w-ic- con*i*t* of t-ree /art*: 314 Be is )teased+ %$ his %rother. 34
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7:
T"o adults are caressin' each other "ith homoseual intentions. 324 Bis %rother has sold
the %usiness, the mana'ement of "hich the $oun' man had reserved for his o"n future.
From t-i* $a*t 'ream -e awaken* wit- t-e mo*t .n/$ea*ant fee$in,*< an' yet it i* a
ma*oc-i*tic wi*-5'ream# w-ic- mi,-t be tran*$ate': It wo.$' *er&e me ri,-t if my brot-er
were to make t-at *a$e a,ain*t my intere*t*. It wo.$' be my /.ni*-ment for a$$ t-e
torment* -e -a* *.ffere' at my -an'*.
I -o/e t-at t-e e=am/$e* ,i&en abo&e wi$$ *.ffice 55 .nti$ *ome f.rt-er ob6ection a//ear* 5
5 to make it *eem cre'ib$e t-at e&en 'ream* wit- a /ainf.$ content are to be ana$y*e' a*
wi*-5f.$fi$ment*.1 Nor *-o.$' it be con*i'ere' a mere matter of c-ance t-at in t-e co.r*e
of inter/retation one a$way* -a//en* ./on *.b6ect* abo.t w-ic- one 'oe* not $ike to
*/eak or t-ink. T-e 'i*a,reeab$e *en*ation w-ic- *.c- 'ream* aro.*e i* of co.r*e
/reci*e$y i'entica$ wit- t-e anti/at-y w-ic- wo.$'# an' .*.a$$y 'oe*# re*train .* from
treatin, or 'i*c.**in, *.c- *.b6ect* 55 an anti/at-y w-ic- m.*t be o&ercome by a$$ of .*
if we fin' o.r*e$&e* ob$i,e' to attack t-e /rob$em of *.c- 'ream*. 0.t t-i* 'i*a,reeab$e
fee$in, w-ic- rec.r* in o.r 'ream* 'oe* not /rec$.'e t-e e=i*tence of a wi*-< e&eryone
-a* wi*-e* w-ic- -e wo.$' not $ike to confe** to ot-er*# w-ic- -e 'oe* not care to a'mit
e&en to -im*e$f. On t-e ot-er -an'# we fee$ 6.*tifie' in connectin, t-e .n/$ea*ant
c-aracter of a$$ t-e*e 'ream* wit- t-e fact of 'ream5'i*tortion# an' in conc$.'in, t-at
t-e*e 'ream* are 'i*torte'# an' t-at t-eir wi*-5f.$fi$ment i* 'i*,.i*e' beyon' reco,nition#
/reci*e$y beca.*e t-ere i* a *tron, re&.$*ion a,ain*t 55 a wi$$ to re/re** 55 t-e
*.b6ectmatter
of t-e 'ream# or t-e wi*- create' by it. Dream5'i*tortion# t-en# /ro&e* in rea$ity to
be an act of t-e cen*or*-i/. +e *-a$$ -a&e inc$.'e' e&eryt-in, w-ic- t-e ana$y*i* of
'i*a,reeab$e 'ream* -a* bro.,-t to $i,-t if we rewor' o.r form.$a t-.*: The dream is the
9dis'uised: fulfilment of a 9suppressed, repressed: "ish.12
Now t-ere *ti$$ remain to be con*i'ere'# a* a /artic.$ar *.bor'er of 'ream* wit- /ainf.$
content# t-e an=iety5'ream*# t-e inc$.*ion of w-ic- amon, t-e wi*-5'ream* wi$$ be *ti$$
$e** acce/tab$e to t-e .ninitiate'. 0.t I can -ere 'ea$ &ery c.r*ori$y wit- t-e /rob$em of
an=iety5'ream*< w-at t-ey -a&e to re&ea$ i* not a new a*/ect of t-e 'ream5/rob$em< -ere
t-e /rob$em i* t-at of .n'er*tan'in, ne.rotic an=iety in ,enera$. T-e an=iety w-ic- we
e=/erience in 'ream* i* on$y a//arent$y e=/$aine' by t-e 'ream5content. If we *.b6ect
t-at content to ana$y*i*# we become aware t-at t-e 'ream5an=iety i* no more 6.*tifie' by
t-e 'ream5content t-an t-e an=iety in a /-obia i* 6.*tifie' by t-e i'ea to w-ic- t-e /-obia
i* attac-e'. For e=am/$e# it i* tr.e t-at it i* /o**ib$e to fa$$ o.t of a win'ow# an' t-at a
certain care *-o.$' be e=erci*e' w-en one i* at a win'ow# b.t it i* not ob&io.* w-y t-e
an=iety in t-e corre*/on'in, /-obia i* *o ,reat# an' w-y it torment* it* &ictim* more t-an
it* ca.*e wo.$' warrant. T-e *ame e=/$anation w-ic- a//$ie* to t-e /-obia a//$ie* a$*o to
t-e an=iety5'ream. In eit-er ca*e t-e an=iety i* on$y fastened on to t-e i'ea w-ic-
accom/anie* it# an' i* rea$$y 'eri&e' from anot-er *o.rce.
On acco.nt of t-i* intimate re$ation of 'ream5an=iety to ne.rotic an=iety# t-e 'i*c.**ion
of t-e former ob$i,e* me to refer to t-e $atter. In a $itt$e e**ay on !niet$ 7eurosis#17
written in 1D!8# I maintain t-at ne.rotic an=iety -a* it* ori,in in t-e *e=.a$ $ife# an'
corre*/on'* to a $ibi'o w-ic- -a* been 'ef$ecte' from it* ob6ect an' -a* fo.n' no
em/$oyment. T-e acc.racy of t-i* form.$a -a* *ince t-en been 'emon*trate' wit- e&er5
INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS
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7D
increa*in, certainty. From it we may 'e'.ce t-e 'octrine t-at an=iety5'ream* are 'ream*
of *e=.a$ content# an' t-at t-e $ibi'o a//ertainin, to t-i* content -a* been tran*forme'
into an=iety. ?ater on I *-a$$ -a&e an o//ort.nity of confirmin, t-i* a**ertion by t-e
ana$y*i* of *e&era$ 'ream* of ne.rotic*. In my f.rt-er attem/t* to arri&e at a t-eory of
'ream* I *-a$$ a,ain -a&e occa*ion to re&ert to t-e con'ition* of an=iety5'ream* an' t-eir
com/atibi$ity wit- t-e t-eory of wi*-5f.$fi$ment.
1 A$rea'y P$otin.*# t-e neo5P$atoni*t# *ai': @+-en 'e*ire be*tir* it*e$f# t-en come* fanta*y#
an' /re*ent* to .*# a* it were# t-e ob6ect of 'e*ire1 3D. Pre$# /. :94.
It i* ;.ite incre'ib$e wit- w-at ob*tinacy rea'er* an' critic* -a&e e=c$.'e' t-i*
con*i'eration an' 'i*re,ar'e' t-e f.n'amenta$ 'ifferentiation between t-e manife*t an'
t-e $atent 'ream5content. Not-in, in t-e $iterat.re of t-e *.b6ect a//roac-e* *o c$o*e$y to
my own conce/tion of 'ream* a* a /a**a,e in >. S.$$y1* e**ay: Dreams as a Gevelation
3an' it i* not beca.*e I 'o not t-ink it &a$.ab$e t-at I a$$.'e to it -ere for t-e fir*t time4.
@It
"ould seem then, after all, that dreams are not the utter nonsense the$ have %een said to
%e %$ such authorities as Chaucer, 3ha(espeare, and Milton5 The chaotic a''re'ations of
our ni'ht4fanc$ have a si'nificance and communicate ne" (no"led'e5 Li(e some letter in
cipher, the dream4inscription "hen scrutinised closel$ loses its first loo( of %alderdash
and ta(es on the aspect of a serious, intelli'i%le messa'e5 8r, to var$ the fi'ure sli'htl$,
"e ma$ sa$ that, li(e some pamphlets the dream discloses %eneath its "orthless
surfacecharacters
traces of an old and precious communication1 3/. 2974.
2 It i* a*toni*-in, to *ee -ow my memory -ere re*trict* it*e$f 55 in t-e wakin, *tateA 55 for
t-e /.r/o*e* of ana$y*i*. I -a&e known fi&e of my .nc$e* an' I $o&e' an' -ono.re' one of
t-em. 0.t at t-e moment w-en I o&ercame my re*i*tance to t-e inter/retation of t-e
'ream# I *ai' to my*e$f: @I -a&e on$y one .nc$e# t-e one w-o i* inten'e' in t-e 'ream.1
7 S.c- -y/ocritica$ 'ream* are not rare# eit-er wit- me or wit- ot-er*. +-i$e I -a&e been
workin, at a certain *cientific /rob$em I -a&e been &i*ite' for *e&era$ ni,-t*# at ;.ite
*-ort inter&a$*# by a *omew-at conf.*in, 'ream w-ic- -a* a* it* content a reconci$iation
wit- a frien' 'ro//e' $on, a,o. After t-ree or fo.r attem/t* I fina$$y *.ccee'e' in
,ra*/in, t-e meanin, of t-i* 'ream. It wa* in t-e nat.re of an enco.ra,ement to ,i&e ./
t-e remnant of con*i'eration *ti$$ *.r&i&in, for t-e /er*on in ;.e*tion# to make my*e$f
;.ite free from -im# b.t it -y/ocritica$$y 'i*,.i*e' it*e$f in it* antit-e*i*. I -a&e recor'e'
a @-y/ocritica$ Oe'i/.* 'ream1 in w-ic- t-e -o*ti$e fee$in,* an' 'eat-5wi*-e* of t-e
'ream5t-o.,-t* were re/$ace' by manife*t ten'erne** 3@Ty/i*c-e* 0ei*/ie$ eine*
&erka//ten Oe'i/.*trO.me*#1 Ientral%latt fDr 2s$choanal$se# 0'. I# %eft 1511# 1!1"4.
Anot-er c$a** of -y/ocritica$ 'ream* wi$$ be recor'e' in anot-er /$ace 3*ee (-a/. &i# The
Dream4;or(4.
8 ?ater on we *-a$$ become ac;.ainte' wit- ca*e* in w-ic-# on t-e contrary# t-e 'ream
e=/re**e* a wi*- of t-i* *econ' in*tance.
9 To *it for t-e /ainter. Goet-e: @An' if -e -a* no back*i'e# %ow can t-e nob$eman *itI1
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: I my*e$f re,ret t-e inc$.*ion of *.c- /a**a,e* from t-e /*yc-o/at-o$o,y of -y*teria#
w-ic-# beca.*e of t-eir fra,mentary /re*entation# an' beca.*e t-ey are torn o.t of t-eir
conte=t# cannot /ro&e to be &ery i$$.minatin,. If t-e*e /a**a,e* are ca/ab$e of t-rowin,
any $i,-t ./on t-e intimate re$ation* between 'ream* an' t-e /*yc-one.ro*e*# t-ey -a&e
*er&e' t-e intention wit- w-ic- I -a&e inc$.'e' t-em.
D A* in t-e 'ream of t-e 'eferre' *.//er an' t-e *moke' *a$mon.
! It often -a//en* t-at a 'ream i* to$' incom/$ete$y# an' t-at a reco$$ection of t-e omitte'
/ortion* a//ear* on$y in t-e co.r*e of t-e ana$y*i*. T-e*e /ortion*# w-en *.b*e;.ent$y
fitte' in# in&ariab$y f.rni*- t-e key to t-e inter/retation. cf. (-a/ter Se&en# on for,ettin,
in 'ream*.
1" Simi$ar @co.nter5wi*-5'ream*1 -a&e been re/eate'$y re/orte' to me wit-in t-e $a*t few
year*# by t-o*e w-o atten' my $ect.re*# a* t-eir reaction to t-eir fir*t enco.nter wit- t-e
@wi*-5t-eory of 'ream*.1
11 Ientral%latt fDr 2s$choanal$se# >a-r,. II# 1!1151.
1 I wi$$ -ere ob*er&e t-at we -a&e not yet 'i*/o*e' of t-i* t-eme< we *-a$$ 'i*c.** it a,ain
$ater.
12 A ,reat contem/orary /oet# w-o# I am to$'# wi$$ -ear not-in, of /*yc-oana$y*i* an'
'ream5inter/retation# -a* ne&ert-e$e** 'eri&e' from -i* own e=/erience an a$mo*t
i'entica$ form.$a for t-e nat.re of t-e 'ream: @)na.t-ori*e' emer,ence of *.//re**e'
yearnin,* .n'er fa$*e feat.re* an' name*1 3(. S/itte$er# Meine frDhesten &rle%nisee# in
3Dddeutsche Monatshefte# October# 1!124. I wi$$ -ere antici/ate by citin, t-e
am/$ification an' mo'ification of t-i* f.n'amenta$ form.$a /ro/o.n'e' by Otto Rank:
@On t-e ba*i* of an' wit- t-e ai' of re/re**e' infanti$e5*e=.a$ materia$# 'ream* re,.$ar$y
re/re*ent a* f.$fi$$e' c.rrent# an' a* a r.$e a$*o erotic# wi*-e* in a 'i*,.i*e' an' *ymbo$ic
form1 3&in Traum, der sich sel%st deutet4. Now-ere -a&e I *ai' t-at I -a&e acce/te' t-i*
form.$a of Rank1*. T-e *-orter &er*ion containe' in t-e te=t *eem* to me *.fficient. 0.t
t-e fact t-at I mere$y mentione' Rank1* mo'ification wa* eno.,- to e=/o*e
/*yc-oana$y*i* to t-e oftre/eate' re/roac- t-at it a**ert* t-at all dreams have a seual
content. If one .n'er*tan'* t-i* *entence a* it i* inten'e' to be .n'er*too'# it on$y /ro&e*
-ow $itt$e con*cientio.*ne** o.r critic* are wont to 'i*/$ay# an' -ow rea'y o.r o//onent*
are to o&er$ook *tatement* if t-ey 'o not accor' wit- t-eir a,,re**i&e inc$ination*. On$y a
few /a,e* back I mentione' t-e manifo$' wi*-5f.$fi$ment of c-i$'ren1* 'ream* 3to make
an e=c.r*ion on $an' or water# to make ./ for an omitte' mea$# etc.4. E$*ew-ere I -a&e
mentione' 'ream* e=cite' by t-ir*t an' t-e 'e*ire to e&ac.ate# an' mere comfort5 or
con&enience5'ream*. E&en Rank 'oe* not make an ab*o$.te a**ertion. %e *ay* @a* a r.$e
a$*o erotic wi*-e*#1 an' t-i* can be com/$ete$y confirme' in t-e ca*e of mo*t 'ream* of
a'.$t*. T-e matter -a*# -owe&er# a 'ifferent a*/ect if we em/$oy t-e wor' @*e=.a$1 in t-e
*en*e of @Ero*1# a* t-e wor' i* .n'er*too' by /*yc-oana$y*t*. 0.t t-e intere*tin, /rob$em
of w-et-er a$$ 'ream* are not /ro'.ce' by @$ibi'ina$1 moti&e* 3in o//o*ition to
@'e*tr.cti&e1 one*4 -a* -ar'$y been con*i'ere' by o.r o//onent*.
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17 3elected 2apers on B$steria and other 2s$choneuroses# /. 122# tran*$ate' by A. A.
0ri$$# >ournal of 7ervous and Mental Diseases# Mono,ra/- Serie*.
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+HAPTER FI/E
The Material and Sources of Dreams
%a&in, rea$i*e'# a* a re*.$t of ana$y*in, t-e 'ream of Irma1* in6ection# t-at t-e 'ream wa*
t-e f.$fi$ment of a wi*-# we were imme'iate$y intere*te' to a*certain w-et-er we -a'
t-ereby 'i*co&ere' a ,enera$ c-aracteri*tic of 'ream*# an' for t-e time bein, we /.t a*i'e
e&ery ot-er *cientific /rob$em w-ic- may -a&e *.,,e*te' it*e$f in t-e co.r*e of t-e
inter/retation. Now t-at we -a&e reac-e' t-e ,oa$ on t-i* one /at-# we may t.rn back an'
*e$ect a new /oint of 'e/art.re for e=/$orin, 'ream5/rob$em*# e&en t-o.,- we may for a
time $o*e *i,-t of t-e t-eme of wi*-5f.$fi$ment# w-ic- -a* *ti$$ to be f.rt-er con*i'ere'.
Now t-at we are ab$e# by a//$yin, o.r /roce** of inter/retation# to 'etect a latent
'reamcontent
w-o*e *i,nificance far *.r/a**e* t-at of t-e manifest 'ream5content# we are
nat.ra$$y im/e$$e' to ret.rn to t-e in'i&i'.a$ 'ream5/rob$em*# in or'er to *ee w-et-er t-e
ri''$e* an' contra'iction* w-ic- *eeme' to e$.'e .* w-en we -a' on$y t-e manife*t
content to work ./on may not now be *ati*factori$y *o$&e'.
T-e o/inion* of /re&io.* writer* on t-e re$ation of 'ream* to wakin, $ife# an' t-e ori,in
of t-e materia$ of 'ream*# -a&e not been ,i&en -ere. +e may reca$$ -owe&er t-ree
/ec.$iaritie* of t-e memory in 'ream*# w-ic- -a&e often been note'# b.t ne&er e=/$aine':
1. T-at t-e 'ream c$ear$y /refer* t-e im/re**ion* of t-e $a*t few 'ay* 3Robert#
StrBm/e$$# %i$'ebran't< a$*o +ee'5%a$$am4<
. T-at it make* a *e$ection in accor'ance wit- /rinci/$e* ot-er t-an t-o*e ,o&ernin,
o.r wakin, memory# in t-at it reca$$* not e**entia$ an' im/ortant# b.t *.bor'inate
an' 'i*re,ar'e' t-in,*<
2. T-at it -a* at it* 'i*/o*a$ t-e ear$ie*t im/re**ion* of o.r c-i$'-oo'# an' brin,* to
$i,-t 'etai$* from t-i* /erio' of $ife# w-ic-# a,ain# *eem tri&ia$ to .*# an' w-ic- in
wakin, $ife were be$ie&e' to -a&e been $on, *ince for,otten.1
T-e*e /ec.$iaritie* in t-e 'ream1* c-oice of materia$ -a&e# of co.r*e# been ob*er&e' by
/re&io.* writer* in t-e manife*t 'ream5content.
1 It i* e&i'ent t-at Robert1* i'ea 55 t-at t-e 'ream i* inten'e' to ri' o.r memory of t-e
.*e$e** im/re**ion* w-ic- it -a* recei&e' '.rin, t-e 'ay 55 i* no $on,er tenab$e if
in'ifferent memorie* of o.r c-i$'-oo' a//ear in o.r 'ream* wit- *ome 'e,ree of
fre;.ency. +e *-o.$' be ob$i,e' to conc$.'e t-at o.r 'ream* ,enera$$y /erform t-eir
/re*cribe' ta*k &ery ina'e;.ate$y.
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A 00 RE+ENT AND INDIFFERENT IMPRESSIONS IN THE DREAM
If I now con*.$t my own e=/erience wit- re,ar' to t-e ori,in of t-e e$ement* a//earin, in
t-e 'ream5content# I m.*t in t-e fir*t /$ace e=/re** t-e o/inion t-at in e&ery 'ream we
may fin' *ome reference to t-e e=/erience* of t-e precedin' da$. +-ate&er 'ream I t.rn
to# w-et-er my own or *omeone e$*e1*# t-i* e=/erience i* a$way* confirme'. Fnowin,
t-i*# I may /er-a/* be,in t-e work of inter/retation by $ookin, for t-e e=/erience of t-e
/rece'in, 'ay w-ic- -a* *tim.$ate' t-e 'ream< in many ca*e* t-i* i* in'ee' t-e ;.icke*t
way. +it- t-e two 'ream* w-ic- I *.b6ecte' to a c$o*e ana$y*i* in t-e $a*t c-a/ter 3t-e
'ream* of Irma@* in6ection# an' of t-e .nc$e wit- t-e ye$$ow bear'4 t-e reference to t-e
/rece'in, 'ay i* *o e&i'ent t-at it nee'* no f.rt-er e$.ci'ation. 0.t in or'er to *-ow -ow
con*tant$y t-i* reference may be 'emon*trate'# I *-a$$ e=amine a /ortion of my own
'ream5c-ronic$e. I *-a$$ re$ate on$y *o m.c- of t-e 'ream* a* i* nece**ary for t-e
'etection of t-e 'ream5*o.rce in ;.e*tion.
1. I pa$ a call at a house to "hich I 'ain admittance onl$ "ith difficult$,
etc5, and mean"hile I am (eepin' a "oman "aitin' for me.
3ource: A con&er*ation '.rin, t-e e&enin, wit- a fema$e re$ati&e to t-e
effect t-at *-e wo.$' -a&e to wait for a remittance for w-ic- *-e -a'
a*ke'# .nti$. . . etc.
. I have "ritten a mono'raph on a species 9uncertain: of plant.
3ource: In t-e mornin, I -a' *een in a book*e$$er1* win'ow a
mono'raph on t-e ,en.* (yc$amen.
2. I see t"o "omen in the street, mother and dau'hter, the latter %ein' a
patient.
3ource: A fema$e /atient w-o i* .n'er treatment -a' to$' me in t-e
e&enin, w-at 'iffic.$tie* -er mother /.t* in t-e way of -er contin.in, t-e
treatment.
7. !t 35 and G5+s %oo(shop I su%scri%e to a periodical "hich costs JK
florins annuall$.
3ource: D.rin, t-e 'ay my wife -a* remin'e' me t-at I *ti$$ owe -er JK
florins of -er week$y a$$owance.
8. I receive a communication from the 3ocial Democratic Committee, in
"hich I am addressed as a mem%er.
3ource: I -a&e recei&e' *im.$taneo.* communications from t-e ?ibera$
(ommittee on E$ection* an' from t-e /re*i'ent of t-e %.manitarian
Society# of w-ic- $atter I am act.a$$y a member.
9. ! man on a steep roc( risin' from the sea, in the manner of <Lc(lin.
3ource: Dreyf.* on De&i$1* I*$an'< a$*o new* from my re$ati&e* in
&n'land# etc.
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T-e ;.e*tion mi,-t be rai*e'# w-et-er a 'ream in&ariab$y refer* to t-e e&ent* of t-e
/rece'in, 'ay on$y# or w-et-er t-e reference may be e=ten'e' to inc$.'e im/re**ion*
from a $on,er /erio' of time in t-e imme'iate /a*t. T-i* ;.e*tion i* /robab$y not of t-e
fir*t im/ortance# b.t I am inc$ine' to 'eci'e in fa&o.r of t-e e=c$.*i&e /riority of t-e 'ay
before t-e 'ream 3t-e 'ream5'ay4. +-ene&er I t-o.,-t I -a' fo.n' a ca*e w-ere an
im/re**ion two or t-ree 'ay* o$' wa* t-e *o.rce of t-e 'ream# I wa* ab$e to con&ince
my*e$f after caref.$ in&e*ti,ation t-at t-i* im/re**ion -a' been remembere' t-e 'ay
before< t-at i*# t-at a 'emon*trab$e re/ro'.ction on t-e 'ay before -a' been inter/o$ate'
between t-e 'ay of t-e e&ent an' t-e time of t-e 'ream: an' f.rt-er# I wa* ab$e to /oint to
t-e recent occa*ion w-ic- mi,-t -a&e ,i&en ri*e to t-e reco$$ection of t-e o$'er
im/re**ion. On t-e ot-er -an'# I wa* .nab$e to con&ince my*e$f t-at a re,.$ar inter&a$ of
bio$o,ica$ *i,nificance 3%. Swobo'a ,i&e* t-e fir*t inter&a$ of t-i* kin' a* ei,-teen -o.r*4
e$a/*e* between t-e 'ream5e=citin, 'aytime im/re**ion an' it* rec.rrence in t-e 'ream.
I be$ie&e# t-erefore# t-at for e&ery 'ream a 'ream5*tim.$.* may be fo.n' amon, t-o*e
e=/erience* @on w-ic- one -a* not yet *$e/t.1
%a&e$ock E$$i*# w-o -a* $ikewi*e ,i&en attention to t-i* /rob$em# *tate* t-at -e -a* not
been ab$e to fin' any *.c- /erio'icity of re/ro'.ction in -i* 'ream*# a$t-o.,- -e -a*
$ooke' for it. %e re$ate* a 'ream in w-ic- -e fo.n' -im*e$f in S/ain< -e wante' to tra&e$
to a /$ace ca$$e' Daraus, Varaus# or Iaraus. On awakin, -e wa* .nab$e to reca$$ any
*.c- /$ace5name*# an' t-o.,-t no more of t-e matter. A few mont-* $ater -e act.a$$y
fo.n' t-e name Para.*< it wa* t-at of a rai$way5*tation between San Seba*tian an'
0i$bao# t-ro.,- w-ic- -e -a' /a**e' in t-e train ei,-t mont-* 38" 'ay*4 before t-e 'ate
of t-e 'ream.
T-.* t-e im/re**ion* of t-e imme'iate /a*t 3wit- t-e e=ce/tion of t-e 'ay before t-e
ni,-t of t-e 'ream4 *tan'* in t-e *ame re$ation to t-e 'ream5content a* t-o*e of /erio'*
in'efinite$y remote. T-e 'ream may *e$ect it* materia$ from any /erio' of $ife# /ro&i'e'
on$y t-at a c-ain of t-o.,-t $ea'* back from t-e e=/erience* of t-e 'ay of t-e 'ream 3t-e
@recent1 im/re**ion*4 of t-at ear$ier /erio'.
0.t w-y t-i* /reference for recent im/re**ion*I +e *-a$$ arri&e at *ome con6ect.re* on
t-i* /oint if we *.b6ect one of t-e 'ream* a$rea'y mentione' to a more /reci*e ana$y*i*. I
*e$ect t-e
Dream of t-e 0otanica$ Mono,ra/-
I have "ritten a mono'raph on a certain plant5 The %oo( lies %efore me6 I am /ust turnin'
over a folded coloured plate5 ! dried specimen of the plant, as thou'h from a her%arium,
is %ound up "ith ever$ cop$.
!nal$sis 55 In t-e mornin, I *aw in a book*e$$er1* win'ow a &o$.me entit$e' The Genus
C$clamen# a//arent$y a mono,ra/- on t-i* /$ant.
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T-e cyc$amen i* my wife1* fa&o.rite f$ower. I re/roac- my*e$f for rememberin, *o
*e$'om to brin, -er f$ower*# a* *-e wo.$' $ike me to 'o. In connection wit- t-e t-eme of
,i&in, -er f$ower*# I am remin'e' of a *tory w-ic- I recent$y to$' *ome frien'* of mine in
/roof of my a**ertion t-at we often for,et in obe'ience to a /.r/o*e of t-e .ncon*cio.*#
an' t-at for,etf.$ne** a$way* enab$e* .* to form a 'e'.ction abo.t t-e *ecret 'i*/o*ition
of t-e for,etf.$ /er*on. A yo.n, woman w-o -a* been acc.*tome' to recei&e a bo.;.et
of f$ower* from -er -.*ban' on -er birt-'ay mi**e* t-i* token of affection on one of -er
birt-'ay*# an' b.r*t* into tear*. T-e -.*ban' come* in# an' cannot .n'er*tan' w-y *-e i*
cryin, .nti$ *-e te$$* -im: @To'ay i* my birt-'ay.1 %e c$a/* -i* -an' to -i* fore-ea'# an'
e=c$aim*: @O-# for,i&e me# I -a' com/$ete$y for,otten itA1 an' /ro/o*e* to ,o o.t
imme'iate$y in or'er to ,et -er f$ower*. 0.t *-e ref.*e* to be con*o$e'# for *-e *ee* in
-er -.*ban'1* for,etf.$ne** a /roof t-at *-e no $on,er /$ay* t-e *ame /art in -i* t-o.,-t*
a* *-e former$y 'i'. T-i* Fra. ?. met my wife two 'ay* a,o# to$' -er t-at *-e wa* fee$in,
we$$# an' a*ke' after me. Some year* a,o *-e wa* a /atient of mine.
S.//$ementary fact*: I 'i' once act.a$$y write *omet-in, $ike a mono,ra/- on a /$ant#
name$y# an e**ay on t-e coca /$ant# w-ic- attracte' t-e attention of F. Fo$$er to t-e
anae*t-etic /ro/ertie* of cocaine. I -a' -inte' t-at t-e a$ka$oi' mi,-t be em/$oye' a* an
anae*t-etic# b.t I wa* not t-oro.,- eno.,- to /.r*.e t-e matter fart-er. It occ.r* to me#
too# t-at on t-e mornin, of t-e 'ay fo$$owin, t-e 'ream 3for t-e inter/retation of w-ic- I
'i' not fin' time .nti$ t-e e&enin,4 I -a' t-o.,-t of cocaine in a kin' of 'ay5'ream. If I
were e&er aff$icte' wit- ,$a.coma# I wo.$' ,o to 0er$in# an' t-ere .n'er,o an o/eration#
inco,nito# in t-e -o.*e of my 0er$in frien'# at t-e -an'* of a *.r,eon w-om -e wo.$'
recommen'. T-e *.r,eon# w-o wo.$' not know t-e name of -i* /atient# wo.$' boa*t# a*
.*.a$# -ow ea*y t-e*e o/eration* -a' become *ince t-e intro'.ction of cocaine< an' I
*-o.$' not betray t-e fact t-at I my*e$f -a' a *-are in t-i* 'i*co&ery. +it- t-i* fanta*y
were connecte' t-o.,-t* of -ow awkwar' it rea$$y i* for a /-y*ician to c$aim t-e
/rofe**iona$ *er&ice* of a co$$ea,.e. I *-o.$' be ab$e to /ay t-e 0er$in eye */ecia$i*t# w-o
'i' not know me# $ike anyone e$*e. On$y after reca$$in, t-i* 'ay5'ream 'o I rea$i*e t-at
t-ere i* concea$e' be-in' it t-e memory of a 'efinite e&ent. S-ort$y after Fo$$er1*
'i*co&ery# my fat-er contracte' ,$a.coma< -e wa* o/erate' on by my frien' Dr
FGni,*tein# t-e eye */ecia$i*t. Dr Fo$$er wa* in c-ar,e of t-e cocaine anae*t-eti*ation#
an' -e ma'e t-e remark t-at on t-i* occa*ion a$$ t-e t-ree /er*on* w-o -a' been
re*/on*ib$e for t-e intro'.ction of cocaine -a' been bro.,-t to,et-er.
My t-o.,-t* now /a** on to t-e time w-en I wa* $a*t remin'e' of t-e -i*tory of cocaine.
T-i* wa* a few 'ay* ear$ier# w-en I recei&e' a Festschrift# a /.b$ication in w-ic- ,ratef.$
/./i$* -a' commemorate' t-e 6.bi$ee of t-eir teac-er an' $aboratory 'irector. Amon, t-e
tit$e* to fame of /er*on* connecte' wit- t-e $aboratory I fo.n' a note to t-e effect t-at t-e
'i*co&ery of t-e anae*t-etic /ro/ertie* of cocaine -a' been '.e to F. Fo$$er. Now I
*.''en$y become aware t-at t-e 'ream i* connecte' wit- an e=/erience of t-e /re&io.*
e&enin,. I -a' 6.*t accom/anie' Dr FGni,*tein to -i* -ome# an' -a' entere' into a
'i*c.**ion of a *.b6ect w-ic- e=cite* me ,reat$y w-ene&er it i* mentione'. +-i$e I wa*
ta$kin, wit- -im in t-e entrance5-a$$ Profe**or GOrtner an' -i* yo.n, wife came ./. I
co.$' not refrain from con,rat.$atin, t-em bot- ./on t-eir %loomin' a//earance. Now
Profe**or GOrtner i* one of t-e a.t-or* of t-e Festschrift of w-ic- I -a&e 6.*t */oken# an'
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-e may we$$ -a&e remin'e' me of it. An' Fra. ?.# of w-o*e birt-'ay 'i*a//ointment I
*/oke a $itt$e way back# -a' been mentione'# t-o.,- of co.r*e in anot-er connection# in
my con&er*ation wit- Dr FGni,*tein.
I *-a$$ now try to e$.ci'ate t-e ot-er 'eterminant* of t-e 'ream5content. A dried
specimen of t-e /$ant accom/anie* t-e mono,ra/-# a* t-o.,- it were a her%arium. An'
-erbari.m remin'* me of t-e @,ymna*i.m1. T-e 'irector of o.r @,ymna*i.m1 once ca$$e'
t-e /./i$* of t-e .//er c$a**e* to,et-er# in or'er t-at t-ey mi,-t e=amine an' c$ean t-e
@,ymna*i.m1 -erbari.m. Sma$$ in*ect* -a' been fo.n' 55 %oo(4"orms. T-e 'irector
*eeme' to -a&e $itt$e confi'ence in my abi$ity to a**i*t# for -e entr.*te' me wit- on$y a
few of t-e /a,e*. I know to t-i* 'ay t-at t-ere were cr.cifer* on t-em. My intere*t in
botany wa* ne&er &ery ,reat. At my /re$iminary e=amination in botany I wa* re;.ire' to
i'entify a cr.cifer# an' fai$e' to reco,ni*e it< -a' not my t-eoretica$ know$e',e come to
my ai'# I *-o.$' -a&e fare' ba'$y in'ee'. (r.cifer* *.,,e*t com/o*ite*. T-e artic-oke i*
rea$$y a com/o*ite# an' in act.a$ fact one w-ic- I mi,-t ca$$ my favourite flo"er. My
wife# more t-o.,-tf.$ t-an I# often brin,* t-i* fa&o.rite f$ower of mine -ome from t-e
market.
I *ee t-e mono,ra/- w-ic- I -a&e written $yin, before me. %ere a,ain t-ere i* an
a**ociation. My frien' wrote to me ye*ter'ay from 0er$in: @I am t-inkin, a ,reat 'ea$
abo.t yo.r 'ream5book. I *ee it $yin, before me# com/$ete'# an' I t.rn t-e /a,e*.1 %ow I
en&ie' -im t-i* /ower of &i*ionA If on$y I co.$' *ee it $yin, before me# a$rea'y
com/$ete'A
The folded coloured plate. +-en I wa* a me'ica$ *t.'ent I *.ffere' a *ort of craCe for
*t.'yin, mono,ra/-* e=c$.*i&e$y. In */ite of my $imite' mean*# I *.b*cribe' to a n.mber
of t-e me'ica$ /erio'ica$*# w-o*e coloured plates affor'e' me m.c- 'e$i,-t. I wa* rat-er
/ro.' of t-i* inc$ination to t-oro.,-ne**. +-en I *.b*e;.ent$y be,an to /.b$i*- book*
my*e$f# I -a' to 'raw t-e /$ate* for my own treati*e*# an' I remember one of t-em t.rne'
o.t *o ba'$y t-at a we$$5meanin, co$$ea,.e ri'ic.$e' me for it. +it- t-i* i* a**ociate'# I
'o not e=act$y know -ow# a &ery ear$y memory of my c-i$'-oo'. My fat-er# by way of a
6e*t# once ,a&e my e$'er *i*ter an' my*e$f a book containin, coloured plates 3t-e book
wa* a narrati&e of a 6o.rney t-ro.,- Per*ia4 in or'er t-at we mi,-t 'e*troy it. From an
e'.cationa$ /oint of &iew t-i* wa* -ar'$y to be commen'e'. I wa* at t-e time fi&e year*
o$'# an' my *i*ter $e** t-an t-ree# an' t-e /ict.re of .* two c-i$'ren b$i**f.$$y tearin, t-e
book to /iece* 3I *-o.$' a''# $ike an articho(e# $eaf by $eaf4# i* a$mo*t t-e on$y one from
t-i* /erio' of my $ife w-ic- -a* remaine' &i&i' in my memory. +-en I afterwar'*
became a *t.'ent# I 'e&e$o/e' a con*/ic.o.* fon'ne** for co$$ectin, an' /o**e**in,
book* 3an ana$o,y to t-e inc$ination for *t.'yin, from mono,ra/-*# a -obby a$$.'e' to in
my 'ream5t-o.,-t*# in connection wit- cyc$amen an' artic-oke4. I became a %oo(4"orm
3cf. her%arium4. E&er *ince I -a&e been en,a,e' in intro*/ection I -a&e a$way* trace' t-i*
ear$ie*t /a**ion of my $ife to t-i* im/re**ion of my c-i$'-oo': or rat-er# I -a&e
reco,ni*e' in t-i* c-i$'i*- *cene a @*creen or concea$in, memory1 for my *.b*e;.ent
bib$io/-i$ia.1 An' of co.r*e I $earne' at an ear$y a,e t-at o.r /a**ion* often become o.r
mi*fort.ne*. +-en I wa* *e&enteen# I ran ./ a &ery con*i'erab$e acco.nt at t-e
book*e$$er1*# wit- no mean* wit- w-ic- to *ett$e it# an' my fat-er wo.$' -ar'$y acce/t it
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89
a* an e=c.*e t-at my /a**ion wa* at $ea*t a re*/ectab$e one. 0.t t-e mention of t-i*
e=/erience of my yo.t- brin,* me back to my con&er*ation wit- my frien' Dr FGni,*tein
on t-e e&enin, /rece'in, t-e 'ream< for one of t-e t-eme* of t-i* con&er*ation wa* t-e
*ame o$' re/roac- 55 t-at I am m.c- too ab*orbe' in my ho%%ies.
For rea*on* w-ic- are not re$e&ant -ere I *-a$$ not contin.e t-e inter/retation of t-i*
'ream# b.t wi$$ mere$y in'icate t-e /at- w-ic- $ea'* to it. In t-e co.r*e of t-e
inter/retation I wa* remin'e' of my con&er*ation wit- Dr FGni,*tein# an'# in'ee'# of
more t-an one /ortion of it. +-en I con*i'er t-e *.b6ect* to.c-e' ./on in t-i*
con&er*ation# t-e meanin, of t-e 'ream imme'iate$y become* c$ear to me. A$$ t-e train*
of t-o.,-t w-ic- -a&e been *tarte' 55 my own inc$ination*# an' t-o*e of my wife# t-e
cocaine# t-e awkwar'ne** of *ec.rin, me'ica$ treatment from one1* own co$$ea,.e*# my
/reference for mono,ra/-ica$ *t.'ie*# an' my ne,$ect of certain *.b6ect*# *.c- a* botany
55 a$$ t-e*e are contin.e' in an' $ea' ./ to one branc- or anot-er of t-i* wi'e$y5ramifie'
con&er*ation. T-e 'ream once more a**.me* t-e c-aracter of a 6.*tification# of a /$ea for
my ri,-t* 3$ike t-e 'ream of Irma1* in6ection# t-e fir*t to be ana$y*e'4< it e&en contin.e*
t-e t-eme w-ic- t-at 'ream intro'.ce'# an' 'i*c.**e* it in a**ociation wit- t-e new
*.b6ect5matter w-ic- -a* been a''e' in t-e inter&a$ between t-e two 'ream*. E&en t-e
'ream1* a//arent$y in'ifferent form of e=/re**ion at once ac;.ire* a meanin,. Now it
mean*: @I am in'ee' t-e man w-o -a* written t-at &a$.ab$e an' *.cce**f.$ treati*e 3on
cocaine41# 6.*t a* /re&io.*$y I 'ec$are' in *e$f56.*tification: @I am after a$$ a t-oro.,- an'
in'.*trio.* *t.'ent1< an' in bot- in*tance* I fin' t-e meanin,: @I can a$$ow my*e$f t-i*.1
0.t I may 'i*/en*e wit- t-e f.rt-er inter/retation of t-e 'ream# beca.*e my on$y /.r/o*e
in recor'in, it wa* to e=amine t-e re$ation of t-e 'ream5content to t-e e=/erience of t-e
/re&io.* 'ay w-ic- aro.*e* it. A* $on, a* I know on$y t-e manife*t content of t-i* 'ream#
on$y one re$ation to any im/re**ion of t-e 'ay i* ob&io.*< b.t after I -a&e com/$ete' t-e
inter/retation# a *econ' *o.rce of t-e 'ream become* a//arent in anot-er e=/erience of
t-e *ame 'ay. T-e fir*t of t-e*e im/re**ion* to w-ic- t-e 'ream refer* i* an in'ifferent
one# a *.bor'inate circ.m*tance. I *ee a book in a *-o/ win'ow w-o*e tit$e -o$'* me for
a moment# b.t w-o*e content* wo.$' -ar'$y intere*t me. T-e *econ' e=/erience wa* of
,reat /*yc-ic &a$.e< I ta$ke' earne*t$y wit- my frien'# t-e eye */ecia$i*t# for abo.t an
-o.r< I ma'e a$$.*ion* in t-i* con&er*ation w-ic- m.*t -a&e r.ff$e' t-e fee$in,* of bot-
of .*# an' w-ic- in me awakene' memorie* in connection wit- w-ic- I wa* aware of a
,reat &ariety of inner *tim.$i. F.rt-er# t-i* con&er*ation wa* broken off .nfini*-e'#
beca.*e *ome ac;.aintance* 6oine' .*. +-at# now# i* t-e re$ation of t-e*e two
im/re**ion* of t-e 'ay to one anot-er# an' to t-e 'ream w-ic- fo$$owe' '.rin, t-e ni,-tI
In t-e manife*t 'ream5content I fin' mere$y an a$$.*ion to t-e in'ifferent im/re**ion# an'
I am t-.* ab$e to reaffirm t-at t-e 'ream /refer* to take ./ into it* content e=/erience* of
a none**entia$ c-aracter. In t-e 'ream5inter/retation# on t-e contrary# e&eryt-in,
con&er,e* ./on t-e im/ortant an' 6.*tifiab$y 'i*t.rbin, e&ent. If I 6.',e t-e *en*e of t-e
'ream in t-e on$y correct way# accor'in, to t-e $atent content w-ic- i* bro.,-t to $i,-t in
t-e ana$y*i*# I fin' t-at I -a&e .nwittin,$y $i,-te' ./on a new an' im/ortant 'i*co&ery. I
*ee t-at t-e /.CC$in, t-eory t-at t-e 'ream 'ea$* on$y wit- t-e wort-$e** o''* an' en'* of
t-e 'ay1* e=/erience* -a* no 6.*tification< I am a$*o com/e$$e' to contra'ict t-e a**ertion
t-at t-e /*yc-ic $ife of t-e wakin, *tate i* not contin.e' in t-e 'ream# an' t-at -ence# t-e
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8:
'ream wa*te* o.r /*yc-ic ener,y on tri&ia$ materia$. T-e &ery o//o*ite i* tr.e< w-at -a*
c$aime' o.r attention '.rin, t-e 'ay 'ominate* o.r 'ream5t-o.,-t* a$*o# an' we take
/ain* to 'ream on$y in connection wit- *.c- matter* a* -a&e ,i&en .* foo' for t-o.,-t
'.rin, t-e 'ay.
Per-a/* t-e mo*t imme'iate e=/$anation of t-e fact t-at I 'ream of t-e in'ifferent
im/re**ion of t-e 'ay# w-i$e t-e im/re**ion w-ic- -a* wit- ,oo' rea*on e=cite' me
ca.*e* me to 'ream# i* t-at -ere a,ain we are 'ea$in, wit- t-e /-enomenon of
'ream'i*tortion#
w-ic- we -a&e referre' to a* a /*yc-ic force /$ayin, t-e /art of a cen*or*-i/.
T-e reco$$ection of t-e mono,ra/- on t-e ,en.* cyc$amen i* .ti$i*e' a* t-o.,- it were an
allusion to t-e con&er*ation wit- my frien'# 6.*t a* t-e mention of my /atient1* frien' in
t-e 'ream of t-e 'eferre' *.//er i* re/re*ente' by t-e a$$.*ion @*moke' *a$mon1. T-e
on$y ;.e*tion i*# by w-at interme'iate $ink* can t-e im/re**ion of t-e mono,ra/- come
to a**.me t-e re$ation of a$$.*ion to t-e con&er*ation wit- t-e eye */ecia$i*t# *ince *.c- a
re$ation i* not at fir*t /erce/tib$eI In t-e e=am/$e of t-e 'eferre' *.//er t-e re$ation i*
e&i'ent at t-e o.t*et< @*moke' *a$mon1# a* t-e fa&o.rite 'i*- of t-e /atient1* frien'#
be$on,* to t-e circ$e of i'ea* w-ic- t-e frien'1* /er*ona$ity wo.$' nat.ra$$y e&oke in t-e
min' of t-e 'reamer. In o.r new e=am/$e we are 'ea$in, wit- two entire$y *e/arate
im/re**ion*# w-ic- at fir*t ,$ance *eem to -a&e not-in, in common# e=ce/t in'ee' t-at
t-ey occ.r on t-e *ame 'ay. T-e mono,ra/- attract* my attention in t-e mornin,: in t-e
e&enin, I take /art in t-e con&er*ation. T-e an*wer f.rni*-e' by t-e ana$y*i* i* a*
fo$$ow*: S.c- re$ation* between t-e two im/re**ion* a* 'o not e=i*t from t-e fir*t are
e*tab$i*-e' *.b*e;.ent$y between t-e i'ea5content of t-e one im/re**ion an' t-e
i'eacontent
of t-e ot-er. I -a&e a$rea'y /icke' o.t t-e interme'iate $ink* em/-a*i*e' in t-e
co.r*e of writin, t-e ana$y*i*. On$y .n'er *ome o.t*i'e inf$.ence# /er-a/* t-e
reco$$ection of t-e f$ower* mi**e' by Fra. ?.# wo.$' t-e i'ea of t-e mono,ra/- on t-e
cyc$amen -a&e attac-e' it*e$f to t-e i'ea t-at t-e cyc$amen i* my wife1* fa&o.rite f$ower.
I 'o not be$ie&e t-at t-e*e incon*/ic.o.* t-o.,-t* wo.$' -a&e *.ffice' to e&oke a 'ream.
T-ere nee'* no ,-o*t# my $or'# come from t-e ,ra&e
To te$$ .* t-i*#
a* we rea' in Bamlet. 0.t be-o$'A in t-e ana$y*i* I am remin'e' t-at t-e name of t-e man
w-o interr./te' o.r con&er*ation wa* G=rtner 3,ar'ener4# an' t-at I t-o.,-t -i* wife
$ooke' %loomin'< in'ee'# now I e&en remember t-at one of my fema$e /atient*# w-o
bear* t-e /retty name of Flora# wa* for a time t-e main *.b6ect of o.r con&er*ation. It
m.*t -a&e -a//ene' t-at by mean* of t-e*e interme'iate $ink* from t-e */-ere of
botanica$ i'ea* t-e a**ociation wa* effecte' between t-e two e&ent* of t-e 'ay# t-e
in'ifferent one an' t-e *tim.$atin, one. Ot-er re$ation* were t-en e*tab$i*-e'# t-at of
cocaine for e=am/$e# w-ic- can wit- /erfect a//ro/riatene** form a $ink between t-e
/er*on of Dr FGni,*tein an' t-e botanica$ mono,ra/- w-ic- I -a&e written# an' t-.*
*ec.re t-e f.*ion of t-e two circ$e* of i'ea*# *o t-at now a /ortion of t-e fir*t e=/erience
may be .*e' a* an a$$.*ion to t-e *econ'.
I am /re/are' to fin' t-i* e=/$anation attacke' a* eit-er arbitrary or artificia$. +-at
wo.$' -a&e -a//ene' if Profe**or GOrtner an' -i* b$oomin, wife -a' not a//eare'# an'
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if t-e /atient w-o wa* .n'er 'i*c.**ion -a' been ca$$e'# not F$ora# b.t AnnaI An' yet t-e
an*wer i* not -ar' to fin'. If t-e*e t-o.,-t5re$ation* -a' not been a&ai$ab$e# ot-er* wo.$'
/robab$y -a&e been *e$ecte'. It i* ea*y to e*tab$i*- re$ation* of t-i* *ort# a* t-e 6oc.$ar
;.e*tion* an' con.n'r.m* wit- w-ic- we am.*e o.r*e$&e* *.ffice to *-ow. T-e ran,e of
wit i* .n$imite'. To ,o a *te/ fart-er: if no *.fficient$y ferti$e a**ociation* between t-e
two im/re**ion* of t-e 'ay co.$' -a&e been e*tab$i*-e'# t-e 'ream wo.$' *im/$y -a&e
fo$$owe' a 'ifferent co.r*e< anot-er of t-e in'ifferent im/re**ion* of t-e 'ay# *.c- a*
come to .* in m.$tit.'e* an' are for,otten# wo.$' -a&e taken t-e /$ace of t-e mono,ra/-
in t-e 'ream# wo.$' -a&e forme' an a**ociation wit- t-e content of t-e con&er*ation# an'
wo.$' -a&e re/re*ente' t-i* in t-e 'ream. Since it wa* t-e im/re**ion of t-e mono,ra/-
an' no ot-er t-at wa* fate' to /erform t-i* f.nction# t-i* im/re**ion wa* /robab$y t-at
mo*t *.itab$e for t-e /.r/o*e. One nee' not# $ike ?e**in,1* B=nschen 3chlau# be
a*toni*-e' t-at @on$y t-e ric- /eo/$e of t-e wor$' /o**e** t-e mo*t money.1
Sti$$# t-e /*yc-o$o,ica$ /roce** by w-ic-# accor'in, to o.r e=/o*ition# t-e in'ifferent
e=/erience *.b*tit.te* it*e$f for t-e /*yc-o$o,ica$$y im/ortant one *eem* to .* o'' an'
o/en to ;.e*tion. In a $ater c-a/ter we *-a$$ .n'ertake t-e ta*k of makin, t-e /ec.$iaritie*
of t-i* *eemin,$y incorrect o/eration more inte$$i,ib$e. %ere we are concerne' on$y wit-
t-e re*.$t of t-i* /roce**# w-ic- we were com/e$$e' to acce/t by con*tant$y rec.rrin,
e=/erience* in t-e ana$y*i* of 'ream*. In t-i* /roce** it i* a* t-o.,-# in t-e co.r*e of t-e
interme'iate *te/*# a displacement occ.r* 55 $et .* *ay# of t-e /*yc-ic accent 55 .nti$ i'ea*
of feeb$e /otentia$# by takin, o&er t-e c-ar,e from i'ea* w-ic- -a&e a *tron,er initia$
/otentia$# reac- a 'e,ree of inten*ity w-ic- enab$e* t-em to force t-eir way into
con*cio.*ne**. S.c- 'i*/$acement* 'o not in t-e $ea*t *.r/ri*e .* w-en it i* a ;.e*tion of
t-e tran*ference of affecti&e ma,nit.'e* or of motor acti&itie*. T-at t-e $one$y */in*ter
tran*fer* -er affection to anima$*# t-at t-e bac-e$or become* a /a**ionate co$$ector# t-at
t-e *o$'ier 'efen'* a *cra/ of co$o.re' c$ot- 55 -i* f$a, 55 wit- -i* $ife5b$oo'# t-at in a
$o&e5affair a c$a*/ of t-e -an'* a moment $on,er t-an .*.a$ e&oke* a *en*ation of b$i**# or
t-at in 8thello a $o*t -an'kerc-ief ca.*e* an o.tb.r*t of ra,e 55 a$$ t-e*e are e=am/$e* of
/*yc-ic 'i*/$acement* w-ic- to .* *eem inconte*tab$e. 0.t if# by t-e *ame mean*# an' in
accor'ance wit- t-e *ame f.n'amenta$ /rinci/$e*# a 'eci*ion i* ma'e a* to w-at i* to
reac- o.r con*cio.*ne** an' w-at i* to be wit--e$' from it 55 t-at i* to *ay# w-at we are to
t-ink 55 t-i* ,i&e* .* t-e im/re**ion of morbi'ity# an' if it occ.r* in wakin, $ife we ca$$ it
an error of t-o.,-t. +e may -ere antici/ate t-e re*.$t of a 'i*c.**ion w-ic- wi$$ be
.n'ertaken $ater# name$y# t-at t-e /*yc-ic /roce** w-ic- we -a&e reco,ni*e' in
'ream'i*/$acement
/ro&e* to be not a morbi'$y 'eran,e' /roce**# b.t one mere$y 'ifferin,
from t-e norma$# one of a more primar$ nat.re.
T-.* we inter/ret t-e fact t-at t-e 'ream5content take* ./ remnant* of tri&ia$ e=/erience*
a* a manife*tation of dream4distortion 3by 'i*/$acement4# an' we t-ere./on remember
t-at we -a&e reco,ni*e' t-i* 'ream5'i*tortion a* t-e work of a cen*or*-i/ o/eratin,
between t-e two /*yc-ic in*tance*. +e may t-erefore e=/ect t-at 'ream5ana$y*i* wi$$
con*tant$y *-ow .* t-e rea$ an' /*yc-ica$$y *i,nificant *o.rce of t-e 'ream in t-e e&ent*
of t-e 'ay# t-e memory of w-ic- -a* tran*ferre' it* accent.ation to *ome in'ifferent
memory. T-i* conce/tion i* in com/$ete o//o*ition to Robert1* t-eory# w-ic-
con*e;.ent$y -a* no f.rt-er &a$.e for .*. T-e fact w-ic- Robert wa* tryin, to e=/$ain
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*im/$y 'oe* not e=i*t< it* a**.m/tion i* ba*e' on a mi*.n'er*tan'in,# on a fai$.re to
*.b*tit.te t-e rea$ meanin, of t-e 'ream for it* a//arent meanin,. A f.rt-er ob6ection to
Robert1* 'octrine i* a* fo$$ow*: If t-e ta*k of t-e 'ream were rea$$y to ri' o.r memory# by
mean* of a */ecia$ /*yc-ic acti&ity# of t-e @*$a,1 of t-e 'ay1* reco$$ection*# o.r *$ee/
wo.$' /erforce be more tro.b$e'# en,a,e' in more *tren.o.* work# t-an we can *.//o*e
it to be# 6.',in, by o.r wakin, t-o.,-t*. For t-e n.mber of t-e in'ifferent im/re**ion* of
t-e 'ay a,ain*t w-ic- we *-o.$' -a&e to /rotect o.r memory i* ob&io.*$y immea*.rab$y
$ar,e< t-e w-o$e ni,-t wo.$' not be $on, eno.,- to 'i*/o*e of t-em a$$. It i* far more
/robab$e t-at t-e for,ettin, of t-e in'ifferent im/re**ion* take* /$ace wit-o.t any acti&e
interference on t-e /art of o.r /*yc-ic /ower*.
Sti$$# *omet-in, ca.tion* .* a,ain*t takin, $ea&e of Robert@* t-eory wit-o.t f.rt-er
con*i'eration. +e -a&e $eft .ne=/$aine' t-e fact t-at one of t-e in'ifferent im/re**ion* of
t-e 'ay 55 in'ee'# e&en of t-e /re&io.* 'ay 55 con*tant$y make* a contrib.tion to t-e
'ream5content. T-e re$ation* between t-i* im/re**ion an' t-e rea$ *o.rce of t-e 'ream in
t-e .ncon*cio.* 'o not a$way* e=i*t from t-e o.t*et< a* we -a&e *een# t-ey are e*tab$i*-e'
*.b*e;.ent$y# w-i$e t-e 'ream i* act.a$$y at work# a* t-o.,- to *er&e t-e /.r/o*e of t-e
inten'e' 'i*/$acement. Somet-in,# t-erefore# m.*t nece**itate t-e o/enin, ./ of
connection* in t-e 'irection of t-e recent b.t in'ifferent im/re**ion< t-i* im/re**ion m.*t
/o**e** *ome ;.a$ity t-at ,i&e* it a */ecia$ fitne**. Ot-erwi*e it wo.$' be 6.*t a* ea*y for
t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* to *-ift t-eir accent.ation to *ome ine**entia$ com/onent of t-eir own
*/-ere of i'ea*.
E=/erience* *.c- a* t-e fo$$owin, *-ow .* t-e way to an e=/$anation: If t-e 'ay -a*
bro.,-t .* two or more e=/erience* w-ic- are wort-y to e&oke a 'ream# t-e 'ream wi$$
b$en' t-e a$$.*ion of bot- into a *in,$e w-o$e: it obey* a compulsion to ma(e them into a
sin'le "hole. For e=am/$e: One *.mmer afternoon I entere' a rai$way carria,e in w-ic- I
fo.n' two ac;.aintance* of mine w-o were .nknown to one anot-er. One of t-em wa* an
inf$.entia$ co$$ea,.e# t-e ot-er a member of a 'i*tin,.i*-e' fami$y w-ic- I -a' been
atten'in, in my /rofe**iona$ ca/acity. I intro'.ce' t-e two ,ent$emen to eac- ot-er< b.t
'.rin, t-e $on, 6o.rney t-ey con&er*e' wit- eac- ot-er t-ro.,- me# *o t-at I -a' to
'i*c.** t-i* or t-at to/ic now wit- one# now wit- t-e ot-er. I a*ke' my co$$ea,.e to
recommen' a m.t.a$ ac;.aintance w-o -a' 6.*t be,.n to /racti*e a* a /-y*ician. %e
re/$ie' t-at -e wa* con&ince' of t-e yo.n, man1* abi$ity# b.t t-at -i* .n'i*tin,.i*-e'
a//earance wo.$' make it 'iffic.$t for -im to obtain /atient* in t-e .//er rank* of
*ociety. To t-i* I re6oine': @T-at i* /reci*e$y w-y -e nee'* recommen'ation.1 A $itt$e
$ater# t.rnin, to my ot-er fe$$ow5tra&e$$er# I in;.ire' after t-e -ea$t- of -i* a.nt 55 t-e
mot-er of one of my /atient* 55 w-o wa* at t-i* time /ro*trate' by a *erio.* i$$ne**. On
t-e ni,-t fo$$owin, t-i* 6o.rney I 'reamt t-at t-e yo.n, frien' w-om I -a' a*ke' one of
my com/anion* to recommen' wa* in a fa*-ionab$e 'rawin,5room# an' wit- a$$ t-e
bearin, of a man of t-e wor$' wa* makin, 55 before a 'i*tin,.i*-e' com/any# in w-ic- I
reco,ni*e' a$$ t-e ric- an' ari*tocratic /er*on* of my ac;.aintance 55 a f.nera$ oration
o&er t-e o$' $a'y 3w-o in my 'ream -a' a$rea'y 'ie'4 w-o wa* t-e a.nt of my *econ'
fe$$ow tra&e$$er. 3I confe** frank$y t-at I -a' not been on ,oo' term* wit- t-i* $a'y.4 T-.*
my 'ream -a' once more fo.n' t-e connection between t-e two im/re**ion* of t-e 'ay#
an' by mean* of t-e two -a' con*tr.cte' a .nifie' *it.ation.
INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS
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9"
In &iew of many *imi$ar e=/erience* I am /er*.a'e' to a'&ance t-e /ro/o*ition t-at a
'ream work* .n'er a kin' of com/.$*ion w-ic- force* it to combine into a .nifie' w-o$e
a$$ t-e *o.rce* of 'ream5*tim.$ation w-ic- are offere' to it. In a *.b*e;.ent c-a/ter 3on
t-e f.nction of 'ream*4 we *-a$$ con*i'er t-i* im/.$*e of combination a* /art of t-e
/roce** of con'en*ation# anot-er /rimary /*yc-ic /roce**.
I *-a$$ now con*i'er t-e ;.e*tion w-et-er t-e 'ream5e=citin, *o.rce to w-ic- o.r
ana$y*i* $ea'* .* m.*t a$way* be a recent 3an' *i,nificant4 e&ent# or w-et-er a *.b6ecti&e
e=/erience 55 t-at i* to *ay# t-e reco$$ection of a /*yc-o$o,ica$$y *i,nificant e&ent# a train
of t-o.,-t 55 may a**.em t-e ro$e of a 'ream5*tim.$.*. T-e &ery 'efinite an*wer# 'eri&e'
from n.mero.* ana$y*e*# i* a* fo$$ow*: T-e *tim.$.* of t-e 'ream may be a *.b6ecti&e
tran*action# w-ic- -a* been ma'e recent# a* it were# by t-e menta$ acti&ity of t-e 'ay.
An' t-i* i* /er-a/* t-e be*t time to *.mmari*e in *c-ematic form t-e 'ifferent con'ition*
.n'er w-ic- t-e 'ream5*o.rce* are o/erati&e.
T-e *o.rce of a 'ream may be:
a. A recent an' /*yc-o$o,ica$$y *i,nificant e&ent w-ic- i* 'irect$y re/re*ente' in t-e
'ream.2
b. Se&era$ recent an' *i,nificant e&ent*# w-ic- are combine' by t-e 'ream into a
*in,$e w-o$e.7
c. One or more recent an' *i,nificant e&ent*# w-ic- are re/re*ente' in t-e 'reamcontent
by a$$.*ion to a contem/orary b.t in'ifferent e&ent.8
'. A *.b6ecti&e$y *i,nificant e=/erience 3reco$$ection# train of t-o.,-t4# w-ic- i*
constantl$ re/re*ente' in t-e 'ream by a$$.*ion to a recent b.t in'ifferent
im/re**ion.9
A* may be *een# in 'ream5inter/retation t-e con'ition i* a$way* f.$fi$$e' t-at one
com/onent of t-e 'ream5content re/eat* a recent im/re**ion of t-e 'ay of t-e 'ream. T-e
com/onent w-ic- i* 'e*tine' to be re/re*ente' in t-e 'ream may eit-er be$on, to t-e
*ame circ$e of i'ea* a* t-e 'ream5*tim.$.* it*e$f 3a* an e**entia$ or e&en an ine**entia$
e$ement of t-e *ame4# or it may ori,inate in t-e nei,-bo.r-oo' of an in'ifferent
im/re**ion# w-ic- -a* been bro.,-t by more or $e** ab.n'ant a**ociation* into re$ation
wit- t-e */-ere of t-e 'ream5*tim.$.*. T-e a//arent m.$ti/$icity of t-e*e con'ition*
re*.$t* mere$y from t-e alternative# t-at a displacement has or has not occurred# an' it
may -ere be note' t-at t-i* a$ternati&e enab$e* .* to e=/$ain t-e contra*t* of t-e 'ream
;.ite a* rea'i$y a* t-e me'ica$ t-eory of t-e 'ream e=/$ain* t-e *erie* of *tate* from t-e
/artia$ to t-e com/$ete wakin, of t-e brain ce$$*.
In con*i'erin, t-i* *erie* of *o.rce* we note f.rt-er t-at t-e /*yc-o$o,ica$$y *i,nificant
b.t not recent e$ement 3a train of t-o.,-t# a reco$$ection4 may be re/$ace' for t-e
/.r/o*e* of 'ream5formation by a recent b.t /*yc-o$o,ica$$y in'ifferent e$ement#
/ro&i'e' t-e two fo$$owin, con'ition* are f.$fi$$e': 314 t-e 'ream5content /re*er&e* a
connection wit- t-in,* recent$y e=/erience'< 34 t-e 'ream5*tim.$.* i* *ti$$ a
/*yc-o$o,ica$$y *i,nificant e&ent. In one *in,$e ca*e 3a4 bot- t-e*e con'ition* are f.$fi$$e'
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by t-e *ame im/re**ion. If we now con*i'er t-at t-e*e *ame in'ifferent im/re**ion*#
w-ic- are .ti$i*e' for t-e 'ream a* $on, a* t-ey are recent# $o*e t-i* ;.a$ification a* *oon
a* t-ey are a 'ay 3or at mo*t *e&era$ 'ay*4 o$'er# we are ob$i,e' to a**.me t-at t-e &ery
fre*-ne** of an im/re**ion ,i&e* it a certain /*yc-o$o,ica$ &a$.e for 'ream5formation#
*omew-at e;.i&a$ent to t-e &a$.e of emotiona$$y accent.ate' memorie* or train* of
t-o.,-t. ?ater on# in t-e $i,-t of certain /*yc-o$o,ica$ con*i'eration*# we *-a$$ be ab$e to
'i&ine t-e e=/$anation of t-i* im/ortance of recent im/re**ion* in 'ream5formation.:
Inci'enta$$y o.r attention i* -ere ca$$e' to t-e fact t-at at ni,-t# an' .nnotice' by o.r
con*cio.*ne**# im/ortant c-an,e* may occ.r in t-e materia$ com/ri*e' by o.r i'ea* an'
memorie*. T-e in6.nction t-at before makin, a fina$ 'eci*ion in any matter one *-o.$'
*$ee/ on it for a ni,-t i* ob&io.*$y f.$$y 6.*tifie'. 0.t at t-i* /oint we fin' t-at we -a&e
/a**e' from t-e /*yc-o$o,y of 'reamin, to t-e /*yc-o$o,y of *$ee/# a *te/ w-ic- t-ere
wi$$ often be occa*ion to take.
At t-i* /oint t-ere ari*e* an ob6ection w-ic- t-reaten* to in&a$i'ate t-e conc$.*ion* at
w-ic- we -a&e 6.*t arri&e'. If in'ifferent im/re**ion* can fin' t-eir way into t-e 'ream
on$y *o $on, a* t-ey are of recent ori,in# -ow 'oe* it -a//en t-at in t-e 'ream5content we
fin' e$ement* a$*o from ear$ier /erio'* of o.r $i&e*# w-ic- at t-e time w-en t-ey were
*ti$$ recent /o**e**e'# a* StrBm/e$$ /.t* it# no /*yc-ic &a$.e# an' w-ic-# t-erefore# o.,-t
to -a&e been for,otten $on, a,o< e$ement*# t-at i*# w-ic- are neit-er fre*- nor
/*yc-o$o,ica$$y *i,nificantI
T-i* ob6ection can be 'i*/o*e' of com/$ete$y if we -a&e reco.r*e to t-e re*.$t* of t-e
/*yc-oana$y*i* of ne.rotic*. T-e *o$.tion i* a* fo$$ow*: T-e /roce** of *-iftin, an'
rearran,ement w-ic- re/$ace* materia$ of /*yc-ic *i,nificance by materia$ w-ic- i*
in'ifferent 3w-et-er one i* 'reamin, or t-inkin,4 -a* a$rea'y taken /$ace in t-e*e ear$ier
/erio'* of $ife# an' -a* *ince become fi=e' in t-e memory. T-o*e e$ement* w-ic- were
ori,ina$$y in'ifferent are in fact no $on,er *o# *ince t-ey -a&e ac;.ire' t-e &a$.e of
/*yc-o$o,ica$$y *i,nificant materia$. T-at w-ic- -a* act.a$$y remaine' in'ifferent can
ne&er be re/ro'.ce' in t-e 'ream.
From t-e fore,oin, e=/o*ition t-e rea'er may ri,-t$y conc$.'e t-at I a**ert t-at t-ere are
no in'ifferent 'ream5*tim.$i# an' t-erefore no ,.i$e$e** 'ream*. T-i* I ab*o$.te$y an'
.ncon'itiona$$y be$ie&e to be t-e ca*e# a/art from t-e 'ream* of c-i$'ren# an' /er-a/* t-e
brief 'ream5reaction* to noct.rna$ *en*ation*. A/art from t-e*e e=ce/tion*# w-ate&er one
'ream* i* eit-er /$ain$y reco,ni*ab$e a* bein, /*yc-ica$$y *i,nificant# or it i* 'i*torte' an'
can be 6.',e' correct$y on$y after com/$ete inter/retation# w-en it /ro&e* after a$$ to be
of /*yc-ic *i,nificance. T-e 'ream ne&er concern* it*e$f wit- trif$e*< we 'o not a$$ow
*$ee/ to be 'i*t.rbe' by tri&ia$itie*.D Dream* w-ic- are a//arent$y ,.i$e$e** t.rn o.t to be
t-e re&er*e of innocent if one take* t-e tro.b$e to inter/ret t-em< if I may be /ermitte' t-e
e=/re**ion# t-ey a$$ *-ow @t-e mark of t-e bea*t1. Since t-i* i* anot-er /oint on w-ic- I
may e=/ect contra'iction# an' *ince I am ,$a' of an o//ort.nity to *-ow 'ream5'i*tortion
at work# I *-a$$ -ere *.b6ect to ana$y*i* a n.mber of @,.i$e$e** 'ream*1 from my
co$$ection.
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9
Dream 1
An inte$$i,ent an' refine' yo.n, woman# w-o in rea$ $ife i* 'i*tinct$y re*er&e'# one of
t-o*e /eo/$e of w-om one *ay* t-at @*ti$$ water* r.n 'ee/1# re$ate* t-e fo$$owin, 'ream: )I
dreamt that I arrived at the mar(et too late, and could 'et nothin' from either the %utcher
or the 'reen'rocer "oman.1 S.re$y a ,.i$e$e** 'ream# b.t a* it -a* not t-e a//earance of a
rea$ 'ream I in'.ce -er to re$ate it in 'etai$. %er re/ort t-en r.n* a* fo$$ow*: 3he 'oes to
the mar(et "ith her coo(, "ho carries the %as(et5 The %utcher tells her, after she has
as(ed him for somethin': )That is no lon'er to %e o%tained,+ and "ants to 'ive her
somethin' else, "ith the remar(: )That is 'ood, too5+ 3he refuses, and 'oes to the
'reen'rocer "oman5 The latter tries to sell her a peculiar ve'eta%le, "hich is %ound up
in %undles, and is %lac( in colour5 3he sa$s: )I don+t (no" that, I "on+t ta(e it.1
T-e connection of t-e 'ream wit- t-e /rece'in, 'ay i* *im/$e eno.,-. S-e -a' rea$$y
,one to t-e market too $ate# an' -a' been .nab$e to b.y anyt-in,. The meat4shop "as
alread$ closed# come* into one1* min' a* a 'e*cri/tion of t-e e=/erience. 0.t wait# i* not
t-at a &ery &.$,ar /-ra*e w-ic- 55 or rat-er# t-e o//o*ite of w-ic- 55 'enote* a certain
ne,$ect wit- re,ar' to a man1* c$ot-in,I! T-e 'reamer -a* not .*e' t-e*e wor'*< *-e -a*
/er-a/* a&oi'e' t-em< b.t $et .* $ook for t-e inter/retation of t-e 'etai$* containe' in t-e
'ream.
+-en in a 'ream *omet-in, -a* t-e c-aracter of a */oken .tterance 55 t-at i*# w-en it i*
*ai' or -ear'# not mere$y t-o.,-t 55 an' t-e 'i*tinction can .*.a$$y be ma'e wit- certainty
55 t-en it ori,inate* in t-e .tterance* of wakin, $ife# w-ic- -a&e# of co.r*e# been treate'
a* raw materia$# 'i*membere'# an' *$i,-t$y a$tere'# an' abo&e a$$ remo&e' from t-eir
conte=t.1" In t-e work of inter/retation we may take *.c- .tterance* a* o.r *tartin, /oint.
+-ere# t-en# 'oe* t-e b.tc-er1* *tatement# That is no lon'er to %e o%tained# come fromI
From my*e$f< I -a' e=/$aine' to -er *ome 'ay* /re&io.*$y @t-at t-e o$'e*t e=/erience* of
c-i$'-oo' are no lon'er to %e o%tained a* *.c-# b.t wi$$ be re/$ace' in t-e ana$y*i* by
@@tran*ference*11 an' 'ream*.1 T-.*# I am t-e b.tc-er< an' *-e ref.*e* to acce/t t-e*e
tran*ference* to t-e /re*ent of o$' way* of t-inkin, an' fee$in,. +-ere 'oe* -er 'ream
.tterance# I don+t (no" that, I "on+t ta(e it# come fromI For t-e /.r/o*e* of t-e ana$y*i*
t-i* -a* to be 'i**ecte'. @I 'on1t know t-at# *-e -er*e$f -a' *ai' to -er cook# wit- w-om
*-e -a' a 'i*/.te on t-e /re&io.* 'ay# b.t *-e -a' t-en a''e': <ehave $ourself decentl$.
%ere a 'i*/$acement i* /a$/ab$e< of t-e two *entence* w-ic- *-e */oke to -er cook# *-e
inc$.'e' t-e in*i,nificant one in -er 'ream< b.t t-e *.//re**e' *entence# @0e-a&e
yo.r*e$f 'ecent$yA1 a$one fit* in wit- t-e re*t of t-e 'ream5content. One mi,-t .*e t-e
wor'* to a man w-o wa* makin, in'ecent o&ert.re*# an' -a' ne,$ecte' @to c$o*e -i*
meat5*-o/1. T-at we -a&e rea$$y -it ./on t-e trai$ of t-e inter/retation i* /ro&e' by it*
a,reement wit- t-e a$$.*ion* ma'e by t-e inci'ent wit- t-e ,reen,rocer woman. A
&e,etab$e w-ic- i* *o$' tie' ./ in b.n'$e* 3a $on,i*- &e,etab$e# a* *-e *.b*e;.ent$y
a''*4# an' i* a$*o b$ack< w-at can t-i* be b.t a 'ream5combination of a*/ara,.* an' b$ack
ra'i*-I I nee' not inter/ret a*/ara,.* to t-e initiate'< an' t-e ot-er &e,etab$e# too 3t-ink
of t-e e=c$amation: @0$acky# *a&e yo.r*e$fA14# *eem* to me to /oint to t-e *e=.a$ t-eme at
w-ic- we ,.e**e' in t-e be,innin,# w-en we wante' to re/$ace t-e *tory of t-e 'ream by
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@t-e meat5*-o/ i* c$o*e'1. +e are not -ere concerne' wit- t-e f.$$ meanin, of t-e 'ream<
*o m.c- i* certain# t-at it i* f.$$ of meanin, an' by no mean* ,.i$e$e**.11
Dream
Anot-er ,.i$e$e** 'ream of t-e *ame /atient# w-ic- in *ome re*/ect* i* a /en'ant to t-e
abo&e. Ber hus%and as(s her: )8u'htn+t "e to have the piano tunedA+ 3he replies: )It+s
not "orth "hile, the hammers "ould have to %e re%uffed as "ell.1 A,ain we -a&e t-e
re/ro'.ction of an act.a$ e&ent of t-e /rece'in, 'ay. %er -.*ban' -a' a*ke' -er *.c- a
;.e*tion# an' *-e -a' an*were' it in *.c- wor'*. 0.t w-at i* t-e meanin, of -er
'reamin, itI S-e *ay* of t-e /iano t-at it i* a dis'ustin' o$' bo= w-ic- -a* a ba' tone< it
%elon'ed to -er -.*ban' before t-ey were marrie'#1 etc.# b.t t-e key to t-e tr.e *o$.tion
$ie* in t-e /-ra*e: It isn+t "orth "hile. T-i* -a* it* ori,in in a ca$$ /ai' ye*ter'ay to a
woman frien'. S-e wa* a*ke' to take off -er coat# b.t 'ec$ine'# *ayin,: @T-ank*# it i*n1t
wort- w-i$e# I m.*t ,o in a moment.1 At t-i* /oint I reca$$ t-at ye*ter'ay# '.rin, t-e
ana$y*i*# *-e *.''en$y took -o$' of -er coat# of w-ic- a b.tton -a' come .n'one. It wa*
a* t-o.,- *-e meant to *ay: @P$ea*e 'on1t $ook in# it i*n1t wort- w-i$e.1 T-.* %o become*
chest# an' t-e inter/retation of t-e 'ream $ea'* to t-e year* w-en *-e wa* ,rowin, o.t of
-er c-i$'-oo'# w-en *-e be,an to be 'i**ati*fie' wit- -er fi,.re. It $ea'* .* back# in'ee'#
to ear$ier /erio'*# if we take into con*i'eration t-e dis'ustin' an' t-e %ad tone# an'
remember -ow often in a$$.*ion* an' in 'ream* t-e two *ma$$ -emi*/-ere* of t-e fema$e
bo'y take t-e /$ace 55 a* a *.b*tit.te an' an antit-e*i* 55 of t-e $ar,e one*.
Dream 2
I wi$$ interr./t t-e ana$y*i* of t-i* 'reamer in or'er to in*ert a *-ort# innocent 'ream
w-ic- wa* 'reame' by a yo.n, man. %e dreamt that he "as puttin' on his "inter
overcoat a'ain6 this "as terri%le. T-e occa*ion for t-i* 'ream i* a//arent$y t-e *.''en
a'&ent of co$' weat-er. On more caref.$ e=amination we note t-at t-e two brief
fra,ment* of t-e 'ream 'o not fit to,et-er &ery we$$# for w-at co.$' be terrib$e abo.t
wearin, a t-ick or -ea&y coat in co$' weat-erI )nfort.nate$y for t-e innocency of t-i*
'ream# t-e fir*t a**ociation# .n'er ana$y*i*# yie$'* t-e reco$$ection t-at ye*ter'ay a $a'y
-a' confi'entia$$y confe**e' to -im t-at -er $a*t c-i$' owe' it* e=i*tence to t-e */$ittin,
of a con'om. %e now recon*tr.ct* -i* t-o.,-t* in accor'ance wit- t-i* *.,,e*tion: A t-in
con'om i* 'an,ero.*# a t-ick one i* ba'. T-e con'om i* a @/.$$o&er1 3BberCie-er M
$itera$$y /.$$o&er4# for it i* /.$$e' o&er *omet-in,: an' BberCie-er i* t-e German term for
a $i,-t o&ercoat. An e=/erience $ike t-at re$ate' by t-e $a'y wo.$' in'ee' be @terrib$e1 for
an .nmarrie' man.
+e wi$$ now ret.rn to o.r ot-er innocent 'reamer.
Dream 7
3he puts a candle into a candlestic(6 %ut the candle is %ro(en, so that it does not stand
up5 The 'irls at school sa$ she is clums$6 %ut she replies that it is not her fault.
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%ere# too# t-ere i* an act.a$ occa*ion for t-e 'ream< t-e 'ay before *-e -a' act.a$$y /.t a
can'$e into a can'$e*tick< b.t t-i* one wa* not broken. An ob&io.* *ymbo$i*m -a* -ere
been em/$oye'. T-e can'$e i* an ob6ect w-ic- e=cite* t-e fema$e ,enita$*< it* bein,
broken# *o t-at it 'oe* not *tan' ./ri,-t# *i,nifie* im/otence on t-e man1* /art 3it is not
her fault4. 0.t 'oe* t-i* yo.n, woman# caref.$$y bro.,-t ./# an' a *tran,er to a$$
ob*cenity# know of *.c- an a//$ication of t-e can'$eI 0y c-ance *-e i* ab$e to te$$ -ow
*-e came by t-i* information. +-i$e /a''$in, a canoe on t-e R-ine# a boat /a**e' -er
w-ic- containe' *ome *t.'ent*# w-o were *in,in, ra/t.ro.*$y# or rat-er ye$$in,: @+-en
t-e Q.een of Swe'en# be-in' c$o*e' *-.tter*# wit- t-e can'$e* of A/o$$o . . .1
S-e 'oe* not -ear or e$*e .n'er*tan' t-e $a*t wor'. %er -.*ban' wa* a*ke' to ,i&e -er t-e
re;.ire' e=/$anation. T-e*e &er*e* are t-en re/$ace' in t-e 'ream5content by t-e innocent
reco$$ection of a ta*k w-ic- *-e once /erforme' clumsil$ at -er boar'in,5*c-oo$# beca.*e
of t-e closed shutters. T-e connection between t-e t-eme of ma*t.rbation an' t-at of
im/otence i* c$ear eno.,-. @A/o$$o1 in t-e $atent 'ream5content connect* t-i* 'ream wit-
an ear$ier one in w-ic- t-e &ir,in Pa$$a* fi,.re'. A$$ t-i* i* ob&io.*$y not innocent.
Dream 8
?e*t it may *eem too ea*y a matter to 'raw conc$.*ion* from 'ream* concernin, t-e
'reamer1* rea$ circ.m*tance*# I a'' anot-er 'ream ori,inatin, wit- t-e *ame /er*on#
w-ic- once more a//ear* innocent. )I dreamt of doin' somethin',+ she relates, )"hich I
actuall$ did durin' the da$, that is to sa$, I filled a little trun( so full of %oo(s that I had
difficult$ in closin' it5 M$ dream "as /ust li(e the actual occurrence.1 %ere t-e 'reamer
-er*e$f em/-a*i*e* t-e corre*/on'ence between t-e 'ream an' t-e rea$ity. A$$ *.c-
critici*m* of t-e 'ream# an' comment* on t-e 'ream# a$t-o.,- t-ey -a&e fo.n' a /$ace in
t-e wakin, t-o.,-t*# /ro/er$y be$on, to t-e $atent 'ream5content# a* f.rt-er e=am/$e*
wi$$ confirm. +e are to$'# t-en# t-at w-at t-e 'ream re$ate* -a* act.a$$y occ.rre' '.rin,
t-e 'ay. It wo.$' take .* too far afie$' to *-ow -ow we arri&e at t-e i'ea of makin, .*e of
t-e En,$i*- $an,.a,e to -e$/ .* in t-e inter/retation of t-i* 'ream. S.ffice it to *ay t-at it
i* a,ain a ;.e*tion of a $itt$e bo= 3cf. /. 9# t-e 'ream of t-e 'ea' c-i$' in t-e bo=4 w-ic-
-a* been fi$$e' *o f.$$ t-at not-in, can ,o into it.
In a$$ t-e*e @innocent1 'ream* t-e *e=.a$ factor a* t-e moti&e of t-e cen*or*-i/ i* &ery
/rominent. 0.t t-i* i* a *.b6ect of /rimary *i,nificance# w-ic- we m.*t con*i'er $ater.
1 cf. The 2s$chopatholo'$ of &ver$da$ Life.
T-e ten'ency of t-e 'ream at work to b$en' e&eryt-in, /re*ent of intere*t into a *in,$e
tran*action -a* a$rea'y been notice' by *e&era$ a.t-or*# for in*tance# by De$a,e an'
De$boe.f.
2 T-e 'ream of Irma1* in6ection< t-e 'ream of t-e frien' w-o i* my .nc$e.
7 T-e 'ream of t-e f.nera$ oration 'e$i&ere' by t-e yo.n, /-y*ician.
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8 T-e 'ream of t-e botanica$ mono,ra/-.
9 T-e 'ream* of my /atient* '.rin, ana$y*i* are mo*t$y of t-i* kin'.
: cf. (-a/ter Se&en on Transference.
D %a&e$ock E$$i*# a kin'$y critic of The Interpretation of Dreams# write* in The ;orld of
Dreams 3/. 19!4: @From t-i* /oint on# not many of .* wi$$ be ab$e to fo$$ow F.1 0.t Mr
E$$i* -a* not .n'ertaken any ana$y*e* of 'ream*# an' wi$$ not be$ie&e -ow .n6.*tifiab$e it
i* to 6.',e t-em by t-e manife*t 'ream5content.
! It* meanin, i*: @Ho.r f$y i* .n'one.1 3TRANS.4
1" cf. w-at i* *ai' of */eec- in 'ream* in t-e c-a/ter on The Dream4;or(. On$y one of t-e
writer* on t-e *.b6ect 55 De$boe.f 55 *eem* to -a&e reco,ni*e' t-e ori,in of t-e */eec-e*
-ear' in 'ream*# -e com/are* t-em wit- cliches.
11 For t-e c.rio.*# I may remark t-at be-in' t-e 'ream t-ere i* -i''en a fanta*y of
in'ecent# *e=.a$$y /ro&okin, con'.ct on my /art# an' of re/.$*ion on t-e /art of t-e $a'y.
If t-i* inter/retation *-o.$' *eem /re/o*tero.*# I wo.$' remin' t-e rea'er of t-e
n.mero.* ca*e* in w-ic- /-y*ician* -a&e been ma'e t-e ob6ect of *.c- c-ar,e* by
-y*terica$ women# wit- w-om t-e *ame fanta*y -a* not a//eare' in a 'i*torte' form a* a
'ream# b.t -a* become .n'i*,.i*e'$y con*cio.* an' 'e$.*iona$. 55 +it- t-i* 'ream t-e
/atient be,an -er /*yc-oana$ytica$ treatment. It wa* on$y $ater t-at I $earne' t-at wit- t-i*
'ream *-e re/eate' t-e initia$ tra.ma in w-ic- -er ne.ro*i* ori,inate'# an' *ince t-en I
-a&e notice' t-e *ame be-a&io.r in ot-er /er*on* w-o in t-eir c-i$'-oo' were &ictim* of
*e=.a$ attack*# an' now# a* it were# wi*- in t-eir 'ream* for t-em to be re/eate'.
1 A *.b*tit.te by t-e o//o*ite# a* wi$$ be c$ear after ana$y*i*.
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1 00 INFANTI,E E2PERIEN+ES AS THE SO.R+E OF DREAMS
A* t-e t-ir' of t-e /ec.$iaritie* of t-e 'ream5content# we -a&e a''.ce' t-e fact# in
a,reement wit- a$$ ot-er writer* on t-e *.b6ect 3e=ce/tin, Robert4# t-at im/re**ion* from
o.r c-i$'-oo' may a//ear in 'ream*# w-ic- 'o not *eem to be at t-e 'i*/o*a$ of t-e
wakin, memory. It i*# of co.r*e# 'iffic.$t to 'eci'e -ow *e$'om or -ow fre;.ent$y t-i*
occ.r*# beca.*e after wakin, t-e ori,in of t-e re*/ecti&e e$ement* of t-e 'ream i* not
reco,ni*e'. T-e /roof t-at we are 'ea$in, wit- im/re**ion* of o.r c-i$'-oo' m.*t t-.* be
a''.ce' ob6ecti&e$y# an' on$y in rare in*tance* 'o t-e con'ition* fa&o.r *.c- /roof. T-e
*tory i* to$' by A. Ma.ry# a* bein, /artic.$ar$y conc$.*i&e# of a man w-o 'eci'e* to &i*it
-i* birt-/$ace after an ab*ence of twenty year*. On t-e ni,-t before -i* 'e/art.re -e
'ream* t-at -e i* in a tota$$y .nfami$iar $oca$ity# an' t-at -e t-ere meet* a *tran,e man
wit- w-om -e -o$'* a con&er*ation. S.b*e;.ent$y# ./on -i* ret.rn -ome# -e i* ab$e to
con&ince -im*e$f t-at t-i* *tran,e $oca$ity rea$$y e=i*t* in t-e &icinity of -i* -ome# an' t-e
*tran,e man in t-e 'ream t.rn* o.t to be a frien' of -i* 'ea' fat-er1*# w-o i* $i&in, in t-e
town. T-i* i*# of co.r*e# a conc$.*i&e /roof t-at in -i* c-i$'-oo' -e -a' *een bot- t-e
man an' t-e $oca$ity. T-e 'ream# moreo&er# i* to be inter/rete' a* a 'ream of im/atience#
$ike t-e 'ream of t-e ,ir$ w-o carrie* in -er /ocket -er ticket for a concert# t-e 'ream of
t-e c-i$' w-o*e fat-er -a' /romi*e' -im an e=c.r*ion to t-e %amea. 3/. 7"4# an' *o
fort-. T-e moti&e* w-ic- re/ro'.ce 6.*t t-e*e im/re**ion* of c-i$'-oo' for t-e 'reamer
cannot# of co.r*e# be 'i*co&ere' wit-o.t ana$y*i*.
One of my co$$ea,.e*# w-o atten'e' my $ect.re*# an' w-o boa*te' t-at -i* 'ream* were
&ery rare$y *.b6ect to 'i*tortion# to$' me t-at -e -a' *ometime /re&io.*$y *een# in a
'ream# his former tutor in %ed "ith his nurse# w-o -a' remaine' in t-e -o.*e-o$' .nti$
-i* e$e&ent- year. T-e act.a$ $ocation of t-i* *cene wa* rea$i*e' e&en in t-e 'ream. A* -e
wa* ,reat$y intere*te'# -e re$ate' t-e 'ream to -i* e$'er brot-er# w-o $a.,-in,$y
confirme' it* rea$ity. T-e brot-er *ai' t-at -e remembere' t-e affair &ery 'i*tinct$y# for
-e wa* *i= year* o$' at t-e time. T-e $o&er* were in t-e -abit of makin, -im# t-e e$'er
boy# 'r.nk wit- beer w-ene&er circ.m*tance* were fa&o.rab$e to t-eir noct.rna$
interco.r*e. T-e yo.n,er c-i$'# o.r 'reamer# at t-at time t-ree year* of a,e# *$e/t in t-e
*ame room a* t-e n.r*e# b.t wa* not re,ar'e' a* an ob*tac$e.
In yet anot-er ca*e it may be 'efinite$y e*tab$i*-e'# wit-o.t t-e ai' of
'reaminter/retation#
t-at t-e 'ream contain* e$ement* from c-i$'-oo' 55 name$y# if t-e 'ream i*
a *o5ca$$e' perennial 'ream# one w-ic-# bein, fir*t 'reamt in c-i$'-oo'# rec.r* a,ain an'
a,ain in a'.$t year*. I may a'' a few e=am/$e* of t-i* *ort to t-o*e a$rea'y known#
a$t-o.,- I -a&e no /er*ona$ know$e',e of /erennia$ 'ream*. A /-y*ician# in -i* t-irtie*#
te$$* me t-at a ye$$ow $ion# concernin, w-ic- -e i* ab$e to ,i&e t-e /reci*e*t information#
-a* often a//eare' in -i* 'ream5$ife# from -i* ear$ie*t c-i$'-oo' ./ to t-e /re*ent 'ay.
T-i* $ion# known to -im from -i* 'ream*# wa* one 'ay 'i*co&ere' in natura# a* a
$on,for,otten
c-ina anima$. T-e yo.n, man t-en $earne' from -i* mot-er t-at t-e $ion -a'
been -i* fa&o.rite toy in ear$y c-i$'-oo'# a fact w-ic- -e -im*e$f co.$' no $on,er
remember.
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If we now t.rn from t-e manife*t 'ream5content to t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* w-ic- are
re&ea$e' on$y on ana$y*i*# t-e e=/erience* of c-i$'-oo' may be fo.n' to rec.r e&en in
'ream* w-o*e content wo.$' not -a&e $e' .* to *.*/ect anyt-in, of t-e *ort. I owe a
/artic.$ar$y 'e$i,-tf.$ an' in*tr.cti&e e=am/$e of *.c- a 'ream to my e*teeme' co$$ea,.e
of t-e @ye$$ow $ion1. After rea'in, Nan*en1* acco.nt of -i* /o$ar e=/e'ition# -e 'reamt
t-at -e wa* ,i&in, t-e intre/i' e=/$orer e$ectrica$ treatment on an ice5f$oe for t-e *ciatica
of w-ic- t-e $atter com/$aine'A D.rin, t-e ana$y*i* of t-i* 'ream -e remembere' an
inci'ent of -i* c-i$'-oo'# wit-o.t w-ic- t-e 'ream wo.$' be w-o$$y .ninte$$i,ib$e. +-en
-e wa* t-ree or fo.r year* of a,e -e wa* one 'ay $i*tenin, attenti&e$y to t-e con&er*ation
of -i* e$'er*< t-ey were ta$kin, of e=/$oration# an' -e /re*ent$y a*ke' -i* fat-er w-et-er
e=/$oration wa* a ba' i$$ne**. %e -a' a//arent$y confo.n'e' Geissen 36o.rney# tri/*4 wit-
Geissen 3,ri/e*# tearin, /ain*4# an' t-e 'eri*ion of -i* brot-er* an' *i*ter* /re&ente' -i*
e&er for,ettin, t-e -.mi$iatin, e=/erience.
+e -a&e a /reci*e$y *imi$ar ca*e w-en# in t-e ana$y*i* of t-e 'ream of t-e mono,ra/- on
t-e ,en.* cyc$amen# I *t.mb$e ./on a memory# retaine' from c-i$'-oo'# to t-e effect t-at
w-en I wa* fi&e year* o$' my fat-er a$$owe' me to 'e*troy a book embe$$i*-e' wit-
co$o.re' /$ate*. It wi$$ /er-a/* be 'o.bte' w-et-er t-i* reco$$ection rea$$y entere' into
t-e com/o*ition of t-e 'ream5content# an' it may be *.,,e*te' t-at t-e connection wa*
e*tab$i*-e' *.b*e;.ent$y by t-e ana$y*i*. 0.t t-e ab.n'ance an' intricacy of t-e
a**ociati&e connection* &o.c- for t-e tr.t- of my e=/$anation: cyc$amen5fa&o.rite
f$ower5fa&o.rite 'i*-5artic-oke< to /ick to /iece* $ike an artic-oke# $eaf by $eaf 3a /-ra*e
w-ic- at t-at time one -ear' 'ai$y# .a propos of t-e 'i&i'in, ./ of t-e (-ine*e em/ire4<
-erbari.m5bookworm# w-o*e fa&o.rite foo' i* book*. I can f.rt-er a**.re t-e rea'er t-at
t-e .$timate meanin, of t-e 'ream# w-ic- I -a&e not ,i&en -ere# i* mo*t intimate$y
connecte' wit- t-e content of t-e *cene of c-i$'i*- 'e*tr.ction.
In anot-er *erie* of 'ream* we $earn from ana$y*i* t-at t-e &ery wi*- w-ic- -a* ,i&en ri*e
to t-e 'ream# an' w-o*e f.$fi$ment t-e 'ream /ro&e* to be# -a* it*e$f ori,inate' in
c-i$'-oo'# *o t-at one i* a*toni*-e' to fin' t-at the child "ith all his impulses survives in
the dream.
I *-a$$ now contin.e t-e inter/retation of a 'ream w-ic- -a* a$rea'y /ro&e' in*tr.cti&e: I
refer to t-e 'ream in w-ic- my frien' R. i* my .nc$e. +e -a&e carrie' it* inter/retation
far eno.,- for t-e wi*-5moti&e 55 t-e wi*- to be a//ointe' /rofe**or 55 to a**ert it*e$f
/a$/ab$y< an' we -a&e e=/$aine' t-e affection fe$t for my frien' R. in t-e 'ream a* t-e
o.tcome of o//o*ition to# an' 'efiance of# t-e two co$$ea,.e* w-o a//ear in t-e
'reamt-o.,-t*.
T-e 'ream wa* my own< I may# t-erefore# contin.e t-e ana$y*i* by *tatin, t-at I
'i' not fee$ ;.ite *ati*fie' wit- t-e *o$.tion arri&e' at. I knew t-at my o/inion of t-e*e
co$$ea,.e*# w-o were *o ba'$y treate' in my 'ream5t-o.,-t*# wo.$' -a&e been e=/re**e'
in &ery 'ifferent $an,.a,e in my wakin, $ife< t-e inten*ity of t-e wi*- t-at I mi,-t not
*-are t-eir fate a* re,ar'* t-e a//ointment *eeme' to me too *$i,-t f.$$y to acco.nt for
t-e 'i*cre/ancy between my 'ream5o/inion an' my wakin, o/inion. If t-e 'e*ire to be
a''re**e' by anot-er tit$e were rea$$y *o inten*e it wo.$' be /roof of a morbi' ambition#
w-ic- I 'o not t-ink I c-eri*-# an' w-ic- I be$ie&e I wa* far from entertainin,. I 'o not
know -ow ot-er* w-o t-ink t-ey know me wo.$' 6.',e me< /er-a/* I rea$$y wa*
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ambitio.*< b.t if I wa*# my ambition -a* $on, *ince been tran*ferre' to ob6ect* ot-er t-an
t-e rank an' tit$e of 2rofessor etraordinarius.
+-ence# t-en# t-e ambition w-ic- t-e 'ream -a* a*cribe' to meI %ere I am remin'e' of
a *tory w-ic- I -ear' often in my c-i$'-oo'# t-at at my birt- an o$' /ea*ant woman -a'
/ro/-e*ie' to my -a//y mot-er 3w-o*e fir*t5born I wa*4 t-at *-e -a' bro.,-t a ,reat man
into t-e wor$'. S.c- /ro/-ecie* m.*t be ma'e &ery fre;.ent$y< t-ere are *o many -a//y
an' e=/ectant mot-er*# an' *o many o$' /ea*ant women# an' ot-er o$' women w-o#
*ince t-eir m.n'ane /ower* -a&e 'e*erte' t-em# t.rn t-eir eye* towar' t-e f.t.re< an' t-e
/ro/-ete** i* not $ike$y to *.ffer for -er /ro/-ecie*. I* it /o**ib$e t-at my t-ir*t for
,reatne** -a* ori,inate' from t-i* *o.rceI 0.t -ere I reco$$ect an im/re**ion from t-e
$ater year* of my c-i$'-oo'# w-ic- mi,-t *er&e e&en better a* an e=/$anation. One
e&enin,# at a re*ta.rant on t-e Prater# w-ere my /arent* were acc.*tome' to take me
w-en I wa* e$e&en or twe$&e year* of a,e# we notice' a man w-o wa* ,oin, from tab$e to
tab$e an'# for a *ma$$ *.m# im/ro&i*in, &er*e* ./on any *.b6ect t-at wa* ,i&en -im. I wa*
*ent to brin, t-e /oet to o.r tab$e# an' -e *-owe' -i* ,ratit.'e. 0efore a*kin, for a
*.b6ect -e t-rew off a few r-yme* abo.t my*e$f# an' to$' .* t-at if -e co.$' tr.*t -i*
in*/iration I *-o.$' /robab$y one 'ay become a @mini*ter1. I can *ti$$ 'i*tinct$y remember
t-e im/re**ion /ro'.ce' by t-i* *econ' /ro/-ecy. It wa* in t-e 'ay* of t-e @bo.r,eoi*
Mini*try1 my fat-er -a' recent$y bro.,-t -ome t-e /ortrait* of t-e bo.r,eoi* .ni&er*ity
,ra'.ate*# %erb*t# Gi*kra# )n,er# 0er,er an' ot-er*# an' we i$$.minate' t-e -o.*e in
t-eir -ono.r. T-ere were e&en >ew* amon, t-em< *o t-at e&ery 'i$i,ent >ewi*- *c-oo$boy
carrie' a mini*teria$ /ortfo$io in -i* *atc-e$. T-e im/re**ion of t-at time m.*t be
re*/on*ib$e for t-e fact t-at .nti$ *-ort$y before I went to t-e .ni&er*ity I wante' to *t.'y
6.ri*/r.'ence# an' c-an,e' my min' on$y at t-e $a*t moment. A me'ica$ man -a* no
c-ance of becomin, a mini*ter. An' now for my 'ream: It i* on$y now t-at I be,in to *ee
t-at it tran*$ate* me from t-e *ombre /re*ent to t-e -o/ef.$ 'ay* of t-e bo.r,eoi*
Mini*try# an' com/$ete$y f.$fi$* w-at wa* t-en my yo.t-f.$ ambition. In treatin, my two
e*timab$e an' $earne' co$$ea,.e*# mere$y beca.*e t-ey are >ew*# *o ba'$y# one a* t-o.,-
-e were a *im/$eton# an' t-e ot-er a* t-o.,- -e were a crimina$# I am actin, a* t-o.,- I
were t-e Mini*ter< I -a&e /.t my*e$f in -i* /$ace. +-at a re&en,e I take ./on -i*
E=ce$$encyA %e ref.*e* to a//oint me 2rofessor etraordinarius# an' *o in my 'ream I
/.t my*e$f in -i* /$ace.
In anot-er ca*e I note t-e fact t-at a$t-o.,- t-e wi*- t-at e=cite* t-e 'ream i* a
contem/orary wi*- it i* ne&ert-e$e** ,reat$y reinforce' by memorie* of c-i$'-oo'. I refer
to a *erie* of 'ream* w-ic- are ba*e' on t-e $on,in, to ,o to Rome. For a $on, time to
come I *-a$$ /robab$y -a&e to *ati*fy t-i* $on,in, by mean* of 'ream*# *ince at t-e *ea*on
of t-e year w-en I *-o.$' be ab$e to tra&e$ Rome i* to be a&oi'e' for rea*on* of -ea$t-.1
T-.* I once 'reamt t-at I *aw t-e Tiber an' t-e bri',e of Sant1 An,e$o from t-e win'ow
of a rai$way carria,e< /re*ent$y t-e train *tarte'# an' I rea$i*e' t-at I -a' ne&er entere' t-e
city at a$$. T-e &iew t-at a//eare' in t-e 'ream wa* mo'e$$e' after a we$$5known
en,ra&in, w-ic- I -a' ca*.a$$y notice' t-e 'ay before in t-e 'rawin,5room of one of my
/atient*. In anot-er 'ream *omeone took me ./ a -i$$ an' *-owe' me Rome -a$f
*-ro.'e' in mi*t# an' *o 'i*tant t-at I wa* a*toni*-e' at t-e 'i*tinctne** of t-e &iew. T-e
content of t-i* 'ream i* too ric- to be f.$$y re/orte' -ere. T-e moti&e# @to *ee t-e
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/romi*e' $an' afar1# i* -ere ea*i$y reco,ni*ab$e. T-e city w-ic- I t-.* *aw in t-e mi'*t i*
?Bbeck< t-e ori,ina$ of t-e -i$$ i* t-e G$eic-enber,. In a t-ir' 'ream I am at $a*t in Rome.
To my 'i*a//ointment t-e *cenery i* anyt-in, b.t .rban: it con*i*t* of a little stream of
%lac( "ater, on one side of "hich are %lac( roc(s, "hile on the other are meado"s "ith
lar'e "hite flo"ers5 I notice a certain Berr Iuc(er 9"ith "hom I am superficiall$
ac0uainted:, and resolve to as( him to sho" me the "a$ into the cit$. It i* ob&io.* t-at I
am tryin, in &ain to *ee in my 'ream a city w-ic- I -a&e ne&er *een in my wakin, $ife. If
I re*o$&e t-e $an'*ca/e into it* e$ement*# t-e w-ite f$ower* /oint to Ra&enna# w-ic- i*
known to me# an' w-ic- once# for a time# re/$ace' Rome a* t-e ca/ita$ of Ita$y. In t-e
mar*-e* aro.n' Ra&enna we -a' fo.n' t-e mo*t bea.tif.$ water5$i$ie* in t-e mi'*t of
b$ack /oo$* of water< t-e 'ream make* t-em ,row in t-e mea'ow*# $ike t-e narci**i of o.r
own A.**ee# beca.*e we fo.n' it *o tro.b$e*ome to c.$$ t-em from t-e water. T-e b$ack
rock *o c$o*e to t-e water &i&i'$y reca$$* t-e &a$$ey of t-e Te/$ at Far$*ba'. @Far$*ba'1
now enab$e* me to acco.nt for t-e /ec.$iar circ.m*tance t-at I a*k %err P.cker to *-ow
me t-e way. In t-e materia$ of w-ic- t-e 'ream i* wo&en I am ab$e to reco,ni*e two of
t-o*e am.*in, >ewi*- anec'ote* w-ic- concea$ *.c- /rofo.n' an'# at time*# *.c- bitter
wor$'$y wi*'om# an' w-ic- we are *o fon' of ;.otin, in o.r $etter* an' con&er*ation.
One i* t-e *tory of t-e @con*tit.tion1< it te$$* -ow a /oor >ew *neak* onto t-e Far$*ba'
e=/re** wit-o.t a ticket< -ow -e i* 'etecte'# an' i* treate' more an' more -ar*-$y by t-e
con'.ctor at eac- *.ccee'in, ca$$ for ticket*< an' -ow# w-en a frien' w-om -e meet* at
one of t-e *tation* '.rin, -i* mi*erab$e 6o.rney a*k* -im w-ere -e i* ,oin,# -e an*wer*:
@To Far$*ba' 55 if my con*tit.tion -o$'* o.t.1 A**ociate' in memory wit- t-i* i* anot-er
*tory abo.t a >ew w-o i* i,norant of Frenc-# an' w-o -a* e=/re** in*tr.ction* to a*k in
Pari* for t-e R.e Ric-e$ie.. Pari* wa* for many year* t-e ,oa$ of my own $on,in,# an' I
re,ar'e' t-e *ati*faction wit- w-ic- I fir*t *et foot on t-e /a&ement* of Pari* a* a warrant
t-at I *-o.$' attain to t-e f.$fi$ment of ot-er wi*-e* a$*o. Moreo&er# a*kin, t-e way i* a
'irect a$$.*ion to Rome# for# a* we know# @a$$ roa'* $ea' to Rome1. An' f.rt-er# t-e name
P.cker 3*.,ar4 a,ain /oint* to Far$*ba'# w-it-er we *en' /er*on* aff$icte' wit- t-e
constitutional 'i*ea*e# 'iabete* 3Iuc(er(ran(heit# *.,ar5'i*ea*e4. T-e occa*ion for t-i*
'ream wa* t-e /ro/o*a$ of my 0er$in frien' t-at we *-o.$' meet in Pra,.e at Ea*ter. A
f.rt-er a**ociation wit- *.,ar an' 'iabete* mi,-t be fo.n' in t-e matter* w-ic- I -a' to
'i*c.** wit- -im.
A fo.rt- 'ream# occ.rrin, *-ort$y after t-e $a*t5mentione'# brin,* me back to Rome. I *ee
a *treet corner before me# an' am a*toni*-e' t-at *o many German /$acar'* *-o.$' be
/o*te' t-ere. On t-e /re&io.* 'ay# w-en writin, to my frien'# I -a' to$' -im# wit- tr.$y
/ro/-etic &i*ion# t-at Pra,.e wo.$' /robab$y not be a comfortab$e /$ace for German
tra&e$$er*. T-e 'ream# t-erefore# e=/re**e' *im.$taneo.*$y t-e wi*- to meet -im in Rome
in*tea' of in t-e 0o-emian ca/ita$# an' t-e 'e*ire# w-ic- /robab$y ori,inate' '.rin, my
*t.'ent 'ay*# t-at t-e German $an,.a,e mi,-t be accor'e' more to$erance in Pra,.e. A* a
matter of fact# I m.*t -a&e .n'er*too' t-e (Cec- $an,.a,e in t-e fir*t year* of my
c-i$'-oo'# for I wa* born in a *ma$$ &i$$a,e in Mora&ia# ami'*t a S$a& /o/.$ation. A
(Cec- n.r*ery r-yme# w-ic- I -ear' in my *e&enteent- year# became# wit-o.t effort on
my /art# *o im/rinte' ./on my memory t-at I can re/eat it to t-i* 'ay# a$t-o.,- I -a&e no
i'ea of it* meanin,. T-.* in t-e*e 'ream* a$*o t-ere i* no $ack of manifo$' re$ation* to t-e
im/re**ion* of my ear$y c-i$'-oo'.
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D.rin, my $a*t Ita$ian 6o.rney# w-ic- took me /a*t ?ake Tra*imen.*# I at $en,t-
'i*co&ere'# after I -a' *een t-e Tiber# an' -a' re$.ctant$y t.rne' back *ome fifty mi$e*
from Rome# w-at a reinforcement my $on,in, for t-e Eterna$ (ity -a' recei&e' from t-e
im/re**ion* of my c-i$'-oo'. I -a' 6.*t concei&e' a /$an of tra&e$$in, to Na/$e* &ia
Rome t-e fo$$owin, year w-en t-i* *entence# w-ic- I m.*t -a&e rea' in one of o.r
German c$a**ic*# occ.rre' to me: @It i* a ;.e*tion w-ic- of t-e two /ace' to an' fro in
-i* room t-e more im/atient$y after -e -a' concei&e' t-e /$an of ,oin, to Rome 55
A**i*tant %ea'ma*ter +incke$mann or t-e ,reat Genera$ %anniba$.1 I my*e$f -a' wa$ke'
in %anniba$1* foot*te/*< $ike -im I wa* 'e*tine' ne&er to *ee Rome# an' -e too -a' ,one
to (am/ania w-en a$$ were e=/ectin, -im in Rome. %anniba$# wit- w-om I -a' ac-ie&e'
t-i* /oint of *imi$arity# -a' been my fa&o.rite -ero '.rin, my year* at t-e @,ymna*i.m1<
$ike *o many boy* of my a,e# I be*towe' my *ym/at-ie* in t-e P.nic war not on t-e
Roman*# b.t on t-e (art-a,inian*. Moreo&er# w-en I fina$$y came to rea$i*e t-e
con*e;.ence* of be$on,in, to an a$ien race# an' wa* force' by t-e anti5Semitic fee$in,
amon, my c$a**mate* to take a 'efinite *tan'# t-e fi,.re of t-e Semitic comman'er
a**.me' *ti$$ ,reater /ro/ortion* in my ima,ination. %anniba$ an' Rome *ymbo$i*e'# in
my yo.t-f.$ eye*# t-e *tr.,,$e between t-e tenacity of t-e >ew* an' t-e or,ani*ation of
t-e (at-o$ic (-.rc-. T-e *i,nificance for o.r emotiona$ $ife w-ic- t-e anti5Semitic
mo&ement -a* *ince a**.me' -e$/e' to fi= t-e t-o.,-t* an' im/re**ion* of t-o*e ear$ier
'ay*. T-.* t-e 'e*ire to ,o to Rome -a* in my 'ream5$ife become t-e ma*k an' *ymbo$
for a n.mber of warm$y c-eri*-e' wi*e*# for w-o*e rea$i*ation one -a' to work wit- t-e
tenacity an' *in,$e5min'e'ne** of t-e P.nic ,enera$# t-o.,- t-eir f.$fi$ment at time*
*eeme' a* remote a* %anniba$1* $ife$on, wi*- to enter Rome.
An' now# for t-e fir*t time# I -a//ene' ./on t-e yo.t-f.$ e=/erience w-ic- e&en to'ay
*ti$$ e=/re**e* it* /ower in a$$ t-e*e emotion* an' 'ream*. I mi,-t -a&e been ten or
twe$&e year* o$' w-en my fat-er be,an to take me wit- -im on -i* wa$k*# an' in -i*
con&er*ation to re&ea$ -i* &iew* on t-e t-in,* of t-i* wor$'. T-.* it wa* t-at -e once to$'
me t-e fo$$owin, inci'ent# in or'er to *-ow me t-at I -a' been born into -a//ier time*
t-an -e: @+-en I wa* a yo.n, man# I wa* wa$kin, one Sat.r'ay a$on, t-e *treet in t-e
&i$$a,e w-ere yo. were born< I wa* we$$5're**e'# wit- a new f.r ca/ on my -ea'. )/
come* a (-ri*tian# w-o knock* my ca/ into t-e m.'# an' *-o.t*# @@>ew# ,et off t-e
/a&ementA11 1 55 @An' w-at 'i' yo. 'oI1 55 @I went into t-e *treet an' /icke' ./ t-e ca/#1 -e
ca$m$y re/$ie'. T-at 'i' not *eem -eroic on t-e /art of t-e bi,# *tron, man w-o wa*
$ea'in, me# a $itt$e fe$$ow# by t-e -an'. I contra*te' t-i* *it.ation# w-ic- 'i' not /$ea*e
me# wit- anot-er# more in -armony wit- my *entiment* 55 t-e *cene in w-ic- %anniba$1*
fat-er# %ami$car 0arca*# ma'e -i* *on *wear before t-e -o.*e-o$' a$tar to take &en,eance
on t-e Roman*.2 E&er *ince t-en %anniba$ -a* -a' a /$ace in my fanta*ie*.
I t-ink I can trace my ent-.*ia*m for t-e (art-a,inian ,enera$ *ti$$ f.rt-er back into my
c-i$'-oo'# *o t-at it i* /robab$y on$y an in*tance of an a$rea'y e*tab$i*-e' emotiona$
re$ation bein, tran*ferre' to a new &e-ic$e. One of t-e fir*t book* w-ic- fe$$ into my
c-i$'i*- -an'* after I $earne' to rea' wa* T-ier*1 Consulate and &mpire. I remember t-at
I /a*te' on t-e f$at back* of my woo'en *o$'ier* $itt$e $abe$* bearin, t-e name* of t-e
Im/eria$ mar*-a$*# an' t-at at t-at time Ma**Nna 3a* a >ew# Mena**e4 wa* a$rea'y my
a&owe' fa&o.rite.7 T-i* /reference i* 'o.bt$e** a$*o to be e=/$aine' by t-e fact of my
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-a&in, been born a -.n're' year* $ater# on t-e *ame 'ate. Na/o$eon -im*e$f i* a**ociate'
wit- %anniba$ t-ro.,- t-e cro**in, of t-e A$/*. An' /er-a/* t-e 'e&e$o/ment of t-i*
martia$ i'ea$ may be trace' yet fart-er back# to t-e fir*t t-ree year* of my c-i$'-oo'# to
wi*-e* w-ic- my a$ternate$y frien'$y an' -o*ti$e re$ation* wit- a boy a year o$'er t-an
my*e$f m.*t -a&e e&oke' in t-e weaker of t-e two /$aymate*.
T-e 'ee/er we ,o into t-e ana$y*i* of 'ream*# t-e more often are we /.t on to t-e track of
c-i$'i*- e=/erience* w-ic- /$ay t-e /art of 'ream5*o.rce* in t-e $atent 'ream5content.
+e -a&e $earne' t-at 'ream* &ery rare$y re/ro'.ce memorie* in *.c- a manner a* to
con*tit.te# .nc-an,e' an' .nabri',e'# t-e *o$e manife*t 'ream5content. Ne&ert-e$e**# a
few a.t-entic e=am/$e* w-ic- *-ow *.c- re/ro'.ction -a&e been recor'e'# an' I can a''
a few new one*# w-ic- once more refer to *cene* of c-i$'-oo'. In t-e ca*e of one of my
/atient* a 'ream once ,a&e a bare$y 'i*torte' re/ro'.ction of a *e=.a$ inci'ent# w-ic-
wa* imme'iate$y reco,ni*e' a* an acc.rate reco$$ection. T-e memory of it -a' ne&er
been com/$ete$y $o*t in t-e wakin, $ife# b.t it -a' been ,reat$y ob*c.re'# an' it wa*
re&i&ifie' by t-e /re&io.* work of ana$y*i*. T-e 'reamer -a' at t-e a,e of twe$&e &i*ite'
a be'ri''en *c-oo$mate# w-o -a' e=/o*e' -im*e$f# /robab$y on$y by a c-ance mo&ement
in be'. At t-e *i,-t of t-e boy1* ,enita$* -e wa* *eiCe' by a kin' of com/.$*ion# e=/o*e'
-im*e$f# an' took -o$' of t-e member of t-e ot-er boy w-o# -owe&er# $ooke' at -im in
*.r/ri*e an' in'i,nation# w-ere./on -e became embarra**e' an' $et it ,o. A 'ream
re/eate' t-i* *cene twenty5t-ree year* $ater# wit- a$$ t-e 'etai$* of t-e accom/anyin,
emotion*# c-an,in, it# -owe&er# in t-i* re*/ect# t-at t-e 'reamer /$aye' t-e /a**i&e
in*tea' of t-e acti&e ro$e# w-i$e t-e /er*on of t-e *c-oo$mate wa* re/$ace' by a
contem/orary.
A* a r.$e# of co.r*e# a *cene from c-i$'-oo' i* re/re*ente' in t-e manife*t 'ream5content
on$y by an i$$.*ion# an' m.*t be 'i*entan,$e' from t-e 'ream by inter/retation. T-e
citation of e=am/$e* of t-i* kin' cannot be &ery con&incin,# beca.*e any ,.arantee t-at
t-ey are rea$$y e=/erience* of c-i$'-oo' i* $ackin,< if t-ey be$on, to an ear$ier /erio' of
$ife# t-ey are no $on,er reco,ni*e' by o.r memory. T-e conc$.*ion t-at *.c- c-i$'i*-
e=/erience* rec.r at a$$ in 'ream* i* 6.*tifie' in /*yc-oana$ytic work by a ,reat n.mber
of factor*# w-ic- in t-eir combine' re*.$t* a//ear to be *.fficient$y re$iab$e. 0.t w-en#
for t-e /.r/o*e* of 'ream5inter/retation# *.c- reference* to c-i$'i*- e=/erience* are torn
o.t of t-eir conte=t# t-ey may not /er-a/* *eem &ery im/re**i&e# e*/ecia$$y w-ere I 'o
not e&en ,i&e a$$ t-e materia$ ./on w-ic- t-e inter/retation i* ba*e'. %owe&er# I *-a$$ not
$et t-i* 'eter me from ,i&in, a few e=am/$e*.
Dream 1
+it- one of my fema$e /atient* a$$ 'ream* -a&e t-e c-aracter of @-.rry1< *-e i* -.rryin,
*o a* to be in time# *o a* not to mi** -er train# an' *o on. In one 'ream she has to visit a
'irl friend6 her mother had told her to ride and not "al(6 she runs, ho"ever, and (eeps
on callin'. T-e materia$ t-at emer,e' in t-e ana$y*i* a$$owe' one to reco,ni*e a memory
of c-i$'i*- rom/in,# an'# e*/ecia$$y for one 'ream# went back to t-e /o/.$ar c-i$'i*-
,ame of ra/i'$y re/eatin, t-e wor'* of a *entence a* t-o.,- it wa* a$$ one wor'. A$$ t-e*e
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-arm$e** 6oke* wit- $itt$e frien'* were remembere' beca.*e t-ey re/$ace' ot-er $e**
-arm$e** one*.8
Dream
T-e fo$$owin, 'ream wa* 'reame' by anot-er fema$e /atient: 3he is in a lar'e room in
"hich there are all sorts of machines6 it is rather li(e "hat she "ould ima'ine an
orthopaedic institute to %e5 3he hears that I am pressed for time, and that she must
under'o treatment alon' "ith five others5 <ut she resists, and is un"illin' to lie do"n on
the %ed 44 or "hatever it is 44 "hich is intended for her5 3he stands in a corner, and "aits
for me to sa$ )It is not true5+ The others, mean"hile, lau'h at her, sa$in' it is all
foolishness on her part5 !t the same time, it is as thou'h she "ere called upon to ma(e a
num%er of little s0uares.
T-e fir*t /art of t-e content of t-i* 'ream i* an a$$.*ion to t-e treatment an' to t-e
tran*ference9 to my*e$f. T-e *econ' contain* an a$$.*ion to a *cene of c-i$'-oo'< t-e two
/ortion* are connecte' by t-e mention of t-e be'. T-e ort-o/ae'ic in*tit.te i* an a$$.*ion
to one of my ta$k*# in w-ic- I com/are' t-e treatment# wit- re,ar' to it* '.ration an' it*
nat.re# to an ort-o/ae'ic treatment. At t-e be,innin, of t-e treatment I -a' to te$$ -er t-at
for the present I had little time to 'ive her# b.t t-at $ater on I wo.$' 'e&ote a w-o$e -o.r
to -er 'ai$y. T-i* aro.*e' in -er t-e o$' *en*iti&ene**# w-ic- i* a $ea'in, c-aracteri*tic of
c-i$'ren w-o are 'e*tine' to become -y*terica$. T-eir 'e*ire for $o&e i* in*atiab$e. My
/atient wa* t-e yo.n,e*t of *i= brot-er* an' *i*ter* 3-ence# "ith five others4# an' a* *.c-
-er fat-er1* fa&o.rite# b.t in */ite of t-i* *-e *eem* to -a&e fe$t t-at -er be$o&e' fat-er
'e&ote' far too $itt$e time an' attention to -er. %er waitin, for me to *ay @It i* not tr.e1
wa* 'eri&e' a* fo$$ow*: A $itt$e tai$or1* a//rentice -a' bro.,-t -er a 're**# an' *-e -a'
,i&en -im t-e money for it. T-en *-e a*ke' -er -.*ban' w-et-er *-e wo.$' -a&e to /ay
t-e money a,ain if t-e boy were to $o*e it. To tea*e -er# -er -.*ban' an*were' @He*1 3t-e
teasin' in t-e 'ream4# an' *-e a*ke' a,ain an' a,ain# an' "aited for him to sa$ )It is not
true.1 T-e t-o.,-t of t-e $atent 'ream5content may now be con*tr.e' a* fo$$ow*: +i$$ *-e
-a&e to /ay me 'o.b$e t-e amo.nt w-en I 'e&ote twice a* m.c- time to -erI 55 a t-o.,-t
w-ic- i* *tin,y or filth$ 3t-e .nc$ean$ine** of c-i$'-oo' i* often re/$ace' in 'ream* by
,ree' for money< t-e wor' @fi$t-y1 -ere *.//$ie* t-e bri',e4. If a$$ t-e /a**a,e referrin, to
-er waitin, .nti$ I *ay @It i* not tr.e1 i* inten'e' in t-e 'ream a* a circ.m$oc.tion for t-e
wor' @'irty1# the standin'4in4the4corner and not l$in'4do"n4on4the4%ed are in kee/in,
wit- t-i* wor$'# a* com/onent /art* of a *cene of -er c-i$'-oo' in w-ic- *-e -a' *oi$e'
-er be'# in /.ni*-ment for w-ic- she "as put into the corner# wit- a warnin, t-at /a/a
wo.$' not $o&e -er any more# w-ere./on -er brot-er* an' *i*ter* $a.,-e' at -er# etc. T-e
$itt$e *;.are* refer to -er yo.n, niece# w-o *-owe' -er t-e arit-metica$ trick of writin,
fi,.re* in nine *;.are* 3I t-ink4 in *.c- a way t-at on bein, a''e' to,et-er in any
'irection t-ey make fifteen.
Dream 2
%ere i* a man1* 'ream: Be sees t"o %o$s tusslin' "ith each other6 the$ are cooper+s %o$s,
as he concludes from the tools "hich are l$in' a%out6 one of the %o$s has thro"n the
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other do"n6 the prostrate %o$ is "earin' earrin's "ith %lue stones5 Be runs to"ards the
assailant "ith lifted cane, in order to chastise him5 The %o$ ta(es refu'e %ehind a "oman,
as thou'h she "ere his mother, "ho is standin' a'ainst a "ooden fence5 3he is the "ife of
a da$4la%ourer, and she turns her %ac( to the man "ho is dreamin'5 Finall$ she turns
a%out and stares at him "ith a horri%le loo(, so that he runs a"a$ in terror6 the red flesh
of the lo"er lid seems to stand out from her e$es.
T-i* 'ream -a* ma'e ab.n'ant .*e of tri&ia$ occ.rrence* from t-e /re&io.* 'ay# in t-e
co.r*e of w-ic- -e act.a$$y *aw two boy* in t-e *treet# one of w-om t-rew t-e ot-er
'own. +-en -e wa$ke' ./ to t-em in or'er to *ett$e t-e ;.arre$# bot- of t-em took to
t-eir -ee$*. (oo/er1* boy* 55 t-i* i* e=/$aine' on$y by a *.b*e;.ent 'ream# in t-e ana$y*i*
of w-ic- -e .*e' t-e /ro&erbia$ e=/re**ion: @To (noc( the %ottom out of the %arrel.1
Earrin,*
wit- b$.e *tone*# accor'in, to -i* ob*er&ation# are worn c-ief$y by prostitutes. T-i*
*.,,e*t* a fami$iar 'o,,ere$ r-yme abo.t two boy*: @T-e ot-er boy wa* ca$$e' Marie1:
t-at i*# -e wa* a ,ir$. T-e woman *tan'in, by t-e fence: after t-e *cene wit- t-e two boy*
-e went for a wa$k a$on, t-e bank of t-e Dan.be an'# takin, a'&anta,e of bein, a$one#
.rinate' a'ainst a "ooden fence. A $itt$e fart-er on a re*/ectab$y 're**e'# e$'er$y $a'y
*mi$e' at -im &ery /$ea*ant$y# an' wante' to -an' -im -er car' wit- -er a''re**.
Since# in t-e 'ream# t-e woman *too' a* -e -a' *too' w-i$e .rinatin,# t-ere i* an a$$.*ion
to a woman .rinatin,# an' t-i* e=/$ain* t-e @-orrib$e $ook1 an' t-e /rominence of t-e re'
f$e*-# w-ic- can on$y refer to t-e ,enita$* ,a/in, in a *;.attin, /o*t.re< *een in
c-i$'-oo'# t-ey -a' a//eare' in $ater reco$$ection a* @proud flesh1# a* a @"ound1. T-e
'ream .nite* two occa*ion* ./on w-ic-# a* a $itt$e boy# t-e 'reamer wa* enab$e' to *ee
t-e ,enita$* of $itt$e ,ir$*# once by t-rowin, t-e $itt$e ,ir$ 'own# an' once w-i$e t-e c-i$'
wa* urinatin'< an'# a* i* *-own by anot-er a**ociation# -e -a' retaine' in -i* memory t-e
/.ni*-ment a'mini*tere' or t-reatene' by -i* fat-er on acco.nt of t-e*e manife*tation* of
*e=.a$ c.rio*ity.
Dream 7
A ,reat ma** of c-i$'i*- memorie*# w-ic- -a&e been -a*ti$y combine' into a fanta*y#
may be fo.n' be-in' t-e fo$$owin, 'ream of an e$'er$y $a'y: 3he 'oes out in a hurr$ to
do some shoppin'5 8n the Gra%enM she sin(s to her (nees as thou'h she had %ro(en
do"n5 ! num%er of people collect around her, especiall$ ca%4drivers, %ut no one helps
her to 'et up5 3he ma(es man$ vain attempts6 finall$ she must have succeeded, for she is
put into a ca% "hich is to ta(e her home5 ! lar'e, heavil$ laden %as(et 9somethin' li(e a
mar(et4%as(et: is thro"n after her throu'h the "indo".
T-i* i* t-e woman w-o i* a$way* -ara**e' in -er 'ream*# 6.*t a* *-e .*e' to be -ara**e'
w-en a c-i$'. T-e fir*t *it.ation of t-e 'ream i* a//arent$y taken from t-e *i,-t of a fa$$en
-or*e# 6.*t a* @broken 'own1 /oint* to -or*e5racin,. In -er yo.t- *-e wa* a ri'er< *ti$$
ear$ier *-e wa* /robab$y a$*o a horse. +it- t-e i'ea of fa$$in, 'own i* connecte' -er fir*t
c-i$'i*- remini*cence of t-e *e&enteen5year5o$' *on of t-e -a$$ /orter# w-o -a' an
e/i$e/tic *eiC.re in t-e *treet an' wa* bro.,-t -ome in a cab. Of t-i*# of co.r*e# *-e -a'
on$y -ear'# b.t t-e i'ea of e/i$e/tic fit*# of fallin' do"n# ac;.ire' a ,reat inf$.ence o&er
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-er fanta*ie*# an' $ater on inf$.ence' t-e form of -er own -y*terica$ attack*. +-en a
/er*on of t-e fema$e *e= 'ream* of fa$$in,# t-i* a$mo*t a$way* -a* a *e=.a$ *i,nificance<
*-e become* a @fallen "oman1# an'# for t-e /.r/o*e of t-e 'ream .n'er con*i'eration# t-i*
inter/retation i* /robab$y t-e $ea*t 'o.btf.$# for *-e fa$$* in t-e Graben# t-e *treet in
Kienna w-ic- i* known a* t-e conco.r*e of /ro*tit.te*. T-e mar(et4%as(et a'mit* of
more t-an one inter/retation< in t-e *en*e of ref.*a$ 3German# Eor% M ba*ket M *n.b#
ref.*a$4 it remin'* -er of t-e many *n.b* w-ic- *-e at fir*t a'mini*tere' to -er *.itor*
an' w-ic-# *-e t-ink*# *-e -er*e$f recei&e' $ater. T-i* a,ree* wit- t-e 'etai$: no one "ill
help her up# w-ic- *-e -er*e$f inter/ret* a* @bein, 'i*'aine'1. F.rt-er# t-e mar(et4%as(et
reca$$* fanta*ie* w-ic- -a&e a$rea'y a//eare' in t-e co.r*e of ana$y*i*# in w-ic- *-e
ima,ine* t-at *-e -a* marrie' far beneat- -er *tation an' now ,oe* to t-e market a* a
market5woman. ?a*t$y# t-e market5ba*ket mi,-t be inter/rete' a* t-e mark of a servant.
T-i* *.,,e*t* f.rt-er memorie* of -er c-i$'-oo' 55 of a coo( w-o wa* 'i*c-ar,e'
beca.*e *-e *to$e< *-e# too# san( to her (nees an' be,,e' for mercy. T-e 'reamer wa* at
t-at time twe$&e year* of a,e. T-en emer,e* a reco$$ection of a c-ambermai'# w-o wa*
'i*mi**e' beca.*e *-e -a' an affair wit- t-e coac-man of t-e -o.*e-o$'# w-o#
inci'enta$$y# marrie' -er afterwar'*. T-i* reco$$ection# t-erefore# ,i&e* .* a c$.e to t-e
cab5'ri&er* in t-e 'ream 3w-o# in o//o*ition to t-e rea$ity# 'o not *tan' by t-e fa$$en
woman4. 0.t t-ere *ti$$ remain* to be e=/$aine' t-e t-rowin, of t-e ba*ket< in /artic.$ar#
w-y i* it t-rown throu'h the "indo"I T-i* remin'* -er of t-e forwar'in, of $.,,a,e by
rai$# to t-e c.*tom of FensterlnD in t-e co.ntry# an' to tri&ia$ im/re**ion* of a *.mmer
re*ort# of a ,ent$eman w-o t-rew *ome b$.e /$.m* into t-e win'ow of a $a'y1* room# an'
of -er $itt$e *i*ter# w-o wa* fri,-tene' beca.*e an i'iot w-o wa* /a**in, $ooke' in at t-e
win'ow. An' now# from be-in' a$$ t-i* emer,e* an ob*c.re reco$$ection from -er tent-
year of a n.r*e in t-e co.ntry to w-om one of t-e men*er&ant* ma'e $o&e 3an' w-o*e
con'.ct t-e c-i$' may -a&e notice'4# an' w-o wa* @*ent /ackin,1# @t-rown o.t1# to,et-er
wit- -er $o&er 3in t-e 'ream we -a&e t-e e=/re**ion @t-rown into14< an inci'ent w-ic- we
-a&e been a//roac-in, by *e&era$ ot-er /at-*. T-e $.,,a,e or bo= of a *er&ant i*
'i*/ara,in,$y 'e*cribe' in Kienna a* @*e&en /$.m*1. @Pack ./ yo.r *e&en /$.m* an' ,et
o.tA1
My co$$ection# of co.r*e# contain* a /$et-ora of *.c- /atient*1 'ream*# t-e ana$y*i* of
w-ic- $ea'* back to im/re**ion* of c-i$'-oo'# often 'atin, back to t-e fir*t t-ree year* of
$ife# w-ic- are remembere' ob*c.re$y# or not at a$$. 0.t it i* a ;.e*tionab$e /rocee'in, to
'raw conc$.*ion* from t-e*e an' a//$y t-em to 'ream* in ,enera$# for t-ey are mo*t$y
'ream* of ne.rotic# an' e*/ecia$$y -y*terica$# /er*on*< an' t-e /art /$aye' in t-e*e
'ream* by c-i$'i*- *cene* mi,-t be con'itione' by t-e nat.re of t-e ne.ro*i*# an' not by
t-e nat.re of 'ream* in ,enera$. In t-e inter/retation of my own 'ream*# -owe&er# w-ic-
i* a**.re'$y not .n'ertaken on acco.nt of ,ra&e *ym/tom* of i$$ne**# it -a//en* 6.*t a*
fre;.ent$y t-at in t-e $atent 'ream5content I am .ne=/ecte'$y confronte' wit- a *cene of
my c-i$'-oo'# an' t-at a w-o$e *erie* of my 'ream* wi$$ *.''en$y con&er,e ./on t-e
/at-* /rocee'in, from a *in,$e c-i$'i*- e=/erience. I -a&e a$rea'y ,i&en e=am/$e* of
t-i*# an' I *-a$$ ,i&e yet more in 'ifferent connection*. Per-a/* I cannot c$o*e t-i* c-a/ter
more fittin,$y t-an by citin, *e&era$ 'ream* of my own# in w-ic- recent e&ent* an'
$on,for,otten
e=/erience* of my c-i$'-oo' a//ear to,et-er a* 'ream5*o.rce*.
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I. After I -a&e been tra&e$$in,# an' -a&e ,one to be' -.n,ry an' tire'# t-e /rime
nece**itie* of $ife be,in to a**ert t-eir c$aim* in *$ee/# an' I 'ream a* fo$$ow*: I 'o into a
(itchen in order to as( for some puddin'5 There three "omen are standin', one of "hom
is the hostess6 she is rollin' somethin' in her hands, as thou'h she "ere ma(in'
dumplin's5 3he replies that I must "ait until she has finished 3not 'i*tinct$y a* a */eec-4.
I %ecome impatient, and 'o a"a$ affronted5 I "ant to put on an overcoat6 %ut the first I
tr$ on is too lon'5 I ta(e it off, and am some"hat astonished to find that it is trimmed "ith
fur5 ! second coat has a lon' strip of cloth "ith a Tur(ish desi'n se"n into it5 ! stran'er
"ith a lon' face and a short, pointed %eard comes up and prevents me from puttin' it on,
declarin' that it %elon's to him5 I no" sho" him that it is covered all over "ith Tur(ish
em%roideries5 Be as(s: )Bo" do the Tur(ish 9dra"in's, strips of cloth 5 5 5: concern $ouA+
<ut "e soon %ecome 0uite friendl$.
In t-e ana$y*i* of t-i* 'ream I remember# ;.ite .ne=/ecte'$y# t-e fir*t no&e$ w-ic- I e&er
rea'# or rat-er# w-ic- I be,an to rea' from t-e en' of t-e fir*t &o$.me# w-en I wa*
/er-a/* t-irteen year* of a,e. I -a&e ne&er $earne' t-e name of t-e no&e$# or t-at of it*
a.t-or# b.t t-e en' remain* &i&i'$y in my memory. T-e -ero become* in*ane# an'
contin.a$$y ca$$* o.t t-e name* of t-e t-ree women w-o -a&e bro.,-t t-e ,reate*t
-a//ine** an' t-e ,reate*t mi*fort.ne into -i* $ife. PN$a,ie i* one of t-e*e name*. I *ti$$ 'o
not know w-at to make of t-i* reco$$ection '.rin, t-e ana$y*i*. To,et-er wit- t-e t-ree
women t-ere now emer,e t-e t-ree Parcae# w-o */in t-e fate* of men# an' I know t-at
one of t-e t-ree women# t-e -o*te** in t-e 'ream# i* t-e mot-er w-o ,i&e* $ife an' w-o#
moreo&er# a* in my own ca*e# ,i&e* t-e c-i$' it* fir*t no.ri*-ment. ?o&e an' -.n,er meet
at t-e mot-er1* brea*t. A yo.n, man 55 *o r.n* an anec'ote 55 w-o became a ,reat a'mirer
of woman$y bea.ty# once ob*er&e'# w-en t-e con&er*ation t.rne' ./on t-e -an'*ome
wet5n.r*e w-o -a' *.ck$e' -im a* a c-i$'# t-at -e wa* *orry t-at -e -a' not taken better
a'&anta,e of -i* o//ort.nitie*. I am in t-e -abit of .*in, t-e anec'ote to e$.ci'ate t-e
factor of retro*/ecti&e ten'encie* in t-e mec-ani*m of t-e /*yc-one.ro*e*. 55 One of t-e
Parcae# t-en# i* r.bbin, t-e /a$m* of -er -an'* to,et-er# a* t-o.,- *-e were makin,
'.m/$in,*. A *tran,e occ./ation for one of t-e Fate*# an' .r,ent$y in nee' of
e=/$anationA T-i* e=/$anation i* f.rni*-e' by anot-er an' ear$ier memory of my
c-i$'-oo'. +-en I wa* *i= year* o$'# an' recei&in, my fir*t $e**on* from my mot-er# I
wa* e=/ecte' to be$ie&e t-at we are ma'e of '.*t# an' m.*t# t-erefore# ret.rn to '.*t. 0.t
t-i* 'i' not /$ea*e me# an' I ;.e*tione' t-e 'octrine. T-ere./on my mot-er r.bbe' t-e
/a$m* of -er -an'* to,et-er 55 6.*t a* in makin, '.m/$in,*# e=ce/t t-at t-ere wa* no
'o.,- between t-em 55 an' *-owe' me t-e b$acki*- *ca$e* of e/i'ermi* w-ic- were t-.*
r.bbe' off# a* a /roof t-at it i* of '.*t t-at we are ma'e. Great wa* my a*toni*-ment at
t-i* 'emon*tration ad oculos# an' I ac;.ie*ce' in t-e i'ea w-ic- I wa* $ater to -ear
e=/re**e' in t-e wor'*: @T-o. owe*t nat.re a 'eat-.1! T-.* t-e women to w-om I ,o in
t-e kitc-en# a* I *o often 'i' in my c-i$'-oo' w-en I wa* -.n,ry an' my mot-er# *ittin,
by t-e fire# a'moni*-e' me to wait .nti$ $.nc- wa* rea'y# are rea$$y t-e Parcae. An' now
for t-e '.m/$in,*A At $ea*t one of my teac-er* at t-e )ni&er*ity 55 t-e &ery one to w-om I
am in'ebte' for my histolo'ical know$e',e 3e/i'ermi*4 55 wo.$' be remin'e' by t-e
name EnLdl 3EnLdl mean* '.m/$in,4# of a /er*on w-om -e -a' to /ro*ec.te for
pla'iarisin' -i* writin,*. (ommittin, a /$a,iari*m# takin, anyt-in, one can $ay -an'* on#
e&en t-o.,- it be$on,* to anot-er# ob&io.*$y $ea'* to t-e *econ' /art of t-e 'ream# in
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w-ic- I am treate' $ike t-e overcoat thief w-o for *ome time /$ie' -i* tra'e in t-e
$ect.re-a$$*.
I -a&e written t-e wor' pla'iarism 55 wit-o.t 'efinite intention 55 beca.*e it
occ.rre' to me# an' now I *ee t-at it m.*t be$on, to t-e $atent 'ream5content an' t-at it
wi$$ *er&e a* a bri',e between t-e 'ifferent /art* of t-e manife*t 'ream5content. T-e
c-ain of a**ociation* 55 2,la'ie44pla'iarism44pla'iostomi1" 9shar(s:44fish4%ladder 55
connect* t-e o$' no&e$ wit- t-e affair of FnG'$ an' t-e o&ercoat* 3German: N%er?ieher M
/.$$o&er# o&ercoat or con'om4# w-ic- ob&io.*$y refer to an a//$iance a//ertainin, to t-e
tec-ni;.e of *e=. T-i*# it i* tr.e# i* a &ery force' an' irrationa$ connection# b.t it i*
ne&ert-e$e** one w-ic- I co.$' not -a&e e*tab$i*-e' in wakin, $ife if it -a' not a$rea'y
been e*tab$i*-e' by t-e 'ream5work. In'ee'# a* t-o.,- not-in, were *acre' to t-i*
im/.$*e to enforce a**ociation*# t-e be$o&e' name# <rDc(e 3bri',e of wor'*# *ee abo&e4#
now *er&e* to remin' me of t-e &ery in*tit.te in w-ic- I */ent my -a//ie*t -o.r* a* a
*t.'ent# wantin, for not-in,. @So wi$$ yo. at t-e %reasts of +i*'om e&ery 'ay more
/$ea*.re fin'14# in t-e mo*t com/$ete contra*t to t-e 'e*ire* w-ic- /$a,.e me 3German:
pla'en4 w-i$e I 'ream. An' fina$$y# t-ere emer,e* t-e reco$$ection of anot-er 'ear
teac-er# w-o*e name once more *o.n'* $ike *omet-in, e'ib$e 3Fleischl 44 Fleisch M meat
55 $ike EnLdl M '.m/$in,*4# an' of a /at-etic *cene in w-ic- t-e *ca$e* of e/i'ermi* /$ay
a /art 3mot-er55-o*te**4# an' menta$ 'eran,ement 3t-e no&e$4# an' a reme'y from t-e
?atin /-armaco/eia 3EDche M kitc-en4 w-ic- n.mb* t-e *en*ation of hun'er# name$y#
cocaine.
In t-i* manner I co.$' fo$$ow t-e intricate train* of t-o.,-t *ti$$ fart-er# an' co.$' f.$$y
e$.ci'ate t-at /art of t-e 'ream w-ic- i* $ackin, in t-e ana$y*i*< b.t I m.*t refrain#
beca.*e t-e /er*ona$ *acrifice w-ic- t-i* wo.$' in&o$&e i* too ,reat. I *-a$$ take ./ on$y
one of t-e t-rea'*# w-ic- wi$$ *er&e to $ea' .* 'irect$y to one of t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* t-at
$ie at t-e bottom of t-e me'$ey. T-e *tran,er wit- t-e $on, face an' /ointe' bear'# w-o
want* to /re&ent me from /.ttin, on t-e o&ercoat# -a* t-e feat.re* of a tra'e*man of
S/a$ato# of w-om my wife bo.,-t a ,reat 'ea$ of Tur(ish c$ot-. %i* name wa* 2opovic# a
*.*/icio.* name# w-ic- e&en ,a&e t-e -.mori*t Stetten-eim a /rete=t for a *.,,e*ti&e
remark: @%e to$' me -i* name# an' b$.*-in,$y *-ook my -an'.111 For t-e re*t# I fin' t-e
*ame mi*.*e of name* a* abo&e in t-e ca*e of 2,la'ie, EnLdl, <rDc(e, Fleischl. No one
wi$$ 'eny t-at *.c- /$ayin, wit- name* i* a c-i$'i*- trick< if I in'.$,e in it t-e /ractice
amo.nt* to an act of retrib.tion# for my own name -a* often eno.,- been t-e *.b6ect of
*.c- feeb$e attem/t* at wit. Goet-e once remarke' -ow *en*iti&e a man i* in re*/ect to
-i* name# w-ic- -e fee$* t-at -e fi$$* e&en a* -e fi$$* -i* *kin< %er'er -a&in, written t-e
fo$$owin, $ine* on -i* name:
Der du von GLttern a%stammst, von Gothen oder vom Eote
3o seid ihr GLtter%ilder auch ?u 3tau%.
Thou who art born of the gods, of the Goths,
or of the mud.
Thus are thy god-like images even dust.
I rea$i*e t-at t-i* 'i,re**ion on t-e mi*.*e of name* wa* inten'e' mere$y to 6.*tify t-i*
com/$aint. 0.t -ere $et .* *to/ . . . T-e /.rc-a*e at S/a$ato remin'* me of anot-er
/.rc-a*e at (attaro# w-ere I wa* too ca.tio.*# an' mi**e' t-e o//ort.nity of makin, an
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e=ce$$ent bar,ain. 3Mi**in, an o//ort.nity at t-e brea*t of t-e wet5n.r*e< *ee abo&e.4 One
of t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* occa*ione' by t-e *en*ation of -.n,er rea$$y amo.nt* to t-i*: +e
*-o.$' $et not-in, e*ca/e< we *-o.$' take w-at we can ,et# e&en if we 'o a $itt$e wron,<
we *-o.$' ne&er $et an o//ort.nity ,o by< $ife i* *o *-ort# an' 'eat- ine&itab$e. 0eca.*e
t-i* i* meant e&en *e=.a$$y# an' beca.*e 'e*ire i* .nwi$$in, to c-eck it*e$f before t-e
t-o.,-t of 'oin, wron,# t-i* /-i$o*o/-y of carpe diem -a* rea*on to fear t-e cen*or*-i/#
an' m.*t concea$ it*e$f be-in' a 'ream. An' *o a$$ *ort* of co.nter5t-o.,-t* fin'
e=/re**ion# wit- reco$$ection* of t-e time w-en spiritual nourishment a$one wa*
*.fficient for t-e 'reamer# wit- -in'rance* of e&ery kin' an' e&en t-reat* of 'i*,.*tin,
*e=.a$ /.ni*-ment*.
II. A *econ' 'ream re;.ire* a $on,er /re$iminary *tatement:
I -a' 'ri&en to t-e +e*tern Station in or'er to *tart on a -o$i'ay tri/ to t-e A.**ee# b.t I
went on to t-e /$atform in time for t-e I*c-$ train# w-ic- $ea&e* ear$ier. T-ere I *aw
(o.nt T-.n# w-o wa* a,ain ,oin, to *ee t-e Em/eror at I*c-$. In */ite of t-e rain -e
arri&e' in an o/en carria,e# came *trai,-t t-ro.,- t-e entrance5,ate for t-e $oca$ train*#
an' wit- a c.rt ,e*t.re an' not a wor' of e=/$anation -e wa&e' back t-e ,atekee/er# w-o
'i' not know -im an' wante' to take -i* ticket. After -e -a' $eft in t-e I*c-$ train# I wa*
a*ke' to $ea&e t-e /$atform an' ret.rn to t-e waitin,5room< b.t after *ome 'iffic.$ty I
obtaine' /ermi**ion to remain. I /a**e' t-e time notin, -ow many /eo/$e bribe' t-e
officia$* to *ec.re a com/artment< I f.$$y inten'e' to make a com/$aint 55 t-at i*# to
'eman' t-e *ame /ri&i$e,e. Meanw-i$e I *an, *omet-in, to my*e$f# w-ic- I afterwar'*
reco,ni*e' a* t-e aria from The Marria'e of Fi'aro:
If my $or' (o.nt wo.$' trea' a mea*.re# trea' a mea*.re#
?et -im b.t *ay -i* /$ea*.re#
An' I wi$$ /$ay t-e t.ne.
3Po**ib$y anot-er /er*on wo.$' not -a&e reco,ni*e' t-e t.ne.4
T-e w-o$e e&enin, I wa* in a -i,-5*/irite'# /.,nacio.* moo': I c-affe' t-e waiter an'
t-e cab5'ri&er# I -o/e wit-o.t -.rtin, t-eir fee$in,*< an' now a$$ kin'* of bo$' an'
re&o$.tionary t-o.,-t came into my min'# *.c- a* wo.$' fit t-em*e$&e* to t-e wor'* of
Fi,aro# an' to memorie* of 0ea.marc-ai*1 come'y# of w-ic- I -a' *een a /erformance at
t-e Com,die Fran@aise. T-e */eec- abo.t t-e ,reat men w-o -a&e taken t-e tro.b$e to be
born< t-e *ei,ne.ria$ ri,-t w-ic- (o.nt A$ma&i&a wi*-e* to e=erci*e wit- re,ar' to
S.*anne< t-e 6oke* w-ic- o.r ma$icio.* O//o*ition 6o.rna$i*t* make on t-e name of
(o.nt T-.n 3German# thun M 'o4< ca$$in, -im Graf Nic-t*t-.n# (o.nt Do5Not-in,. I
rea$$y 'o not en&y -im< -e now -a* a 'iffic.$t a.'ience wit- t-e Em/eror before -im# an'
it i* I w-o am t-e rea$ (o.nt Do5Not-in,# for I am ,oin, off for a -o$i'ay. I make a$$
*ort* of am.*in, /$an* for t-e &acation. Now a ,ent$eman arri&e* w-om I know a* a
Go&ernment re/re*entati&e at t-e me'ica$ e=amination*# an' w-o -a* won t-e f$atterin,
nickname of @t-e Go&ernmenta$ be'fe$$ow1 3$itera$$y# @by5*$ee/er14 by -i* acti&itie* in t-i*
ca/acity. 0y in*i*tin, on -i* officia$ *tat.* -e *ec.re' -a$f a fir*t5c$a** com/artment# an'
I -ear' one ,.ar' *ay to anot-er: @+-ere are we ,oin, to /.t t-e ,ent$eman wit- t-e fir*t5
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c$a** -a$f5com/artmentI1 A /retty *ort of fa&o.riti*mA I am /ayin, for a w-o$e fir*t5c$a**
com/artment. I 'i' act.a$$y ,et a w-o$e com/artment to my*e$f# b.t not in a t-ro.,-
carria,e# *o t-ere wa* no $a&atory at my 'i*/o*a$ '.rin, t-e ni,-t. My com/$aint* to t-e
,.ar' were fr.it$e**< I re&en,e' my*e$f by *.,,e*tin, t-at at $ea*t a -o$e be ma'e in t-e
f$oor of t-i* com/artment# to *er&e t-e /o**ib$e nee'* of /a**en,er*. At a ;.arter to t-ree
in t-e mornin, I wake# wit- an .r,ent 'e*ire to .rinate# from t-e fo$$owin, 'ream:
! cro"d, a students+ meetin' 5 5 5 ! certain Count 9Thun or Taaffe: is ma(in' a speech5
<ein' as(ed to sa$ somethin' a%out the Germans, he declares, "ith a contemptuous
'esture, that their favourite flo"er is coltsfoot, and he then puts into his %uttonhole
somethin' li(e a torn leaf, reall$ the crumpled s(eleton of a leaf5 I /ump up, and I /ump
up#1 %ut I am surprised at m$ implied attitude. T-en# more in'i*tinct$y: It seems as
thou'h this "ere the vesti%ule 9!ula:6 the eits are thron'ed, and one must escape5 I
ma(e m$ "a$ throu'h a suite of handsomel$ appointed rooms, evidentl$ ministerial
apartments6 "ith furniture of a colour %et"een %ro"n and violet, and at last I come to a
corridor in "hich a house(eeper, a fat, elderl$ "oman, is seated5 I tr$ to avoid spea(in'
to her, %ut she apparentl$ thin(s I have a ri'ht to pass this "a$, %ecause she as(s "hether
she shall accompan$ me "ith the lamp5 I indicate "ith a 'esture, or tell her, that she is to
remain standin' on the stairs, and it seems to me that I am ver$ clever, for after all I am
evadin' detection5 7o" I am do"nstairs, and I find a narro", steepl$ risin' path, "hich I
follo".
A,ain in'i*tinct$y: It is as thou'h m$ second tas( "ere to 'et a"a$ from the cit$, /ust as
m$ first "as to 'et out of the %uildin'5 I am ridin' in a one4horse ca%, and I tell the
driver
to ta(e me to a rail"a$ station5 )I can+t drive "ith $ou on the rail"a$ line itself,+ I sa$,
"hen he reproaches me as thou'h I had tired him out5 Bere it seems as thou'h I had
alread$ made a /ourne$ in his ca% "hich is usuall$ made %$ rail5 The stations are
cro"ded6 I am "onderin' "hether to 'o to Erems or to Inaim, %ut I reflect that the Court
"ill %e there, and I decide in favour of Gra? or some such place5 7o" I am seated in the
rail"a$ carria'e, "hich is rather li(e a tram, and I have in m$ %uttonhole a peculiar
lon'
%raided thin', on "hich are violet4%ro"n violets of stiff material, "hich ma(es a 'reat
impression on people. %ere t-e *cene break* off.
I am once more in front of the rail"a$ station, %ut I am in the compan$ of an elderl$
'entleman5 I thin( out a scheme for remainin' unreco'nised, %ut I see this plan alread$
%ein' carried out5 Thin(in' and eperiencin' are here, as it "ere, the same thin'5 Be
pretends to %e %lind, at least in one e$e, and I hold %efore him a male 'lass urinal 9"hich
"e have to %u$ in the cit$, or have %ou'ht:5 I am thus a sic(4nurse, and have to 'ive him
the urinal %ecause he is %lind5 If the conductor sees us in this position, he must pass us %$
"ithout dra"in' attention to us5 !t the same time the position of the elderl$ man, and his
urinatin' or'an, is plasticall$ perceived5 Then I "a(e "ith a desire to urinate.
T-e w-o$e 'ream *eem* a *ort of fanta*y# w-ic- take* t-e 'reamer back to t-e year of
re&o$.tion# 1D7D# t-e memory of w-ic- -a' been re&i&e' by t-e 6.bi$ee of 1D!D# a* we$$
a* by a $itt$e e=c.r*ion to +ac-a.# on w-ic- I &i*ite' &mmersdorf# t-e ref.,e of t-e
*t.'ent $ea'er Fi*c-of#12 to w-om *e&era$ feat.re* of t-e manife*t 'ream5content mi,-t
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refer. T-e a**ociation of i'ea* t-en $ea'* me to En,$an'# to t-e -o.*e of my brot-er# w-o
.*e' in 6e*t to twit -i* wife wit- t-e tit$e of Tenny*on1* /oem Fift$ Oears !'o# w-ere./on
t-e c-i$'ren were .*e' to correct -im: Fifteen Oears !'o. T-i* fanta*y# -owe&er# w-ic-
attac-e* it*e$f to t-e t-o.,-t* e&oke' by t-e *i,-t of (o.nt T-.n# i*# $ike t-e faca'e of an
Ita$ian c-.rc-# wit-o.t or,anic connection wit- t-e *tr.ct.re be-in' it# b.t .n$ike *.c- a
faca'e it i* f.$$ of ,a/*# an' conf.*e'# an' in many /$ace* /ortion* of t-e interior break
t-ro.,-. T-e fir*t *it.ation of t-e 'ream i* ma'e ./ of a n.mber of *cene*# into w-ic- I
am ab$e to 'i**ect it. T-e arro,ant attit.'e of t-e (o.nt in t-e 'ream i* co/ie' from a
*cene at my *c-oo$ w-ic- occ.rre' in my fifteent- year. +e -a' -atc-e' a con*/iracy
a,ain*t an .n/o/.$ar an' i,norant teac-er< t-e $ea'in, */irit in t-i* con*/iracy wa* a
*c-oo$mate w-o *ince t-at time *eem* to -a&e taken %enry KIII of En,$an' a* -i* mo'e$.
It fe$$ to me to carry o.t t-e coup d+,tat# an' a 'i*c.**ion of t-e im/ortance of t-e Dan.be
3German# Donau4 to A.*tria 3+ac-a.A4 wa* t-e occa*ion of an o/en re&o$t. One of o.r
fe$$ow5con*/irator* wa* o.r on$y ari*tocratic *c-oo$mate 55 -e wa* ca$$e' @t-e ,iraffe1 on
acco.nt of -i* con*/ic.o.* -ei,-t 55 an' w-i$e -e wa* bein, re/riman'e' by t-e tyrant of
t-e *c-oo$# t-e /rofe**or of t-e German $an,.a,e# -e *too' 6.*t a* t-e (o.nt *too' in t-e
'ream. T-e e=/$anation of t-e favourite f$ower# an' t-e /.ttin, into a b.tton-o$e of
*omet-in, t-at m.*t -a&e been a f$ower 3w-ic- reca$$* t-e orc-i'* w-ic- I -a' ,i&en t-at
'ay to a frien'# an' a$*o a ro*e of >eric-o4 /rominent$y reca$$* t-e inci'ent in
S-ake*/eare1* -i*torica$ /$ay w-ic- o/en* t-e ci&i$ war* of t-e Ged an' t-e ;hite Ro*e*<
t-e mention of %enry KIII -a* /a&e' t-e way to t-i* remini*cence. Now it i* not &ery far
from ro*e* to re' an' w-ite carnation*. 3Meanw-i$e two $itt$e r-yme*# t-e one German#
t-e ot-er S/ani*-# in*in.ate t-em*e$&e* into t-e ana$y*i*: Gosen, Tulpen, 7el(en, alle
<lumen "el(en# an' Isa%elita, no llores, 0ue se marchitan las flores. T-e S/ani*- $ine
occ.r* in Fi'aro.4 %ere in Kienna w-ite carnation* -a&e become t-e ba',e of t-e anti4
3emites# re' one* of t-e 3ocial Democrats. 0e-in' t-i* i* t-e reco$$ection of an anti5
Semitic c-a$$en,e '.rin, a rai$way 6o.rney in bea.tif.$ Sa=ony 3An,$o5Sa=on4. T-e t-ir'
*cene contrib.tin, to t-e formation of t-e fir*t *it.ation in t-e 'ream 'ate* from my ear$y
*t.'ent 'ay*. T-ere wa* a 'ebate in a German *t.'ent*1 c$.b abo.t t-e re$ation of
/-i$o*o/-y to t-e ,enera$ *cience*. 0ein, a ,reen yo.t-# f.$$ of materia$i*tic 'octrine*# I
t-r.*t my*e$f forwar' in or'er to 'efen' an e=treme$y one5*i'e' /o*ition. T-ere./on a
*a,acio.* o$'er fe$$ow5*t.'ent# w-o -a* *ince t-en *-own -i* ca/acity for $ea'in, men
an' or,ani*in, t-e ma**e*# an' w-o# moreo&er# bear* a name be$on,in, to t-e anima$
kin,'om# ro*e an' ,a&e .* a t-oro.,- 're**in,5'own< -e too# -e *ai'# -a' -er'e' *wine
in -i* yo.t-# an' -a' t-en ret.rne' re/entant to -i* fat-er1* -o.*e. I /umped up 3a* in t-e
'ream4# became pi''ishl$ rude# an' retorte' t-at *ince I knew -e -a' -er'e' s"ine# I "as
not surprised at t-e tone of -i* 'i*co.r*e. 3In t-e 'ream I am surprised at my German
Nationa$i*tic fee$in,*.4 T-ere wa* a ,reat commotion# an' an a$mo*t ,enera$ 'eman' t-at
I *-o.$' retract my wor'*# b.t I *too' my ,ro.n'. T-e in*.$te' *t.'ent wa* too *en*ib$e
to take t-e a'&ice w-ic- wa* offere' -im# t-at -e *-o.$' *en' me a challen'e# an' $et t-e
matter 'ro/.
T-e remainin, e$ement* of t-i* *cene of t-e 'ream are of more remote ori,in. +-at 'oe*
it mean t-at t-e (o.nt *-o.$' make a *cornf.$ reference to co$t*footI %ere I m.*t
;.e*tion my train of a**ociation*. (o$t*foot 3German: Buflattich4# Lattice 3$ett.ce4#
3alathund 3t-e 'o, t-at ,r.',e* ot-er* w-at -e cannot eat -im*e$f4. %ere /$enty of
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o//robrio.* e/it-et* may be 'i*cerne': Gir4affe 3German: !ffe M monkey# a/e4# pi', so",
do'< I mi,-t e&en arri&e# by way of t-e name# at don(e$# an' t-ereby /o.r contem/t ./on
an aca'emic /rofe**or. F.rt-ermore# I tran*$ate co$t*foot 3Buflattich4 55 I 'o not know
w-et-er I 'o *o correct$y 55 by pisseen4lit. I ,et t-i* i'ea from Po$a1* Germinal# in w-ic-
*ome c-i$'ren are to$' to brin, *ome 'an'e$ion *a$a' wit- t-em. T-e 'o, 55 chien 55 -a* a
name *o.n'in, not .n$ike t-e &erb for t-e ma6or f.nction 3chien# a* pisser *tan'* for t-e
minor one4. Now we *-a$$ *oon -a&e t-e in'ecent in a$$ it* t-ree /-y*ica$ cate,orie*# for
in t-e *ame Germinal# w-ic- 'ea$* wit- t-e f.t.re re&o$.tion# t-ere i* a 'e*cri/tion of a
&ery /ec.$iar conte*t# w-ic- re$ate* to t-e /ro'.ction of t-e ,a*eo.* e=cretion* known a*
flatus.17 An' now I cannot b.t ob*er&e -ow t-e way to t-i* flatus -a* been /re/are' a
$on, w-i$e *ince# be,innin, wit- t-e flo"ers# an' /rocee'in, to t-e S/ani*- r-yme of
Isa%elita# to Ferdinand an' Isa%ella# an'# by way of %enry KIII# to En,$i*- -i*tory at t-e
time of t-e Arma'a# after t-e &ictorio.* termination of w-ic- t-e En,$i*- *tr.ck a me'a$
wit- t-e in*cri/tion: Flavit et dissipati sunt# for t-e *torm -a' *cattere' t-e S/ani*-
f$eet.18 I -a' t-o.,-t of .*in, t-i* /-ra*e# -a$f 6e*tin,$y# a* t-e tit$e of a c-a/ter on
@T-era/y1# if I *-o.$' e&er *.ccee' in ,i&in, a 'etai$e' acco.nt of my conce/tion an'
treatment of -y*teria.
I cannot ,i&e *o 'etai$e' an inter/retation of t-e *econ' *cene of t-e 'ream# o.t of *-eer
re,ar' for t-e cen*or*-i/. For at t-i* /oint I /.t my*e$f in t-e /$ace of a certain eminent
,ent$eman of t-e re&o$.tionary /erio'# w-o -a' an a'&ent.re wit- an ea,$e 3German:
!dler4 an' w-o i* *ai' to -a&e *.ffere' from incontinence of t-e bowe$*# incontinentia
alvi# etc.< an' -ere I be$ie&e t-at I should not %e /ustified in /a**in, t-e cen*or*-i/# e&en
t-o.,- it wa* an aulic co.nci$$or 3aula, consiliarius aulicus4 w-o to$' me t-e ,reater /art
of t-i* -i*tory. T-e *.ite of room* in t-e 'ream i* *.,,e*te' by -i* E=ce$$ency1* /ri&ate
*a$oon carria,e# into w-ic- I wa* ab$e to ,$ance< b.t it mean*# a* it *o often 'oe* in
'ream*# a woman 3Frauen?immer: German Iimmer 55 room# i* a//en'e' to Frauen 55
woman# in or'er to im/$y a *$i,-t contem/t4.19 T-e /er*ona$ity of t-e -o.*ekee/er i* an
.n,ratef.$ a$$.*ion to a witty o$' $a'y# w-ic- i$$ re/ay* -er for t-e ,oo' time* an' t-e
many ,oo' *torie* w-ic- I -a&e en6oye' in -er -o.*e. T-e inci'ent of t-e $am/ ,oe* back
to Grillpar?er# w-o note* a c-armin, e=/erience of a *imi$ar nat.re# of w-ic- -e
afterwar'* ma'e .*e in Bero and Leander 3t-e "aves of t-e sea an' of $o&e 55 t-e
Arma'a an' t-e storm4.
I m.*t fore,o a 'etai$e' ana$y*i* of t-e two remainin, /ortion* of t-e 'ream< I *-a$$
*in,$e o.t on$y t-o*e e$ement* w-ic- $ea' me back to t-e two *cene* of my c-i$'-oo' for
t-e *ake of w-ic- a$one I -a&e *e$ecte' t-e 'ream. T-e rea'er wi$$ ri,-t$y a**.me t-at it
i* *e=.a$ materia$ w-ic- nece**itate* t-e *.//re**ion< b.t -e may not be content wit- t-i*
e=/$anation. T-ere are many t-in,* of w-ic- one make* no *ecret to one*e$f# b.t w-ic-
m.*t be treate' a* *ecret* in a''re**in, ot-er*# an' -ere we are concerne' not wit- t-e
rea*on* w-ic- in'.ce me to concea$ t-e *o$.tion# b.t wit- t-e moti&e of t-e inner
cen*or*-i/ w-ic- concea$* t-e rea$ content of t-e 'ream e&en from my*e$f. (oncernin,
t-i*# I wi$$ confe** t-at t-e ana$y*i* re&ea$* t-e*e t-ree /ortion* of t-e 'ream a*
im/ertinent boa*tin,# t-e e=.berance of an ab*.r' me,a$omania# $on, a,o *.//re**e' in
my wakin, $ife# w-ic-# -owe&er# 'are* to *-ow it*e$f# wit- in'i&i'.a$ ramification*# e&en
in t-e manife*t 'ream5content 3it seems to me that I am a cunnin' fello"4# makin, t-e
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-i,-5*/irite' moo' of t-e e&enin, before t-e 'ream /erfect$y inte$$i,ib$e. 0oa*tin, of
e&ery kin'# in'ee'< t-.*# t-e mention of GraC /oint* to t-e /-ra*e: @+-at /rice GraCI1
w-ic- one i* wont to .*e w-en one fee$* .n.*.a$$y wea$t-y. Rea'er* w-o reca$$ Ma*ter
Rabe$ai*1* inimitab$e 'e*cri/tion of t-e $ife an' 'ee'* of Gar,ant.a an' -i* *on
Panta,r.e$ wi$$ be ab$e to enro$ e&en t-e *.,,e*te' content of t-e fir*t /ortion of t-e
'ream amon, t-e boa*t* to w-ic- I -a&e a$$.'e'. 0.t t-e fo$$owin, be$on,* to t-e two
*cene* of c-i$'-oo' of w-ic- I -a&e */oken: I -a' bo.,-t a ne" tr.nk for t-i* 6o.rney#
t-e co$o.r of w-ic-# a %ro"nish violet# a//ear* in t-e 'ream *e&era$ time* 3&io$et5brown
&io$et* of a *tiff c$ot-# on an ob6ect w-ic- i* known a* a @,ir$5catc-er1 55 t-e f.rnit.re in
t-e mini*teria$ c-amber*4. (-i$'ren# we know# be$ie&e t-at one attracts people+s attention
"ith an$thin' ne". Now I -a&e been to$' of t-e fo$$owin, inci'ent of my c-i$'-oo'< my
reco$$ection of t-e occ.rrence it*e$f -a* been re/$ace' by my reco$$ection of t-e *tory. I
am to$' t-at at t-e a,e of two I *ti$$ .*e' occa*iona$$y to wet my be'# an' t-at w-en I wa*
re/ro&e' for 'oin, *o I consoled my fat-er by /romi*in, to b.y -im a bea.tif.$ ne" red
be' in N. 3t-e neare*t $ar,e town4. %ence# t-e inter/o$ation in t-e 'ream# t-at we had
%ou'ht the urinal in the cit$ or had to %u$ it< one m.*t kee/ one1* /romi*e*. 3One *-o.$'
note# moreo&er# t-e a**ociation of t-e ma$e .rina$ an' t-e woman1* tr.nk# %o.4 A$$ t-e
me,a$omania of t-e c-i$' i* containe' in t-i* /romi*e. T-e *i,nificance of 'ream* of
.rinary 'iffic.$tie* in t-e ca*e of c-i$'ren -a* a$rea'y been con*i'ere' in t-e
inter/retation of an ear$ier 'ream 3cf. t-e 'ream on /.:2 ff.4. T-e /*yc-oana$y*i* of
ne.rotic* -a* ta.,-t .* to reco,ni*e t-e intimate connection between wettin, t-e be' an'
t-e c-aracter trait of ambition.
T-en# w-en I wa* *e&en or ei,-t year* of a,e anot-er 'ome*tic inci'ent occ.rre' w-ic- I
remember &ery we$$. One e&enin,# before ,oin, to be'# I -a' 'i*re,ar'e' t-e 'ictate* of
'i*cretion# an' -a' *ati*fie' my nee'* in my /arent*1 be'room# an' in t-eir /re*ence.
Re/riman'in, me for t-i* 'e$in;.ency# my fat-er remarke': @T-at boy wi$$ ne&er amo.nt
to anyt-in,.1 T-i* m.*t -a&e been a terrib$e affront to my ambition# for a$$.*ion* to t-i*
*cene rec.r a,ain an' a,ain in my 'ream*# an' are con*tant$y co./$e' wit- en.meration*
of my accom/$i*-ment* an' *.cce**e*# a* t-o.,- I wante' to *ay: @Ho. *ee# I -a&e
amo.nte' to *omet-in, after a$$.1 T-i* c-i$'i*- *cene f.rni*-e* t-e e$ement* for t-e $a*t
ima,e of t-e 'ream# in w-ic- t-e ro$e* are interc-an,e'# of co.r*e for t-e /.r/o*e of
re&en,e. T-e e$'er$y man# ob&io.*$y my fat-er# for t-e b$in'ne** in one eye *i,nifie* -i*
one5*i'e' ,$a.coma#1: i* now .rinatin, before me a* I once .rinate' before -im. 0y
mean* of t-e ,$a.coma I remin' my fat-er of cocaine# w-ic- *too' -im in ,oo' *tea'
'.rin, -i* o/eration# a* t-o.,- I -a' t-ereby f.$fi$$e' my /romi*e. 0e*i'e*# I make */ort
of -im< *ince -e i* b$in'# I m.*t -o$' t-e 'lass in front of -im# an' I 'e$i,-t in a$$.*ion* to
my know$e',e of t-e t-eory of -y*teria# of w-ic- I am /ro.'.1D
If t-e two c-i$'i*- *cene* of .rination are# accor'in, to my t-eory# c$o*e$y a**ociate'
wit- t-e 'e*ire for ,reatne**# t-eir re*.*citation on t-e 6o.rney to t-e A.**ee wa* f.rt-er
fa&o.re' by t-e acci'enta$ circ.m*tance t-at my com/artment -a' no $a&atory# an' t-at I
m.*t be /re/are' to /o*t/one re$ief '.rin, t-e 6o.rney# a* act.a$$y -a//ene' in t-e
mornin, w-en I woke wit- t-e *en*ation of a bo'i$y nee'. I *.//o*e one mi,-t be
inc$ine' to cre'it t-i* *en*ation wit- bein, t-e act.a$ *tim.$.* of t-e 'ream< I *-o.$'#
-owe&er# /refer a 'ifferent e=/$anation# name$y# t-at t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* fir*t ,a&e ri*e to
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t-e 'e*ire to .rinate. It i* ;.ite .n.*.a$ for me to be 'i*t.rbe' in *$ee/ by any /-y*ica$
nee'# $ea*t of a$$ at t-e time w-en I woke on t-i* occa*ion 55 a ;.arter to fo.r in t-e
mornin,. I wo.$' fore*ta$$ a f.rt-er ob6ection by remarkin, t-at I -a&e -ar'$y e&er fe$t a
'e*ire to .rinate after wakin, ear$y on ot-er 6o.rney* ma'e .n'er more comfortab$e
circ.m*tance*. %owe&er# I can $ea&e t-i* /oint .n'eci'e' wit-o.t weakenin, my
ar,.ment.
F.rt-er# *ince e=/erience in 'ream5ana$y*i* -a* 'rawn my attention to t-e fact t-at e&en
from 'ream* t-e inter/retation of w-ic- *eem* at fir*t *i,-t com/$ete# beca.*e t-e
'ream*o.rce*
an' t-e wi*-5*tim.$i are ea*i$y 'emon*trab$e# im/ortant train* of t-o.,-t /rocee'
w-ic- reac- back into t-e ear$ie*t year* of c-i$'-oo'# I -a' to a*k my*e$f w-et-er t-i*
c-aracteri*tic 'oe* not e&en con*tit.te an e**entia$ con'ition of 'reamin,. If it were
/ermi**ib$e to ,enera$i*e t-i* notion# I *-o.$' *ay t-at e&ery 'ream i* connecte' t-ro.,-
it* manife*t content wit- recent e=/erience*# w-i$e t-ro.,- it* $atent content it i*
connecte' wit- t-e mo*t remote e=/erience*< an' I can act.a$$y *-ow in t-e ana$y*i* of
-y*teria t-at t-e*e remote e=/erience* -a&e in a &ery rea$ *en*e remaine' recent ri,-t ./
to t-e /re*ent. 0.t I *ti$$ fin' it &ery 'iffic.$t to /ro&e t-i* con6ect.re< I *-a$$ -a&e to
ret.rn to t-e /robab$e ro$e in 'ream5formation of t-e ear$ie*t e=/erience* of o.r
c-i$'-oo' in anot-er connection 3(-a/ter Se&en4.
Of t-e t-ree /ec.$iaritie* of t-e 'ream5memory con*i'ere' abo&e# one 55 t-e /reference
for t-e .nim/ortant in t-e 'ream5content 55 -a* been *ati*factori$y e=/$aine' by tracin, it
back to 'ream5'i*tortion. +e -a&e *.ccee'e' in e*tab$i*-in, t-e e=i*tence of t-e ot-er
two /ec.$iaritie* 55 t-e /referentia$ *e$ection of recent an' a$*o of infanti$e materia$ 55 b.t
we -a&e fo.n' it im/o**ib$e to 'eri&e t-em from t-e moti&e* of t-e 'ream. ?et .* kee/ in
min' t-e*e two c-aracteri*tic*# w-ic- we *ti$$ -a&e to e=/$ain or e&a$.ate< a /$ace wi$$
-a&e to be fo.n' for t-em e$*ew-ere# eit-er in t-e 'i*c.**ion of t-e /*yc-o$o,y of t-e
*$ee/in, *tate or in t-e con*i'eration of t-e *tr.ct.re of t-e /*yc-ic a//arat.* 55 w-ic- we
*-a$$ .n'ertake $ater after we -a&e *een t-at by mean* of 'ream5inter/retation we are ab$e
to ,$ance a* t-ro.,- an in*/ection5-o$e into t-e interior of t-i* a//arat.*.
0.t -ere an' now I wi$$ em/-a*i*e anot-er re*.$t of t-e $a*t few 'ream5ana$y*e*. T-e
'ream often a//ear* to -a&e *e&era$ meanin,*< not on$y may *e&era$ wi*-5f.$fi$ment* be
combine' in it# a* o.r e=am/$e* *-ow# b.t one meanin, or one wi*-5f.$fi$ment may
concea$ anot-er# .nti$ in t-e $owe*t *trat.m one come* ./on t-e f.$fi$ment of a wi*- from
t-e ear$ie*t /erio' of c-i$'-oo'< an' -ere a,ain it may be ;.e*tione' w-et-er t-e wor'
@often1 at t-e be,innin, of t-i* *entence may not more correct$y be re/$ace' by
@con*tant$y1.1!
1 I $on, a,o $earne' t-at t-e f.$fi$ment of *.c- wi*-e* on$y ca$$e' for a $itt$e co.ra,e# an'
I t-en became a Cea$o.* /i$,rim to Rome.
T-e writer in w-o*e work* I fo.n' t-i* /a**a,e wa* /robab$y >ean Pa.$ Ric-ter.
2 In t-e fir*t e'ition of t-i* book I ,a&e -ere t-e name @%a*'r.ba$1# an amaCin, error#
w-ic- I e=/$aine' in my 2s$chopatholo'$ of &ver$da$ Life.
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D2
7 T-e >ewi*- 'e*cent of t-e Mar*-a$ i* *omew-at 'o.btf.$.
8 JIn t-e ori,ina$ t-i* /ara,ra/- contain* many /$ay* on t-e wor' Bet? 3-.rry c-a*e#
*c.rry# ,ame# etc.4 55 TRANS.L
9 JT-i* wor' i* -ere .*e' in t-e /*yc-oana$ytica$ *en*e. 55 TRANS.L
: Ja *treet in Kienna 55 TRANS.L
D JFensterln i* t-e c.*tom# now fa$$in, into 'i*.*e# fo.n' in r.ra$ 'i*trict* of t-e German
Sc-warCwa$'# of $o&er* w-o woo t-eir *weet-eart* at t-eir be'room win'ow*# to w-ic-
t-ey a*cen' by mean* of a $a''er# en6oyin, *.c- intimacy t-at t-e re$ation /ractica$$y
amo.nt* to a tria$ marria,e. T-e re/.tation of t-e yo.n, woman ne&er *.ffer* on acco.nt
of Fensterln .n$e** *-e become* intimate wit- too many *.itor*. 55 TRANS.L
! 0ot- t-e affect* /ertainin, to t-e*e c-i$'i*- *cene* 55 a*toni*-ment an' re*i,nation to t-e
ine&itab$e 55 a//eare' in a 'ream of *$i,-t$y ear$ier 'ate# w-ic- fir*t remin'e' me of t-i*
inci'ent of my c-i$'-oo'.
1" I 'o not brin, in t-e /$a,io*tomi arbitrari$y< t-ey reca$$ a /ainf.$ inci'ent of 'i*,race
before t-e *ame teac-er.
11 2opo M back*i'e# in German n.r*ery $an,.a,e.
1 T-i* re/etition -a* cre/t into t-e te=t of t-e 'ream# a//arent$y t-ro.,-
ab*entmin'e'ne**#
an' I -a&e $eft it beca.*e ana$y*i* *-ow* t-at it -a* a meanin,.
12 T-i* i* an error an' not a *$i/# for I $earne' $ater t-at t-e Emmer*'orf in +ac-a. i* not
i'entica$ wit- t-e ref.,e of t-e re&o$.tioni*t Fi*c-of# a /$ace of t-e *ame name.
17 Not in Germinal# b.t in La Terre 55 a mi*take of w-ic- I became aware on$y in t-e
ana$y*i*. 55 %ere I wo.$' ca$$ attention to t-e i'entity of $etter* in Buflattich an' Flatus.
18 An .n*o$icite' bio,ra/-er# Dr F. +itte$*# re/roac-e* me for -a&in, omitte' t-e name of
>e-o&a- from t-e abo&e motto. T-e En,$i*- me'a$ contain* t-e name of t-e Deity# in
%ebrew $etter*# on t-e back,ro.n' of a c$o.'# an' /$ace' in *.c- a manner t-at one may
e;.a$$y we$$ re,ar' it a* /art of t-e /ict.re or a* /art of t-e in*cri/tion.
19 Jtran*$ator1* noteL
1: Anot-er inter/retation: %e i* one5eye' $ike O'in# t-e fat-er of t-e ,o'* 55 O'in1*
con*o$ation. T-e con*o$ation in t-e c-i$'i*- *cene: I wi$$ b.y -im a new be'.
1D %ere i* *ome more materia$ for inter/retation: %o$'in, t-e .rine5,$a** reca$$* t-e *tory
of a /ea*ant 3i$$iterate4 at t-e o/tician1*# w-o trie' on now one /air of */ectac$e*# now
anot-er# b.t wa* *ti$$ .nab$e to rea'. 55 3Pea*ant5catc-er5,ir$5catc-er in t-e /rece'in,
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D7
/ortion of t-e 'ream.4 55 T-e /ea*ant*1 treatment of t-e feeb$e5min'e' fat-er in Po$a1* La
Terre. 55 T-e tra,ic atonement# t-at in -i* $a*t 'ay* my fat-er *oi$e' -i* be' $ike a c-i$'<
-ence# I am -i* n.r*e in t-e 'ream. 55 @T-inkin, an' e=/eriencin, are -ere# a* it were#
i'entica$1< t-i* reca$$* a -i,-$y re&o$.tionary c$o*et 'rama by O*car PaniCCa# in w-ic-
Go'# t-e Fat-er# i* i,nominio.*$y treate' a* a /a$*ie' ,reybear'. +it- %im wi$$ an' 'ee'
are one# an' in t-e book -e -a* to be re*traine' by %i* arc-an,e$# a *ort of Ganyme'e#
from *co$'in, an' *wearin,# beca.*e %i* c.r*e* wo.$' imme'iate$y be f.$fi$$e'. 55
Makin, /$an* i* a re/roac- a,ain*t my fat-er# 'atin, from a $ater /erio' in t-e
'e&e$o/ment of t-e critica$ fac.$ty# m.c- a* t-e w-o$e rebe$$io.* content of t-e 'ream#
w-ic- commit* l1se ma/est, an' *corn* a.t-ority# may be trace' to a re&o$t a,ain*t my
fat-er. T-e *o&erei,n i* ca$$e' t-e fat-er of -i* co.ntry 3Landesvater4# an' t-e fat-er i*
t-e fir*t an' o$'e*t# an' for t-e c-i$' t-e on$y a.t-ority# from w-o*e ab*o$.ti*m t-e ot-er
*ocia$ a.t-oritie* -a&e e&o$&e' in t-e co.r*e of t-e -i*tory of -.man ci&i$i*ation 3in *o far
a* @mot-er5ri,-t1 'oe* not nece**itate a ;.a$ification of t-i* 'octrine4. 55 T-e wor'* w-ic-
occ.rre' to me in t-e 'ream# @t-inkin, an' e=/eriencin, are t-e *ame t-in,#1 refer to t-e
e=/$anation of -y*terica$ *ym/tom* wit- w-ic- t-e ma$e .rina$ 3,$a**4 i* a$*o a**ociate'.
55 I nee' not e=/$ain t-e /rinci/$e of Gschnas to a Kienne*e< it con*i*t* in con*tr.ctin,
ob6ect* of rare an' co*t$y a//earance o.t of tri&ia$# an' /referab$y comica$ an' wort-$e**
materia$ 55 for e=am/$e# makin, *.it* of armo.r o.t of kitc-en .ten*i$*# wi*/* of *traw
an' 3al?stan'eln 3$on, ro$$*4# a* o.r arti*t* are fon' of 'oin, at t-eir 6o$$y /artie*. I -a'
$earne' t-at -y*terica$ *.b6ect* 'o t-e *ame t-in,< be*i'e* w-at rea$$y -a//en* to t-em#
t-ey .ncon*cio.*$y concei&e for t-em*e$&e* -orrib$e or e=tra&a,ant$y fanta*tic inci'ent*#
w-ic- t-ey b.i$' ./ o.t of t-e mo*t -arm$e** an' common/$ace materia$ of act.a$
e=/erience. T-e *ym/tom* attac- t-em*e$&e* /rimari$y to t-e*e fanta*ie*# not to t-e
memory of rea$ e&ent*# w-et-er *erio.* or tri&ia$. T-i* e=/$anation -a' -e$/e' me to
o&ercome many 'iffic.$tie*# an' affor'e' me m.c- /$ea*.re. I wa* ab$e to a$$.'e to it by
mean* of t-e 'ream5e$ement @ma$e .rine5,$a**1# beca.*e I -a' been to$' t-at at t-e $a*t
Gschnas e&enin, a /o*ition5c-a$ice of ?.cretia 0or,ia1* -a' been e=-ibite'# t-e c-ief
con*tit.ent of w-ic- -a' con*i*te' of a ,$a** .rina$ for men# *.c- a* i* .*e' in -o*/ita$*.
1! T-e *tratification of t-e meanin,* of 'ream* i* one of t-e mo*t 'e$icate b.t a$*o one of
t-e mo*t fr.itf.$ /rob$em* of 'ream5inter/retation. +-oe&er for,et* t-e /o**ibi$ity of
*.c- *tratification i* $ike$y to ,o a*tray an' to make .ntenab$e a**ertion* concernin, t-e
nat.re of 'ream*. 0.t -it-erto t-i* *.b6ect -a* been on$y too im/erfect$y in&e*ti,ate'. So
far# a fair$y or'er$y *tratification of *ymbo$* in 'ream* '.e to .rinary *tim.$.* -a* been
*.b6ecte' to a t-oro.,- e&a$.ation on$y by Otto Rank.
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+ 00 THE SOMATI+ SO.R+ES OF DREAMS
If we attem/t to intere*t a c.$t.re' $ayman in t-e /rob$em* of 'ream*# an' if# wit- t-i*
en' in &iew# we a*k -im w-at -e be$ie&e* to be t-e *o.rce of 'ream*# we *-a$$ ,enera$$y
fin' t-at -e fee$* ;.ite *.re -e know* at $ea*t t-i* /art of t-e *o$.tion. %e t-ink*
imme'iate$y of t-e inf$.ence e=erci*e' on t-e formation of 'ream* by a 'i*t.rbe' or
im/e'e' 'i,e*tion 3@Dream* come from t-e *tomac-14# an acci'enta$ /o*ition of t-e bo'y#
a trif$in, occ.rrence '.rin, *$ee/. %e 'oe* not *eem to *.*/ect t-at e&en after a$$ t-e*e
factor* -a&e been '.$y con*i'ere' *omet-in, *ti$$ remain* to be e=/$aine'.
In t-e intro'.ctory c-a/ter1 we e=amine' at $en,t- t-e o/inion of *cientific writer* on t-e
ro$e of *omatic *tim.$i in t-e formation of 'ream*# *o t-at -ere we nee' on$y reca$$ t-e
re*.$t* of t-i* in;.iry. +e -a&e *een t-at t-ree kin'* of *omatic *tim.$i wi$$ be
'i*tin,.i*-e': t-e ob6ecti&e *en*ory *tim.$i w-ic- /rocee' from e=terna$ ob6ect*# t-e
inner *tate* of e=citation of t-e *en*ory or,an*# -a&in, on$y a *.b6ecti&e rea$ity# an' t-e
bo'i$y *tim.$i ari*in, wit-in t-e bo'y< an' we -a&e a$*o notice' t-at t-e writer* on
'ream* are inc$ine' to t-r.*t into t-e back,ro.n' any /*yc-ic *o.rce* of 'ream* w-ic-
may o/erate *im.$taneo.*$y wit- t-e *omatic *tim.$i# or to e=c$.'e t-em a$to,et-er. In
te*tin, t-e c$aim* ma'e on be-a$f of t-e*e *omatic *tim.$i we -a&e $earne' t-at t-e
*i,nificance of t-e ob6ecti&e e=citation of t-e *en*ory or,an* 55 w-et-er acci'enta$ *tim.$i
o/eratin, '.rin, *$ee/# or *.c- a* cannot be e=c$.'e' from t-e 'ormant re$ation of t-e*e
'ream5ima,e* an' i'ea* to t-e interna$ bo'i$y *tim.$i 55 -a* been ob*er&e' an' confirme'
by e=/eriment< t-at t-e /art /$aye' by t-e *.b6ecti&e *en*ory *tim.$i a//ear* to be
'emon*trate' by t-e rec.rrence of -y/na,o,ic *en*ory ima,e* in 'ream*< an' t-at#
a$t-o.,- t-e broa'$y acce/te' re$ation of t-e*e 'ream5ima,e* an' i'ea* to t-e interna$
bo'i$y *tim.$i cannot be e=-a.*ti&e$y 'emon*trate'# it i* at a$$ e&ent* confirme' by t-e
we$$5known inf$.ence w-ic- an e=cite' *tate of t-e 'i,e*ti&e# .rinary an' *e=.a$ or,an*
e=erci*e* ./on t-e content of o.r 'ream*.
@Ner&e *tim.$.*1 an' @bo'i$y *tim.$.*1 wo.$' t-.* be t-e anatomica$ *o.rce* of 'ream*<
t-at i*# accor'in, to many writer*# t-e *o$e an' e=c$.*i&e *o.rce* of 'ream*.
0.t we -a&e a$rea'y con*i'ere' a n.mber of 'o.btf.$ /oint*# w-ic- *eem to ;.e*tion not
*o m.c- t-e correctne** of t-e *omatic t-eory a* it* a'e;.acy.
%owe&er confi'ent t-e re/re*entati&e* of t-i* t-eory may be of it* fact.a$ ba*i* 55
e*/ecia$$y in re*/ect of t-e acci'enta$ an' e=terna$ ner&e5*tim.$i# w-ic- may wit-o.t
'iffic.$ty be reco,ni*e' in t-e 'ream5content 55 ne&ert-e$e** t-ey -a&e a$$ come near to
a'mittin, t-at t-e ric- content of i'ea* fo.n' in 'ream* cannot be 'eri&e' from t-e
e=terna$ ner&e5*tim.$i a$one. In t-i* connection Mi** Mary +-iton (a$kin* te*te' -er
own 'ream*# an' t-o*e of a *econ' /er*on# for a /erio' of *i= week*# an' fo.n' t-at t-e
e$ement of e=terna$ *en*ory /erce/tion wa* 'emon*trab$e in on$y 12. /er cent an' 9.:
/er cent of t-e*e 'ream* re*/ecti&e$y. On$y two 'ream* in t-e w-o$e co$$ection co.$' be
referre' to or,anic *en*ation*. T-e*e *tati*tic* confirm w-at a c.r*ory *.r&ey of o.r own
e=/erience wo.$' a$rea'y -a&e $e' .* to *.*/ect.
INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS
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A 'i*tinction -a* often been ma'e between @ner&e5*tim.$.* 'ream*1 w-ic- -a&e a$rea'y
been t-oro.,-$y in&e*ti,ate'# an' ot-er form* of 'ream*. S/itta# for e=am/$e# 'i&i'e'
'ream* into ner&e5*tim.$.* 'ream* an' a**ociation5'ream*. 0.t it wa* ob&io.* t-at t-i*
*o$.tion remaine' .n*ati*factory .n$e** t-e $ink between t-e *omatic *o.rce* of 'ream*
an' t-eir i'eationa$ content co.$' be in'icate'.
In a''ition to t-e fir*t ob6ection# t-at of t-e in*.fficient fre;.ency of t-e e=terna$ *o.rce*
of *tim.$.*# a *econ' ob6ection /re*ent* it*e$f# name$y# t-e ina'e;.acy of t-e
e=/$anation* of 'ream* affor'e' by t-i* cate,ory of 'ream5*o.rce*. T-ere are two t-in,*
w-ic- t-e re/re*entati&e* of t-i* t-eory -a&e fai$e' to e=/$ain: fir*t$y# w-y t-e tr.e nat.re
of t-e e=terna$ *tim.$.* i* not reco,ni*e' in t-e 'ream# b.t i* con*tant$y mi*taken for
*omet-in, e$*e< an' *econ'$y# w-y t-e re*.$t of t-e reaction of t-e /ercei&in, min' to t-i*
mi*concei&e' *tim.$.* *-o.$' be *o in'eterminate an' &ariab$e. +e -a&e *een t-at
StrBm/e$$# in an*wer to t-e*e ;.e*tion*# a**ert* t-at t-e min'# *ince it t.rn* away from t-e
o.ter wor$' '.rin, *$ee/# i* not in a /o*ition to ,i&e t-e correct inter/retation of t-e
ob6ecti&e *en*ory *tim.$.*# b.t i* force' to con*tr.ct i$$.*ion* on t-e ba*i* of t-e
in'efinite *tim.$ation arri&in, from many 'irection*. In -i* own wor'* 3Die 7atur und
&ntstehun' der Tr=ume# /. 1"D4:
+-en by an e=terna$ or interna$ ner&e5*tim.$.* '.rin, *$ee/ a fee$in,# or a
com/$e= of fee$in,*# or any *ort of /*yc-ic /roce** ari*e* in t-e min'# an'
i* /ercei&e' by t-e min'# t-i* /roce** ca$$* ./ from t-e min' /erce/t.a$
ima,e* be$on,in, to t-e */-ere of t-e wakin, e=/erience*# t-at i* to *ay#
ear$ier /erce/tion*# eit-er .nembe$$i*-e'# or wit- t-e /*yc-ic &a$.e*
a//ertainin, to t-em. It co$$ect* abo.t it*e$f# a* it were# a ,reater or $e**er
n.mber of *.c- ima,e*# from w-ic- t-e im/re**ion re*.$tin, from t-e
ner&e5*tim.$.* recei&e* it* /*yc-ic &a$.e. In t-i* connection it i*
common$y *ai'# a* in or'inary $an,.a,e we *ay of t-e wakin, /roce'.re#
t-at t-e min' interprets in *$ee/ t-e im/re**ion* of ner&o.* *tim.$i. T-e
re*.$t of t-i* inter/retation i* t-e *o5ca$$e' nerve4stimulus dream 55 t-at i*#
a 'ream t-e com/onent* of w-ic- are con'itione' by t-e fact t-at a ner&e*tim.$.*
/ro'.ce* it* /*yc-ica$ effect in t-e $ife of t-e min' in accor'ance
wit- t-e $aw* of re/ro'.ction.
In a$$ e**entia$ /oint* i'entica$ wit- t-i* 'octrine i* +.n't1* *tatement t-at t-e conce/t*
of 'ream* /rocee'# at a$$ e&ent* for t-e mo*t /art# from *en*ory *tim.$i# an' e*/ecia$$y
from t-e *tim.$i of ,enera$ *en*ation# an' are t-erefore mo*t$y fanta*tic i$$.*ion* 55
/robab$y on$y to a *ma$$ e=tent /.re memory5conce/tion* rai*e' to t-e con'ition of
-a$$.cination*. To i$$.*trate t-e re$ation between 'ream5content an' 'ream5*tim.$i w-ic-
fo$$ow* from t-i* t-eory# StrBm/e$$ make* .*e of an e=ce$$ent *imi$e. It i* @a* t-o.,- t-e
ten fin,er* of a /er*on i,norant of m.*ic were to *tray o&er t-e keyboar' of an
in*tr.ment.1 T-e im/$ication i* t-at t-e 'ream i* not a /*yc-ic /-enomenon# ori,inatin,
from /*yc-ic moti&e*# b.t t-e re*.$t of a /-y*io$o,ica$ *tim.$.*# w-ic- e=/re**e* it*e$f in
/*yc-ic *ym/tomato$o,y beca.*e t-e a//arat.* affecte' by t-e *tim.$.* i* not ca/ab$e of
any ot-er mo'e of e=/re**ion. )/on a *imi$ar a**.m/tion i* ba*e' t-e e=/$anation of
INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS
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ob*e**ion* w-ic- Meynert attem/te' in -i* famo.* *imi$e of t-e 'ia$ on w-ic- in'i&i'.a$
fi,.re* are mo*t 'ee/$y embo**e'.
Po/.$ar t-o.,- t-i* t-eory of t-e *omatic 'ream5*tim.$i -a* become# an' *e'.cti&e
t-o.,- it may *eem# it i* none t-e $e** ea*y to 'etect it* weak /oint. E&ery *omatic
'ream5*tim.$.* w-ic- /ro&oke* t-e /*yc-ic a//arat.* in *$ee/ to inter/retation by t-e
formation of i$$.*ion* may e&oke an inca$c.$ab$e n.mber of *.c- attem/t* at
inter/retation. It may con*e;.ent$y be re/re*ente' in t-e 'ream5content by an
e=traor'inary n.mber of 'ifferent conce/t*. 0.t t-e t-eory of StrBm/e$$ an' +.n't
cannot /oint to any *ort of moti&e w-ic- contro$* t-e re$ation between t-e e=terna$
*tim.$.* an' t-e 'ream5conce/t c-o*en to inter/ret it# an' t-erefore it cannot e=/$ain t-e
@/ec.$iar c-oice1 w-ic- t-e *tim.$i @often eno.,- make in t-e co.r*e of t-eir /ro'.cti&e
acti&ity1 3?i//*# Grundtatsachen des 3eelenle%ens# /. 1:"4. Ot-er ob6ection* may be
rai*e' a,ain*t t-e f.n'amenta$ a**.m/tion be-in' t-e t-eory of i$$.*ion* 55 t-e
a**.m/tion t-at '.rin, *$ee/ t-e min' i* not in a con'ition to reco,ni*e t-e rea$ nat.re of
t-e ob6ecti&e *en*ory *tim.$i. T-e o$' /-y*io$o,i*t 0.r'ac- *-ow* .* t-at t-e min' i*
;.ite ca/ab$e e&en '.rin, *$ee/ of a correct inter/retation of t-e *en*ory im/re**ion*
w-ic- reac- it# an' of reactin, in accor'ance wit- t-i* correct inter/retation# ina*m.c- a*
-e 'emon*trate* t-at certain *en*ory im/re**ion* w-ic- *eem im/ortant to t-e in'i&i'.a$
may be e=ce/te' from t-e ,enera$ ne,$ect of t-e *$ee/in, min' 3a* in t-e e=am/$e of
n.r*e an' c-i$'4# an' t-at one i* more *.re$y awakene' by one1* own name t-an by an
in'ifferent a.'itory im/re**ion< a$$ of w-ic- /re*.//o*e*# of co.r*e# t-at t-e min'
'i*criminate* between *en*ation*# e&en in *$ee/. 0.r'ac- infer* from t-e*e ob*er&ation*
t-at we m.*t not a**.me t-at t-e min' i* inca/ab$e of inter/retin, *en*ory *tim.$i in t-e
*$ee/in, *tate# b.t rat-er that it is not sufficientl$ interested in them. T-e ar,.ment*
w-ic- 0.r'ac- em/$oye' in 1D2" rea//ear .nc-an,e' in t-e work* of ?i//* 3in t-e year
1DD24# w-ere t-ey are em/$oye' for t-e /.r/o*e of attackin, t-e t-eory of *omatic
*tim.$i. Accor'in, to t-e*e ar,.ment* t-e min' *eem* to be $ike t-e *$ee/er in t-e
anec'ote# w-o# on bein, a*ke'< @Are yo. a*$ee/I1 an*wer* @No1# an' on bein, a,ain
a''re**e' wit- t-e wor'*: @T-en $en' me ten f$orin*1# take* ref.,e in t-e e=c.*e: @I am
a*$ee/.1
T-e ina'e;.acy of t-e t-eory of *omatic 'ream5*tim.$i may be f.rt-er 'emon*trate' in
anot-er way. Ob*er&ation *-ow* t-at e=terna$ *tim.$i 'o not ob$i,e me to 'ream# e&en
t-o.,- t-e*e *tim.$i a//ear in t-e 'ream5content a* *oon a* I be,in to 'ream 55 *.//o*in,
t-at I 'o 'ream. In re*/on*e to a to.c-5 or /re**.re5*tim.$.* e=/erience' w-i$e I am
a*$ee/# a &ariety of reaction* are at my 'i*/o*a$. I may o&er$ook it# an' fin' on wakin,
t-at my $e, -a* become .nco&ere'# or t-at I -a&e been $yin, on an arm< in'ee'#
/at-o$o,y offer* me a -o*t of e=am/$e* of /owerf.$$y e=citin, *en*ory an' motor *tim.$i
of 'ifferent kin'* w-ic- remain ineffecti&e '.rin, *$ee/. I may /ercei&e t-e *en*ation
'.rin, *$ee/# an' t-ro.,- my *$ee/# a* it were# a* con*tant$y -a//en* in t-e ca*e of /ain
*tim.$i# b.t wit-o.t wea&in, t-e /ain into t-e te=t.re of a 'ream. An' t-ir'$y# I may
wake ./ in re*/on*e to t-e *tim.$.*# *im/$y in or'er to a&oi' it. Sti$$ anot-er# fo.rt-#
reaction i* /o**ib$e: name$y# t-at t-e ner&e5*tim.$.* may ca.*e me to 'ream< b.t t-e
ot-er /o**ib$e reaction* occ.r ;.ite a* fre;.ent$y a* t-e reaction of 'ream5formation.
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T-i*# -owe&er# wo.$' not be t-e ca*e if the incentive to dreamin' did not lie outside the
somatic dream4sources.
A//reciatin, t-e im/ortance of t-e abo&e5mentione' $ac.nae in t-e e=/$anation of
'ream* by *omatic *tim.$i# ot-er writer* 55 Sc-erner# for e=am/$e# an'# fo$$owin, -im# t-e
/-i$o*o/-er Ko$ke$t 55 en'ea&o.re' to 'etermine more /reci*e$y t-e nat.re of t-e /*yc-ic
acti&itie* w-ic- ca.*e t-e many5co$o.re' ima,e* of o.r 'ream* to /rocee' from t-e
*omatic *tim.$i# an' in *o 'oin, t-ey a//roac-e' t-e /rob$em of t-e e**entia$ nat.re of
'ream* a* a /rob$em of /*yc-o$o,y# an' re,ar'e' 'reamin, a* a /*yc-ic acti&ity.
Sc-erner not on$y ,a&e a /oetica$# &i&i' an' ,$owin, 'e*cri/tion of t-e /*yc-ic
/ec.$iaritie* w-ic- .nfo$' t-em*e$&e* in t-e co.r*e of 'ream5formation# b.t -e a$*o
be$ie&e' t-at -e -a' -it ./on t-e /rinci/$e of t-e met-o' t-e min' em/$oy* in 'ea$in,
wit- t-e *tim.$i w-ic- are offere' to it. T-e 'ream# accor'in, to Sc-erner# in t-e free
acti&ity of t-e fanta*y# w-ic- -a* been re$ea*e' from t-e *-ack$e* im/o*e' ./on it '.rin,
t-e 'ay# *tri&e* to re/re*ent *ymbo$ica$$y t-e nat.re of t-e or,an from w-ic- t-e *tim.$.*
/rocee'*. T-.* t-ere e=i*t* a *ort of 'ream5book# a ,.i'e to t-e inter/retation of 'ream*#
by mean* of w-ic- bo'i$y *en*ation*# t-e con'ition* of t-e or,an*# an' *tate* of
*tim.$ation# may be inferre' from t-e 'ream5ima,e*. @T-.* t-e ima,e of a cat e=/re**e'
e=treme i$$5tem/er# t-e ima,e of /a$e# *moot- /a*try t-e n.'ity of t-e bo'y. T-e -.man
bo'y a* a w-o$e i* /ict.re' by t-e fanta*y of t-e 'ream a* a -o.*e# an' t-e in'i&i'.a$
or,an* of t-e bo'y a* /art* of t-e -o.*e. In @@toot-ac-e5'ream*11 a &a.$te' &e*tib.$e
corre*/on'* to t-e mo.t-# an' a *tairca*e to t-e 'e*cent from t-e /-aryn= to t-e
oe*o/-a,.*< in t-e @@-ea'ac-e5'ream11 a cei$in, co&ere' wit- 'i*,.*tin, toa'5$ike */i'er*
i* c-o*en to 'enote t-e .//er /art of t-e -ea'.1 @Many 'ifferent *ymbo$* are em/$oye' by
o.r 'ream* for t-e *ame or,an: t-.* t-e breat-in, $.n, fin'* it* *ymbo$ in a roarin,
*to&e# fi$$e' wit- f$ame*# t-e -eart in em/ty bo=e* an' ba*ket*# an' t-e b$a''er in ro.n'#
ba,5*-a/e' or mere$y -o$$ow ob6ect*. It i* of /artic.$ar *i,nificance t-at at t-e c$o*e of
t-e 'ream t-e *tim.$atin, or,an or it* f.nction i* often re/re*ente' wit-o.t 'i*,.i*e# an'
.*.a$$y on t-e 'reamer@* own bo'y. T-.* t-e @@toot-ac-e5'ream11 common$y en'* by t-e
'reamer 'rawin, a toot- o.t of -i* mo.t-.1 It cannot be *ai' t-at t-i* t-eory of
'reaminter/retation
-a* fo.n' m.c- fa&o.r wit- ot-er writer*. It *eem*# abo&e a$$# e=tra&a,ant<
an' *o Sc-erner@* rea'er* -a&e -e*i*tate' to ,i&e it e&en t-e *ma$$ amo.nt of cre'it to
w-ic- it i*# in my o/inion# entit$e'. A* wi$$ be *een# it ten'* to a re&i&a$ of
'reaminter/retation
by mean* of s$m%olism# a met-o' em/$oye' by t-e ancient*< on$y t-e
/ro&ince from w-ic- t-e inter/retation i* to be 'eri&e' i* re*tricte' to t-e -.man bo'y.
T-e $ack of a *cientifica$$y com/re-en*ib$e tec-ni;.e of inter/retation m.*t *erio.*$y
$imit t-e a//$icabi$ity of Sc-erner1* t-eory. Arbitrarine** in t-e inter/retation of 'ream*
wo.$' a//ear to be by no mean* e=c$.'e'# e*/ecia$$y *ince in t-i* ca*e a$*o a *tim.$.*
may be e=/re**e' in t-e 'ream5content by *e&era$ re/re*entati&e *ymbo$*< t-.* e&en
Sc-erner1* fo$$ower Ko$ke$t wa* .nab$e to confirm t-e re/re*entation of t-e bo'y a* a
-o.*e. Anot-er ob6ection i* t-at -ere a,ain t-e 'ream5acti&ity i* re,ar'e' a* a .*e$e** an'
aim$e** acti&ity of t-e min'# *ince# accor'in, to t-i* t-eory# t-e min' i* content wit-
mere$y formin, fanta*ie* aro.n' t-e *tim.$.* wit- w-ic- it i* 'ea$in,# wit-o.t e&en
remote$y attem/tin, to abo$i*- t-e *tim.$.*.
INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS
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Sc-erner1* t-eory of t-e *ymbo$i*ation of bo'i$y *tim.$i by t-e 'ream i* *erio.*$y
'ama,e' by yet anot-er ob6ection. T-e*e bo'i$y *tim.$i are /re*ent at a$$ time*# an' it i*
,enera$$y a**.me' t-at t-e min' i* more acce**ib$e to t-em '.rin, *$ee/ t-an in t-e
wakin, *tate. It i* t-erefore im/o**ib$e to .n'er*tan' w-y t-e min' 'oe* not 'ream
contin.o.*$y a$$ ni,-t $on,# an' w-y it 'oe* not 'ream e&ery ni,-t abo.t a$$ t-e or,an*. If
one attem/t* to e&a'e t-i* ob6ection by /o*itin, t-e con'ition t-at */ecia$ e=citation*
m.*t /rocee' from t-e eye# t-e ear# t-e teet-# t-e bowe$*# etc.# in or'er to aro.*e t-e
'ream5acti&ity# one i* confronte' wit- t-e 'iffic.$ty of /ro&in, t-at t-i* increa*e of
*tim.$ation i* ob6ecti&e< an' /roof i* /o**ib$e on$y in a &ery few ca*e*. If t-e 'ream of
f$yin, i* a *ymbo$i*ation of t-e ./war' an' 'ownwar' motion of t-e /.$monary $obe*#
eit-er t-i* 'ream# a* -a* a$rea'y been remarke' by StrBm/e$$# *-o.$' be 'reamt m.c-
oftener# or it *-o.$' be /o**ib$e to *-ow t-at re*/iration i* more acti&e '.rin, t-i* 'ream.
Het a t-ir' a$ternati&e i* /o**ib$e 55 an' it i* t-e mo*t /robab$e of a$$ 55 name$y# t-at now
an' a,ain */ecia$ moti&e* are o/erati&e to 'irect t-e attention to t-e &i*cera$ *en*ation*
w-ic- are con*tant$y /re*ent. 0.t t-i* wo.$' take .* far beyon' t-e *co/e of Sc-erner1*
t-eory.
T-e &a$.e of Sc-erner1* an' Ko$ke$t1* 'i*;.i*ition* re*i'e* in t-eir ca$$in, o.r attention to
a n.mber of c-aracteri*tic* of t-e 'ream5content w-ic- are in nee' of e=/$anation# an'
w-ic- *eem to /romi*e fre*- 'i*co&erie*. It i* ;.ite tr.e t-at *ymbo$i*ation* of t-e bo'i$y
or,an* an' f.nction* 'o occ.r in 'ream*: for e=am/$e# t-at water in a 'ream often
*i,nifie* a 'e*ire to .rinate# t-at t-e ma$e ,enita$ or,an may be re/re*ente' by an ./ri,-t
*taff# or a /i$$ar# etc. +it- 'ream* w-ic- e=-ibit a &ery animate' fie$' of &i*ion an'
bri$$iant co$o.r*# in contra*t to t-e 'imne** of ot-er 'ream*# t-e inter/retation t-at t-ey
are @'ream* '.e to &i*.a$ *tim.$ation1 can -ar'$y be 'i*mi**e'# nor can we 'i*/.te t-e
/artici/ation of i$$.*ion5formation in 'ream* w-ic- contain noi*e an' a me'$ey of &oice*.
A 'ream $ike t-at of Sc-erner1*# t-at two row* of fair -an'*ome boy* *too' facin, one
anot-er on a bri',e# attackin, one anot-er# an' t-en re*.min, t-eir /o*ition*# .nti$ fina$$y
t-e 'reamer -im*e$f *at 'own on a bri',e an' 'rew a $on, toot- from -i* 6aw< or a *imi$ar
'ream of Ko$ke$t1*# in w-ic- two row* of 'rawer* /$aye' a /art# an' w-ic- a,ain en'e' in
t-e e=traction of a toot-< 'ream5formation* of t-i* kin'# of w-ic- bot- writer* re$ate a
,reat n.mber# forbi' o.r 'i*mi**in, Sc-erner1* t-eory a* an i'$e in&ention wit-o.t
*eekin, t-e kerne$ of tr.t- w-ic- may be containe' in it. +e are t-erefore confronte'
wit- t-e ta*k of fin'in, a 'ifferent e=/$anation of t-e *.//o*e' *ymbo$i*ation of t-e
a$$e,e' 'enta$ *tim.$.*.
T-ro.,-o.t o.r con*i'eration of t-e t-eory of t-e *omatic *o.rce* of 'ream*# I -a&e
refraine' from .r,in, t-e ar,.ment w-ic- ari*e* from o.r ana$y*e* of 'ream*. If by a
/roce'.re w-ic- -a* not been fo$$owe' by ot-er writer* in t-eir in&e*ti,ation of 'ream*
we can /ro&e t-at t-e 'ream /o**e**e* intrin*ic &a$.e a* /*yc-ic action# t-at a wi*-
*.//$ie* t-e moti&e of it* formation# an' t-at t-e e=/erience* of t-e /re&io.* 'ay f.rni*-
t-e mo*t ob&io.* materia$ of it* content# any ot-er t-eory of 'ream* w-ic- ne,$ect* *.c-
an im/ortant met-o' of in&e*ti,ation 55 an' accor'in,$y make* t-e 'ream a//ear a
.*e$e** an' eni,matica$ /*yc-ic reaction to *omatic *tim.$i 55 may be 'i*mi**e' wit-o.t
*/ecia$ critici*m. For in t-i* ca*e t-ere wo.$' -a&e to be 55 an' t-i* i* -i,-$y im/robab$e 5
5 two entire$y 'ifferent kin'* of 'ream*# of w-ic- on$y one kin' -a* come .n'er o.r
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ob*er&ation# w-i$e t-e ot-er kin' a$one -a* been ob*er&e' by t-e ear$ier in&e*ti,ator*. It
on$y remain* now to fin' a /$ace in o.r t-eory of 'ream* for t-e fact* on w-ic- t-e
c.rrent 'octrine of *omatic 'ream5*tim.$i i* ba*e'.
+e -a&e a$rea'y taken t-e fir*t *te/ in t-i* 'irection in a'&ancin, t-e t-e*i* t-at t-e
'ream5work i* .n'er a com/.$*ion to e$aborate into a .nifie' w-o$e a$$ t-e 'ream5*tim.$i
w-ic- are *im.$taneo.*$y /re*ent 3/. D24. +e -a&e *een t-at w-en two or more
e=/erience* ca/ab$e of makin, an im/re**ion on t-e min' -a&e been $eft o&er from t-e
/re&io.* 'ay# t-e wi*-e* t-at re*.$t from t-em are .nite' into one 'ream< *imi$ar$y# t-at
t-e im/re**ion* /o**e**in, /*yc-ic &a$.e an' t-e in'ifferent e=/erience* of t-e /re&io.*
'ay .nite in t-e 'ream5materia$# /ro&i'e' t-at connectin, i'ea* between t-e two can be
e*tab$i*-e'. T-.* t-e 'ream a//ear* to be a reaction to e&eryt-in, w-ic- i*
*im.$taneo.*$y /re*ent a* act.a$ in t-e *$ee/in, min'. A* far a* we -a&e -it-erto
ana$y*e' t-e 'ream5materia$# we -a&e 'i*co&ere' it to be a co$$ection of /*yc-ic remnant*
an' memory5trace*# w-ic- we were ob$i,e' to cre'it 3on acco.nt of t-e /reference *-own
for recent an' for infanti$e materia$4 wit- a c-aracter of /*yc-o$o,ica$ act.a$ity# t-o.,-
t-e nat.re of t-i* act.a$ity wa* not at t-e time 'eterminab$e. +e *-a$$ now -a&e $itt$e
'iffic.$ty in /re'ictin, w-at wi$$ -a//en w-en to t-e*e act.a$itie* of t-e memory fre*-
materia$ in t-e form of *en*ation* i* a''e' '.rin, *$ee/. T-e*e *tim.$i# a,ain# are of
im/ortance to t-e 'ream beca.*e t-ey are act.a$< t-ey are .nite' wit- t-e ot-er /*yc-ic
act.a$itie* to /ro&i'e t-e materia$ for 'ream5formation. To e=/re** it in ot-er wor'*# t-e
*tim.$i w-ic- occ.r '.rin, *$ee/ are e$aborate' into a wi*-5f.$fi$ment# of w-ic- t-e ot-er
com/onent* are t-e /*yc-ic remnant* of 'ai$y e=/erience wit- w-ic- we are a$rea'y
fami$iar. T-i* combination# -owe&er# i* not ine&itab$e< we -a&e *een t-at more t-an one
kin' of be-a&io.r towar' t-e /-y*ica$ *tim.$i recei&e' '.rin, *$ee/ i* /o**ib$e. +-ere
t-i* combination i* effecte'# a conce/t.a$ materia$ for t-e 'ream5content -a* been fo.n'
w-ic- wi$$ re/re*ent bot- kin'* of 'ream5*o.rce*# t-e *omatic a* we$$ a* t-e /*yc-ic.
T-e nat.re of t-e 'ream i* not a$tere' w-en *omatic materia$ i* a''e' to t-e /*yc-ic
'ream5*o.rce*< it *ti$$ remain* a wi*-5f.$fi$ment# no matter -ow it* e=/re**ion i*
'etermine' by t-e act.a$ materia$ a&ai$ab$e.
I *-o.$' $ike to fin' room -ere for a n.mber of /ec.$iaritie* w-ic- are ab$e to mo'ify t-e
*i,nificance of e=terna$ *tim.$i for t-e 'ream. I ima,ine t-at a co5o/eration of in'i&i'.a$#
/-y*io$o,ica$ an' acci'enta$ factor*# w-ic- 'e/en' on t-e circ.m*tance* of t-e moment#
'etermine* -ow one wi$$ be-a&e in in'i&i'.a$ ca*e* of more inten*i&e ob6ecti&e
*tim.$ation '.rin, *$ee/< -abit.a$ or acci'enta$ /rof.n'ity of *$ee/# in con6.nction wit-
t-e inten*ity of t-e *tim.$.*# wi$$ in one ca*e make it /o**ib$e *o to *.//re** t-e *tim.$.*
t-at it wi$$ not 'i*t.rb t-e *$ee/er# w-i$e in anot-er ca*e it wi$$ force t-e *$ee/er to wake#
or wi$$ a**i*t t-e attem/t to *.b'.e t-e *tim.$.* by wea&in, it into t-e te=t.re of t-e
'ream. In accor'ance wit- t-e m.$ti/$icity of t-e*e con*te$$ation*# e=terna$ ob6ecti&e
*tim.$i wi$$ be e=/re**e' more rare$y or more fre;.ent$y in t-e ca*e of one /er*on t-an in
t-at of anot-er. In my own ca*e# *ince I am an e=ce$$ent *$ee/er# an' ob*tinate$y ref.*e to
a$$ow my*e$f to be 'i*t.rbe' '.rin, *$ee/ on any /rete=t w-ate&er# t-i* intr.*ion of
e=terna$ ca.*e* of e=citation into my 'ream* i* &ery rare# w-erea* /*yc-ic moti&e*
a//arent$y ca.*e me to 'ream &ery ea*i$y. In'ee'# I -a&e note' on$y a *in,$e 'ream in
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w-ic- an ob6ecti&e# /ainf.$ *o.rce of *tim.$ation i* 'emon*trab$e# an' it wi$$ be -i,-$y
in*tr.cti&e to *ee w-at effect t-e e=terna$ *tim.$.* -a' in t-i* /artic.$ar 'ream.
I am ridin' a 're$ horse, at first timidl$ and a"("ardl$, as thou'h I "ere merel$ carried
alon'5 Then I meet a collea'ue, 25, also on horse%ac(, and dressed in rou'h frie?e6 he is
sittin' erect in the saddle6 he calls m$ attention to somethin' 9pro%a%l$ to the fact that I
have a ver$ %ad seat:5 7o" I %e'in to feel more and more at ease on the %ac( of m$
hi'hl$ intelli'ent horse6 I sit more comforta%l$, and I find that I am 0uite at home up
here5 M$ saddle is a sort of pad, "hich completel$ fills the space %et"een the nec( and
the rump of the horse5 I ride %et"een t"o vans, and /ust mana'e to clear them5 !fter
ridin' up the street for some distance, I turn round and "ish to dismount, at first in front
of a little open chapel "hich is %uilt facin' onto the street5 Then I do reall$ dismount in
front of a chapel "hich stands near the first one6 the hotel is in the same street6 I mi'ht
let the horse 'o there %$ itself, %ut I prefer to lead it thither5 It seems as thou'h I should
%e ashamed to arrive there on horse%ac(5 In front of the hotel there stands a pa'e4%o$,
"ho sho"s me a note of mine "hich has %een found, and ridicules me on account of it5
8n the note is "ritten, dou%l$ underlined, )&at nothin'+, and then a second sentence
9indistinct:: somethin' li(e )Do not "or(+6 at the same time a ha?$ idea that I am in a
stran'e cit$, in "hich I do not "or(.
It wi$$ not at once be a//arent t-at t-i* 'ream ori,inate' .n'er t-e inf$.ence# or rat-er
.n'er t-e com/.$*ion# of a /ain5*tim.$.*. T-e 'ay before# -owe&er# I -a' *.ffere' from
boi$*# w-ic- ma'e e&ery mo&ement a tort.re# an' at $a*t a boi$ -a' ,rown to t-e *iCe of an
a//$e at t-e root of t-e *crot.m# an' -a' ca.*e' me t-e mo*t into$erab$e /ain* at e&ery
*te/< a fe&eri*- $a**it.'e# $ack of a//etite# an' t-e -ar' work w-ic- I -a' ne&ert-e$e**
'one '.rin, t-e 'ay# -a' con*/ire' wit- t-e /ain to ./*et me. I wa* not a$to,et-er in a
con'ition to 'i*c-ar,e my '.tie* a* a /-y*ician# b.t in &iew of t-e nat.re an' t-e $ocation
of t-e ma$a'y# it wa* /o**ib$e to ima,ine *omet-in, e$*e for w-ic- I wa* mo*t of a$$
.nfit# name$y ri'in,. Now it i* t-i* &ery acti&ity of ri'in, into w-ic- I am /$.n,e' by t-e
'ream< it i* t-e mo*t ener,etic 'enia$ of t-e /ain w-ic- ima,ination co.$' concei&e. A* a
matter of fact# I cannot ri'e< I 'o not 'ream of 'oin, *o< I ne&er *at on a -or*e b.t once
an' t-en wit-o.t a *a''$e 55 an' I 'i' not $ike it. 0.t in t-i* 'ream I ri'e a* t-o.,- I -a'
no boi$ on t-e /erine.m< or rat-er# I ride, /ust %ecause I "ant to have none. To 6.',e
from t-e 'e*cri/tion# my *a''$e i* t-e /o.$tice w-ic- -a* enab$e' me to fa$$ a*$ee/.
Probab$y# bein, t-.* comforte'# I 'i' not fee$ anyt-in, of my /ain '.rin, t-e fir*t few
-o.r* of my *$ee/. T-en t-e /ainf.$ *en*ation* ma'e t-em*e$&e* fe$t# an' trie' to wake
me< w-ere./on t-e 'ream came an' *ai' to me# *oot-in,$y: @Go on *$ee/in,# yo. are not
,oin, to wakeA Ho. -a&e no boi$# for yo. are ri'in, on -or*eback# an' wit- a boi$ 6.*t
t-ere no one co.$' ri'eA1 An' t-e 'ream wa* *.cce**f.$< t-e /ain wa* *tif$e'# an' I went
on *$ee/in,.
0.t t-e 'ream wa* not *ati*fie' wit- @*.,,e*tin, away1 t-e boi$ by tenacio.*$y -o$'in,
fa*t to an i'ea incom/atib$e wit- t-e ma$a'y 3t-.* be-a&in, $ike t-e -a$$.cinatory
in*anity of a mot-er w-o -a* $o*t -er c-i$'# or of a merc-ant w-o -a* $o*t -i* fort.ne4. In
a''ition# t-e 'etai$* of t-e *en*ation 'enie' an' of t-e ima,e .*e' to *.//re** it *er&e t-e
'ream a$*o a* a mean* to connect ot-er materia$ act.a$$y /re*ent in t-e min' wit- t-e
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*it.ation in t-e 'ream# an' to ,i&e t-i* materia$ re/re*entation. I am ri'in, on a 're$
-or*e 55 t-e co$o.r of t-e -or*e e=act$y corre*/on'* wit- t-e pepper4and4salt *.it in
w-ic- I $a*t *aw my co$$ea,.e P. in t-e co.ntry. I -a&e been warne' t-at -i,-$y *ea*one'
foo' i* t-e ca.*e of boi$*# an' in any ca*e it i* /referab$e a* an etio$o,ica$ e=/$anation to
su'ar# w-ic- mi,-t be t-o.,-t of in connection wit- f.r.nc.$o*i*. My frien' P. $ike* to
@ride the hi'h horse1 wit- me e&er *ince -e took my /$ace in t-e treatment of a fema$e
/atient# in w-o*e ca*e I -a' /erforme' ,reat feat* 3EunststDc(e: in t-e 'ream I *it t-e
-or*e at fir*t *i'eway*# $ike a trick5ri'er# Eunstreiter4# b.t w-o rea$$y# $ike t-e -or*e in t-e
*tory of t-e S.n'ay e;.e*trian# $e' me w-ere&er *-e wi*-e'. T-.* t-e -or*e come* to be
a *ymbo$ic re/re*entation of a $a'y /atient 3in t-e 'ream it i* hi'hl$ intelli'ent4. @I feel
0uite at home1 refer* to t-e /o*ition w-ic- I occ./ie' in t-e /atient1* -o.*e-o$' .nti$ I
wa* re/$ace' by my co$$ea,.e P. @I t-o.,-t yo. were *afe in t-e *a''$e ./ t-ere#1 one of
my few we$$5wi*-er* amon, t-e eminent /-y*ician* of t-e city recent$y *ai' to me# wit-
reference to t-e *ame -o.*e-o$'. An' it wa* a feat to /racti*e /*yc-ot-era/y for ei,-t to
ten -o.r* a 'ay# w-i$e *.fferin, *.c- /ain# b.t I know t-at I cannot contin.e my
/ec.$iar$y *tren.o.* work for any $en,t- of time wit-o.t /erfect /-y*ica$ -ea$t-# an' t-e
'ream i* f.$$ of 'i*ma$ a$$.*ion* to t-e *it.ation w-ic- wo.$' re*.$t if my i$$ne**
contin.e' 3t-e note# *.c- a* ne.ra*t-enic* carry an' *-ow to t-eir 'octor*4. Do not "or(,
do not eat. On f.rt-er inter/retation I *ee t-at t-e 'ream5acti&ity -a* *.ccee'e' in fin'in,
it* way from t-e wi*-5*it.ation of ri'in, to *ome &ery ear$y c-i$'i*- ;.arre$* w-ic- m.*t
-a&e occ.rre' between my*e$f an' a ne/-ew# w-o i* a year o$'er t-an I# an' i* now
$i&in, in En,$an'. It -a* a$*o taken ./ e$ement* from my 6o.rney* in Ita$y< t-e *treet in
t-e 'ream i* b.i$t ./ o.t of im/re**ion* of Kerona an' Siena. A *ti$$ 'ee/er inter/retation
$ea'* to *e=.a$ 'ream5t-o.,-t*# an' I reca$$ w-at t-e 'ream5a$$.*ion* to t-at bea.tif.$
co.ntry were *.//o*e' to mean in t-e 'ream of a fema$e /atient w-o -a' ne&er been to
Ita$y 3to Ital$# German: 'en Italien P Genitalien P 'enitals4< at t-e *ame time t-ere are
reference* to t-e -o.*e in w-ic- I /rece'e' my frien' P. a* /-y*ician# an' to t-e /$ace
w-ere t-e boi$ i* $ocate'.
In anot-er 'ream I wa* *imi$ar$y *.cce**f.$ in war'in, off a t-reatene' 'i*t.rbance of my
*$ee/< t-i* time t-e t-reat came from a *en*ory *tim.$.*. It wa* on$y c-ance# -owe&er#
t-at enab$e' me to 'i*co&er t-e connection between t-e 'ream an' t-e acci'enta$
'ream*tim.$.*#
an' in t-i* way to .n'er*tan' t-e 'ream. One mi'*.mmer mornin, in a
Tyro$e*e mo.ntain re*ort I woke wit- t-e know$e',e t-at I -a' 'reame': The 2ope is
dead. I wa* not ab$e to inter/ret t-i* *-ort# non5&i*.a$ 'ream. I co.$' remember on$y one
/o**ib$e ba*i* of t-e 'ream# name$y# t-at *-ort$y before t-i* t-e new*/a/er* -a' re/orte'
t-at %i* %o$ine** wa* *$i,-t$y in'i*/o*e'. 0.t in t-e co.r*e of t-e mornin, my wife
a*ke' me: @Di' yo. -ear t-e 'rea'f.$ to$$in, of t-e c-.rc- be$$* t-i* mornin,I1 I -a' no
i'ea t-at I -a' -ear' it# b.t now I .n'er*too' my 'ream. It wa* t-e reaction of my nee'
for *$ee/ to t-e noi*e by w-ic- t-e /io.* Tyro$ean* were tryin, to wake me. I a&en,e'
my*e$f on t-em by t-e conc$.*ion w-ic- forme' t-e content of my 'ream# an' contin.e'
to *$ee/# wit-o.t any f.rt-er intere*t in t-e to$$in, of t-e be$$*.
Amon, t-e 'ream* mentione' in t-e /re&io.* c-a/ter* t-ere are *e&era$ w-ic- mi,-t
*er&e a* e=am/$e* of t-e e$aboration of *o5ca$$e' ner&e5*tim.$i. T-e 'ream of 'rinkin, in
$on, 'ra.,-t* i* *.c- an e=am/$e< -ere t-e *omatic *tim.$.* *eem* to be t-e *o$e *o.rce
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of t-e 'ream# an' t-e wi*- ari*in, from t-e *en*ation 55 t-ir*t 55 t-e on$y moti&e for
'reamin,. +e fin' m.c- t-e *ame t-in, in ot-er *im/$e 'ream*# w-ere t-e *omatic
*tim.$.* i* ab$e of it*e$f to ,enerate a wi*-. T-e 'ream of t-e *ick woman w-o t-row* t-e
coo$in, a//arat.* from -er c-eek at ni,-t i* an in*tance of an .n.*.a$ manner of reactin,
to a /ain5*tim.$.* wit- a wi*-5f.$fi$ment< it *eem* a* t-o.,- t-e /atient -a' tem/orari$y
*.ccee'e' in makin, -er*e$f ana$,e*ic# an' accom/anie' t-i* by a*cribin, -er /ain* to a
*tran,er.
My 'ream of t-e t-ree Parcae i* ob&io.*$y a -.n,er5'ream# b.t it -a* contri&e' to *-ift
t-e nee' for foo' ri,-t back to t-e c-i$'1* $on,in, for it* mot-er1* brea*t# an' to .*e a
-arm$e** 'e*ire a* a ma*k for a more *erio.* one t-at cannot &ent.re to e=/re** it*e$f *o
o/en$y. In t-e 'ream of (o.nt T-.n we were ab$e to *ee by w-at /at-* an acci'enta$
/-y*ica$ nee' wa* bro.,-t into re$ation wit- t-e *tron,e*t# b.t a$*o t-e mo*t ri,oro.*$y
re/re**e' im/.$*e* of t-e /*yc-ic $ife. An' w-en# a* in t-e ca*e re/orte' by Garnier# t-e
Fir*t (on*.$ incor/orate* t-e *o.n' of an e=/$o'in, inferna$ mac-ine into a 'ream of
batt$e before it ca.*e* -im to wake# t-e tr.e /.r/o*e for w-ic- a$one /*yc-ic acti&ity
concern* it*e$f wit- *en*ation* '.rin, *$ee/ i* re&ea$e' wit- .n.*.a$ c$arity. A yo.n,
$awyer# w-o i* f.$$ of -i* fir*t ,reat bankr./tcy ca*e# an' fa$$* a*$ee/ in t-e afternoon#
be-a&e* 6.*t a* t-e ,reat Na/o$eon 'i'. %e 'ream* of a certain G. Reic- in Bussiat$n#
w-o*e ac;.aintance -e -a* ma'e in connection wit- t-e bankr./tcy ca*e# b.t Bussiat$n
3German: husten# to co.,-4 force* it*e$f ./on -i* attention *ti$$ f.rt-er< -e i* ob$i,e' to
wake# on$y to -ear -i* wife 55 w-o i* *.fferin, from bronc-ia$ catarr- 55 &io$ent$y
co.,-in,.
?et .* com/are t-e 'ream of Na/o$eon I 55 w-o# inci'enta$$y# wa* an e=ce$$ent *$ee/er 55
wit- t-at of t-e *$ee/y *t.'ent# w-o wa* awakene' by -i* $an'$a'y wit- t-e remin'er t-at
-e -a' to ,o to t-e -o*/ita$# an' w-o t-ere./on 'reamt -im*e$f into a be' in t-e -o*/ita$#
an' t-en *$e/t on# t-e .n'er$yin, rea*onin, bein, a* fo$$ow*: If I am a$rea'y in t-e
-o*/ita$# I nee'n1t ,et ./ to ,o t-ere. T-i* i* ob&io.*$y a con&enience5'ream< t-e *$ee/er
frank$y a'mit* to -im*e$f -i* moti&e in 'reamin,< b.t -e t-ereby re&ea$* one of t-e
*ecret* of 'reamin, in ,enera$. In a certain *en*e# a$$ 'ream* are convenience4dreams<
t-ey *er&e t-e /.r/o*e of contin.in, to *$ee/ in*tea' of wakin,. The dream is the
'uardian of sleep, not its distur%er. In anot-er /$ace we *-a$$ -a&e occa*ion to 6.*tify t-i*
conce/tion in re*/ect to t-e /*yc-ic factor* t-at make for wakin,< b.t we can a$rea'y
'emon*trate it* a//$icabi$ity to t-e ob6ecti&e e=terna$ *tim.$i. Eit-er t-e min' 'oe* not
concern it*e$f at a$$ wit- t-e ca.*e* of *en*ation* '.rin, *$ee/# if it i* ab$e to carry t-i*
attit.'e t-ro.,- a* a,ain*t t-e inten*ity of t-e *tim.$i# an' t-eir *i,nificance# of w-ic- it
i* we$$ aware< or it em/$oy* t-e 'ream to 'eny t-e*e *tim.$i< or# t-ir'$y# if it i* ob$i,e' to
reco,ni*e t-e *tim.$i# it *eek* t-at inter/retation of t-em w-ic- wi$$ re/re*ent t-e act.a$
*en*ation a* a com/onent of a 'e*ire' *it.ation w-ic- i* com/atib$e wit- *$ee/. T-e
act.a$ *en*ation i* wo&en into t-e 'ream in order to deprive it of its realit$. Na/o$eon i*
/ermitte' to ,o on *$ee/in,< it i* on$y a 'ream5memory of t-e t-.n'er of t-e ,.n* at
Arco$e w-ic- i* tryin, to 'i*t.rb -im.2
The "ish to sleep, to "hich the conscious e'o has ad/usted itself, and "hich 9to'ether
"ith the dream4censorship and the )secondar$ ela%oration+ to %e mentioned later:
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represents the e'o+s contri%ution to the dream, must thus al"a$s %e ta(en into account as
a motive of dream4formation, and ever$ successful dream is a fulfilment of this "ish. T-e
re$ation of t-i* ,enera$# con*tant$y /re*ent# an' .n&aryin, *$ee/5wi*- to t-e ot-er wi*-e*
of w-ic- now one an' now anot-er i* f.$fi$$e' by t-e 'ream5content# wi$$ be t-e *.b6ect
of $ater con*i'eration. In t-e wi*- to *$ee/ we -a&e 'i*co&ere' a moti&e ca/ab$e of
*.//$yin, t-e 'eficiency in t-e t-eory of StrBm/e$$ an' +.n't# an' of e=/$ainin, t-e
/er&er*ity an' ca/ricio.*ne** of t-e inter/retation of t-e e=terna$ *tim.$.*. T-e correct
inter/retation# of w-ic- t-e *$ee/in, min' i* /erfect$y ca/ab$e# wo.$' in&o$&e acti&e
intere*t# an' wo.$' re;.ire t-e *$ee/er to wake< -ence# of t-o*e inter/retation* w-ic- are
/o**ib$e at a$$ on$y *.c- are a'mitte' a* are acce/tab$e to t-e 'ictatoria$ cen*or*-i/ of t-e
*$ee/5wi*-. T-e $o,ic of 'ream *it.ation* wo.$' r.n# for e=am/$e: @It i* t-e ni,-tin,a$e#
an' not t-e $ark1. For if it i* t-e $ark# $o&e1* ni,-t i* at an en'. From amon, t-e
inter/retation* of t-e *tim.$.* w-ic- are t-.* a'mi**ib$e# t-at one i* *e$ecte' w-ic- can
*ec.re t-e be*t connection wit- t-e wi*-5im/.$*e* t-at are $yin, in wait in t-e min'. T-.*
e&eryt-in, i* 'efinite$y 'etermine'# an' not-in, i* $eft to ca/rice. T-e mi*inter/retation i*
not an i$$.*ion# b.t 55 if yo. wi$$ 55 an e=c.*e. %ere a,ain# a* in *.b*tit.tion by
'i*/$acement in t-e *er&ice of t-e 'ream5cen*or*-i/# we -a&e an act of 'ef$ection of t-e
norma$ /*yc-ic /roce'.re.
If t-e e=terna$ ner&e5*tim.$i an' t-e inner bo'i$y *tim.$i are *.fficient$y inten*e to
com/e$ /*yc-ic attention# t-ey re/re*ent 55 t-at i*# if t-ey re*.$t in 'reamin, at a$$# an'
not in wakin, 55 a fi=e' /oint for 'ream5formation# a n.c$e.* in t-e 'ream5materia$# for
w-ic- an a//ro/riate wi*-5f.$fi$ment i* *o.,-t# 6.*t a* 3*ee abo&e4 me'iatin, i'ea*
between two /*yc-ica$ 'ream5*tim.$i are *o.,-t. To t-i* e=tent it i* tr.e of a n.mber of
'ream* t-at t-e *omatic e$ement 'ictate* t-e 'ream5content. In t-i* e=treme ca*e e&en a
wi*- t-at i* not act.a$$y /re*ent may be aro.*e' for t-e /.r/o*e of 'ream5formation. 0.t
t-e 'ream cannot 'o ot-erwi*e t-an re/re*ent a wi*- in *ome *it.ation a* f.$fi$$e'< it i*# a*
it were# confronte' wit- t-e ta*k of 'i*co&erin, w-at wi*- can be re/re*ente' a* f.$fi$$e'
by t-e ,i&en *en*ation. E&en if t-i* ,i&en materia$ i* of a /ainf.$ or 'i*a,reeab$e
c-aracter# yet it i* not .n*er&iceab$e for t-e /.r/o*e* of 'ream5formation. T-e /*yc-ic
$ife -a* at it* 'i*/o*a$ e&en wi*-e* w-o*e f.$fi$ment e&oke* 'i*/$ea*.re# w-ic- *eem* a
contra'iction# b.t become* /erfect$y inte$$i,ib$e if we take into acco.nt t-e /re*ence of
two *ort* of /*yc-ic in*tance an' t-e cen*or*-i/ t-at *.b*i*t* between t-em.
In t-e /*yc-ic $ife t-ere e=i*t# a* we -a&e *een# repressed wi*-e*# w-ic- be$on, to t-e
fir*t *y*tem# an' to w-o*e f.$fi$ment t-e *econ' *y*tem i* o//o*e'. +e 'o not mean t-i*
in a -i*toric *en*e 55 t-at *.c- wi*-e* -a&e once e=i*te' an' -a&e *.b*e;.ent$y been
'e*troye'. T-e 'octrine of repression# w-ic- we nee' in t-e *t.'y of /*yc-one.ro*e*#
a**ert* t-at *.c- re/re**e' wi*-e* *ti$$ e=i*t# b.t *im.$taneo.*$y wit- an in-ibition w-ic-
wei,-* t-em 'own. ?an,.a,e -a* -it ./on t-e tr.t- w-en it */eak* of t-e @*.//re**ion1
3*.b5/re**ion# or /.*-in, .n'er4 of *.c- im/.$*e*. T-e /*yc-ic mec-ani*m w-ic-
enab$e* *.c- *.//re**e' wi*-e* to force t-eir way to rea$i*ation i* retaine' in bein, an'
in workin, or'er. 0.t if it -a//en* t-at *.c- a *.//re**e' wi*- i* f.$fi$$e'# t-e
&an;.i*-e' in-ibition of t-e *econ' *y*tem 3w-ic- i* ca/ab$e of con*cio.*ne**4 i* t-en
e=/re**e' a* 'i*comfort. An'# in or'er to conc$.'e t-i* ar,.ment: If *en*ation* of a
'i*a,reeab$e c-aracter w-ic- ori,inate from *omatic *o.rce* are /re*ent '.rin, *$ee/# t-i*
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con*te$$ation i* .ti$i*e' by t-e 'ream5acti&ity to /roc.re t-e f.$fi$ment 55 wit- more or
$e** maintenance of t-e cen*or*-i/ 55 of an ot-erwi*e *.//re**e' wi*-.
T-i* *tate of affair* make* /o**ib$e a certain n.mber of an=iety5'ream*# w-i$e ot-er* of
t-e*e 'ream5formation* w-ic- are .nfa&o.rab$e to t-e wi*-5t-eory e=-ibit a 'ifferent
mec-ani*m. For t-e an=iety in 'ream* may of co.r*e be of a /*yc-one.rotic c-aracter#
ori,inatin, in /*yc-o*e=.a$ e=citation# in w-ic- ca*e# t-e an=iety corre*/on'* to
re/re**e' $ibi'o. T-en t-i* an=iety# $ike t-e w-o$e an=iety5'ream# -a* t-e *i,nificance of
a ne.rotic *ym/tom# an' we *tan' at t-e 'i&i'in,5$ine w-ere t-e wi*-5f.$fi$$in, ten'ency
of 'ream* i* fr.*trate'. 0.t in ot-er an=iety5'ream* t-e fee$in, of an=iety come* from
*omatic *o.rce* 3a* in t-e ca*e of /er*on* *.fferin, from /.$monary or car'iac tro.b$e#
wit- occa*iona$ 'iffic.$ty in breat-in,4# an' t-en it i* .*e' to -e$/ *.c- *tron,$y
*.//re**e' wi*-e* to attain f.$fi$ment in a 'ream# t-e 'reamin, of w-ic- from /*yc-ic
moti&e* wo.$' -a&e re*.$te' in t-e *ame re$ea*e of an=iety. It i* not 'iffic.$t to reconci$e
t-e*e two a//arent$y contra'ictory ca*e*. +-en two /*yc-ic formation*# an affecti&e
inc$ination an' a conce/t.a$ content# are intimate$y connecte'# eit-er one bein, act.a$$y
/re*ent wi$$ e&oke t-e ot-er# e&en in a 'ream< now t-e an=iety of *omatic ori,in e&oke*
t-e *.//re**e' conce/t.a$ content# now it i* t-e re$ea*e' conce/t.a$ content#
accom/anie' by *e=.a$ e=citement# w-ic- ca.*e* t-e re$ea*e of an=iety. In t-e one ca*e it
may be *ai' t-at a *omatica$$y 'etermine' affect i* /*yc-ica$$y inter/rete'< in t-e ot-er
ca*e a$$ i* of /*yc-ic ori,in# b.t t-e content w-ic- -a* been *.//re**e' i* ea*i$y re/$ace'
by a *omatic inter/retation w-ic- fit* t-e an=iety. T-e 'iffic.$tie* w-ic- $ie in t-e way of
.n'er*tan'in, a$$ t-i* -a&e $itt$e to 'o wit- 'ream*< t-ey are '.e to t-e fact t-at in
'i*c.**in, t-e*e /oint* we are to.c-in, ./on t-e /rob$em* of t-e 'e&e$o/ment of an=iety
an' of re/re**ion.
T-e ,enera$ a,,re,ate of bo'i$y *en*ation m.*t .n'o.bte'$y be inc$.'e' amon, t-e
'ominant 'ream5*tim.$i of interna$ bo'i$y ori,in. Not t-at it i* ca/ab$e of *.//$yin, t-e
'ream5content< b.t it force* t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* to make a c-oice from t-e materia$
'e*tine' to *er&e t-e /.r/o*e of re/re*entation in t-e 'ream5content# ina*m.c- a* it
brin,* wit-in ea*y reac- t-at /art of t-e materia$ w-ic- i* a'a/te' to it* own c-aracter#
an' -o$'* t-e re*t at a 'i*tance. Moreo&er# t-i* ,enera$ fee$in,# w-ic- *.r&i&e* from t-e
/rece'in, 'ay# i* of co.r*e connecte' wit- t-e /*yc-ic re*i'.e* t-at are *i,nificant for t-e
'ream. Moreo&er# t-i* fee$in, it*e$f may be eit-er maintaine' or o&ercome in t-e 'ream#
*o t-at it may# if it i* /ainf.$# &eer ro.n' into it* o//o*ite.
If t-e *omatic *o.rce* of e=citation '.rin, *$ee/ 55 t-at i*# t-e *en*ation* of *$ee/ 55 are
not of .n.*.a$ inten*ity# t-e /art w-ic- t-ey /$ay in 'ream5formation i*# in my 6.',ment#
*imi$ar to t-at of t-o*e im/re**ion* of t-e 'ay w-ic- are *ti$$ recent# b.t of no ,reat
*i,nificance. I mean t-at t-ey are .ti$i*e' for t-e 'ream5formation if t-ey are of *.c- a
kin' t-at t-ey can be .nite' wit- t-e conce/t.a$ content of t-e /*yc-ic 'ream5*o.rce# b.t
not ot-erwi*e. T-ey are treate' a* a c-ea/ e&er5rea'y materia$# w-ic- can be .*e'
w-ene&er it i* nee'e'# an' not a* &a$.ab$e materia$ w-ic- it*e$f /re*cribe* t-e manner in
w-ic- it m.*t be .ti$i*e'. I mi,-t *.,,e*t t-e ana$o,y of a connoi**e.r ,i&in, an arti*t a
rare *tone# a /iece of ony=# for e=am/$e# in or'er t-at it may be fa*-ione' into a work of
art. %ere t-e *iCe of t-e *tone# it* co$o.r# an' it* markin,* -e$/ to 'eci'e w-at -ea' or
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w-at *cene *-a$$ be re/re*ente'< w-i$e if -e i* 'ea$in, wit- a .niform an' ab.n'ant
materia$ *.c- a* marb$e or *an'*tone# t-e arti*t i* ,.i'e' on$y by t-e i'ea w-ic- take*
*-a/e in -i* min'. On$y in t-i* way# it *eem* to me# can we e=/$ain t-e fact t-at t-e
'ream5content f.rni*-e' by /-y*ica$ *tim.$i of *omatic ori,in w-ic- are not .n.*.a$$y
accent.ate' 'oe* not make it* a//earance in a$$ 'ream* an' e&ery ni,-t.7
Per-a/* an e=am/$e w-ic- take* .* back to t-e inter/retation of 'ream* wi$$ be*t
i$$.*trate my meanin,. One 'ay I wa* tryin, to .n'er*tan' t-e *i,nificance of t-e
*en*ation of bein, in-ibite'# of not bein, ab$e to mo&e from t-e */ot# of not bein, ab$e to
,et *omet-in, 'one# etc.# w-ic- occ.r* *o fre;.ent$y in 'ream*# an' i* *o c$o*e$y a$$ie' to
an=iety. T-at ni,-t I -a' t-e fo$$owin, 'ream: I am ver$ incompletel$ dressed, and I 'o
from a flat on the 'round4floor up a fli'ht of stairs to an upper stor$5 In doin' this I /ump
up three stairs at a time, and I am 'lad to find that I can mount the stairs so 0uic(l$5
3uddenl$ I notice that a servant4maid is comin' do"n the stairs 44 that is, to"ards me5 I
am ashamed, and tr$ to hurr$ a"a$, and no" comes this feelin' of %ein' inhi%ited6 I am
'lued to the stairs, and cannot move from the spot.
!nal$sis: T-e *it.ation of t-e 'ream i* taken from an e&ery'ay rea$ity. In a -o.*e in
Kienna I -a&e two a/artment*# w-ic- are connecte' on$y by t-e main *tairca*e. My
con*.$tation5room* an' my *t.'y are on t-e rai*e' ,ro.n'5f$oor# an' my $i&in,5room* are
on t-e fir*t f$oor. ?ate at ni,-t# w-en I -a&e fini*-e' my work 'own*tair*# I ,o ./*tair* to
my be'room. On t-e e&enin, before t-e 'ream I -a' act.a$$y ,one t-i* *-ort 'i*tance
wit- my ,arment* in 'i*array 55 t-at i*# I -a' taken off my co$$ar# tie an' c.ff*< b.t in t-e
'ream t-i* -a' c-an,e' into a more a'&ance'# b.t# a* .*.a$# in'efinite 'e,ree of .n're**.
It i* a -abit of mine to r.n ./ two or t-ree *te/* at a time< moreo&er# t-ere wa* a
wi*-f.$fi$ment
reco,ni*e' e&en in t-e 'ream# for t-e ea*e wit- w-ic- I r.n ./*tair* rea**.re*
me a* to t-e con'ition of my -eart. F.rt-er# t-e manner in w-ic- I r.n ./*tair* i* an
effecti&e contra*t to t-e *en*ation of bein, in-ibite'# w-ic- occ.r* in t-e *econ' -a$f of
t-e 'ream. It *-ow* me 55 w-at nee'e' no /roof 55 t-at 'ream* -a&e no 'iffic.$ty in
re/re*entin, motor action* f.$$y an' com/$ete$y carrie' o.t< t-ink# for e=am/$e# of f$yin,
in 'ream*A
0.t t-e *tair* ./ w-ic- I ,o are not t-o*e of my own -o.*e< at fir*t I 'o not reco,ni*e
t-em< on$y t-e /er*on comin, towar'* me inform* me of t-eir w-ereabo.t*. T-i* woman
i* t-e mai' of an o$' $a'y w-om I &i*it twice 'ai$y in or'er to ,i&e -er -y/o'ermic
in6ection*< t-e *tair*# too# are /reci*e$y *imi$ar to t-o*e w-ic- I -a&e to c$imb twice a 'ay
in t-i* o$' $a'y1* -o.*e.
%ow 'o t-e*e *tair* an' t-i* woman ,et into my 'reamI T-e *-ame of not bein, f.$$y
're**e' i* .n'o.bte'$y of a *e=.a$ c-aracter< t-e *er&ant of w-om I 'ream i* o$'er t-an I#
*.r$y# an' by no mean* attracti&e. T-e*e ;.e*tion* remin' me of t-e fo$$owin, inci'ent:
+-en I /ay my mornin, &i*it at t-i* -o.*e I am .*.a$$y *eiCe' wit- a 'e*ire to c$ear my
t-roat< t-e */.t.m fa$$* on t-e *tair*. T-ere i* no */ittoon on eit-er of t-e two f$oor*# an' I
con*i'er t-at t-e *tair* *-o.$' be ke/t c$ean not at my e=/en*e# b.t rat-er by t-e
/ro&i*ion of a */ittoon. T-e -o.*ekee/er# anot-er e$'er$y# c.rm.',eon$y /er*on# b.t# a* I
wi$$in,$y a'mit# a woman of c$ean$y in*tinct*# take* a 'ifferent &iew of t-e matter. S-e
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$ie* in wait for me# to *ee w-et-er I *-a$$ take t-e $iberty referre' to# an' if *-e *ee* t-at I
'o I can 'i*tinct$y -ear -er ,row$. For 'ay* t-ereafter# w-en we meet# *-e ref.*e* to ,reet
me wit- t-e c.*tomary *i,n* of re*/ect. On t-e 'ay before t-e 'ream t-e -o.*ekee/er1*
attit.'e wa* reinforce' by t-at of t-e mai'. I -a' 6.*t fini*-e' my .*.a$ -.rrie' &i*it to
t-e /atient w-en t-e *er&ant confronte' me in t-e ante5room# ob*er&in,: @Ho. mi,-t a*
we$$ -a&e wi/e' yo.r *-oe* to'ay# 'octor# before yo. came into t-e room. T-e re' car/et
i* a$$ 'irty a,ain from yo.r feet.1 T-i* i* t-e on$y 6.*tification for t-e a//earance of t-e
*tair* an' t-e mai' in my 'ream.
0etween my $ea/in, ./*tair* an' my */ittin, on t-e *tair* t-ere i* an intimate connection.
P-aryn,iti* an' car'iac tro.b$e* are bot- *.//o*e' to be /.ni*-ment* for t-e &ice of
*mokin,# on acco.nt of w-ic- &ice my own -o.*ekee/er 'oe* not cre'it me wit-
e=ce**i&e ti'ine**# *o t-at my re/.tation *.ffer* in bot- t-e -o.*e* w-ic- my 'ream f.*e*
into one.
I m.*t /o*t/one t-e f.rt-er inter/retation of t-i* 'ream .nti$ I can in'icate t-e ori,in of
t-e ty/ica$ 'ream of bein, incom/$ete$y c$ot-e'. In t-e meantime# a* a /ro&i*iona$
'e'.ction from t-e 'ream 6.*t re$ate'# I note t-at t-e 'ream5*en*ation of in-ibite'
mo&ement i* a$way* aro.*e' at a /oint w-ere a certain connection re;.ire* it. A /ec.$iar
con'ition of my motor *y*tem '.rin, *$ee/ cannot be re*/on*ib$e for t-i* 'ream5content#
*ince a moment ear$ier I fo.n' my*e$f# a* t-o.,- in confirmation of t-i* fact# *ki//in,
$i,-t$y ./ t-e *tair*.
1 T-i* /art -a* been omitte' from t-i* te=t. T-o*e w-o -a&e a */ecia$ intere*t in t-e
*.b6ect may rea' t-e ori,ina$ tran*$ation /.b$i*-e' by Macmi$$an (o.# New Hork# an'
A$$en R )nwin# ?on'on.
I wo.$' a'&i*e e&eryone to rea' t-e e=act an' 'etai$e' recor'* 3co$$ecte' in two
&o$.me*4 of t-e 'ream* e=/erimenta$$y /ro'.ce' by Mo.r$y Ko$' in or'er to con&ince
-im*e$f -ow $itt$e t-e con'ition* of t-e e=/eriment* -e$/ to e=/$ain t-e content of t-e
in'i&i'.a$ 'ream# an' -ow $itt$e *.c- e=/eriment* -e$/ .* towar'* an .n'er*tan'in, of
t-e /rob$em* of 'ream*.
2 T-e two *o.rce* from w-ic- I know of t-i* 'ream 'o not entire$y a,ree a* to it* content.
7 Rank -a* *-own# in a n.mber of *t.'ie*# t-at certain awakenin,5'ream* /ro&oke' by
or,anic *tim.$i 3'ream* of .rination an' e6ac.$ation4 are e*/ecia$$y ca$c.$ate' to
'emon*trate t-e conf$ict between t-e nee' for *$ee/ an' t-e 'eman'* of t-e or,anic nee'#
a* we$$ a* t-e inf$.ence of t-e $atter on t-e 'ream5content.
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D 00 T-PI+A, DREAMS
Genera$$y */eakin,# we are not in a /o*ition to inter/ret anot-er /er*on1* 'ream if -e i*
.nwi$$in, to f.rni*- .* wit- t-e .ncon*cio.* t-o.,-t* w-ic- $ie be-in' t-e 'reamcontent#
an' for t-i* rea*on t-e /ractica$ a//$icabi$ity of o.r met-o' of 'reaminter/retation
i* often *erio.*$y re*tricte'.1 0.t t-ere are 'ream* w-ic- e=-ibit a com/$ete
contra*t to t-e in'i&i'.a$1* c.*tomary $iberty to en'ow -i* 'ream5wor$' wit- a */ecia$
in'i&i'.a$ity# t-ereby makin, it inacce**ib$e to an a$ien .n'er*tan'in,: t-ere are a
n.mber of 'ream* w-ic- a$mo*t e&eryone -a* 'reame' in t-e *ame manner# an' of w-ic-
we are acc.*tome' to a**.me t-at t-ey -a&e t-e *ame *i,nificance in t-e ca*e of e&ery
'reamer. A /ec.$iar intere*t attac-e* to t-e*e ty/ica$ 'ream*# beca.*e# no matter w-o
'ream* t-em# t-ey /re*.mab$y a$$ 'eri&e from t-e *ame *o.rce*# *o t-at t-ey wo.$' *eem
to be /artic.$ar$y fitte' to /ro&i'e .* wit- information a* to t-e *o.rce* of 'ream*.
+it- ;.ite */ecia$ e=/ectation*# t-erefore# we *-a$$ /rocee' to te*t o.r tec-ni;.e of
'ream5inter/retation on t-e*e ty/ica$ 'ream*# an' on$y wit- e=treme re$.ctance *-a$$ we
a'mit t-at /reci*e$y in re*/ect of t-i* materia$ o.r met-o' i* not f.$$y &erifie'. In t-e
inter/retation of ty/ica$ 'ream* we a* a r.$e fai$ to obtain t-o*e a**ociation* from t-e
'reamer w-ic- in ot-er ca*e* -a&e $e' .* to com/re-en*ion of t-e 'ream# or e$*e t-e*e
a**ociation* are conf.*e' an' ina'e;.ate# *o t-at t-ey 'o not -e$/ .* to *o$&e o.r
/rob$em.
+-y t-i* i* t-e ca*e# an' -ow we can reme'y t-i* 'efect in o.r tec-ni;.e# are /oint*
w-ic- wi$$ be 'i*c.**e' in a $ater c-a/ter. T-e rea'er wi$$ t-en .n'er*tan' w-y I can 'ea$
wit- on$y a few of t-e ,ro./ of ty/ica$ 'ream* in t-i* c-a/ter# an' w-y I -a&e /o*t/one'
t-e 'i*c.**ion of t-e ot-er*.
3a4 T-e Embarra**ment5Dream of Nake'ne**
In a 'ream in w-ic- one i* nake' or *canti$y c$a' in t-e /re*ence of *tran,er*# it
*ometime* -a//en* t-at one i* not in t-e $ea*t a*-ame' of one1* con'ition. 0.t t-e 'ream
of nake'ne** 'eman'* o.r attention on$y w-en *-ame an' embarra**ment are fe$t in it#
w-en one wi*-e* to e*ca/e or to -i'e# an' w-en one fee$* t-e *tran,e in-ibition of bein,
.nab$e to *tir from t-e */ot# an' of bein, .tter$y /ower$e** to a$ter t-e /ainf.$ *it.ation. It
i* on$y in t-i* connection t-at t-e 'ream i* ty/ica$< ot-erwi*e t-e n.c$e.* of it* content
may be in&o$&e' in a$$ *ort* of ot-er connection*# or may be re/$ace' by in'i&i'.a$
am/$ification*. T-e e**entia$ /oint i* t-at one -a* a /ainf.$ fee$in, of *-ame# an' i*
an=io.* to -i'e one1* nake'ne**# .*.a$$y by mean* of $ocomotion# b.t i* ab*o$.te$y
.nab$e to 'o *o. I be$ie&e t-at t-e ,reat ma6ority of my rea'er* wi$$ at *ome time -a&e
fo.n' t-em*e$&e* in t-i* *it.ation in a 'ream.
T-e nat.re an' manner of t-e e=/o*.re i* .*.a$$y rat-er &a,.e. T-e 'reamer wi$$ *ay#
/er-a/*# @I wa* in my c-emi*e1# b.t t-i* i* rare$y a c$ear ima,e< in mo*t ca*e* t-e $ack of
c$ot-in, i* *o in'eterminate t-at it i* 'e*cribe' in narratin, t-e 'ream by an a$ternati&e: @I
wa* in my c-emi*e or my /etticoat.1 A* a r.$e t-e 'eficiency in c$ot-in, i* not *erio.*
eno.,- to 6.*tify t-e fee$in, of *-ame attac-e' to it. For a man w-o -a* *er&e' in t-e
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army# nake'ne** i* often re/$ace' by a manner of 're**in, t-at i* contrary to re,.$ation*.
@I wa* in t-e *treet wit-o.t my *abre# an' I *aw *ome officer* a//roac-in,1# or @I -a' no
co$$ar1# or @I wa* wearin, c-ecke' ci&i$ian tro.*er*1# etc.
T-e /er*on* before w-om one i* a*-ame' are a$mo*t a$way* *tran,er*# w-o*e face*
remain in'eterminate. It ne&er -a//en*# in t-e ty/ica$ 'ream# t-at one i* re/ro&e' or e&en
notice' on acco.nt of t-e $ack of c$ot-in, w-ic- ca.*e* one *.c- embarra**ment. On t-e
contrary# t-e /eo/$e in t-e 'ream a//ear to be ;.ite in'ifferent< or# a* I wa* ab$e to note
in one /artic.$ar$y &i&i' 'ream# t-ey -a&e *tiff an' *o$emn e=/re**ion*. T-i* ,i&e* .*
foo' for t-o.,-t.
T-e 'reamer1* embarra**ment an' t-e */ectator1* in'ifference con*tit.te a contra'iction
*.c- a* often occ.r* in 'ream*. It wo.$' be more in kee/in, wit- t-e 'reamer1* fee$in,* if
t-e *tran,er* were to $ook at -im in a*toni*-ment# or were to $a.,- at -im# or be o.tra,e'.
I t-ink# -owe&er# t-at t-i* obno=io.* feat.re -a* been 'i*/$ace' by wi*-5f.$fi$ment# w-i$e
t-e embarra**ment i* for *ome rea*on retaine'# *o t-at t-e two com/onent* are not in
a,reement. +e -a&e an intere*tin, /roof t-at t-e 'ream w-ic- i* /artia$$y 'i*torte' by
wi*-5f.$fi$ment -a* not been /ro/er$y .n'er*too'< for it -a* been ma'e t-e ba*i* of a
fairy5ta$e fami$iar to .* a$$ in An'er*en1* &er*ion of @T-e Em/eror1* New ($ot-e*1# an' it
-a* more recent$y recei&e' /oetica$ treatment by F.$'a in The Talisman. In An'er*en1*
fairy5ta$e we are to$' of two im/o*tor* w-o wea&e a co*t$y ,arment for t-e Em/eror#
w-ic- *-a$$# -owe&er# be &i*ib$e on$y to t-e ,oo' an' tr.e. T-e Em/eror ,oe* fort- c$a'
in t-i* in&i*ib$e ,arment# an' *ince t-e ima,inary fabric *er&e* a* a *ort of to.c-*tone# t-e
/eo/$e are fri,-tene' into be-a&in, a* t-o.,- t-ey 'i' not notice t-e Em/eror1*
nake'ne**.
0.t t-i* i* rea$$y t-e *it.ation in o.r 'ream. It i* not &ery &ent.re*ome to a**.me t-at t-e
.ninte$$i,ib$e 'ream5content -a* /ro&i'e' an incenti&e to in&ent a *tate of .n're** w-ic-
,i&e* meanin, to t-e *it.ation /re*ent in t-e memory. T-i* *it.ation i* t-ereby robbe' of
it* ori,ina$ meanin,# an' ma'e to *er&e a$ien en'*. 0.t we *-a$$ *ee t-at *.c- a
mi*.n'er*tan'in, of t-e 'ream5content often occ.r* t-ro.,- t-e con*cio.* acti&ity of a
*econ' /*yc-ic *y*tem# an' i* to be reco,ni*e' a* a factor of t-e fina$ form of t-e 'ream<
an' f.rt-er# t-at in t-e 'e&e$o/ment of ob*e**ion* an' /-obia* *imi$ar mi*.n'er*tan'in,*
55 *ti$$# of co.r*e# wit-in t-e *ame /*yc-ic /er*ona$ity 55 /$ay a 'eci*i&e /art. It i* e&en
/o**ib$e to */ecify w-ence t-e materia$ for t-e fre*- inter/retation of t-e 'ream i* taken.
T-e im/o*tor i* t-e 'ream# t-e Em/eror i* t-e 'reamer -im*e$f# an' t-e mora$i*in,
ten'ency betray* a -aCy know$e',e of t-e fact t-at t-ere i* a ;.e*tion# in t-e $atent
'ream5content# of forbi''en wi*-e*# &ictim* of re/re**ion. T-e connection in w-ic- *.c-
'ream* a//ear '.rin, my ana$y*e* of ne.rotic* /ro&e* beyon' a 'o.bt t-at a memory of
t-e 'reamer1* ear$ie*t c-i$'-oo' $ie* at t-e fo.n'ation of t-e 'ream. On$y in o.r
c-i$'-oo' wa* t-ere a time w-en we were *een by o.r re$ati&e*# a* we$$ a* by *tran,e
n.r*e*# *er&ant* an' &i*itor*# in a *tate of in*.fficient c$ot-in,# an' at t-at time we were
not a*-ame' of o.r nake'ne**. In t-e ca*e of many rat-er o$'er c-i$'ren it may be
ob*er&e' t-at bein, .n're**e' -a* an e=citin, effect ./on t-em# in*tea' of makin, t-em
fee$ a*-ame'. T-ey $a.,-# $ea/ abo.t# *$a/ or t-.m/ t-eir own bo'ie*< t-e mot-er# or
w-oe&er i* /re*ent# *co$'* t-em# *ayin,: @Fie# t-at i* *-amef.$ 55 yo. m.*tn1t 'o t-atA1
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1""
(-i$'ren often *-ow a 'e*ire to 'i*/$ay t-em*e$&e*< it i* -ar'$y /o**ib$e to /a** t-ro.,- a
&i$$a,e in co.ntry 'i*trict* wit-o.t meetin, a two5 or t-ree5year5o$' c-i$' w-o $ift* ./ -i*
or -er b$o.*e or frock before t-e tra&e$$er# /o**ib$y in -i* -ono.r. One of my /atient* -a*
retaine' in -i* con*cio.* memory a *cene from -i* ei,-t- year# in w-ic-# after .n're**in,
for be'# -e wante' to 'ance into -i* $itt$e *i*ter1* room in -i* *-irt# b.t wa* /re&ente' by
t-e *er&ant. In t-e -i*tory of t-e c-i$'-oo' of ne.rotic* e=/o*.re before c-i$'ren of t-e
o//o*ite *e= /$ay* a /rominent /art< in /aranoia t-e 'e$.*ion of bein, ob*er&e' w-i$e
're**in, an' .n're**in, may be 'irect$y trace' to t-e*e e=/erience*< an' amon, t-o*e
w-o -a&e remaine' /er&er*e t-ere i* a c$a** in w-om t-e c-i$'i*- im/.$*e i* accent.ate'
into a *ym/tom: t-e c$a** of ehi%itionists.
T-i* a,e of c-i$'-oo'# in w-ic- t-e *en*e of *-ame i* .nknown# *eem* a /ara'i*e w-en
we $ook back ./on it $ater# an' /ara'i*e it*e$f i* not-in, b.t t-e ma**5fanta*y of t-e
c-i$'-oo' of t-e in'i&i'.a$. T-i* i* w-y in /ara'i*e men are nake' an' .na*-ame'# .nti$
t-e moment arri&e* w-en *-ame an' fear awaken< e=/.$*ion fo$$ow*# an' *e=.a$ $ife an'
c.$t.ra$ 'e&e$o/ment be,in. Into t-i* /ara'i*e 'ream* can take .* back e&ery ni,-t< we
-a&e a$rea'y &ent.re' t-e con6ect.re t-at t-e im/re**ion* of o.r ear$ie*t c-i$'-oo' 3from
t-e /re-i*toric /erio' .nti$ abo.t t-e en' of t-e t-ir' year4 cra&e re/ro'.ction for t-eir
own *ake# /er-a/* wit-o.t f.rt-er reference to t-eir content# *o t-at t-eir re/etition i* a
wi*-5f.$fi$ment. Dream* of nake'ne**# t-en# are ehi%ition4dreams.2
T-e n.c$e.* of an e=-ibition5'ream i* f.rni*-e' by one1* own /er*on# w-ic- i* *een not
a* t-at of a c-i$'# b.t a* it e=i*t* in t-e /re*ent# an' by t-e i'ea of *canty c$ot-in, w-ic-
emer,e* in'i*tinct$y# owin, to t-e *./erim/o*ition of *o many $ater *it.ation* of bein,
/artia$$y c$ot-e'# or o.t of con*i'eration for t-e cen*or*-i/< to t-e*e e$ement* are a''e'
t-e /er*on* in w-o*e /re*ence one i* a*-ame'. I know of no e=am/$e in w-ic- t-e act.a$
*/ectator* of t-e*e infanti$e e=-ibition* rea//ear in a 'ream< for a 'ream i* -ar'$y e&er a
*im/$e reco$$ection. Stran,e$y eno.,-# t-o*e /er*on* w-o are t-e ob6ect* of o.r *e=.a$
intere*t in c-i$'-oo' are omitte' from a$$ re/ro'.ction*# in 'ream*# in -y*teria or in
ob*e**iona$ ne.ro*i*< /aranoia a$one re*tore* t-e */ectator*# an' i* fanatica$$y con&ince'
of t-eir /re*ence# a$t-o.,- t-ey remain .n*een. T-e *.b*tit.te for t-e*e /er*on* offere'
by t-e 'ream# t-e @n.mber of *tran,er*1 w-o take no notice of t-e */ectac$e offere' t-em#
i* /reci*e$y t-e counter4"ish to t-at *in,$e intimate$y5known /er*on for w-om t-e
e=/o*.re wa* inten'e'. @A n.mber of *tran,er*1# moreo&er# often occ.r in 'ream* in a$$
*ort* of ot-er connection*< a* a counter4"ish t-ey a$way* *i,nify @a *ecret1.7 It wi$$ be
*een t-at e&en t-at re*tit.tion of t-e o$' *tate of affair* t-at occ.r* in /aranoia com/$ie*
wit- t-i* co.nter5ten'ency. One i* no $on,er a$one< one i* ;.ite /o*iti&e$y bein, watc-e'<
b.t t-e */ectator* are @a n.mber of *tran,e# c.rio.*$y in'eterminate /eo/$e.1
F.rt-ermore# re/re**ion fin'* a /$ace in t-e e=-ibition5'ream. For t-e 'i*a,reeab$e
*en*ation of t-e 'ream i*# of co.r*e# t-e reaction on t-e /art of t-e *econ' /*yc-ic
in*tance to t-e fact t-at t-e e=-ibitioni*tic *cene w-ic- -a* been con'emne' by t-e
cen*or*-i/ -a* ne&ert-e$e** *.ccee'e' in /re*entin, it*e$f. T-e on$y way to a&oi' t-i*
*en*ation wo.$' be to refrain from re&i&in, t-e *cene.
INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS
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1"1
In a $ater c-a/ter we *-a$$ 'ea$ once a,ain wit- t-e fee$in, of in-ibition. In o.r 'ream* it
re/re*ent* to /erfection a conflict of the "ill, a denial. Accor'in, to o.r .ncon*cio.*
/.r/o*e# t-e e=-ibition i* to /rocee'< accor'in, to t-e 'eman'* of t-e cen*or*-i/# it i* to
come to an en'.
T-e re$ation of o.r ty/ica$ 'ream* to fairy5ta$e* an' ot-er fiction an' /oetry i* neit-er
*/ora'ic nor acci'enta$. Sometime* t-e /enetratin, in*i,-t of t-e /oet -a* ana$ytica$$y
reco,ni*e' t-e /roce** of tran*formation of w-ic- t-e /oet i* ot-erwi*e t-e in*tr.ment#
an' -a* fo$$owe' it ./ in t-e re&er*e 'irection< t-at i* to *ay# -a* trace' a /oem to a
'ream. A frien' -a* ca$$e' my attention to t-e fo$$owin, /a**a,e in G. Fe$$er1* Der
GrDne Beinrich: @I 'o not wi*-# 'ear ?ee# t-at yo. *-o.$' e&er come to rea$i*e from
e=/erience t-e e=;.i*ite an' /i;.ant tr.t- in t-e *it.ation of O'y**e.*# w-en -e a//ear*#
nake' an' co&ere' wit- m.'# before Na.*icaa an' -er /$aymate*A +o.$' yo. $ike to
know w-at it mean*I ?et .* for a moment con*i'er t-e inci'ent c$o*e$y. If yo. are e&er
/arte' from yo.r -ome# an' from a$$ t-at i* 'ear to yo.# an' wan'er abo.t in a *tran,e
co.ntry< if yo. -a&e *een m.c- an' e=/erience' m.c-< if yo. -a&e care* an' *orrow*#
an' are# /er-a/*# .tter$y wretc-e' an' for$orn# yo. wi$$ *ome ni,-t ine&itab$y 'ream t-at
yo. are a//roac-in, yo.r -ome< yo. wi$$ *ee it *-inin, an' ,$itterin, in t-e $o&e$ie*t
co$o.r*< $o&e$y an' ,racio.* fi,.re* wi$$ come to meet yo.< an' t-en yo. wi$$ *.''en$y
'i*co&er t-at yo. are ra,,e'# nake'# an' co&ere' wit- '.*t. An in'e*cribab$e fee$in, of
*-ame an' fear o&ercome* yo.< yo. try to co&er yo.r*e$f# to -i'e# an' yo. wake ./
bat-e' in *weat. A* $on, a* -.manity e=i*t*# t-i* wi$$ be t-e 'ream of t-e care5$a'en#
tem/e*t5to**e' man# an' t-.* %omer -a* 'rawn t-i* *it.ation from t-e /rofo.n'e*t
'e/t-* of t-e eterna$ nat.re of -.manity.1
+-at are t-e /rofo.n'e*t 'e/t-* of t-e eterna$ nat.re of -.manity# w-ic- t-e /oet
common$y -o/e* to awaken in -i* $i*tener*# b.t t-e*e *tirrin,* of t-e /*yc-ic $ife w-ic-
are roote' in t-at a,e of c-i$'-oo'# w-ic- *.b*e;.ent$y become /re-i*toricI (-i$'i*-
wi*-e*# now *.//re**e' an' forbi''en# break into t-e 'ream be-in' t-e .nob6ectionab$e
an' /ermi**ib$y con*cio.* wi*-e* of t-e -ome$e** man# an' it i* for t-i* rea*on t-at t-e
'ream w-ic- i* ob6ectifie' in t-e $e,en' of Na.*icaa re,.$ar$y 'e&e$o/* into an
an=iety'ream.
My own 'ream of -.rryin, ./*tair*# w-ic- /re*ent$y c-an,e' into bein, ,$.e' to t-e
*tair*# i* $ikewi*e an e=-ibition5'ream# for it re&ea$* t-e e**entia$ in,re'ient* of *.c- a
'ream. It m.*t t-erefore be /o**ib$e to trace it back to e=/erience* in my c-i$'-oo'# an'
t-e know$e',e of t-e*e *-o.$' enab$e .* to conc$.'e -ow far t-e *er&ant1* be-a&io.r to
me 3i.e. -er re/roac- t-at I -a' *oi$e' t-e car/et4 -e$/e' -er to *ec.re t-e /o*ition w-ic-
*-e occ./ie* in t-e 'ream. Now I am act.a$$y ab$e to f.rni*- t-e 'e*ire' e=/$anation. One
$earn* in a /*yc-oana$y*i* to inter/ret tem/ora$ /ro=imity by materia$ connection< two
i'ea* w-ic- are a//arent$y wit-o.t connection# b.t w-ic- occ.r in imme'iate *.cce**ion#
be$on, to a .nity w-ic- -a* to be 'eci/-ere'< 6.*t a* an a an' a %# w-en written in
*.cce**ion# m.*t be /rono.nce' a* one *y$$ab$e# a%. It i* 6.*t t-e *ame wit- t-e
interre$ation* of 'ream*. T-e 'ream of t-e *tair* -a* been taken from a *erie* of 'ream*
wit- w-o*e ot-er member* I am fami$iar# -a&in, inter/rete' t-em. A 'ream inc$.'e' in
t-i* *erie* m.*t be$on, to t-e *ame conte=t. Now# t-e ot-er 'ream* of t-e *erie* are ba*e'
INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS
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on t-e memory of a n.r*e to w-om I wa* entr.*te' for a *ea*on# from t-e time w-en I
wa* *ti$$ at t-e brea*t to t-e a,e of two an' a -a$f# an' of w-om a -aCy reco$$ection -a*
remaine' in my con*cio.*ne**. Accor'in, to information w-ic- I recent$y obtaine' from
my mot-er# *-e wa* o$' an' .,$y# b.t &ery inte$$i,ent an' t-oro.,-< accor'in, to t-e
inference* w-ic- I am 6.*tifie' in 'rawin, from my 'ream*# *-e 'i' not a$way* treat me
;.ite kin'$y# b.t */oke -ar*-$y to me w-en I *-owe' in*.fficient .n'er*tan'in, of t-e
nece**ity for c$ean$ine**. Ina*m.c- a* t-e mai' en'ea&o.re' to contin.e my e'.cation in
t-i* re*/ect# *-e i* entit$e' to be treate'# in my 'ream# a* an incarnation of t-e /re-i*toric
o$' woman. It i* to be a**.me'# of co.r*e# t-at t-e c-i$' wa* fon' of -i* teac-er in */ite
of -er -ar*- be-a&io.r.8
3b4 Dream* of t-e Deat- of 0e$o&e' Per*on*
Anot-er *erie* of 'ream* w-ic- may be ca$$e' ty/ica$ are t-o*e w-o*e content i* t-at a
be$o&e' re$ati&e# a /arent# brot-er# *i*ter# c-i$'# or t-e $ike# -a* 'ie'. +e m.*t at once
'i*tin,.i*- two c$a**e* of *.c- 'ream*: t-o*e in w-ic- t-e 'reamer remain* .nmo&e'#
an' t-o*e in w-ic- -e fee$* /rofo.n'$y ,rie&e' by t-e 'eat- of t-e be$o&e' /er*on# e&en
e=/re**in, t-i* ,rief by *-e''in, tear* in -i* *$ee/.
+e may i,nore t-e 'ream* of t-e fir*t ,ro./< t-ey -a&e no c$aim to be reckone' a*
ty/ica$. If t-ey are ana$y*e'# it i* fo.n' t-at t-ey *i,nify *omet-in, t-at i* not containe'
in t-em# t-at t-ey are inten'e' to ma*k anot-er wi*- of *ome kin'. T-i* i* t-e ca*e in t-e
'ream of t-e a.nt w-o *ee* t-e on$y *on of -er *i*ter $yin, on a bier 3/. 9"4. T-e 'ream
'oe* not mean t-at *-e 'e*ire* t-e 'eat- of -er $itt$e ne/-ew< a* we -a&e $earne'# it
mere$y concea$* t-e wi*- to *ee a certain be$o&e' /er*on a,ain after a $on, *e/aration 55
t-e *ame /er*on w-om *-e -a' *een after a* $on, an inter&a$ at t-e f.nera$ of anot-er
ne/-ew. T-i* wi*-# w-ic- i* t-e rea$ content of t-e 'ream# ,i&e* no ca.*e for *orrow# an'
for t-at rea*on no *orrow i* fe$t in t-e 'ream. +e *ee -ere t-at t-e fee$in, containe' in
t-e 'ream 'oe* not be$on, to t-e manife*t# b.t to t-e $atent 'ream5content# an' t-at t-e
affecti&e content -a* remaine' free from t-e 'i*tortion w-ic- -a* befa$$en t-e conce/t.a$
content.
It i* ot-erwi*e wit- t-o*e 'ream* in w-ic- t-e 'eat- of a be$o&e' re$ati&e i* ima,ine'#
an' in w-ic- a /ainf.$ affect i* fe$t. T-e*e *i,nify# a* t-eir content te$$* .*# t-e wi*- t-at
t-e /er*on in ;.e*tion mi,-t 'ie< an' *ince I may -ere e=/ect t-at t-e fee$in,* of a$$ my
rea'er* an' of a$$ w-o -a&e -a' *.c- 'ream* wi$$ $ea' t-em to re6ect my e=/$anation# I
m.*t en'ea&o.r to re*t my /roof on t-e broa'e*t /o**ib$e ba*i*.
+e -a&e a$rea'y cite' a 'ream from w-ic- we co.$' *ee t-at t-e wi*-e* re/re*ente' a*
f.$fi$$e' in 'ream* are not a$way* c.rrent wi*-e*. T-ey may a$*o be by,one# 'i*car'e'#
b.rie' an' re/re**e' wi*-e*# w-ic- we m.*t ne&ert-e$e** cre'it wit- a *ort of contin.e'
e=i*tence# mere$y on acco.nt of t-eir rea//earance in a 'ream. T-ey are not 'ea'# $ike
/er*on* w-o -a&e 'ie'# in t-e *en*e t-at we know 'eat-# b.t are rat-er $ike t-e *-a'e* in
t-e 8d$sse$ w-ic- awaken to a certain 'e,ree of $ife *o *oon a* t-ey -a&e 'r.nk b$oo'.
T-e 'ream of t-e 'ea' c-i$' in t-e bo= 3/. 94 containe' a wi*- t-at -a' been /re*ent
fifteen year* ear$ier# an' w-ic- -a' at t-at time been frank$y a'mitte' a* rea$. F.rt-er 55
INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS
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1"2
an' t-i*# /er-a/*# i* not .nim/ortant from t-e *tan'/oint of t-e t-eory of 'ream* 55 a
reco$$ection from t-e 'reamer1* ear$ie*t c-i$'-oo' wa* at t-e root of t-i* wi*- a$*o. +-en
t-e 'reamer wa* a $itt$e c-i$' 55 b.t e=act$y w-en cannot be 'efinite$y 'etermine' 55 *-e
-ear' t-at -er mot-er# '.rin, t-e /re,nancy of w-ic- *-e wa* t-e o.tcome# -a' fa$$en
into a /rofo.n' emotiona$ 'e/re**ion# an' -a' /a**ionate$y wi*-e' for t-e 'eat- of t-e
c-i$' in -er womb. %a&in, -er*e$f ,rown ./ an' become /re,nant# *-e wa* on$y
fo$$owin, t-e e=am/$e of -er mot-er.
If anyone 'ream* t-at -i* fat-er or mot-er# -i* brot-er or *i*ter# -a* 'ie'# an' -i* 'ream
e=/re**e* ,rief# I *-o.$' ne&er a''.ce t-i* a* /roof t-at -e wi*-e* any of t-em 'ea' no".
T-e t-eory of 'ream* 'oe* not ,o a* far a* to re;.ire t-i*< it i* *ati*fie' wit- conc$.'in,
t-at t-e 'reamer -a* wi*-e' t-em 'ea' at *ome time or ot-er '.rin, -i* c-i$'-oo'. I fear#
-owe&er# t-at t-i* $imitation wi$$ not ,o far to a//ea*e my critic*< /robab$y t-ey wi$$ 6.*t
a* ener,etica$$y 'eny t-e /o**ibi$ity t-at t-ey e&er -a' *.c- t-o.,-t*# a* t-ey /rote*t t-at
t-ey 'o not -arbo.r t-em now. I m.*t# t-erefore# recon*tr.ct a /ortion of t-e *.bmer,e'
infanti$e /*yc-o$o,y on t-e ba*i* of t-e e&i'ence of t-e /re*ent.9
?et .* fir*t of a$$ con*i'er t-e re$ation of c-i$'ren to t-eir brot-er* an' *i*ter*. I 'o not
know w-y we /re*.//o*e t-at it m.*t be a $o&in, one# *ince e=am/$e* of enmity amon,
a'.$t brot-er* an' *i*ter* are fre;.ent in e&eryone1* e=/erience# an' *ince we are *o often
ab$e to &erify t-e fact t-at t-i* e*tran,ement ori,inate' '.rin, c-i$'-oo'# or -a* a$way*
e=i*te'. Moreo&er# many a'.$t* w-o to'ay are 'e&ote' to t-eir brot-er* an' *i*ter*# an'
*.//ort t-em in a'&er*ity# $i&e' wit- t-em in a$mo*t contin.o.* enmity '.rin, t-eir
c-i$'-oo'. T-e e$'er c-i$' i$$5treate' t-e yo.n,er# *$an'ere' -im# an' robbe' -im of -i*
toy*< t-e yo.n,er wa* con*.me' wit- -e$/$e** f.ry a,ain*t t-e e$'er# en&ie' an' feare'
-im# or -i* ear$ie*t im/.$*e towar' $iberty an' -i* fir*t re&o$t a,ain*t in6.*tice were
'irecte' a,ain*t -i* o//re**or. T-e /arent* *ay t-at t-e c-i$'ren 'o not a,ree# an' cannot
fin' t-e rea*on for it. It i* not 'iffic.$t to *ee t-at t-e c-aracter e&en of a we$$5be-a&e'
c-i$' i* not t-e c-aracter we *-o.$' wi*- to fin' in an a'.$t. A c-i$' i* ab*o$.te$y
e,oi*tica$< -e fee$* -i* want* ac.te$y# an' *tri&e* remor*e$e**$y to *ati*fy t-em# e*/ecia$$y
a,ain*t -i* com/etitor*# ot-er c-i$'ren# an' fir*t of a$$ a,ain*t -i* brot-er* an' *i*ter*.
An' yet we 'o not on t-at acco.nt ca$$ a c-i$' @wicke'1 55 we ca$$ -im @na.,-ty1< -e i* not
re*/on*ib$e for -i* mi*'ee'*# eit-er in o.r own 6.',ment or in t-e eye* of t-e $aw. An'
t-i* i* a* it *-o.$' be< for we may e=/ect t-at wit-in t-e &ery /erio' of $ife w-ic- we
reckon a* c-i$'-oo'# a$tr.i*tic im/.$*e* an' mora$ity wi$$ awake in t-e $itt$e e,oi*t# an'
t-at# in t-e wor'* of Meynert# a *econ'ary e,o wi$$ o&er$ay an' in-ibit t-e /rimary e,o.
Mora$ity# of co.r*e# 'oe* not 'e&e$o/ *im.$taneo.*$y in a$$ it* 'e/artment*# an'
f.rt-ermore# t-e '.ration of t-e amora$ /erio' of c-i$'-oo' 'iffer* in 'ifferent
in'i&i'.a$*. +-ere t-i* mora$ity fai$* to 'e&e$o/ we are /rone to */eak of @'e,eneration1<
b.t -ere t-e ca*e i* ob&io.*$y one of arre*te' 'e&e$o/ment. +-ere t-e /rimary c-aracter
i* a$rea'y o&er$ai' by t-e $ater 'e&e$o/ment it may be at $ea*t /artia$$y .nco&ere' a,ain
by an attack of -y*teria. T-e corre*/on'ence between t-e *o5ca$$e' -y*terica$ c-aracter
an' t-at of a na.,-ty c-i$' i* /o*iti&e$y *trikin,. T-e ob*e**iona$ ne.ro*i*# on t-e ot-er
-an'# corre*/on'* to a *./er5mora$ity# w-ic- 'e&e$o/* a* a *tron, reinforcement a,ain*t
t-e /rimary c-aracter t-at i* t-reatenin, to re&i&e.
INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS
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1"7
Many /er*on*# t-en# w-o now $o&e t-eir brot-er* an' *i*ter*# an' w-o wo.$' fee$
berea&e' by t-eir 'eat-# -arbo.r in t-eir .ncon*cio.* -o*ti$e wi*-e*# *.r&i&a$* from an
ear$ier /erio'# wi*-e* w-ic- are ab$e to rea$i*e t-em*e$&e* in 'ream*. It i*# -owe&er# ;.ite
e*/ecia$$y intere*tin, to ob*er&e t-e be-a&io.r of $itt$e c-i$'ren ./ to t-eir t-ir' an'
fo.rt- year towar'* t-eir yo.n,er brot-er* or *i*ter*. So far t-e c-i$' -a* been t-e on$y
one< now -e i* informe' t-at t-e *tork -a* bro.,-t a new baby. T-e c-i$' in*/ect* t-e
new arri&a$# an' e=/re**e* -i* o/inion wit- 'eci*ion: @T-e *tork -a' better take it back
a,ainA1:
I *erio.*$y 'ec$are it a* my o/inion t-at a c-i$' i* ab$e to e*timate t-e 'i*a'&anta,e*
w-ic- -e -a* to e=/ect on acco.nt of a newcomer. A connection of mine# w-o now ,et*
on &ery we$$ wit- a *i*ter# w-o i* fo.r year* -er 6.nior# re*/on'e' to t-e new* of t-i*
*i*ter1* arri&a$ wit- t-e re*er&ation: @0.t I *-an1t ,i&e -er my re' ca/# any-ow.1 If t-e
c-i$' *-o.$' come to rea$i*e on$y at a $ater *ta,e t-at it* -a//ine** may be /re6.'ice' by a
yo.n,er brot-er or *i*ter# it* enmity wi$$ be aro.*e' at t-i* /erio'. I know of a ca*e w-ere
a ,ir$# not t-ree year* of a,e# trie' to *tran,$e an infant in it* cra'$e# beca.*e *-e
*.*/ecte' t-at it* contin.e' /re*ence bo'e' -er no ,oo'. (-i$'ren at t-i* time of $ife are
ca/ab$e of a 6ea$o.*y t-at i* /erfect$y e&i'ent an' e=treme$y inten*e. A,ain# /er-a/* t-e
$itt$e brot-er or *i*ter rea$$y *oon 'i*a//ear*# an' t-e c-i$' once more 'raw* to -im*e$f
t-e w-o$e affection of t-e -o.*e-o$'< t-en a new c-i$' i* *ent by t-e *tork< i* it not
nat.ra$ t-at t-e fa&o.rite *-o.$' concei&e t-e wi*- t-at t-e new ri&a$ may meet t-e *ame
fate a* t-e ear$ier one# in or'er t-at -e may be a* -a//y a* -e wa* before t-e birt- of t-e
fir*t c-i$'# an' '.rin, t-e inter&a$ after -i* 'eat-ID Of co.r*e# t-i* attit.'e of t-e c-i$'
towar'* t-e yo.n,er brot-er or *i*ter i*# .n'er norma$ circ.m*tance*# a mere f.nction of
t-e 'ifference of a,e. After a certain inter&a$ t-e materna$ in*tinct* of t-e o$'er ,ir$ wi$$
be awakene' towar'* t-e -e$/$e** new5born infant.
Fee$in,* of -o*ti$ity towar'* brot-er* an' *i*ter* m.*t occ.r far more fre;.ent$y in
c-i$'ren t-an i* ob*er&e' by t-eir obt.*e e$'er*.!
In t-e ca*e of my own c-i$'ren# w-o fo$$owe' one anot-er ra/i'$y# I mi**e' t-e
o//ort.nity of makin, *.c- ob*er&ation*. I am now retrie&in, it# t-ank* to my $itt$e
ne/-ew# w-o*e .n'i*/.te' 'omination wa* 'i*t.rbe' after fifteen mont-* by t-e arri&a$
of a feminine ri&a$. I -ear# it i* tr.e# t-at t-e yo.n, man be-a&e* &ery c-i&a$ro.*$y towar'
-i* $itt$e *i*ter# t-at -e ki**e* -er -an' an' *troke* -er< b.t in */ite of t-i* I -a&e
con&ince' my*e$f t-at e&en before t-e com/$etion of -i* *econ' year -e i* .*in, -i* new
comman' of $an,.a,e to critici*e t-i* /er*on# w-o# to -im# after a$$# *eem* *./erf$.o.*.
+-ene&er t-e con&er*ation t.rn* ./on -er -e c-ime* in# an' crie* an,ri$y: @Too 3$4itt$e#
too 3$4itt$eA1 D.rin, t-e $a*t few mont-*# *ince t-e c-i$' -a* o.t,rown t-i* 'i*/ara,ement#
owin, to -er */$en'i' 'e&e$o/ment# -e -a* fo.n' anot-er rea*on for -i* in*i*tence t-at
*-e 'oe* not 'e*er&e *o m.c- attention. %e remin'* .*# on e&ery *.itab$e /rete=t: @S-e
-a*n1t any teet-.11" +e a$$ of .* reco$$ect t-e ca*e of t-e e$'e*t 'a.,-ter of anot-er *i*ter
of mine. T-e c-i$'# w-o wa* t-en *i= year* of a,e# */ent a f.$$ -a$f5-o.r in ,oin, from
one a.nt to anot-er wit- t-e ;.e*tion: @?.cie can1t .n'er*tan' t-at yet# can *-eI1 ?.cie
wa* -er ri&a$ 55 two an' a -a$f year* yo.n,er.
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I -a&e ne&er fai$e' to come acro** t-i* 'ream of t-e 'eat- of brot-er* or *i*ter*# 'enotin,
an inten*e -o*ti$ity# e.,. I -a&e met it in a$$ my fema$e /atient*. I -a&e met wit- on$y one
e=ce/tion# w-ic- co.$' ea*i$y be inter/rete' into a confirmation of t-e r.$e. Once# in t-e
co.r*e of a *ittin,# w-en I wa* e=/$ainin, t-i* *tate of affair* to a fema$e /atient# *ince it
*eeme' to -a&e *ome bearin, on t-e *ym/tom* .n'er con*i'eration t-at 'ay# *-e
an*were'# to my a*toni*-ment# t-at *-e -a' ne&er -a' *.c- 'ream*. 0.t anot-er 'ream
occ.rre' to -er# w-ic- /re*.mab$y -a' not-in, to 'o wit- t-e ca*e 55 a 'ream w-ic- *-e
-a' fir*t 'reame' at t-e a,e of four# w-en *-e wa* t-e yo.n,e*t c-i$'# an' -a' *ince t-en
'reame' re/eate'$y. @! num%er of children, all her %rothers and sisters "ith her %o$ and
'irl cousins, "ere rompin' a%out in a meado"5 3uddenl$ the$ all 're" "in's, fle" up,
and "ere 'one.1 S-e -a' no i'ea of t-e *i,nificance of t-i* 'ream< b.t we can -ar'$y fai$
to reco,ni*e it a* a 'ream of t-e 'eat- of a$$ t-e brot-er* an' *i*ter*# in it* ori,ina$ form#
an' b.t $itt$e inf$.ence' by t-e cen*or*-i/. I wi$$ &ent.re to a'' t-e fo$$owin, ana$y*i* of
it: on t-e 'eat- of one o.t of t-i* $ar,e n.mber of c-i$'ren 55 in t-i* ca*e t-e c-i$'ren of
two brot-er* were bro.,-t ./ to,et-er a* brot-er* an' *i*ter* 55 wo.$' not o.r 'reamer# at
t-at time not yet fo.r year* of a,e# -a&e a*ke' *ome wi*e# ,rown5./ /er*on: @+-at
become* of c-i$'ren w-en t-ey are 'ea'I1 T-e an*wer wo.$' /robab$y -a&e been: @T-ey
,row win,* an' become an,e$*.1 After t-i* e=/$anation# a$$ t-e brot-er* an' *i*ter* an'
co.*in* in t-e 'ream now -a&e win,*# $ike an,e$* an' 55 t-i* i* t-e im/ortant /oint 55 t-ey
f$y away. O.r $itt$e an,e$5maker i* $eft a$one: 6.*t t-ink# t-e on$y one o.t of *.c- a crow'A
T-at t-e c-i$'ren rom/ abo.t a mea'ow# from w-ic- t-ey f$y away# /oint* a$mo*t
certain$y to b.tterf$ie* 55 it i* a* t-o.,- t-e c-i$' -a' been inf$.ence' by t-e *ame
a**ociation of i'ea* w-ic- $e' t-e ancient* to ima,ine P*yc-e# t-e *o.$# wit- t-e win,* of
a b.tterf$y.
Per-a/* *ome rea'er* wi$$ now ob6ect t-at t-e inimica$ im/.$*e* of c-i$'ren towar' t-eir
brot-er* an' *i*ter* may /er-a/* be a'mitte'# b.t -ow 'oe* t-e c-i$'i*- c-aracter arri&e
at *.c- -ei,-t* of wicke'ne** a* to 'e*ire t-e 'eat- of a ri&a$ or a *tron,er /$aymate# a*
t-o.,- a$$ mi*'ee'* co.$' be atone' for on$y by 'eat-I T-o*e w-o */eak in t-i* fa*-ion
for,et t-at t-e c-i$'1* i'ea of @bein, 'ea'1 -a* $itt$e b.t t-e wor' in common wit- o.r
own. T-e c-i$' know* not-in, of t-e -orror* of 'ecay# of *-i&erin, in t-e co$' ,ra&e# of
t-e terror of t-e infinite Not-in,# t-e t-o.,-t of w-ic- t-e a'.$t# a* a$$ t-e myt-* of t-e
-ereafter te*tify# fin'* *o into$erab$e. T-e fear of 'eat- i* a$ien to t-e c-i$'< an' *o -e
/$ay* wit- t-e -orri' wor'# an' t-reaten* anot-er c-i$': @If yo. 'o t-at a,ain# yo. wi$$
'ie# 6.*t $ike Franci* 'ie'1< at w-ic- t-e /oor mot-er *-.''er*# .nab$e /er-a/* to for,et
t-at t-e ,reater /ro/ortion of morta$* 'o not *.r&i&e beyon' t-e year* of c-i$'-oo'. E&en
at t-e a,e of ei,-t# a c-i$' ret.rnin, from a &i*it to a nat.ra$ -i*tory m.*e.m may *ay to
-er mot-er: @Mamma# I 'o $o&e yo. *o< if yo. e&er 'ie# I am ,oin, to -a&e yo. *t.ffe'
an' *et yo. ./ -ere in t-e room# *o t-at I can a$way*# a$way* *ee yo.A1 So 'ifferent from
o.r own i* t-e c-i$'i*- conce/tion of bein, 'ea'.11
0ein, 'ea' mean*# for t-e c-i$'# w-o -a* been */are' t-e *i,-t of t-e *.fferin, t-at
/rece'e* 'eat-# m.c- t-e *ame a* @bein, ,one1# an' cea*in, to annoy t-e *.r&i&or*. T-e
c-i$' 'oe* not 'i*tin,.i*- t-e mean* by w-ic- t-i* ab*ence i* bro.,-t abo.t# w-et-er by
'i*tance# or e*tran,ement# or 'eat-.1 If# '.rin, t-e c-i$'1* /re-i*toric year*# a n.r*e -a*
been 'i*mi**e'# an' if -i* mot-er 'ie* a $itt$e w-i$e $ater# t-e two e=/erience*# a* we
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'i*co&er by ana$y*i*# form $ink* of a c-ain in -i* memory. T-e fact t-at t-e c-i$' 'oe* not
&ery inten*e$y mi** t-o*e w-o are ab*ent -a* been rea$i*e'# to -er *orrow# by many a
mot-er# w-en *-e -a* ret.rne' -ome from an ab*ence of *e&era$ week*# an' -a* been
to$'# ./on in;.iry: @T-e c-i$'ren -a&e not a*ke' for t-eir mot-er once.1 0.t if *-e rea$$y
'e/art* to @t-at .n'i*co&ere' co.ntry from w-o*e bo.rne no tra&e$$er ret.rn*1# t-e
c-i$'ren *eem at fir*t to -a&e for,otten -er# an' on$y su%se0uentl$ 'o t-ey be,in to
remember t-eir 'ea' mot-er.
+-i$e# t-erefore# t-e c-i$' -a* it* moti&e* for 'e*irin, t-e ab*ence of anot-er c-i$'# it i*
$ackin, in a$$ t-o*e re*traint* w-ic- wo.$' /re&ent it from c$ot-in, t-i* wi*- in t-e form
of a 'eat-5wi*-< an' t-e /*yc-ic reaction to 'ream* of a 'eat-5wi*- /ro&e* t-at# in */ite
of a$$ t-e 'ifference* of content# t-e wi*- in t-e ca*e of t-e c-i$' i* after a$$ i'entica$ wit-
t-e corre*/on'in, wi*- in an a'.$t.
If# t-en# t-e 'eat-5wi*- of a c-i$' in re*/ect of -i* brot-er* an' *i*ter* i* e=/$aine' by -i*
c-i$'i*- e,oi*m# w-ic- make* -im re,ar' -i* brot-er* an' *i*ter* a* ri&a$*# -ow are we to
acco.nt for t-e *ame wi*- in re*/ect of -i* /arent*# w-o be*tow t-eir $o&e on -im# an'
*ati*fy -i* nee'*# an' w-o*e /re*er&ation -e o.,-t to 'e*ire for t-e*e &ery e,oi*tica$
rea*on*I
Towar'* a *o$.tion of t-i* 'iffic.$ty we may be ,.i'e' by o.r know$e',e t-at t-e &ery
,reat ma6ority of 'ream* of t-e 'eat- of a /arent refer to t-e /arent of t-e *ame *e= a* t-e
'reamer# *o t-at a man ,enera$$y 'ream* of t-e 'eat- of -i* fat-er# an' a woman of t-e
'eat- of -er mot-er. I 'o not c$aim t-at t-i* -a//en* con*tant$y< b.t t-at it -a//en* in a
,reat ma6ority of ca*e* i* *o e&i'ent t-at it re;.ire* e=/$anation by *ome factor of ,enera$
*i,nificance.12 0roa'$y */eakin,# it i* a* t-o.,- a *e=.a$ /reference ma'e it*e$f fe$t at an
ear$y a,e# a* t-o.,- t-e boy re,ar'e' -i* fat-er# an' t-e ,ir$ -er mot-er# a* a ri&a$ in $o&e
55 by w-o*e remo&a$ -e or *-e co.$' b.t /rofit.
0efore re6ectin, t-i* i'ea a* mon*tro.*# $et t-e rea'er a,ain con*i'er t-e act.a$ re$ation*
between /arent* an' c-i$'ren. +e m.*t 'i*tin,.i*- between t-e tra'itiona$ *tan'ar' of
con'.ct# t-e fi$ia$ /iety e=/ecte' in t-i* re$ation# an' w-at 'ai$y ob*er&ation *-ow* .* to
be t-e fact. More t-an one occa*ion for enmity $ie* -i''en ami'*t t-e re$ation* of /arent*
an' c-i$'ren< con'ition* are /re*ent in t-e ,reate*t ab.n'ance .n'er w-ic- wi*-e* w-ic-
cannot /a** t-e cen*or*-i/ are bo.n' to ari*e. ?et .* fir*t con*i'er t-e re$ation between
fat-er an' *on. In my o/inion t-e *anctity wit- w-ic- we -a&e en'or*e' t-e in6.nction*
of t-e Deca$o,.e '.$$* o.r /erce/tion of t-e rea$ity. Per-a/* we -ar'$y 'are /ermit
o.r*e$&e* to /ercei&e t-at t-e ,reater /art of -.manity ne,$ect* to obey t-e fift-
comman'ment. In t-e $owe*t a* we$$ a* in t-e -i,-e*t *trata of -.man *ociety# fi$ia$ /iety
towar'* /arent* i* wont to rece'e before ot-er intere*t*. T-e ob*c.re $e,en'* w-ic- -a&e
been -an'e' 'own to .* from t-e /rime&a$ a,e* of -.man *ociety in myt-o$o,y an'
fo$k$ore ,i&e a 'e/$orab$e i'ea of t-e 'e*/otic /ower of t-e fat-er# an' t-e r.t-$e**ne**
wit- w-ic- it wa* e=erci*e'. Frono* 'e&o.r* -i* c-i$'ren# a* t-e wi$' boar 'e&o.r* t-e
$itter of t-e *ow< Pe.* ema*c.$ate* -i* fat-er17 an' take* -i* /$ace a* r.$er. T-e more
tyrannica$$y t-e fat-er r.$e' in t-e ancient fami$y# t-e more *.re$y m.*t t-e *on# a* -i*
a//ointe' *.cce**or# -a&e a**.me' t-e /o*ition of an enemy# an' t-e ,reater m.*t -a&e
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been -i* im/atience to attain to *./remacy t-ro.,- t-e 'eat- of -i* fat-er. E&en in o.r
own mi''$e5c$a** fami$ie* t-e fat-er common$y fo*ter* t-e ,rowt- of t-e ,erm of -atre'
w-ic- i* nat.ra$$y in-erent in t-e /aterna$ re$ation# by ref.*in, to a$$ow t-e *on to be a
free a,ent or by 'enyin, -im t-e mean* of becomin, *o. A /-y*ician often -a* occa*ion
to remark t-at a *on1* ,rief at t-e $o** of -i* fat-er cannot ;.enc- -i* ,ratification t-at -e
-a* at $a*t obtaine' -i* free'om. Fat-er*# a* a r.$e# c$in, 'e*/erate$y to a* m.c- of t-e
*a'$y anti;.ate' potestas patris familias a* *ti$$ *.r&i&e* in o.r mo'ern *ociety# an' t-e
/oet w-o# $ike Ib*en# /.t* t-e immemoria$ *trife between fat-er an' *on in t-e fore,ro.n'
of -i* 'rama i* *.re of -i* effect. T-e ca.*e* of conf$ict between mot-er an' 'a.,-ter
ari*e w-en t-e 'a.,-ter ,row* ./ an' fin'* -er*e$f watc-e' by -er mot-er w-en *-e
$on,* for rea$ *e=.a$ free'om# w-i$e t-e mot-er i* remin'e' by t-e b.''in, bea.ty of -er
'a.,-ter t-at for -er t-e time -a* come to reno.nce *e=.a$ c$aim*.
A$$ t-e*e circ.m*tance* are ob&io.* to e&eryone# b.t t-ey 'o not -e$/ .* to e=/$ain
'ream* of t-e 'eat- of t-eir /arent* in /er*on* for w-om fi$ia$ /iety -a* $on, *ince come
to be .n;.e*tionab$e. +e are# -owe&er# /re/arin, by t-e fore,oin, 'i*c.**ion to $ook for
t-e ori,in of a 'eat-5wi*- in t-e ear$ie*t year* of c-i$'-oo'.
In t-e ca*e of /*yc-one.rotic*# ana$y*i* confirm* t-i* con6ect.re beyon' a$$ 'o.bt. For
ana$y*i* te$$* .* t-at t-e *e=.a$ wi*-e* of t-e c-i$' 55 in *o far a* t-ey 'e*er&e t-i*
'e*i,nation in t-eir na*cent *tate 55 awaken at a &ery ear$y a,e# an' t-at t-e ear$ie*t
affection of t-e ,ir$5c-i$' i* $a&i*-e' on t-e fat-er# w-i$e t-e ear$ie*t infanti$e 'e*ire* of
t-e boy are 'irecte' ./on t-e mot-er. For t-e boy t-e fat-er# an' for t-e ,ir$ t-e mot-er#
become* an obno=io.* ri&a$# an' we -a&e a$rea'y *-own# in t-e ca*e of brot-er* an'
*i*ter*# -ow rea'i$y in c-i$'ren t-i* fee$in, $ea'* to t-e 'eat-5wi*-. A* a ,enera$ r.$e#
*e=.a$ *e$ection *oon make* it* a//earance in t-e /arent< it i* a nat.ra$ ten'ency for t-e
fat-er to */oi$ -i* $itt$e 'a.,-ter*# an' for t-e mot-er to take t-e /art of t-e *on*# w-i$e
bot-# *o $on, a* t-e ,$amo.r of *e= 'oe* not /re6.'ice t-eir 6.',ment# are *trict in
trainin, t-e c-i$'ren. T-e c-i$' i* /erfect$y con*cio.* of t-i* /artia$ity# an' offer*
re*i*tance to t-e /arent w-o o//o*e* it. To fin' $o&e in an a'.$t i* for t-e c-i$' not mere$y
t-e *ati*faction of a */ecia$ nee'< it mean* a$*o t-at t-e c-i$'1* wi$$ i* in'.$,e' in a$$ ot-er
re*/ect*. T-.* t-e c-i$' i* obeyin, it* own *e=.a$ in*tinct# an' at t-e *ame time
reinforcin, t-e *tim.$.* /rocee'in, from t-e /arent*# w-en it* c-oice between t-e /arent*
corre*/on'* wit- t-eir own.
T-e *i,n* of t-e*e infanti$e ten'encie* are for t-e mo*t /art o&er$ooke'< an' yet *ome of
t-em may be ob*er&e' e&en after t-e ear$y year* of c-i$'-oo'. An ei,-t5year5o$' ,ir$ of
my ac;.aintance# w-ene&er -er mot-er i* ca$$e' away from t-e tab$e# take* a'&anta,e of
-er ab*ence to /roc$aim -er*e$f -er *.cce**or. @Now I *-a$$ be Mamma< Far$# 'o yo.
want *ome more &e,etab$e*I %a&e *ome more# 'o#1 etc. A /artic.$ar$y c$e&er an' $i&e$y
$itt$e ,ir$# not yet fo.r year* of a,e# in w-om t-i* trait of c-i$' /*yc-o$o,y i* .n.*.a$$y
tran*/arent# *ay* frank$y: @Now m.mmy can ,o away< t-en 'a''y m.*t marry me# an' I
wi$$ be -i* wife.1 Nor 'oe* t-i* wi*- by any mean* e=c$.'e t-e /o**ibi$ity t-at t-e c-i$'
may mo*t ten'er$y $o&e it* mot-er. If t-e $itt$e boy i* a$$owe' to *$ee/ at -i* mot-er1* *i'e
w-ene&er -i* fat-er ,oe* on a 6o.rney# an' if after -i* fat-er1* ret.rn -e -a* to ,o back to
t-e n.r*ery# to a /er*on w-om -e $ike* far $e**# t-e wi*- may rea'i$y ari*e t-at -i* fat-er
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mi,-t a$way* be ab*ent# *o t-at -e mi,-t kee/ -i* /$ace be*i'e -i* 'ear# bea.tif.$
mamma< an' t-e fat-er1* 'eat- i* ob&io.*$y a mean* for t-e attainment of t-i* wi*-< for
t-e c-i$'1* e=/erience -a* ta.,-t -im t-at @'ea'1 fo$k*# $ike ,ran'/a/a# for e=am/$e# are
a$way* ab*ent< t-ey ne&er come back.
+-i$e *.c- ob*er&ation* of yo.n, c-i$'ren rea'i$y accommo'ate t-em*e$&e* to t-e
inter/retation *.,,e*te'# t-ey 'o not# it i* tr.e# carry t-e com/$ete con&iction w-ic- i*
force' ./on a /-y*ician by t-e /*yc-oana$y*i* of a'.$t ne.rotic*. T-e 'ream* of ne.rotic
/atient* are comm.nicate' wit- /re$iminarie* of *.c- a nat.re t-at t-eir inter/retation a*
wi*-5'ream* become* ine&itab$e. One 'ay I fin' a $a'y 'e/re**e' an' wee/in,. S-e *ay*:
@I 'o not want to *ee my re$ati&e* any more< t-ey m.*t *-.''er at me.1 T-ere./on# a$mo*t
wit-o.t any tran*ition# *-e te$$* me t-at *-e -a* remembere' a 'ream# w-o*e *i,nificance#
of co.r*e# *-e 'oe* not .n'er*tan'. S-e 'reame' it w-en *-e wa* fo.r year* o$'# an' it
wa* t-i*: ! fo or a l$n is "al(in' a%out the roof6 then somethin' falls do"n, or she falls
do"n, and after that, her mother is carried out of the house 44 dead< w-ereat t-e 'reamer
wee/* bitter$y. I -a&e no *ooner informe' -er t-at t-i* 'ream m.*t *i,nify a c-i$'i*- wi*-
to *ee -er mot-er 'ea'# an' t-at it i* beca.*e of t-i* 'ream t-at *-e t-ink* t-at -er
re$ati&e* m.*t *-.''er at -er# t-an *-e f.rni*-e* materia$ in e=/$anation of t-e 'ream.
@?yn=5eye1 i* an o//robrio.* e/it-et w-ic- a *treet boy once be*towe' on -er w-en *-e
wa* a &ery *ma$$ c-i$'< an' w-en *-e wa* t-ree year* o$' a brick or ti$e fe$$ on -er
mot-er1* -ea'# *o t-at *-e b$e' /rof.*e$y.
I once -a' occa*ion to make a t-oro.,- *t.'y of a yo.n, ,ir$ w-o wa* /a**in, t-ro.,-
&ario.* /*yc-ic *tate*. In t-e *tate of frenCie' conf.*ion wit- w-ic- -er i$$ne** be,an# t-e
/atient manife*te' a ;.ite /ec.$iar a&er*ion for -er mot-er< *-e *tr.ck -er an' ab.*e' -er
w-ene&er *-e a//roac-e' t-e be'# w-i$e at t-e *ame /erio' *-e wa* affectionate an'
*.bmi**i&e to a m.c- o$'er *i*ter. T-en t-ere fo$$owe' a $.ci' b.t rat-er a/at-etic
con'ition# wit- ba'$y 'i*t.rbe' *$ee/. It wa* in t-i* /-a*e t-at I be,an to treat -er an' to
ana$y*e -er 'ream*. An enormo.* n.mber of t-e*e 'ea$t# in a more or $e** &ei$e' fa*-ion#
wit- t-e 'eat- of t-e ,ir$1* mot-er< now *-e wa* /re*ent at t-e f.nera$ of an o$' woman#
now *-e *aw -er*e$f an' -er *i*ter *ittin, at a tab$e# 're**e' in mo.rnin,< t-e meanin, of
t-e 'ream* co.$' not be 'o.bte'. D.rin, -er /ro,re**i&e im/ro&ement -y*terica$ /-obia*
ma'e t-eir a//earance# t-e mo*t 'i*tre**in, of w-ic- wa* t-e fear t-at *omet-in, -a'
-a//ene' to -er mot-er. +-ere&er *-e mi,-t be at t-e time# *-e -a' t-en to -.rry -ome
in or'er to con&ince -er*e$f t-at -er mot-er wa* *ti$$ a$i&e. Now t-i* ca*e# con*i'ere' in
con6.nction wit- t-e re*t of my e=/erience# wa* &ery in*tr.cti&e< it *-owe'# in /o$y,$ot
tran*$ation*# a* it were# t-e 'ifferent way* in w-ic- t-e /*yc-ic a//arat.* react* to t-e
*ame e=citin, i'ea. In t-e *tate of conf.*ion# w-ic- I re,ar' a* an o&ert-row of t-e
*econ' /*yc-ic in*tance by t-e fir*t in*tance# at ot-er time* *.//re**e'# t-e .ncon*cio.*
enmity towar'* t-e mot-er ,aine' t-e .//er -an'# an' fo.n' /-y*ica$ e=/re**ion< t-en#
w-en t-e /atient became ca$mer# t-e in*.rrection wa* *.//re**e'# an' t-e 'omination of
t-e cen*or*-i/ re*tore'# an' t-i* enmity -a' acce** on$y to t-e rea$m* of 'ream*# in
w-ic- it rea$i*e' t-e wi*- t-at t-e mot-er mi,-t 'ie< an' after t-e norma$ con'ition -a'
been *ti$$ f.rt-er *tren,t-ene' it create' t-e e=ce**i&e concern for t-e mot-er a* a
-y*terica$ co.nter5reaction an' 'efen*i&e /-enomenon. In t-e $i,-t of t-e*e
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con*i'eration*# it i* no $on,er ine=/$icab$e w-y -y*terica$ ,ir$* are *o often e=tra&a,ant$y
attac-e' to t-eir mot-er*.
On anot-er occa*ion I -a' an o//ort.nity of obtainin, a /rofo.n' in*i,-t into t-e
.ncon*cio.* /*yc-ic $ife of a yo.n, man for w-om an ob*e**iona$ ne.ro*i* ma'e $ife
a$mo*t .nen'.rab$e# *o t-at -e co.$' not ,o into t-e *treet*# beca.*e -e wa* tormente' by
t-e fear t-at -e wo.$' ki$$ e&eryone -e met. %e */ent -i* 'ay* in contri&in, e&i'ence of
an a$ibi in ca*e -e *-o.$' be acc.*e' of any m.r'er t-at mi,-t -a&e been committe' in
t-e city. It ,oe* wit-o.t *ayin, t-at t-i* man wa* a* mora$ a* -e wa* -i,-$y c.$t.re'. T-e
ana$y*i* 55 w-ic-# by t-e way# $e' to a c.re 55 re&ea$e'# a* t-e ba*i* of t-i* 'i*tre**in,
ob*e**ion# m.r'ero.* im/.$*e* in re*/ect of -i* rat-er o&er5*trict fat-er 55 im/.$*e*
w-ic-# to -i* a*toni*-ment# -a' con*cio.*$y e=/re**e' t-em*e$&e* w-en -e wa* *e&en
year* o$'# b.t w-ic-# of co.r*e# -a' ori,inate' in a m.c- ear$ier /erio' of -i* c-i$'-oo'.
After t-e /ainf.$ i$$ne** an' 'eat- of -i* fat-er# w-en t-e yo.n, man wa* in -i* t-irtyfir*t
year# t-e ob*e**i&e re/roac- ma'e it* a//earance# w-ic- tran*ferre' it*e$f to
*tran,er* in t-e form of t-i* /-obia. Anyone ca/ab$e of wi*-in, to /.*- -i* own fat-er
from a mo.ntain5to/ into an aby** cannot be tr.*te' to */are t-e $i&e* of /er*on* $e**
c$o*e$y re$ate' to -im< -e t-erefore 'oe* we$$ to $ock -im*e$f into -i* room.
Accor'in, to my a$rea'y e=ten*i&e e=/erience# /arent* /$ay a $ea'in, /art in t-e infanti$e
/*yc-o$o,y of a$$ /er*on* w-o *.b*e;.ent$y become /*yc-one.rotic*. Fa$$in, in $o&e
wit- one /arent an' -atin, t-e ot-er form* /art of t-e /ermanent *tock of t-e /*yc-ic
im/.$*e* w-ic- ari*e in ear$y c-i$'-oo'# an' are of *.c- im/ortance a* t-e materia$ of t-e
*.b*e;.ent ne.ro*i*. 0.t I 'o not be$ie&e t-at /*yc-one.rotic* are to be *-ar/$y
'i*tin,.i*-e' in t-i* re*/ect from ot-er /er*on* w-o remain norma$ 55 t-at i*# I 'o not
be$ie&e t-at t-ey are ca/ab$e of creatin, *omet-in, ab*o$.te$y new an' /ec.$iar to
t-em*e$&e*. It i* far more /robab$e 55 an' t-i* i* confirme' by inci'enta$ ob*er&ation* of
norma$ c-i$'ren 55 t-at in t-eir amoro.* or -o*ti$e attit.'e towar' t-eir /arent*#
/*yc-one.rotic* 'o no more t-an re&ea$ to .*# by ma,nification# *omet-in, t-at occ.r*
$e** marke'$y an' inten*i&e$y in t-e min'* of t-e ma6ority of c-i$'ren. Anti;.ity -a*
f.rni*-e' .* wit- $e,en'ary matter w-ic- corroborate* t-i* be$ief# an' t-e /rofo.n' an'
.ni&er*a$ &a$i'ity of t-e o$' $e,en'* i* e=/$icab$e on$y by an e;.a$$y .ni&er*a$ &a$i'ity of
t-e abo&e5mentione' -y/ot-e*i* of infanti$e /*yc-o$o,y. I am referrin, to t-e $e,en' of
Fin, Oe'i/.* an' t-e 8edipus Ge of So/-oc$e*. Oe'i/.*# t-e *on of ?ai.*# kin, of
T-ebe*# an' >oca*ta# i* e=/o*e' a* a *.ck$in,# beca.*e an orac$e -a' informe' t-e fat-er
t-at -i* *on# w-o wa* *ti$$ .nborn# wo.$' be -i* m.r'erer. %e i* re*c.e'# an' ,row* ./ a*
a kin,1* *on at a forei,n co.rt# .nti$# bein, .ncertain of -i* ori,in# -e# too# con*.$t* t-e
orac$e# an' i* warne' to a&oi' -i* nati&e /$ace# for -e i* 'e*tine' to become t-e m.r'erer
of -i* fat-er an' t-e -.*ban' of -i* mot-er. On t-e roa' $ea'in, away from -i* *.//o*e'
-ome -e meet* Fin, ?ai.*# an' in a *.''en ;.arre$ *trike* -im 'ea'. %e come* to
T-ebe*# w-ere -e *o$&e* t-e ri''$e of t-e S/-in=# w-o i* barrin, t-e way to t-e city#
w-ere./on -e i* e$ecte' kin, by t-e ,ratef.$ T-eban*# an' i* rewar'e' wit- t-e -an' of
>oca*ta. %e rei,n* for many year* in /eace an' -ono.r# an' be,et* two *on* an' two
'a.,-ter* ./on -i* .nknown mot-er# .nti$ at $a*t a /$a,.e break* o.t 55 w-ic- ca.*e* t-e
T-eban* to con*.$t t-e orac$e anew. %ere So/-oc$e*1 tra,e'y be,in*. T-e me**en,er*
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brin, t-e re/$y t-at t-e /$a,.e wi$$ *to/ a* *oon a* t-e m.r'erer of ?ai.* i* 'ri&en from
t-e co.ntry. 0.t w-ere i* -eI
Where shall be found,
Faint, and hard to be known, the trace of the ancient
guilt?
T-e action of t-e /$ay con*i*t* *im/$y in t-e 'i*c$o*.re# a//roac-e' *te/ by *te/ an'
arti*tica$$y 'e$aye' 3an' com/arab$e to t-e work of a /*yc-oana$y*i*4 t-at Oe'i/.*
-im*e$f i* t-e m.r'erer of ?ai.*# an' t-at -e i* t-e *on of t-e m.r'ere' man an' >oca*ta.
S-ocke' by t-e abominab$e crime w-ic- -e -a* .nwittin,$y committe'# Oe'i/.* b$in'*
-im*e$f# an' 'e/art* from -i* nati&e city. T-e /ro/-ecy of t-e orac$e -a* been f.$fi$$e'.
T-e 8edipus Ge i* a tra,e'y of fate< it* tra,ic effect 'e/en'* on t-e conf$ict between t-e
a$$5/owerf.$ wi$$ of t-e ,o'* an' t-e &ain effort* of -.man bein,* t-reatene' wit-
'i*a*ter< re*i,nation to t-e 'i&ine wi$$# an' t-e /erce/tion of one1* own im/otence i* t-e
$e**on w-ic- t-e 'ee/$y mo&e' */ectator i* *.//o*e' to $earn from t-e tra,e'y. Mo'ern
a.t-or* -a&e t-erefore *o.,-t to ac-ie&e a *imi$ar tra,ic effect by e=/re**in, t-e *ame
conf$ict in *torie* of t-eir own in&ention. 0.t t-e /$ay,oer* -a&e $ooke' on .nmo&e' at
t-e .na&ai$in, effort* of ,.i$t$e** men to a&ert t-e f.$fi$ment of c.r*e or orac$e< t-e
mo'ern tra,e'ie* of 'e*tiny -a&e fai$e' of t-eir effect.
If t-e 8edipus Ge i* ca/ab$e of mo&in, a mo'ern rea'er or /$ay,oer no $e** /owerf.$$y
t-an it mo&e' t-e contem/orary Greek*# t-e on$y /o**ib$e e=/$anation i* t-at t-e effect of
t-e Greek tra,e'y 'oe* not 'e/en' ./on t-e conf$ict between fate an' -.man wi$$# b.t
./on t-e /ec.$iar nat.re of t-e materia$ by w-ic- t-i* conf$ict i* re&ea$e'. T-ere m.*t be
a &oice wit-in .* w-ic- i* /re/are' to acknow$e',e t-e com/e$$in, /ower of fate in t-e
8edipus# w-i$e we are ab$e to con'emn t-e *it.ation* occ.rrin, in Die !hnfrau or ot-er
tra,e'ie* of fate a* arbitrary in&ention*. An' t-ere act.a$$y i* a moti&e in t-e *tory of
Fin, Oe'i/.* w-ic- e=/$ain* t-e &er'ict of t-i* inner &oice. %i* fate mo&e* .* on$y
beca.*e it mi,-t -a&e been o.r own# beca.*e t-e orac$e $ai' ./on .* before o.r birt- t-e
&ery c.r*e w-ic- re*te' ./on -im. It may be t-at we were a$$ 'e*tine' to 'irect o.r fir*t
*e=.a$ im/.$*e* towar' o.r mot-er*# an' o.r fir*t im/.$*e* of -atre' an' &io$ence towar'
o.r fat-er*< o.r 'ream* con&ince .* t-at we were. Fin, Oe'i/.*# w-o *$ew -i* fat-er
?ai.* an' we''e' -i* mot-er >oca*ta# i* not-in, more or $e** t-an a wi*-5f.$fi$ment 55
t-e f.$fi$ment of t-e wi*- of o.r c-i$'-oo'. 0.t we# more fort.nate t-an -e# in *o far a*
we -a&e not become /*yc-one.rotic*# -a&e *ince o.r c-i$'-oo' *.ccee'e' in
wit-'rawin, o.r *e=.a$ im/.$*e* from o.r mot-er*# an' in for,ettin, o.r 6ea$o.*y of o.r
fat-er*. +e recoi$ from t-e /er*on for w-om t-i* /rimiti&e wi*- of o.r c-i$'-oo' -a*
been f.$fi$$e' wit- a$$ t-e force of t-e re/re**ion w-ic- t-e*e wi*-e* -a&e .n'er,one in
o.r min'* *ince c-i$'-oo'. A* t-e /oet brin,* t-e ,.i$t of Oe'i/.* to $i,-t by -i*
in&e*ti,ation# -e force* .* to become aware of o.r own inner *e$&e*# in w-ic- t-e *ame
im/.$*e* are *ti$$ e=tant# e&en t-o.,- t-ey are *.//re**e'. T-e antit-e*i* wit- w-ic- t-e
c-or.* 'e/art*:
Behold, this is edi!us,
Who unravelled the great riddle, and was first in !ower,
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Whose fortune all the townsmen !raised and envied"
#ee in what dread adversity he sank$
55 t-i* a'monition to.c-e* .* an' o.r own /ri'e# .* w-o *ince t-e year* of o.r c-i$'-oo'
-a&e ,rown *o wi*e an' *o /owerf.$ in o.r own e*timation. ?ike Oe'i/.*# we $i&e in
i,norance of t-e 'e*ire* t-at offen' mora$ity# t-e 'e*ire* t-at nat.re -a* force' ./on .*#
an' after t-eir .n&ei$in, we may we$$ /refer to a&ert o.r ,aCe from t-e *cene* of o.r
c-i$'-oo'.18
In t-e &ery te=t of So/-oc$e*1 tra,e'y t-ere i* an .nmi*takab$e reference to t-e fact t-at
t-e Oe'i/.* $e,en' -a' it* *o.rce in 'ream5materia$ of immemoria$ anti;.ity# t-e content
of w-ic- wa* t-e /ainf.$ 'i*t.rbance of t-e c-i$'1* re$ation* to it* /arent* ca.*e' by t-e
fir*t im/.$*e* of *e=.a$ity. >oca*ta comfort* Oe'i/.* 55 w-o i* not yet en$i,-tene'# b.t i*
tro.b$e' by t-e reco$$ection of t-e orac$e 55 by an a$$.*ion to a 'ream w-ic- i* often
'reame'# t-o.,- it cannot# in -er o/inion# mean anyt-in,:
For many a man -at- *een -im*e$f in 'ream*
%i* mot-er1* mate# b.t -e w-o ,i&e* no -ee'
To *.c-$ike matter* bear* t-e ea*ier $ife.
T-e 'ream of -a&in, *e=.a$ interco.r*e wit- one1* mot-er wa* a* common t-en a* it i*
to'ay wit- many /eo/$e# w-o te$$ it wit- in'i,nation an' a*toni*-ment. A* may we$$ be
ima,ine'# it i* t-e key to t-e tra,e'y an' t-e com/$ement to t-e 'ream of t-e 'eat- of t-e
fat-er. T-e Oe'i/.* fab$e i* t-e reaction of fanta*y to t-e*e two ty/ica$ 'ream*# an' 6.*t
a* *.c- a 'ream# w-en occ.rrin, to an a'.$t# i* e=/erience' wit- fee$in,* of a&er*ion# *o
t-e content of t-e fab$e m.*t inc$.'e terror an' *e$f5c-a*ti*ement. T-e form w-ic- it
*.b*e;.ent$y a**.me' wa* t-e re*.$t of an .ncom/re-en'in, *econ'ary e$aboration of
t-e materia$# w-ic- *o.,-t to make it *er&e a t-eo$o,ica$ intention.19 T-e attem/t to
reconci$e 'i&ine omni/otence wit- -.man re*/on*ibi$ity m.*t# of co.r*e# fai$ wit- t-i*
materia$ a* wit- any ot-er.
Anot-er of t-e ,reat /oetic tra,e'ie*# S-ake*/eare1* Bamlet# i* roote' in t-e *ame *oi$ a*
8edipus Ge. 0.t t-e w-o$e 'ifference in t-e /*yc-ic $ife of t-e two wi'e$y *e/arate'
/erio'* of ci&i$i*ation# an' t-e /ro,re**# '.rin, t-e co.r*e of time# of re/re**ion in t-e
emotiona$ $ife of -.manity# i* manife*te' in t-e 'ifferin, treatment of t-e *ame materia$.
In 8edipus Ge t-e ba*ic wi*-5fanta*y of t-e c-i$' i* bro.,-t to $i,-t an' rea$i*e' a* it i*
in 'ream*< in Bamlet it remain* re/re**e'# an' we $earn of it* e=i*tence 55 a* we 'i*co&er
t-e re$e&ant fact* in a ne.ro*i* 55 on$y t-ro.,- t-e in-ibitory effect* w-ic- /rocee' from
it. In t-e more mo'ern 'rama# t-e c.rio.* fact t-at it i* /o**ib$e to remain in com/$ete
.ncertainty a* to t-e c-aracter of t-e -ero -a* /ro&e' to be ;.ite con*i*tent wit- t-e
o&er/owerin, effect of t-e tra,e'y. T-e /$ay i* ba*e' ./on %am$et1* -e*itation in
accom/$i*-in, t-e ta*k of re&en,e a**i,ne' to -im< t-e te=t 'oe* not ,i&e t-e ca.*e or t-e
moti&e of t-i* -e*itation# nor -a&e t-e manifo$' attem/t* at inter/retation *.ccee'e' in
'oin, *o. Accor'in, to t-e *ti$$ /re&ai$in, conce/tion# a conce/tion for w-ic- Goet-e wa*
fir*t re*/on*ib$e# %am$et re/re*ent* t-e ty/e of man w-o*e acti&e ener,y i* /ara$y*e' by
e=ce**i&e inte$$ect.a$ acti&ity: @Sick$ie' o1er wit- t-e /a$e ca*t of t-o.,-t.1 Accor'in, to
anot-er conce/tion# t-e /oet -a* en'ea&o.re' to /ortray a morbi'# irre*o$.te c-aracter# on
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t-e &er,e of ne.ra*t-enia. T-e /$ot of t-e 'rama# -owe&er# *-ow* .* t-at %am$et i* by no
mean* inten'e' to a//ear a* a c-aracter w-o$$y inca/ab$e of action. On two *e/arate
occa*ion* we *ee -im a**ert -im*e$f: once in a *.''en o.tb.r*t of ra,e# w-en -e *tab* t-e
ea&e*'ro//er be-in' t-e arra*# an' on t-e ot-er occa*ion w-en -e 'e$iberate$y# an' e&en
crafti$y# wit- t-e com/$ete .n*cr./.$o.*ne** of a /rince of t-e Renai**ance# *en'* t-e
two co.rtier* to t-e 'eat- w-ic- wa* inten'e' for -im*e$f. +-at i* it# t-en# t-at in-ibit*
-im in accom/$i*-in, t-e ta*k w-ic- -i* fat-er1* ,-o*t -a* $ai' ./on -imI %ere t-e
e=/$anation offer* it*e$f t-at it i* t-e /ec.$iar nat.re of t-i* ta*k. %am$et i* ab$e to 'o
anyt-in, b.t take &en,eance ./on t-e man w-o 'i' away wit- -i* fat-er an' -a* taken
-i* fat-er1* /$ace wit- -i* mot-er 55 t-e man w-o *-ow* -im in rea$i*ation t-e re/re**e'
'e*ire* of -i* own c-i$'-oo'. T-e $oat-in, w-ic- *-o.$' -a&e 'ri&en -im to re&en,e i*
t-.* re/$ace' by *e$f5re/roac-# by con*cientio.* *cr./$e*# w-ic- te$$ -im t-at -e -im*e$f
i* no better t-an t-e m.r'erer w-om -e i* re;.ire' to /.ni*-. I -a&e -ere tran*$ate' into
con*cio.*ne** w-at -a' to remain .ncon*cio.* in t-e min' of t-e -ero< if anyone wi*-e*
to ca$$ %am$et an -y*terica$ *.b6ect I cannot b.t a'mit t-at t-i* i* t-e 'e'.ction to be
'rawn from my inter/retation. T-e *e=.a$ a&er*ion w-ic- %am$et e=/re**e* in
con&er*ation wit- O/-e$ia i* /erfect$y con*i*tent wit- t-i* 'e'.ction 55 t-e *ame *e=.a$
a&er*ion w-ic- '.rin, t-e ne=t few year* wa* increa*in,$y to take /o**e**ion of t-e
/oet1* *o.$# .nti$ it fo.n' it* *./reme .tterance in Timon of !thens. It can# of co.r*e# be
on$y t-e /oet1* own /*yc-o$o,y wit- w-ic- we are confronte' in Bamlet< an' in a work
on S-ake*/eare by Geor, 0ran'e* 31D!94 I fin' t-e *tatement t-at t-e 'rama wa*
com/o*e' imme'iate$y after t-e 'eat- of S-ake*/eare1* fat-er 319"14 55 t-at i* to *ay#
w-en -e wa* *ti$$ mo.rnin, -i* $o**# an' '.rin, a re&i&a$# a* we may fair$y a**.me# of -i*
own c-i$'i*- fee$in,* in re*/ect of -i* fat-er. It i* known# too# t-at S-ake*/eare1* *on#
w-o 'ie' in c-i$'-oo'# bore t-e name of %amnet 3i'entica$ wit- %am$et4. >.*t a* Bamlet
treat* of t-e re$ation of t-e *on to -i* /arent*# *o Mac%eth# w-ic- wa* written abo.t t-e
*ame /erio'# i* ba*e' ./on t-e t-eme of c-i$'$e**ne**. >.*t a* a$$ ne.rotic *ym/tom*# $ike
'ream* t-em*e$&e*# are ca/ab$e of -y/er5inter/retation# an' e&en re;.ire *.c-
-y/erinter/retation
before t-ey become /erfect$y inte$$i,ib$e# *o e&ery ,en.ine /oetica$
creation m.*t -a&e /rocee'e' from more t-an one moti&e# more t-an one im/.$*e in t-e
min' of t-e /oet# an' m.*t a'mit of more t-an one inter/retation. I -a&e -ere attem/te'
to inter/ret on$y t-e 'ee/e*t *trat.m of im/.$*e* in t-e min' of t-e creati&e /oet.1:
+it- re,ar' to ty/ica$ 'ream* of t-e 'eat- of re$ati&e*# I m.*t a'' a few wor'* ./on t-eir
*i,nificance from t-e /oint of &iew of t-e t-eory of 'ream* in ,enera$. T-e*e 'ream*
*-ow .* t-e occ.rrence of a &ery .n.*.a$ *tate of t-in,*< t-ey *-ow .* t-at t-e
'reamt-o.,-t
create' by t-e re/re**e' wi*- com/$ete$y e*ca/e* t-e cen*or*-i/# an' i*
tran*ferre' to t-e 'ream wit-o.t a$teration. S/ecia$ con'ition* m.*t obtain in or'er to
make t-i* /o**ib$e. T-e fo$$owin, two factor* fa&o.r t-e /ro'.ction of t-e*e 'ream*:
fir*t# t-i* i* t-e $a*t wi*- t-at we co.$' cre'it o.r*e$&e* wit- -arbo.rin,< we be$ie&e *.c-
a wi*- @wo.$' ne&er occ.r to .* e&en in a 'ream1< t-e 'ream5cen*or*-i/ i* t-erefore
.n/re/are' for t-i* mon*tro*ity# 6.*t a* t-e $aw* of So$on 'i' not fore*ee t-e nece**ity of
e*tab$i*-in, a /ena$ty for /atrici'e. Secon'$y# t-e re/re**e' an' .n*.*/ecte' wi*- i*# in
t-i* */ecia$ ca*e# fre;.ent$y met -a$f5way by a re*i'.e from t-e 'ay1* e=/erience# in t-e
form of *ome concern for t-e $ife of t-e be$o&e' /er*on. T-i* an=iety cannot enter into
t-e 'ream ot-erwi*e t-an by takin, a'&anta,e of t-e corre*/on'in, wi*-< b.t t-e wi*- i*
INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS
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112
ab$e to ma*k it*e$f be-in' t-e concern w-ic- -a* been aro.*e' '.rin, t-e 'ay. If one i*
inc$ine' to t-ink t-at a$$ t-i* i* rea$$y a &ery m.c- *im/$er /roce**# an' to ima,ine t-at
one mere$y contin.e* '.rin, t-e ni,-t# an' in one1* 'ream# w-at wa* be,.n '.rin, t-e
'ay# one remo&e* t-e 'ream* of t-e 'eat- of t-o*e 'ear to .* o.t of a$$ connection wit-
t-e ,enera$ e=/$anation of 'ream*# an' a /rob$em t-at may &ery we$$ be *o$&e' remain* a
/rob$em nee'$e**$y.
It i* in*tr.cti&e to trace t-e re$ation of t-e*e 'ream* to an=iety5'ream*. In 'ream* of t-e
'eat- of t-o*e 'ear to .* t-e re/re**e' wi*- -a* fo.n' a way of a&oi'in, t-e cen*or*-i/ 55
an' t-e 'i*tortion for w-ic- t-e cen*or*-i/ i* re*/on*ib$e. An in&ariab$e concomitant
/-enomenon# t-en# i* t-at /ainf.$ emotion* are fe$t in t-e 'ream. Simi$ar$y# an
an=iety'ream
occ.r* on$y w-en t-e cen*or*-i/ i* entire$y or /artia$$y o&er/owere'# an' on t-e
ot-er -an'# t-e o&er/owerin, of t-e cen*or*-i/ i* faci$itate' w-en t-e act.a$ *en*ation of
an=iety i* a$rea'y /re*ent from *omatic *o.rce*. It t-.* become* ob&io.* for w-at
/.r/o*e t-e cen*or*-i/ /erform* it* office an' /ractice* 'ream5'i*tortion< it 'oe* *o in
order to prevent the development of aniet$ or other forms of painful affect.
I -a&e */oken in t-e fore,oin, *ection* of t-e e,oi*m of t-e c-i$'1* /*yc-e# an' I now
em/-a*i*e t-i* /ec.$iarity in or'er to *.,,e*t a connection# for 'ream* too -a&e retaine'
t-i* c-aracteri*tic. A$$ 'ream* are ab*o$.te$y e,oi*tica$< in e&ery 'ream t-e be$o&e' e,o
a//ear*# e&en t-o.,- in a 'i*,.i*e' form. T-e wi*-e* t-at are rea$i*e' in 'ream* are
in&ariab$y t-e wi*-e* of t-i* e,o< it i* on$y a 'ece/ti&e a//earance if intere*t in anot-er
/er*on i* be$ie&e' to -a&e e&oke' a 'ream. I wi$$ now ana$y*e a few e=am/$e* w-ic-
a//ear to contra'ict t-i* a**ertion.
Dream 1
A boy not yet fo.r year* of a,e re$ate* t-e fo$$owin, 'ream: Be sa" a lar'e 'arnished
dish, on "hich "as a lar'e /oint of roast meat6 and the /oint "as suddenl$ 44 not carved 44
%ut eaten up5 Be did not see the person "ho ate it.1D
+-o can -e be# t-i* *tran,e /er*on# of w-o*e $.=.rio.* re/a*t t-e $itt$e fe$$ow 'ream*I
T-e e=/erience of t-e 'ay m.*t *.//$y t-e an*wer. For *ome 'ay* /a*t t-e boy# in
accor'ance wit- t-e 'octor1* or'er*# -a' been $i&in, on a mi$k 'iet< b.t on t-e e&enin, of
t-e @'ream5'ay1 -e -a' been na.,-ty# an'# a* a /.ni*-ment# -a' been 'e/ri&e' of -i*
*.//er. %e -a' a$rea'y .n'er,one one *.c- -.n,er5c.re# an' -a' borne -i* 'e/ri&ation
bra&e$y. %e knew t-at -e wo.$' ,et not-in,# b.t -e 'i' not e&en a$$.'e to t-e fact t-at -e
wa* -.n,ry. Trainin, wa* be,innin, to /ro'.ce it* effect< t-i* i* 'emon*trate' e&en by
t-e 'ream# w-ic- re&ea$* t-e be,innin,* of 'ream5'i*tortion. T-ere i* no 'o.bt t-at -e
-im*e$f i* t-e /er*on w-o*e 'e*ire* are 'irecte' towar' t-i* ab.n'ant mea$# an' a mea$ of
roa*t meat at t-at. 0.t *ince -e know* t-at t-i* i* forbi''en -im# -e 'oe* not 'are# a*
-.n,ry c-i$'ren 'o in 'ream* 3cf. my $itt$e Anna1* 'ream abo.t *trawberrie*# /. 714# to *it
'own to t-e mea$ -im*e$f. T-e /er*on remain* anonymo.*.
Dream
INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS
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One ni,-t I 'ream t-at I *ee on a book*e$$er1* co.nter a new &o$.me of one of t-o*e
co$$ector*1 *erie*# w-ic- I am in t-e -abit of b.yin, 3mono,ra/-* on arti*tic *.b6ect*#
-i*tory# famo.* arti*tic centre*# etc.4. The ne" collection is entitled )Famous 8rators+ 9or
8rations:, and the first num%er %ears the name of Dr Lecher.
On ana$y*i* it *eem* to me im/robab$e t-at t-e fame of Dr ?ec-er# t-e $on,5win'e'
*/eaker of t-e German O//o*ition# *-o.$' occ./y my t-o.,-t* w-i$e I am 'reamin,. T-e
fact i* t-at a few 'ay* a,o I .n'ertook t-e /*yc-o$o,ica$ treatment of *ome new /atient*#
an' am now force' to ta$k for ten to twe$&e -o.r* a 'ay. T-.* I my*e$f am a $on,5win'e'
*/eaker.
Dream 2
On anot-er occa*ion I 'ream t-at a .ni&er*ity $ect.rer of my ac;.aintance *ay* to me:
@M$ son, the m$opic.1 T-en fo$$ow* a 'ia$o,.e of brief ob*er&ation* an' re/$ie*. A t-ir'
/ortion of t-e 'ream fo$$ow*# in w-ic- I an' my *on* a//ear# an' *o far a* t-e $atent
'ream5content i* concerne'# t-e fat-er# t-e *on# an' Profe**or M.# are mere$y $ay fi,.re*#
re/re*entin, my*e$f an' my e$'e*t *on. ?ater on I *-a$$ e=amine t-i* 'ream a,ain# on
acco.nt of anot-er /ec.$iarity.
Dream 7
T-e fo$$owin, 'ream ,i&e* an e=am/$e of rea$$y ba*e# e,oi*tica$ fee$in,*# w-ic- concea$
t-em*e$&e* be-in' an affectionate concern: M$ friend 8tto loo(s ill6 his face is %ro"n
and his e$es protrude.
Otto i* my fami$y /-y*ician# to w-om I owe a 'ebt ,reater t-an I can e&er -o/e to re/ay#
*ince -e -a* watc-e' for year* o&er t-e -ea$t- of my c-i$'ren# -a* treate' t-em
*.cce**f.$$y w-en t-ey -a&e been i$$# an'# moreo&er# -a* ,i&en t-em /re*ent* w-ene&er
-e co.$' fin' any e=c.*e for 'oin, *o. %e /ai' .* a &i*it on t-e 'ay of t-e 'ream# an' my
wife notice' t-at -e $ooke' tire' an' e=-a.*te'. At ni,-t I 'ream of -im# an' my 'ream
attrib.te* to -im certain of t-e *ym/tom* of 0a*e'ow1* 'i*ea*e. If yo. were to 'i*re,ar'
my r.$e* for 'ream5inter/retation yo. wo.$' .n'er*tan' t-i* 'ream to mean t-at I am
concerne' abo.t t-e -ea$t- of my frien'# an' t-at t-i* concern i* rea$i*e' in t-e 'ream. It
wo.$' t-.* con*tit.te a contra'iction not on$y of t-e a**ertion t-at a 'ream i* a
wi*-f.$fi$ment#
b.t a$*o of t-e a**ertion t-at it i* acce**ib$e on$y to e,oi*tica$ im/.$*e*. 0.t
wi$$ t-o*e w-o t-.* inter/ret my 'ream e=/$ain w-y I *-o.$' fear t-at Otto -a*
0a*e'ow1* 'i*ea*e# for w-ic- 'ia,no*i* -i* a//earance 'oe* not affor' t-e *$i,-te*t
6.*tificationI My ana$y*i*# on t-e ot-er -an'# f.rni*-e* t-e fo$$owin, materia$# 'eri&in,
from an inci'ent w-ic- -a' occ.rre' *i= year* ear$ier. +e were 'ri&in, 55 a *ma$$ /arty of
.*# inc$.'in, Profe**or R. 55 in t-e 'ark t-ro.,- t-e fore*t of N.# w-ic- $ie* at a 'i*tance
of *ome -o.r* from w-ere we were *tayin, in t-e co.ntry. T-e 'ri&er# w-o wa* not ;.ite
*ober# o&ert-rew .* an' t-e carria,e 'own a bank# an' it wa* on$y by ,oo' fort.ne t-at
we a$$ e*ca/e' .n-.rt. 0.t we were force' to */en' t-e ni,-t at t-e neare*t inn# w-ere t-e
new* of o.r mi*-a/ aro.*e' ,reat *ym/at-y. A certain ,ent$eman# w-o *-owe'
.nmi*takab$e *ym/tom* of mor%us <asedo"ii 55 t-e browni*- co$o.r of t-e *kin of t-e
INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS
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118
face an' t-e /rotr.'in, eye*# b.t no ,oitre 55 /$ace' -im*e$f entire$y at o.r 'i*/o*a$# an'
a*ke' w-at -e co.$' 'o for .*.
Profe**or R. an*were' in -i* 'eci*i&e way# @Not-in,# e=ce/t $en' me a ni,-t*-irt.1
+-ere./on o.r ,enero.* frien' re/$ie': @I am *orry# b.t I cannot 'o t-at#1 an' $eft .*.
In contin.in, t-e ana$y*i*# it occ.r* to me t-at 0a*e'ow i* t-e name not on$y of a
/-y*ician# b.t a$*o of a famo.* /e'a,o,.e. 3Now t-at I am wi'e awake# I 'o not fee$
;.ite *.re of t-i* fact.4 My frien' Otto i* t-e /er*on w-om I -a&e a*ke' to take c-ar,e of
t-e /-y*ica$ e'.cation of my c-i$'ren 55 e*/ecia$$y '.rin, t-e a,e of /.berty 3-ence t-e
ni,-t*-irt4 in ca*e anyt-in, *-o.$' -a//en to me. 0y *eein, Otto in my 'ream wit- t-e
morbi' *ym/tom* of o.r abo&e5mentione' ,enero.* -e$/er# I c$ear$y mean to *ay: @If
anyt-in, -a//en* to me# -e wi$$ 'o 6.*t a* $itt$e for my c-i$'ren a* 0aron ?. 'i' for .*# in
*/ite of -i* amiab$e offer*.1 T-e e,oi*tica$ f$a&o.r of t-i* 'ream *-o.$' now be ob&io.*
eno.,-.1!
0.t w-ere i* t-e wi*-5f.$fi$ment to be fo.n' in t-i*I Not in t-e &en,eance wreake' on
my frien' Otto 3w-o *eem* to be fate' to be ba'$y treate' in my 'ream*4# b.t in t-e
fo$$owin, circ.m*tance: Ina*m.c- a* in my 'ream I re/re*ente' Otto a* 0aron ?.# I
$ikewi*e i'entifie' my*e$f wit- anot-er /er*on# name$y# wit- Profe**or R.< for I -a&e
a*ke' *omet-in, of Otto# 6.*t a* R. a*ke' *omet-in, of 0aron ?. at t-e time of t-e
inci'ent I -a&e 'e*cribe'. An' t-i* i* t-e /oint. For Profe**or R. -a* ,one -i* way
in'e/en'ent$y# o.t*i'e aca'emic circ$e*# 6.*t a* I my*e$f -a&e 'one# an' -a* on$y in -i*
$ater year* recei&e' t-e tit$e w-ic- -e -a' earne' $on, before. Once more# t-en# I want to
be a /rofe**orA T-e &ery /-ra*e @in -i* $ater year*1 i* a wi*-5f.$fi$ment# for it mean* t-at I
*-a$$ $i&e $on, eno.,- to *teer my boy* t-ro.,- t-e a,e of /.berty my*e$f.
Of ot-er ty/ica$ 'ream*# in w-ic- one f$ie* wit- a fee$in, of ea*e or fa$$* in terror# I know
not-in, from my own e=/erience# an' w-ate&er I -a&e to *ay abo.t t-em I owe to my
/*yc-oana$y*e*. From t-e information t-.* obtaine' one m.*t conc$.'e t-at t-e*e 'ream*
a$*o re/ro'.ce im/re**ion* ma'e in c-i$'-oo' 55 t-at i*# t-at t-ey refer to t-e ,ame*
in&o$&in, ra/i' motion w-ic- -a&e *.c- an e=traor'inary attraction for c-i$'ren. +-ere
i* t-e .nc$e w-o -a* ne&er ma'e a c-i$' f$y by r.nnin, wit- it acro** t-e room wit-
o.t*tretc-e' arm*# or -a* ne&er /$aye' at fa$$in, wit- it by rockin, it on -i* knee an' t-en
*.''en$y *trai,-tenin, -i* $e,# or by $iftin, it abo&e -i* -ea' an' *.''en$y /reten'in, to
wit-'raw -i* *.//ortin, -an'I At *.c- moment* c-i$'ren *-o.t wit- 6oy# an' in*atiab$y
'eman' a re/etition of t-e /erformance# e*/ecia$$y if a $itt$e fri,-t an' 'iCCine** are
in&o$&e' in t-e ,ame< in after year* t-ey re/eat t-eir *en*ation* in 'ream*# b.t in 'ream*
t-ey omit t-e -an'* t-at -e$' t-em# *o t-at now t-ey are free to f$oat or fa$$. +e know
t-at a$$ *ma$$ c-i$'ren -a&e a fon'ne** for *.c- ,ame* a* rockin, an' *ee*awin,< an' if
t-ey *ee ,ymna*tic /erformance* at t-e circ.* t-eir reco$$ection of *.c- ,ame* i*
refre*-e'." In *ome boy* a -y*terica$ attack wi$$ con*i*t *im/$y in t-e re/ro'.ction of
*.c- /erformance*# w-ic- t-ey accom/$i*- wit- ,reat 'e=terity. Not infre;.ent$y *e=.a$
*en*ation* are e=cite' by t-e*e ,ame* of mo&ement# w-ic- are ;.ite ne.tra$ in
t-em*e$&e*.1 To e=/re** t-e matter in a few wor'*: t-e @e=citin,1 ,ame* of c-i$'-oo' are
re/eate' in 'ream* of f$yin,# fa$$in,# ree$in, an' t-e $ike# b.t t-e &o$./t.o.* fee$in,* are
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now tran*forme' into an=iety. 0.t# a* e&ery mot-er know*# t-e e=cite' /$ay of c-i$'ren
often eno.,- c.$minate* in ;.arre$$in, an' tear*.
I -a&e t-erefore ,oo' rea*on for re6ectin, t-e e=/$anation t-at it i* t-e *tate of o.r 'erma$
*en*ation* '.rin, *$ee/# t-e *en*ation of t-e mo&ement* of t-e $.n,*# etc.# t-at e&oke*
'ream* of f$yin, an' fa$$in,. I *ee t-at t-e*e &ery *en*ation* -a&e been re/ro'.ce' from
t-e memory to w-ic- t-e 'ream refer* 55 an' t-at t-ey are# t-erefore# 'ream5content an'
not 'ream5*o.rce*.
I 'o not for a moment 'eny# -owe&er# t-at I am .nab$e to f.rni*- a f.$$ e=/$anation of t-i*
*erie* of ty/ica$ 'ream*. Preci*e$y -ere my materia$ $ea&e* me in t-e $.rc-. I m.*t a'-ere
to t-e ,enera$ o/inion t-at a$$ t-e 'erma$ an' kinetic *en*ation* of t-e*e ty/ica$ 'ream*
are awakene' a* *oon a* any /*yc-ic moti&e of w-ate&er kin' -a* nee' of t-em# an' t-at
t-ey are ne,$ecte' w-en t-ere i* no *.c- nee' of t-em. T-e re$ation to infanti$e
e=/erience* *eem* to be confirme' by t-e in'ication* w-ic- I -a&e obtaine' from t-e
ana$y*e* of /*yc-one.rotic*. 0.t I am .nab$e to *ay w-at ot-er meanin,* mi,-t# in t-e
co.r*e of t-e 'reamer1* $ife# -a&e become attac-e' to t-e memory of t-e*e *en*ation* 55
'ifferent# /er-a/*# in eac- in'i&i'.a$# 'e*/ite t-e ty/ica$ a//earance of t-e*e 'ream* 55
an' I *-o.$' &ery m.c- $ike to be in a /o*ition to fi$$ t-i* ,a/ wit- caref.$ ana$y*e* of
,oo' e=am/$e*. To t-o*e w-o won'er w-y I com/$ain of a $ack of materia$# 'e*/ite t-e
fre;.ency of t-e*e 'ream* of f$yin,# fa$$in,# toot-5'rawin,# etc.# I m.*t e=/$ain t-at I
my*e$f -a&e ne&er e=/erience' any *.c- 'ream* *ince I -a&e t.rne' my attention to t-e
*.b6ect of 'ream5inter/retation. T-e 'ream* of ne.rotic* w-ic- are at my 'i*/o*a$#
-owe&er# are not a$$ ca/ab$e of inter/retation# an' &ery often it i* im/o**ib$e to /enetrate
to t-e fart-e*t /oint of t-eir -i''en intention< a certain /*yc-ic force w-ic- /artici/ate' in
t-e b.i$'in, ./ of t-e ne.ro*i*# an' w-ic- a,ain become* acti&e '.rin, it* 'i**o$.tion#
o//o*e* inter/retation of t-e fina$ /rob$em.
3c4 T-e E=amination5Dream
E&eryone w-o -a* recei&e' -i* certificate of matric.$ation after /a**in, -i* fina$
e=amination at *c-oo$ com/$ain* of t-e /er*i*tence wit- w-ic- -e i* /$a,.e' by
an=iety'ream*
in w-ic- -e -a* fai$e'# or m.*t ,o t-ro.,- -i* co.r*e a,ain# etc. For t-e -o$'er of
a .ni&er*ity 'e,ree t-i* ty/ica$ 'ream i* re/$ace' by anot-er# w-ic- re/re*ent* t-at -e -a*
not taken -i* 'octor1* 'e,ree# to w-ic- -e &ain$y ob6ect*# w-i$e *ti$$ a*$ee/# t-at -e -a*
a$rea'y been /racti*in, for year*# or i* a$rea'y a .ni&er*ity $ect.rer or t-e *enior /artner
of a firm of $awyer*# an' *o on. T-e*e are t-e inera'icab$e memorie* of t-e /.ni*-ment*
we *.ffere' a* c-i$'ren for mi*'ee'* w-ic- we -a' committe' 55 memorie* w-ic- were
re&i&e' in .* on t-e dies irae, dies illa of t-e ,r.e$$in, e=amination at t-e two critica$
6.nct.re* in o.r career* a* *t.'ent*. T-e @e=amination5an=iety1 of ne.rotic* i* $ikewi*e
inten*ifie' by t-i* c-i$'i*- fear. +-en o.r *t.'ent 'ay* are o&er it i* no $on,er o.r
/arent* or teac-er* w-o *ee to o.r /.ni*-ment< t-e ine=orab$e c-ain of ca.*e an' effect
of $ater $ife -a* taken o&er o.r f.rt-er e'.cation. Now we 'ream of o.r matric.$ation# or
t-e e=amination for t-e 'octor1* 'e,ree 55 an' w-o -a* not been faint5-earte' on *.c-
occa*ion*I 55 w-ene&er we fear t-at we may be /.ni*-e' by *ome .n/$ea*ant re*.$t
beca.*e we -a&e 'one *omet-in, care$e**$y or wron,$y# beca.*e we -a&e not been a*
INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS
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t-oro.,- a* we mi,-t -a&e been 55 in *-ort# w-ene&er we fee$ t-e b.r'en of
re*/on*ibi$ity.
For a f.rt-er e=/$anation of e=amination5'ream* I -a&e to t-ank a remark ma'e by a
co$$ea,.e w-o -a' *t.'ie' t-i* *.b6ect# w-o once *tate'# in t-e co.r*e of a *cientific
'i*c.**ion# t-at in -i* e=/erience t-e e=amination5'ream occ.rre' on$y to /er*on* w-o
-a' /a**e' t-e e=amination# ne&er to t-o*e w-o -a' @f$.nke'1. +e -a&e -a' increa*in,
confirmation of t-e fact t-at t-e an=iety5'ream of e=amination occ.r* w-en t-e 'reamer
i* antici/atin, a re*/on*ib$e ta*k on t-e fo$$owin, 'ay# wit- t-e /o**ibi$ity of 'i*,race<
reco.r*e wi$$ t-en be -a' to an occa*ion in t-e /a*t on w-ic- a ,reat an=iety /ro&e' to
-a&e been wit-o.t rea$ 6.*tification# -a&in,# in'ee'# been ref.te' by t-e o.tcome. S.c- a
'ream wo.$' be a &ery *trikin, e=am/$e of t-e way in w-ic- t-e 'ream5content i*
mi*.n'er*too' by t-e wakin, in*tance. T-e e=c$amation w-ic- i* re,ar'e' a* a /rote*t
a,ain*t t-e 'ream: @0.t I am a$rea'y a 'octor#1 etc.# wo.$' in rea$ity be t-e con*o$ation
offere' by t-e 'ream# an' *-o.$'# t-erefore# be wor'e' a* fo$$ow*: @Do not be afrai' of
t-e morrow< t-ink of t-e an=iety w-ic- yo. fe$t before yo.r matric.$ation< yet not-in,
-a//ene' to 6.*tify it# for now yo. are a 'octor#1 etc. 0.t t-e an=iety w-ic- we attrib.te
to t-e 'ream rea$$y -a* it* ori,in in t-e re*i'.e* of t-e 'ream5'ay.
T-e te*t* of t-i* inter/retation w-ic- I -a&e been ab$e to make in my own ca*e# an' in
t-at of ot-er*# a$t-o.,- by no mean* e=-a.*ti&e# were entire$y in it* fa&o.r. For
e=am/$e# I fai$e' in my e=amination for t-e 'octor1* 'e,ree in me'ica$ 6.ri*/r.'ence<
ne&er once -a* t-e matter worrie' me in my 'ream*# w-i$e I -a&e often eno.,- been
e=amine' in botany# Coo$o,y# an' c-emi*try# an' I *at for t-e e=amination* in t-e*e
*.b6ect* wit- we$$56.*tifie' an=iety# b.t e*ca/e' 'i*a*ter# t-ro.,- t-e c$emency of fate# or
of t-e e=aminer. In my 'ream* of *c-oo$ e=amination* I am a$way* e=amine' in -i*tory#
a *.b6ect in w-ic- I /a**e' bri$$iant$y at t-e time# b.t on$y# I m.*t a'mit# beca.*e my
,oo'5nat.re' /rofe**or 55 my one5eye' benefactor in anot-er 'ream 55 'i' not o&er$ook
t-e fact t-at on t-e e=amination /a/er w-ic- I ret.rne' to -im I -a' cro**e' o.t wit- my
fin,ernai$ t-e *econ' of t-ree ;.e*tion*# a* a -int t-at -e *-o.$' not in*i*t on it. One of
my /atient*# w-o wit-'rew before t-e matric.$ation e=amination# on$y to /a** it $ater# b.t
fai$e' in t-e officer1* e=amination# *o t-at -e 'i' not become an officer# te$$* me t-at -e
often 'ream* of t-e former e=amination# b.t ne&er of t-e $atter.
+. Steke$# w-o wa* t-e fir*t to inter/ret t-e @matric.$ation 'ream1# maintain* t-at t-i*
'ream in&ariab$y refer* to *e=.a$ e=/erience* an' *e=.a$ mat.rity. T-i* -a* fre;.ent$y
been confirme' in my e=/erience.
1 T-e *tatement t-at o.r met-o' of 'ream5inter/retation i* ina//$icab$e w-en we -a&e not
at o.r 'i*/o*a$ t-e 'reamer1* a**ociation5materia$ m.*t be ;.a$ifie'. In one ca*e o.r work
of inter/retation i* in'e/en'ent of t-e*e a**ociation*: name$y# w-en t-e 'reamer make*
.*e of s$m%olic e$ement* in -i* 'ream. +e t-en em/$oy w-at i*# *trict$y */eakin,# a
*econ' or auiliar$ met-o' of 'ream5inter/retation 3*ee be$ow4.
T-e c-i$' a//ear* in t-e fairy5ta$e a$*o# for t-ere a $itt$e c-i$' *.''en$y crie* o.t: @0.t -e
-a*n1t anyt-in, on at a$$A1
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2 FerencCi -a* recor'e' a n.mber of intere*tin, 'ream* of nake'ne** in women w-ic-
were wit-o.t 'iffic.$ty trace' to t-e infanti$e 'e$i,-t in e=-ibitioni*m# b.t w-ic- 'iffer in
many feat.re* from t-e @ty/ica$1 'ream of nake'ne** 'i*c.**e' abo&e.
7 For ob&io.* rea*on* t-e /re*ence of @t-e w-o$e fami$y1 in t-e 'ream -a* t-e *ame
*i,nificance.
8 A *.//$ementary inter/retation of t-i* 'ream: To */it 3spuc(en4 on t-e *tair*# *ince
spu(en 3to -a.nt4 i* t-e occ./ation of */irit* 3cf. En,$i*-# */ook4# $e' me by a free
tran*$ation to esprit d+escalier. @Stair5wit1 mean* .nrea'ine** at re/artee 33chla'ferti'(eit
M $itera$$y: rea'ine** to -it o.t4# wit- w-ic- I rea$$y -a&e to re/roac- my*e$f. 0.t wa* t-e
n.r*e 'eficient in 3chla'ferti'(eitI
9 cf. a$*o: !nal$se der 2ho%ie eines fDnf/=hri'en Ena%en in the >ahr%uch fDr ps$choanal5
und ps$chopath5 Forschun'en# 0'. i# 1!"! 3Ges5 3chriften# 0'. &iii4# an' D%er infantile
3eualtheorien# in t-e 3ammlun' (leiner 3chriften ?ur 7eurosenlehre 9Ges5 3chriften# 0'.
&4.
: %an*# w-o*e /-obia wa* t-e *.b6ect of t-e ana$y*i* in t-e abo&e5mentione' /.b$ication#
crie' o.t at t-e a,e of t-ree an' a -a$f# w-i$e fe&eri*- *-ort$y after t-e birt- of a *i*ter:
@0.t I 'on1t want to -a&e a $itt$e *i*ter.1 In -i* ne.ro*i*# ei,-teen mont-* $ater# -e frank$y
confe**e' t-e wi*- t-at -i* mot-er *-o.$' 'ro/ t-e c-i$' into t-e bat- w-i$e bat-in, it# in
or'er t-at it mi,-t 'ie. +it- a$$ t-i*# %an* wa* a ,oo'5nat.re'# affectionate c-i$'# w-o
*oon became fon' of -i* *i*ter# an' took -er .n'er -i* */ecia$ /rotection.
D S.c- ca*e* of 'eat- in t-e e=/erience of c-i$'ren may *oon be for,otten in t-e fami$y#
b.t /*yc-oana$ytica$ in&e*ti,ation *-ow* t-at t-ey are &ery *i,nificant for a $ater
ne.ro*i*.
! Since t-e abo&e wa* written a ,reat many ob*er&ation* re$atin, to t-e ori,ina$$y -o*ti$e
attit.'e of c-i$'ren towar' t-eir brot-er* an' *i*ter*# an' towar' one of t-eir /arent*#
-a&e been recor'e' in t-e $iterat.re of /*yc-oana$y*i*. One writer# S/itte$er# ,i&e* t-e
fo$$owin, /ec.$iar$y *incere an' in,en.o.* 'e*cri/tion of t-i* ty/ica$ c-i$'i*- attit.'e a*
-e e=/erience' it in -i* ear$ie*t c-i$'-oo': @Moreo&er# t-ere wa* now a *econ' A'o$f. A
$itt$e creat.re w-om t-ey 'ec$are' wa* my brot-er# b.t I co.$' not .n'er*tan' w-at -e
co.$' be for# or w-y t-ey *-o.$' /reten' -e wa* a bein, $ike my*e$f. I wa* *.fficient .nto
my*e$f: w-at 'i' I want wit- a brot-erI An' -e wa* not on$y .*e$e**# -e wa* a$*o e&en
tro.b$e*ome. +-en I /$a,.e' my ,ran'mot-er# -e too wante' to /$a,.e -er< w-en I wa*
w-ee$e' abo.t in t-e baby5carria,e -e *at o//o*ite me# an' took ./ -a$f t-e room# *o t-at
we co.$' not -e$/ kickin, one anot-er.1
1" T-e t-ree5an'5a5-a$f5year5o$' %an* embo'ie' -i* 'e&a*tatin, critici*m of -i* $itt$e
*i*ter
in t-e*e i'entica$ wor'* 3loc5 cit54 %e a**.me' t-at *-e wa* .nab$e to */eak on acco.nt of
-er $ack of teet-.
INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS
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11 To my a*toni*-ment# I wa* to$' t-at a -i,-$y inte$$i,ent boy of ten# after t-e *.''en
'eat- of -i* fat-er# *ai': @I .n'er*tan' t-at fat-er i* 'ea'# b.t I can1t *ee w-y -e 'oe* not
come -ome to *.//er.1 F.rt-er materia$ re$atin, to t-i* *.b6ect wi$$ be fo.n' in t-e
*ection Einderseele# e'ite' by Fra. Dr &on %.,5%e$$m.t-# in Ima'o# 0'. i5&# 1!151D.
1 T-e ob*er&ation of a fat-er traine' in /*yc-oana$y*i* wa* ab$e to 'etect t-e &ery
moment w-en -i* &ery inte$$i,ent $itt$e 'a.,-ter# a,e' fo.r# rea$i*e' t-e 'ifference
between @bein, away1 an' @bein, 'ea'1. T-e c-i$' wa* bein, tro.b$e*ome at tab$e# an'
note' t-at one of t-e waitre**e* in t-e pension wa* $ookin, at -er wit- an e=/re**ion of
annoyance. @>o*e/-ine o.,-t to be 'ea'#1 *-e t-ere./on remarke' to -er fat-er. @0.t w-y
'ea'I1 a*ke' t-e fat-er# *oot-in,$y. @+o.$'n1t it be eno.,- if *-e went awayI1 @No#1
re/$ie' t-e c-i$'# @t-en *-e wo.$' come back a,ain.1 To t-e .nc.rbe' *e$f5$o&e
3narcissism4 of t-e c-i$' e&ery incon&enience con*tit.te* t-e crime of l1s, ma/est,# an'#
a* in t-e Draconian co'e# t-e c-i$'1* fee$in,* /re*cribe for a$$ *.c- crime* t-e one
in&ariab$e /.ni*-ment.
12 T-e *it.ation i* fre;.ent$y 'i*,.i*e' by t-e inter&ention of a ten'ency to /.ni*-ment#
w-ic- in t-e form of a mora$ reaction# t-reaten* t-e $o** of t-e be$o&e' /arent.
17 At $ea*t in *ome of t-e myt-o$o,ica$ acco.nt*. Accor'in, to ot-er*# ema*c.$ation wa*
inf$icte' on$y by Frono* on -i* fat-er )rano*. +it- re,ar' to t-e myt-o$o,ica$
*i,nificance of t-i* moti&e# cf. Otto Rank1* Der M$thus von der Ge%urt des Belden# in
%eft & of 3chriften ?ur an'e"5 3eelen(unde# 1!"!# an' Das In?estmotiv in Dichtun' und
3a'e# 1!1# c-a/. i=# .
18 None of t-e 'i*co&erie* of /*yc-oana$ytica$ re*earc- -a* e&oke' *.c- embittere'
contra'iction# *.c- f.rio.* o//o*ition# an' a$*o *.c- entertainin, acrobatic* of critici*m#
a* t-i* in'ication of t-e ince*t.o.* im/.$*e* of c-i$'-oo' w-ic- *.r&i&e in t-e
.ncon*cio.*. An attem/t -a* e&en been ma'e recent$y# in 'efiance of a$$ e=/erience# to
a**i,n on$y a @*ymbo$ic1 *i,nificance to ince*t. FerencCi -a* ,i&en an in,enio.*
reinter/retation of t-e Oe'i/.* myt-# ba*e' on a /a**a,e in one of Sc-o/en-a.er1* $etter*#
in Ima'o# i# 1!1. T-e @Oe'i/.* com/$e=1# w-ic- wa* fir*t a$$.'e' to -ere in The
Interpretation of Dreams# -a* t-ro.,- f.rt-er *t.'y of t-e *.b6ect# ac;.ire' an
.ne=/ecte' *i,nificance for t-e .n'er*tan'in, of -.man -i*tory an' t-e e&o$.tion of
re$i,ion an' mora$ity. See Totem und Ta%oo.
19 c.f. t-e 'ream5materia$ of e=-ibitioni*m# /. 12:.
1: T-e*e in'ication* in t-e 'irection of an ana$ytica$ .n'er*tan'in, of Bamlet were
*.b*e;.ent$y 'e&e$o/e' by Dr Erne*t >one*# w-o 'efen'e' t-e abo&e conce/tion a,ain*t
ot-er* w-ic- -a&e been /.t forwar' in t-e $iterat.re of t-e *.b6ect. 3The 2ro%lem of
Bamlet and the 8edipus Comple# 1!114. T-e re$ation of t-e materia$ of %am$et to t-e
@myt- of t-e birt- of t-e -ero1 -a* been 'emon*trate' by O. Rank. F.rt-er attem/t* at an
ana$y*i* of Mac%eth wi$$ be fo.n' in my e**ay on &ini'e Chara(tert$pen, aus der
ps$choanal$tischen !r%eit, in Ima'o# i&# 1!19# 3Ges5 3chriften# 0'. =4# in ?. >eke$*1*
3ha(espeare+s Mac%eth, in Ima'o# &# 1!1D< an' in The 8edipus Comple as an
INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS
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&planation of Bamlet+s M$ster$: a 3tud$ in Motive 9!merican >ournal of 2s$cholo'$#
1!1"# &o$. ==i4.
1D E&en t-e $ar,e# o&er5ab.n'ant# immo'erate an' e=a,,erate' t-in,* occ.rrin, in 'ream*
may be a c-i$'i*- c-aracteri*tic. A c-i$' want* not-in, more inten*e$y t-an to ,row bi,#
an' to eat a* m.c- of e&eryt-in, a* ,rown5./* 'o< a c-i$' i* -ar' to *ati*fy< -e know* no
*.c- wor' a* @eno.,-1# an' in*atiab$y 'eman'* t-e /racti*e mo'eration# to be mo'e*t an'
re*i,e'# on$y t-ro.,- trainin,. A* we know# t-e ne.rotic a$*o i* inc$ine' to immo'eration
an' e=ce**.
1! +-i$e Dr Erne*t >one* wa* 'e$i&erin, a $ect.re before an American *cientific *ociety#
an' wa* */eakin, of e,oi*m in 'ream*# a $earne' $a'y took e=ce/tion to t-i* .n*cientific
,enera$i*ation. S-e t-o.,-t t-e $ect.rer wa* entit$e' to /rono.nce *.c- a &er'ict on$y on
t-e 'ream* of A.*trian* b.t -a' no ri,-t to inc$.'e t-e 'ream* of American*. A* for
-er*e$f# *-e wa* *.re t-at a$$ -er 'ream* were *trict$y a$tr.i*tic.
In 6.*tice to t-i* $a'y wit- -er nationa$ /ri'e it may# -owe&er# be remarke' t-at t-e
'o,ma @t-e 'ream i* w-o$$y e,oi*tic1 m.*t not be mi*.n'er*too'. For ina*m.c- a*
e&eryt-in, t-at occ.r* in /recon*cio.* t-inkin, may a//ear in 'ream* 3in t-e content a*
we$$ a* t-e $atent 'ream5t-o.,-t*4 t-e a$tr.i*tic fee$in,* may /o**ib$y occ.r. Simi$ar$y#
affectionate or amoro.* fee$in,* for anot-er /er*on# if t-ey e=i*t in t-e .ncon*cio.*# may
occ.r in 'ream*. T-e tr.t- of t-e a**ertion i* t-erefore re*tricte' to t-e fact t-at amon,
t-e .ncon*cio.* *tim.$i of 'ream* one &ery often fin'* e,oi*tica$ ten'encie* w-ic- *eem
to -a&e been o&ercome in t-e wakin, *tate.
" P*yc-oana$ytic in&e*ti,ation -a* enab$e' .* to conc$.'e t-at in t-e /re'i$ection *-own
by c-i$'ren for ,ymna*tic /erformance*# an' in t-e re/etition of t-e*e in -y*terica$
attack*# t-ere i*# be*i'e* t-e /$ea*.re fe$t in t-e or,an# yet anot-er factor at work 3often
.ncon*cio.*4: name$y# a memory5/ict.re of *e=.a$ interco.r*e ob*er&e' in -.man bein,*
or anima$*.
1 A yo.n, co$$ea,.e# w-o i* entire$y free from ner&o.*ne**# te$$* me# in t-i* connection:
@I know from my own e=/erience t-at w-i$e *win,in,# an' at t-e moment at w-ic- t-e
'ownwar' mo&ement wa* at it* ma=im.m# I .*e' to -a&e a c.rio.* fee$in, in my
,enita$*# w-ic-# a$t-o.,- it wa* not rea$$y /$ea*in, to me# I m.*t 'e*cribe a* a &o$./t.o.*
fee$in,.1 I -a&e often -ear' from /atient* t-at t-e fir*t erection* wit- &o$./t.o.*
*en*ation* w-ic- t-ey can remember to -a&e -a' in boy-oo' occ.rre' w-i$e t-ey were
c$imbin,. It i* e*tab$i*-e' wit- com/$ete certainty by /*yc-oana$y*i* t-at t-e fir*t *e=.a$
*en*ation* often -a&e t-eir ori,in in t-e *c.ff$in,* an' wre*t$in,* of c-i$'-oo'.
INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS
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+HAPTER SI2
The Dream-or"
A$$ ot-er /re&io.* attem/t* to *o$&e t-e /rob$em* of 'ream* -a&e concerne' t-em*e$&e*
'irect$y wit- t-e manife*t 'ream5content a* it i* retaine' in t-e memory. T-ey -a&e
*o.,-t to obtain an inter/retation of t-e 'ream from t-i* content# or# if t-ey 'i*/en*e'
wit- an inter/retation# to ba*e t-eir conc$.*ion* concernin, t-e 'ream on t-e e&i'ence
/ro&i'e' by t-i* content. +e# -owe&er# are confronte' by a 'ifferent *et of 'ata< for .* a
new /*yc-ic materia$ inter/o*e* it*e$f between t-e 'ream5content an' t-e re*.$t* of o.r
in&e*ti,ation*: t-e latent 'ream5content# or 'ream5t-o.,-t*# w-ic- are obtaine' on$y by
o.r met-o'. +e 'e&e$o/ t-e *o$.tion of t-e 'ream from t-i* $atent content# an' not from
t-e manife*t 'ream5content. +e are t-.* confronte' wit- a new /rob$em# an entire$y
no&e$ ta*k 55 t-at of e=aminin, an' tracin, t-e re$ation* between t-e $atent 'reamt-o.,-t*
an' t-e manife*t 'ream5content# an' t-e /roce**e* by w-ic- t-e $atter -a* ,rown
o.t of t-e former.
T-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* an' t-e 'ream5content /re*ent t-em*e$&e* a* two 'e*cri/tion* of t-e
*ame content in two 'ifferent $an,.a,e*< or# to /.t it more c$ear$y# t-e 'ream5content
a//ear* to .* a* a tran*$ation of t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* into anot-er mo'e of e=/re**ion#
w-o*e *ymbo$* an' $aw* of com/o*ition we m.*t $earn by com/arin, t-e ori,in wit- t-e
tran*$ation. T-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* we can .n'er*tan' wit-o.t f.rt-er tro.b$e t-e moment
we -a&e a*certaine' t-em. T-e 'ream5content i*# a* it were# /re*ente' in -iero,$y/-ic*#
w-o*e *ymbo$* m.*t be tran*$ate'# one by one# into t-e $an,.a,e of t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*.
It wo.$' of co.r*e be incorrect to attem/t to rea' t-e*e *ymbo$* in accor'ance wit- t-eir
&a$.e* a* /ict.re*# in*tea' of in accor'ance wit- t-eir meanin, a* *ymbo$*. For in*tance# I
-a&e before me a /ict.re5/.CC$e 3reb.*4 55 a -o.*e# ./on w-o*e roof t-ere i* a boat< t-en
a *in,$e $etter< t-en a r.nnin, fi,.re# w-o*e -ea' -a* been omitte'# an' *o on. A* a critic
I mi,-t be tem/te' to 6.',e t-i* com/o*ition an' it* e$ement* to be non*en*ica$. A boat i*
o.t of /$ace on t-e roof of a -o.*e# an' a -ea'$e** man cannot r.n< t-e man# too# i* $ar,er
t-an t-e -o.*e# an' if t-e w-o$e t-in, i* meant to re/re*ent a $an'*ca/e t-e *in,$e $etter*
of t-e a$/-abet -a&e no ri,-t in it# *ince t-ey 'o not occ.r in nat.re. A correct 6.',ment
of t-e /ict.re5/.CC$e i* /o**ib$e on$y if I make no *.c- ob6ection* to t-e w-o$e an' it*
/art*# an' if# on t-e contrary# I take t-e tro.b$e to re/$ace eac- ima,e by a *y$$ab$e or
wor' w-ic- it may re/re*ent by &irt.e of *ome a$$.*ion or re$ation. T-e wor'* t-.* /.t
to,et-er are no $on,er meanin,$e**# b.t mi,-t con*tit.te t-e mo*t bea.tif.$ an' /re,nant
a/-ori*m. Now a 'ream i* *.c- a /ict.re5/.CC$e# an' o.r /re'ece**or* in t-e art of
'ream5inter/retation -a&e ma'e t-e mi*take of 6.',in, t-e reb.* a* an arti*tic
com/o*ition. A* *.c-# of co.r*e# it a//ear*
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A! +ONDENSATION
T-e fir*t t-in, t-at become* c$ear to t-e in&e*ti,ator w-en -e com/are* t-e 'reamcontent
wit- t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* i* t-at a tremen'o.* "or( of condensation -a* been
accom/$i*-e'. T-e 'ream i* mea,re# /a$try an' $aconic in com/ari*on wit- t-e ran,e an'
co/io.*ne** of t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*. T-e 'ream# w-en written 'own# fi$$* -a$f a /a,e< t-e
ana$y*i*# w-ic- contain* t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*# re;.ire* *i=# ei,-t# twe$&e time* a* m.c-
*/ace. T-e ratio &arie* wit- 'ifferent 'ream*< b.t in my e=/erience it i* a$way* of t-e
*ame or'er. A* a r.$e# t-e e=tent of t-e com/re**ion w-ic- -a* been accom/$i*-e' i*
.n'ere*timate'# owin, to t-e fact t-at t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* w-ic- -a&e been bro.,-t to
$i,-t are be$ie&e' to be t-e w-o$e of t-e materia$# w-erea* a contin.ation of t-e work of
inter/retation wo.$' re&ea$ *ti$$ f.rt-er t-o.,-t* -i''en in t-e 'ream. +e -a&e a$rea'y
fo.n' it nece**ary to remark t-at one can ne&er be rea$$y *.re t-at one -a* inter/rete' a
'ream com/$ete$y< e&en if t-e *o$.tion *eem* *ati*fyin, an' f$aw$e**# it i* a$way* /o**ib$e
t-at yet anot-er meanin, -a* been manife*te' by t-e *ame 'ream. T-.* t-e de'ree of
condensation i* 55 *trict$y */eakin, 55 in'eterminab$e. E=ce/tion may be taken 55 an' at
fir*t *i,-t t-e ob6ection *eem* /erfect$y /$a.*ib$e 55 to t-e a**ertion t-at t-e 'i*/ro/ortion
between 'ream5content an' 'ream5t-o.,-t* 6.*tifie* t-e conc$.*ion t-at a con*i'erab$e
con'en*ation of /*yc-ic materia$ occ.r* in t-e formation of 'ream*. For we often -a&e
t-e fee$in, t-at we -a&e been 'reamin, a ,reat 'ea$ a$$ ni,-t# an' -a&e t-en for,otten
mo*t of w-at we -a&e 'reame'. T-e 'ream w-ic- we remember on wakin, wo.$' t-.*
appear to be mere$y a remnant of t-e tota$ 'ream5work# w-ic- wo.$' *.re$y e;.a$ t-e
'ream5t-o.,-t* in ran,e if on$y we co.$' remember it com/$ete$y. To a certain e=tent
t-i* i* .n'o.bte'$y tr.e< t-ere i* no ,ettin, away from t-e fact t-at a 'ream i* mo*t
acc.rate$y re/ro'.ce' if we try to remember it imme'iate$y after wakin,# an' t-at t-e
reco$$ection of it become* more an' more 'efecti&e a* t-e 'ay ,oe* on. On t-e ot-er
-an'# it -a* to be reco,ni*e' t-at t-e im/re**ion t-at we -a&e 'reame' a ,oo' 'ea$ more
t-an we are ab$e to re/ro'.ce i* &ery often ba*e' on an i$$.*ion# t-e ori,in of w-ic- we
*-a$$ e=/$ain $ater on. Moreo&er# t-e a**.m/tion of a con'en*ation in t-e 'ream5work i*
not affecte' by t-e /o**ibi$ity of for,ettin, a /art of 'ream*# for it may be 'emon*trate'
by t-e m.$tit.'e of i'ea* /ertainin, to t-o*e in'i&i'.a$ /art* of t-e 'ream w-ic- 'o
remain in t-e memory. If a $ar,e /art of t-e 'ream -a* rea$$y e*ca/e' t-e memory# we are
/robab$y 'e/ri&e' of acce** to a new *erie* of 'ream5t-o.,-t*. +e -a&e no 6.*tification
for e=/ectin, t-at t-o*e /ortion* of t-e 'ream w-ic- -a&e been $o*t *-o.$' $ikewi*e -a&e
referre' on$y to t-o*e t-o.,-t* w-ic- we know from t-e ana$y*i* of t-e /ortion* w-ic-
-a&e been /re*er&e'.1
In &iew of t-e &ery ,reat n.mber of i'ea* w-ic- ana$y*i* e$icit* for eac- in'i&i'.a$
e$ement of t-e 'ream5content# t-e /rinci/a$ 'o.bt in t-e min'* of many rea'er* wi$$ be
w-et-er it i* /ermi**ib$e to co.nt e&eryt-in, t-at *.b*e;.ent$y occ.r* to t-e min' '.rin,
ana$y*i* a* formin, /art of t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* 55 in ot-er wor'*# to a**.me t-at a$$ t-e*e
t-o.,-t* -a&e been acti&e in t-e *$ee/in, *tate# an' -a&e taken /art in t-e formation of
t-e 'ream. I* it not more /robab$e t-at new combination* of t-o.,-t* are 'e&e$o/e' in t-e
co.r*e of ana$y*i*# w-ic- 'i' not /artici/ate in t-e formation of t-e 'reamI To t-i*
ob6ection I can ,i&e on$y a con'itiona$ re/$y. It i* tr.e# of co.r*e# t-at *e/arate
combination* of t-o.,-t* make t-eir fir*t a//earance '.rin, t-e ana$y*i*< b.t one can
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con&ince one*e$f e&ery time t-i* -a//en* t-at *.c- new combination* -a&e been
e*tab$i*-e' on$y between t-o.,-t* w-ic- -a&e a$rea'y been connecte' in ot-er way* in
t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*< t-e new combination* are# *o to */eak# coro$$arie*# *-ort5circ.it*#
w-ic- are ma'e /o**ib$e by t-e e=i*tence of ot-er# more f.n'amenta$ mo'e* of
connection. In re*/ect of t-e ,reat ma6ority of t-e ,ro./* of t-o.,-t* re&ea$e' by
ana$y*i*# we are ob$i,e' to a'mit t-at t-ey -a&e a$rea'y been acti&e in t-e formation of
t-e 'ream# for if we work t-ro.,- a *.cce**ion of *.c- t-o.,-t*# w-ic- at fir*t *i,-t *eem
to -a&e /$aye' no /art in t-e formation of t-e 'ream# we *.''en$y come ./on a t-o.,-t
w-ic- occ.r* in t-e 'ream5content# an' i* in'i*/en*ab$e to it* inter/retation# b.t w-ic- i*
ne&ert-e$e** inacce**ib$e e=ce/t t-ro.,- t-i* c-ain of t-o.,-t*. T-e rea'er may -ere t.rn
to t-e 'ream of t-e botanica$ mono,ra/-# w-ic- i* ob&io.*$y t-e re*.$t of an a*toni*-in,
'e,ree of con'en*ation# e&en t-o.,- I -a&e not ,i&en t-e com/$ete ana$y*i*.
0.t -ow# t-en# are we to ima,ine t-e /*yc-ic con'ition of t-e *$ee/er w-ic- /rece'e*
'reamin,I Do a$$ t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* e=i*t *i'e by *i'e# or 'o t-ey /.r*.e one anot-er# or
are t-ere *e&era$ *im.$taneo.* train* of t-o.,-t# /rocee'in, from 'ifferent centre*# w-ic-
*.b*e;.ent$y meetI I 'o not t-ink it i* nece**ary at t-i* /oint to form a /$a*tic conce/tion
of t-e /*yc-ic con'ition at t-e time of 'ream5formation. 0.t $et .* not for,et t-at we are
concerne' wit- unconscious t-inkin,# an' t-at t-e /roce** may ea*i$y be 'ifferent from
t-at w-ic- we ob*er&e in o.r*e$&e* in 'e$iberate contem/$ation accom/anie' by
con*cio.*ne**.
T-e fact# -owe&er# i* irref.tab$e t-at 'ream5formation i* ba*e' on a /roce** of
con'en*ation. %ow# t-en# i* t-i* con'en*ation effecte'I
Now# if we con*i'er t-at of t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* a*certaine' on$y t-e mo*t re*tricte'
n.mber are re/re*ente' in t-e 'ream by mean* of one of t-eir conce/t.a$ e$ement*# we
mi,-t conc$.'e t-at t-e con'en*ation i* accom/$i*-e' by mean* of omi**ion# ina*m.c-
a* t-e 'ream i* not a fait-f.$ tran*$ation or /ro6ection# /oint by /oint# of t-e
'reamt-o.,-t*#
b.t a &ery incom/$ete an' 'efecti&e re/ro'.ction of t-em. T-i* &iew# a* we
*-a$$ *oon /ercei&e# i* a &ery ina'e;.ate one. 0.t for t-e /re*ent $et .* take it a* a /oint
of 'e/art.re# an' a*k o.r*e$&e*: If on$y a few of t-e e$ement* of t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* make
t-eir way into t-e 'ream5content# w-at are t-e con'ition* t-at 'etermine t-eir *e$ectionI
In or'er to *o$&e t-i* /rob$em# $et .* t.rn o.r attention to t-o*e e$ement* of t-e
'reamcontent
w-ic- m.*t -a&e f.$fi$$e' t-e con'ition* for w-ic- we are $ookin,. T-e mo*t
*.itab$e materia$ for t-i* in&e*ti,ation wi$$ be a 'ream to w-o*e formation a /artic.$ar$y
inten*e con'en*ation -a* contrib.te'. I *e$ect t-e 'ream# cite' on /a,e :2 ff.# of t-e
botanica$ mono,ra/-.
Dream 1
Dream5content: I have "ritten a mono'raph upon a certain 9indeterminate: species of
plant5 The %oo( lies %efore me5 I am /ust turnin' over a folded coloured plate5 ! dried
specimen of the plant is %ound up in this cop$, as in a her%arium.
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T-e mo*t /rominent e$ement of t-i* 'ream i* t-e %otanical mono'raph. T-i* i* 'eri&e'
from t-e im/re**ion* of t-e 'ream5'ay< I -a' act.a$$y *een a mono'raph on the 'enus
C$clamen in a book*e$$er1* win'ow. T-e mention of t-i* ,en.* i* $ackin, in t-e
'reamcontent<
on$y t-e mono,ra/- an' it* re$ation to botany -a&e remaine'. T-e @botanica$
mono,ra/-1 imme'iate$y re&ea$* it* re$ation to t-e "or( on cocaine w-ic- I once wrote<
from cocaine t-e train of t-o.,-t /rocee'* on t-e one -an' to a Festschrift# an' on t-e
ot-er to my frien'# t-e oc.$i*t# Dr ELni'stein# w-o wa* /art$y re*/on*ib$e for t-e
intro'.ction of cocaine a* a $oca$ anae*t-etic. Moreo&er# Dr FGni,*tein i* connecte' wit-
t-e reco$$ection of an interr./te' con&er*ation I -a' -a' wit- -im on t-e /re&io.*
e&enin,# an' wit- a$$ *ort* of i'ea* re$atin, to t-e rem.neration of me'ica$ an' *.r,ica$
*er&ice* amon, co$$ea,.e*. T-i* con&er*ation# t-en# i* t-e act.a$ 'ream5*tim.$.*< t-e
mono,ra/- on cyc$amen i* a$*o a rea$ inci'ent# b.t one of an in'ifferent nat.re< a* I now
*ee# t-e @botanica$ mono,ra/-1 of t-e 'ream /ro&e* to be a common mean between t-e
two e=/erience* of t-e 'ay# taken o&er .nc-an,e' from an in'ifferent im/re**ion# an'
bo.n' ./ wit- t-e /*yc-ica$$y *i,nificant e=/erience by mean* of t-e mo*t co/io.*
a**ociation*.
Not on$y t-e combine' i'ea of t-e %otanical mono'raph# -owe&er# b.t a$*o eac- of it*
*e/arate e$ement*# @%otanical1 an' @mono'raph1# /enetrate* fart-er an' fart-er# by
manifo$' a**ociation*# into t-e conf.*e' tan,$e of t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*. To %otanical
be$on, t-e reco$$ection* of t-e /er*on of Profe**or GOrtner 3German: GOrtner M ,ar'ener4#
of -i* %loomin' wife# of my /atient# w-o*e name i* Flora# an' of a $a'y concernin,
w-om I to$' t-e *tory of t-e for,otten flo"ers5 G=rtner# a,ain# $ea'* me to t-e $aboratory
an' t-e con&er*ation wit- ELni'stein< an' t-e a$$.*ion to t-e two fema$e /atient* be$on,*
to t-e *ame con&er*ation. From t-e $a'y wit- t-e f$ower* a train of t-o.,-t* branc-e* off
to t-e fa&o.rite f$ower* of my wife# w-o*e ot-er branc- $ea'* to t-e tit$e of t-e -a*ti$y
*een mono,ra/-. F.rt-er# %otanical reca$$* an e/i*o'e at t-e @Gymna*i.m1# an' a
.ni&er*ity e=amination< an' a fre*- *.b6ect 55 t-at of my -obbie* 55 w-ic- wa* broac-e'
in t-e abo&ementione' con&er*ation# i* $inke' ./# by mean* of w-at i* -.moro.*$y ca$$e'
my favourite flo"er# t-e artic-oke# wit- t-e train of t-o.,-t* /rocee'in, from t-e
for,otten f$ower*< be-in' @artic-oke1 t-ere $ie*# on t-e one -an'# a reco$$ection of Ita$y#
an' on t-e ot-er a remini*cence of a *cene of my c-i$'-oo'# in w-ic- I fir*t forme' an
ac;.aintance 55 w-ic- -a* *ince t-en ,rown *o intimate 55 wit- book*. <otanical# t-en# i*
a &eritab$e n.c$e.*# an'# for t-e 'ream# t-e meetin,5/oint of many train* of t-o.,-t<
w-ic-# I can te*tify# -a' a$$ rea$$y been bro.,-t into connection by t-e con&er*ation
referre' to. %ere we fin' o.r*e$&e* in a t-o.,-t5factory# in w-ic-# a* in The ;eaver+s
Masterpiece:
T-e $itt$e *-.tt$e* to an' fro
F$y# an' t-e t-rea'* .nnote' f$ow<
One t-row $ink* ./ a t-o.*an' t-rea'*.
Mono'raph in t-e 'ream# a,ain# to.c-e* two t-eme*: t-e one5*i'e' nat.re of my *t.'ie*#
an' t-e co*t$ine** of my -obbie*.
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T-e im/re**ion 'eri&e' from t-i* fir*t in&e*ti,ation i* t-at t-e e$ement* @botanica$1 an'
@mono,ra/-1 were taken ./ into t-e 'ream5content beca.*e t-ey were ab$e to offer t-e
mo*t n.mero.* /oint* of contact wit- t-e ,reate*t n.mber of 'ream5t-o.,-t*# an' t-.*
re/re*ente' nodal points at w-ic- a ,reat n.mber of t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* met to,et-er#
an' beca.*e t-ey were of manifold *i,nificance in re*/ect of t-e meanin, of t-e 'ream.
T-e fact ./on w-ic- t-i* e=/$anation i* ba*e' may be e=/re**e' in anot-er form: E&ery
e$ement of t-e 'ream5content /ro&e* to be over4determined 55 t-at i*# it a//ear* *e&era$
time* o&er in t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*.
+e *-a$$ $earn more if we e=amine t-e ot-er com/onent* of t-e 'ream in re*/ect of t-eir
occ.rrence in t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*. T-e coloured plate refer* 3cf. t-e ana$y*i* on /. :94 to
a new *.b6ect# t-e critici*m /a**e' ./on my work by co$$ea,.e*# an' a$*o to a *.b6ect
a$rea'y re/re*ente' in t-e 'ream 55 my -obbie* 55 an'# f.rt-er# to a memory of my
c-i$'-oo'# in w-ic- I /.$$ to /iece* a book wit- co$o.re' /$ate*< t-e 'rie' */ecimen of
t-e /$ant re$ate* to my e=/erience wit- t-e -erbari.m at t-e @Gymna*i.m1# an' ,i&e* t-i*
memory /artic.$ar em/-a*i*. T-.* I /ercei&e t-e nat.re of t-e re$ation between t-e
'ream5content an' 'ream5t-o.,-t*: Not on$y are t-e e$ement* of t-e 'ream 'etermine'
*e&era$ time* o&er by t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*# b.t t-e in'i&i'.a$ 'ream5t-o.,-t* are
re/re*ente' in t-e 'ream by *e&era$ e$ement*. Startin, from an e$ement of t-e 'ream# t-e
/at- of t-e a**ociation $ea'* to a n.mber of 'ream5t-o.,-t*< an' from a *in,$e
'reamt-o.,-t
to *e&era$ e$ement* of t-e 'ream. In t-e /roce** of 'ream5formation# t-erefore# it
i* not t-e ca*e t-at a *in,$e 'ream5t-o.,-t# or a ,ro./ of 'ream5t-o.,-t*# *.//$ie* t-e
'ream5content wit- an abbre&iation of it*e$f a* it* re/re*entati&e# an' t-at t-e ne=t
'reamt-o.,-t
*.//$ie* anot-er abbre&iation a* it* re/re*entati&e 3m.c- a* re/re*entati&e* are
e$ecte' from amon, t-e /o/.$ation4< b.t rat-er t-at t-e w-o$e ma** of t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*
i* *.b6ecte' to a certain e$aboration# in t-e co.r*e of w-ic- t-o*e e$ement* t-at recei&e
t-e *tron,e*t an' com/$ete*t *.//ort *tan' o.t in re$ief< *o t-at t-e /roce** mi,-t /er-a/*
be $ikene' to e$ection by t-e scrutin du liste. +-ate&er 'ream I may *.b6ect to *.c- a
'i**ection# I a$way* fin' t-e *ame f.n'amenta$ /rinci/$e confirme' 55 t-at t-e
'reame$ement*
-a&e been forme' o.t of t-e w-o$e ma** of t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*# an' t-at e&ery
one of t-em a//ear*# in re$ation to t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*# to -a&e a m.$ti/$e 'etermination.
It i* certain$y not *./erf$.o.* to 'emon*trate t-i* re$ation of t-e 'ream5content to t-e
'ream5t-o.,-t* by mean* of a f.rt-er e=am/$e# w-ic- i* 'i*tin,.i*-e' by a /artic.$ar$y
artf.$ intertwinin, of reci/roca$ re$ation*. T-e 'ream i* t-at of a /atient w-om I am
treatin, for c$a.*tro/-obia 3fear of enc$o*e' */ace*4. It wi$$ *oon become e&i'ent w-y I
fee$ my*e$f ca$$e' ./on to entit$e t-i* e=ce/tiona$$y c$e&er /iece of 'ream5acti&ity:
Dream 55 @A 0ea.tif.$ Dream1
The dreamer is drivin' "ith a 'reat num%er of companions in Q44 3treet, "here there is a
modest hostelr$ 3w-ic- i* not t-e ca*e4. ! theatrical performance is %ein' 'iven in one of
the rooms of the inn5 Be is first spectator, then actor5 Finall$ the compan$ are told to
chan'e their clothes, in order to return to the cit$5 3ome of the compan$ are sho"n into
rooms on the 'round floor, others to rooms on the first floor5 Then a dispute arises5 The
people upstairs are anno$ed %ecause those do"nstairs have not $et finished chan'in', so
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that the$ cannot come do"n5 Bis %rother is upstairs6 he is do"nstairs6 and he is an'r$
"ith his %rother %ecause the$ are so hurried. 3T-i* /art ob*c.re.4 <esides, it "as alread$
decided, upon their arrival, "ho "as to 'o upstairs and "ho do"n5 Then he 'oes alone
up the hill to"ards the cit$, and he "al(s so heavil$, and "ith such difficult$, that he
cannot move from the spot5 !n elderl$ 'entleman /oins him and tal(s an'ril$ of the Ein'
of Ital$5 Finall$, to"ards the top of the hill, he is a%le to "al( much more easil$.
T-e 'iffic.$ty e=/erience' in c$imbin, t-e -i$$ wa* *o 'i*tinct t-at for *ome time after
wakin, -e wa* in 'o.bt w-et-er t-e e=/erience wa* a 'ream or t-e rea$ity.
>.',e' by t-e manife*t content# t-i* 'ream can -ar'$y be e.$o,i*e'. (ontrary to t-e r.$e*#
I *-a$$ be,in t-e inter/retation wit- t-at /ortion to w-ic- t-e 'reamer referre' a* bein,
t-e mo*t 'i*tinct.
T-e 'iffic.$ty 'reame' of# an' /robab$y e=/erience' '.rin, t-e 'ream 55 'iffic.$ty in
c$imbin,# accom/anie' by 'y*/noea 55 wa* one of t-e *ym/tom* w-ic- t-e /atient -a'
act.a$$y e=-ibite' *ome year* before# an' w-ic-# in con6.nction wit- ot-er *ym/tom*#
wa* at t-e time attrib.te' to t.berc.$o*i* 3/robab$y -y*terica$$y *im.$ate'4. From o.r
*t.'y of e=-ibition5'ream* we are a$rea'y ac;.ainte' wit- t-i* *en*ation of bein,
in-ibite' in motion# /ec.$iar to 'ream*# an' -ere a,ain we fin' it .ti$i*e' a* materia$
a$way* a&ai$ab$e for t-e /.r/o*e* of any ot-er kin' of re/re*entation. T-e /art of t-e
'ream5content w-ic- re/re*ent* c$imbin, a* 'iffic.$t at fir*t# an' ea*ier at t-e to/ of t-e
-i$$# ma'e me t-ink# w-i$e it wa* bein, re$ate'# of t-e we$$5known ma*ter$y intro'.ction
to Da.'et1* 3appho. %ere a yo.n, man carrie* t-e woman -e $o&e* ./*tair*< *-e i* at fir*t
a* $i,-t a* a feat-er# b.t t-e -i,-er -e c$imb* t-e more *-e wei,-*< an' t-i* *cene i*
*ymbo$ic of t-e /ro,re** of t-eir re$ation# in 'e*cribin, w-ic- Da.'et *eek* to a'moni*-
yo.n, men not to $a&i*- an earne*t affection ./on ,ir$* of -.mb$e ori,in an' '.bio.*
antece'ent*. A$t-o.,- I knew t-at my /atient -a' recent$y -a' a $o&e5affair wit- an
actre**# an' -a' broken it off# I -ar'$y e=/ecte' to fin' t-at t-e inter/retation w-ic- -a'
occ.rre' to me wa* correct. T-e *it.ation in 3appho i* act.a$$y t-e reverse of t-at in t-e
'ream< for in t-e 'ream c$imbin, wa* 'iffic.$t at t-e fir*t an' ea*y $ater on< in t-e no&e$
t-e *ymbo$i*m i* /ertinent on$y if w-at wa* at fir*t ea*i$y carrie' fina$$y /ro&e* to be a
-ea&y b.r'en. To my a*toni*-ment# t-e /atient remarke' t-at t-e inter/retation fitte' in
&ery we$$ wit- t-e /$ot of a /$ay w-ic- -e -a' *een t-e /re&io.* e&enin,. T-e /$ay wa*
ca$$e' Gund um ;ien 3@Ro.n' abo.t Kienna14# an' treate' of t-e career of a ,ir$ w-o wa*
at fir*t re*/ectab$e# b.t w-o *.b*e;.ent$y $a/*e' into t-e demi4monde# an' forme'
re$ation* wit- -i,-$y5/$ace' $o&er*# t-ereby clim%in'# b.t fina$$y *-e "ent do"nhill fa*ter
an' fa*ter. T-i* /$ay remin'e' -im of anot-er# entit$e' Von 3tufe ?u 3tufe 3@From Ste/ to
Ste/14# t-e /o*ter a'&erti*in, w-ic- -a' 'e/icte' a fli'ht of stairs.
To contin.e t-e inter/retation: T-e actre** wit- w-om -e -a' -a' -i* mo*t recent an'
com/$icate' affair -a' $i&e' in S55 Street. T-ere i* no inn in t-i* *treet. %owe&er# w-i$e
-e wa* */en'in, /art of t-e *.mmer in Kienna for t-e *ake of t-i* $a'y# -e -a' $o',e'
3German: a%'estie'en M *to//e'# $itera$$y stepped off4 at a *ma$$ -ote$ in t-e
nei,-bo.r-oo'. +-en -e wa* $ea&in, t-e -ote$# -e *ai' to t-e cab5'ri&er: @I am ,$a' at a$$
e&ent* t-at I 'i'n1t ,et any &ermin -ereA1 3Inci'enta$$y# t-e 'rea' of &ermin i* one of -i*
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/-obia*.4 +-ere./on t-e cab5'ri&er an*were': @%ow co.$' anybo'y *to/ t-ereA T-at i*n1t
a -ote$ at a$$# it1* rea$$y not-in, b.t a pu%A1
T-e @/.b1 imme'iate$y remin'e' -im of a ;.otation:
Of a won'erf.$ -o*t
I wa* $ate$y a ,.e*t.
0.t t-e -o*t in t-e /oem by )-$an' i* an apple4tree. Now a *econ' ;.otation contin.e*
t-e train of t-o.,-t:
FA)ST: 3dancin' "ith the $oun' "itch4.
A $o&e$y 'ream once came to me<
I t-en be-e$' an a//$e5tree#
An' t-ere two faire*t a//$e* *-one:
T-ey $.re' me *o# I clim%ed thereon.
T%E FAIR ONE:
@A//$e* -a&e been 'e*ire' by yo.#
Since fir*t in Para'i*e t-ey ,rew<
An' I am mo&e' wit- 6oy to know
T-at *.c- wit-in my ,ar'en ,row.2
T-ere i* not t-e *$i,-te*t 'o.bt w-at i* meant by t-e a//$e5tree an' t-e a//$e*. A
bea.tif.$ bo*om *too' -i,- amon, t-e c-arm* by w-ic- t-e actre** -a' bewitc-e' o.r
'reamer.
>.',in, from t-e conte=t of t-e ana$y*i*# we -a' e&ery rea*on to a**.me t-at t-e 'ream
referre' to an im/re**ion of t-e 'reamer1* c-i$'-oo'. If t-i* i* correct# it m.*t -a&e
referre' to t-e wet5n.r*e of t-e 'reamer# w-o i* now a man of near$y t-irty year* of a,e.
T-e bo*om of t-e n.r*e i* in rea$ity an inn for t-e c-i$'. T-e n.r*e# a* we$$ a* Da.'et1*
3appho# a//ear* a* an a$$.*ion to -i* recent$y aban'one' mi*tre**.
T-e 3e$'er4 brot-er of t-e /atient a$*o a//ear* in t-e 'ream5content< -e i* upstairs# w-i$e
t-e 'reamer -im*e$f i* do"nstairs. T-i* a,ain i* an in&er*ion# for t-e brot-er# a* I -a//en
to know# -a* $o*t -i* *ocia$ /o*ition# w-i$e my /atient -a* retaine' -i*. In re$atin, t-e
'ream5content# t-e 'reamer a&oi'e' *ayin, t-at -i* brot-er wa* ./*tair* an' t-at -e
-im*e$f wa* 'own*tair*. T-i* wo.$' -a&e been too ob&io.* an e=/re**ion# for in A.*tria
we *ay t-at a man i* on the 'round floor w-en -e -a* $o*t -i* fort.ne an' *ocia$ /o*ition#
6.*t a* we *ay t-at -e -a* come do"n. Now t-e fact t-at at t-i* /oint in t-e 'ream
*omet-in, i* re/re*ente' a* in&erte' m.*t -a&e a meanin,< an' t-e in&er*ion m.*t a//$y
to *ome ot-er re$ation between t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* an' t-e 'ream5content. T-ere i* an
in'ication w-ic- *.,,e*t* -ow t-i* in&er*ion i* to be .n'er*too'. It ob&io.*$y a//$ie* to
t-e en' of t-e 'ream# w-ere t-e circ.m*tance* of c$imbin, are t-e reverse of t-o*e
'e*cribe' in 3appho. Now it i* e&i'ent w-at in&er*ion i* meant: In 3appho t-e man
carrie* t-e woman w-o *tan'* in a *e=.a$ re$ation to -im< in t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*#
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con&er*e$y# t-ere i* a reference to a woman carryin, a man< an'# a* t-i* co.$' occ.r on$y
in c-i$'-oo'# t-e reference i* once more to t-e n.r*e w-o carrie* t-e -ea&y c-i$'. T-.*
t-e fina$ /ortion of t-e 'ream *.ccee'* in re/re*entin, Sa//-o an' t-e n.r*e in t-e *ame
a$$.*ion.
>.*t a* t-e name 3appho -a* not been *e$ecte' by t-e /oet wit-o.t reference to a ?e*bian
/ractice# *o t-e /ortion* of t-e 'ream in w-ic- /eo/$e are b.*y upstairs an' do"nstairs#
@abo&e1 an' @beneat-1# /oint to fancie* of a *e=.a$ content wit- w-ic- t-e 'reamer i*
occ./ie'# an' w-ic-# a* *.//re**e' cra&in,*# are not .nconnecte' wit- -i* ne.ro*i*.
Dream5inter/retation it*e$f 'oe* not *-ow t-at t-e*e are fancie* an' not memorie* of
act.a$ -a//enin,*< it on$y f.rni*-e* .* wit- a *et of t-o.,-t* an' $ea&e* it to .* to
'etermine t-eir act.a$ &a$.e. In t-i* ca*e rea$ an' ima,ine' -a//enin,* a//ear at fir*t a*
of e;.a$ &a$.e 55 an' not on$y -ere# b.t a$*o in t-e creation of more im/ortant /*yc-ic
*tr.ct.re* t-an 'ream*. A $ar,e com/any# a* we a$rea'y know# *i,nifie* a *ecret. T-e
brot-er i* none ot-er t-an a re/re*entati&e# 'rawn into t-e *cene* of c-i$'-oo' by
@fancyin, backwar'*1# of a$$ of t-e *.b*e;.ent ri&a$* for women1* fa&o.r*. T-ro.,- t-e
me'i.m of an e=/erience in'ifferent in it*e$f# t-e e/i*o'e of t-e ,ent$eman w-o ta$k*
an,ri$y of t-e Fin, of Ita$y refer* to t-e intr.*ion of /eo/$e of $ow rank into ari*tocratic
*ociety. It i* a* t-o.,- t-e warnin, w-ic- Da.'et ,i&e* to yo.n, men were to be
*.//$emente' by a *imi$ar warnin, a//$icab$e to a *.ck$in, c-i$'.7
In t-e two 'ream* -ere cite' I -a&e *-own by ita$ic* w-ere one of t-e e$ement* of t-e
'ream rec.r* in t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*# in or'er to make t-e m.$ti/$e re$ation* of t-e former
more ob&io.*.
Since# -owe&er# t-e ana$y*i* of t-e*e 'ream* -a* not been carrie' to com/$etion# it wi$$
/robab$y be wort- w-i$e to con*i'er a 'ream wit- a f.$$ ana$y*i*# in or'er to 'emon*trate
t-e manifo$' 'etermination of t-e 'ream5content. For t-i* /.r/o*e I *-a$$ *e$ect t-e 'ream
of Irma1* in6ection 3*ee /. 1!4. From t-i* e=am/$e we *-a$$ rea'i$y *ee t-at t-e
con'en*ation5work in t-e 'ream5formation -a* ma'e .*e of more mean* t-an one.
T-e c-ief /er*on in t-e 'ream5content i* my /atient Irma# w-o i* *een wit- t-e feat.re*
w-ic- be$on, to -er in wakin, $ife# an' w-o t-erefore# in t-e fir*t in*tance# re/re*ent*
-er*e$f. 0.t -er attit.'e# a* I e=amine -er at t-e win'ow# i* taken from a reco$$ection of
anot-er /er*on# of t-e $a'y for w-om I *-o.$' $ike to e=c-an,e my /atient# a* i* *-own
by t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*. Ina*m.c- a* Irma -a* a 'i/-t-eritic membrane# w-ic- reca$$* my
an=iety abo.t my e$'e*t 'a.,-ter# *-e come* to re/re*ent t-i* c-i$' of mine# be-in'
w-om# connecte' wit- -er by t-e i'entity of t-eir name*# i* concea$e' t-e /er*on of t-e
/atient w-o 'ie' from t-e effect* of /oi*on. In t-e f.rt-er co.r*e of t-e 'ream t-e
*i,nificance of Irma1* /er*ona$ity c-an,e* 3wit-o.t t-e a$teration of -er ima,e a* it i*
*een in t-e 'ream4: *-e become* one of t-e c-i$'ren w-om we e=amine in t-e /.b$ic
'i*/en*arie* for c-i$'ren1* 'i*ea*e*# w-ere my frien'* 'i*/$ay t-e 'ifference* in t-eir
menta$ ca/acitie*. T-e tran*ition wa* ob&io.*$y effecte' by t-e i'ea of my $itt$e 'a.,-ter.
Owin, to -er .nwi$$in,ne** to o/en -er mo.t-# t-e *ame Irma con*tit.te* an a$$.*ion to
anot-er $a'y w-o wa* once e=amine' by me# an'# a$*o in t-e *ame connection# to my
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wife. F.rt-er# in t-e morbi' c-an,e* w-ic- I 'i*co&er in -er t-roat I -a&e *.mmari*e'
a$$.*ion* to ;.ite a n.mber of ot-er /er*on*.
A$$ t-e*e /eo/$e w-om I enco.nter a* I fo$$ow ./ t-e a**ociation* *.,,e*te' by @Irma1 'o
not a//ear /er*ona$$y in t-e 'ream< t-ey are concea$e' be-in' t-e 'ream5/er*on @Irma1#
w-o i* t-.* 'e&e$o/e' into a co$$ecti&e ima,e# w-ic-# a* mi,-t be e=/ecte'# -a*
contra'ictory feat.re*. Irma come* to re/re*ent t-e*e ot-er /er*on*# w-o are 'i*car'e' in
t-e work of con'en*ation# ina*m.c- a* I a$$ow anyt-in, to -a//en to -er w-ic- remin'*
me of t-e*e /er*on*# trait by trait.
For t-e /.r/o*e* of 'ream5con'en*ation I may con*tr.ct a composite person in yet
anot-er fa*-ion# by combinin, t-e act.a$ feat.re* of two or more /er*on* in a *in,$e
'ream5ima,e. It i* in t-i* fa*-ion t-at t-e Dr M. of my 'ream wa* con*tr.cte'< -e bear*
t-e name of Dr M.# an' -e */eak* an' act* a* Dr M. 'oe*# b.t -i* bo'i$y c-aracteri*tic*
an' -i* ma$a'y be$on, to anot-er /er*on# my e$'e*t brot-er< a *in,$e feat.re# /a$ene**# i*
'o.b$y 'etermine'# owin, to t-e fact t-at it i* common to bot- /er*on*. Dr R.# in my
'ream abo.t my .nc$e# i* a *imi$ar com/o*ite /er*on. 0.t -ere t-e 'ream5ima,e i*
con*tr.cte' in yet anot-er fa*-ion. I -a&e not .nite' feat.re* /ec.$iar to t-e one /er*on
wit- t-e feat.re* of t-e ot-er# t-ereby abri',in, by certain feat.re* t-e memory5/ict.re of
eac-< b.t I -a&e a'o/te' t-e met-o' em/$oye' by Ga$ton in /ro'.cin, fami$y /ortrait*<
name$y# I -a&e *./erim/o*e' t-e two ima,e*# *o t-at t-e common feat.re* *tan' o.t in
*tron,er re$ief# w-i$e t-o*e w-ic- 'o not coinci'e ne.tra$i*e one anot-er an' become
in'i*tinct. In t-e 'ream of my .nc$e t-e fair %eard *tan'* o.t in re$ief# a* an em/-a*i*e'
feat.re# from a /-y*io,nomy w-ic- be$on,* to two /er*on*# an' w-ic- i* con*e;.ent$y
b$.rre'< f.rt-er# in it* reference to ,rowin, ,rey t-e bear' contain* an a$$.*ion to my
fat-er an' to my*e$f.
T-e con*tr.ction of co$$ecti&e an' com/o*ite /er*on* i* one of t-e /rinci/a$ met-o'* of
'ream5con'en*ation. +e *-a$$ /re*ent$y -a&e occa*ion to 'ea$ wit- t-i* in anot-er
connection.
T-e notion of d$senter$ in t-e 'ream of Irma1* in6ection -a* $ikewi*e a m.$ti/$e
'etermination< on t-e one -an'# beca.*e of it* /ara/-a*ic a**onance wit- 'i/-t-eria# an'
on t-e ot-er beca.*e of it* reference to t-e /atient w-om I *ent to t-e Ea*t# an' w-o*e
-y*teria -a' been wron,$y 'ia,no*e'.
T-e mention of prop$ls in t-e 'ream /ro&e* a,ain to be an intere*tin, ca*e of
con'en*ation. Not prop$ls b.t am$ls were inc$.'e' in t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*. One mi,-t
t-ink t-at -ere a *im/$e 'i*/$acement -a' occ.rre' in t-e co.r*e of 'ream5formation.
T-i* i* in fact t-e ca*e# b.t t-e 'i*/$acement *er&e* t-e /.r/o*e* of t-e con'en*ation# a*
i* *-own from t-e fo$$owin, *.//$ementary ana$y*i*: If I 'we$$ for a moment ./on t-e
wor' prop$len 3German4 it* a**onance wit- t-e wor' prop$laeum *.,,e*t* it*e$f to me.
0.t a prop$laeum is to be fo.n' not on$y in At-en*# b.t a$*o in M.nic-. In t-e $atter city#
a year before my 'ream# I -a' &i*ite' a frien' w-o wa* *erio.*$y i$$# an' t-e reference to
-im in trimeth$lamin# w-ic- fo$$ow* c$o*e$y ./on prop$ls# i* .nmi*takab$e.
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I /a** o&er t-e *trikin, circ.m*tance t-at -ere# a* e$*ew-ere in t-e ana$y*i* of 'ream*#
a**ociation* of t-e mo*t wi'e$y 'ifferin, &a$.e* are em/$oye' for makin,
t-o.,-tconnection*
a* t-o.,- t-ey were e;.i&a$ent# an' I yie$' to t-e tem/tation to re,ar' t-e
/roce'.re by w-ic- am$ls in t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* are re/$ace' in t-e 'ream5content by
prop$ls a* a *ort of /$a*tic /roce**.
On t-e one -an'# -ere i* t-e ,ro./ of i'ea* re$atin, to my frien' Otto# w-o 'oe* not
.n'er*tan' me# t-ink* I am in t-e wron,# an' ,i&e* me t-e $i;.e.r t-at *me$$* of amy$*<
on t-e ot-er -an'# t-ere i* t-e ,ro./ of i'ea* 55 connecte' wit- t-e fir*t by contra*t 55
re$atin, to my 0er$in frien' w-o 'oe* .n'er*tan' me# w-o wo.$' a$way* t-ink t-at I wa*
ri,-t# an' to w-om I am in'ebte' for *o m.c- &a$.ab$e information concernin, t-e
c-emi*try of *e=.a$ /roce**e*.
+-at e$ement* in t-e Otto ,ro./ are to attract my /artic.$ar attention are 'etermine' by
t-e recent circ.m*tance* w-ic- are re*/on*ib$e for t-e 'ream< am$ls be$on, to t-e
e$ement *o 'i*tin,.i*-e'# w-ic- are /re'e*tine' to fin' t-eir way into t-e 'ream5content.
T-e $ar,e ,ro./ of i'ea* centrin, ./on +i$$iam i* act.a$$y *tim.$ate' by t-e contra*t
between +i$$iam an' Otto# an' t-o*e e$ement* in it are em/-a*i*e' w-ic- are in t.ne
wit- t-o*e a$rea'y *tirre' ./ in t-e @Otto1 ,ro./. In t-e w-o$e of t-i* 'ream I am
contin.a$$y recoi$in, from *omebo'y w-o e=cite* my 'i*/$ea*.re towar'* anot-er /er*on
wit- w-om I can at wi$$ confront t-e fir*t< trait by trait I a//ea$ to t-e frien' a* a,ain*t t-e
enemy. T-.* @amy$*1 in t-e Otto ,ro./ awake* reco$$ection* in t-e ot-er ,ro./# a$*o
be$on,in, to t-e re,ion of c-emi*try< @trimet-y$amin1# w-ic- recei&e* *.//ort from
*e&era$ ;.arter*# fin'* it* way into t-e 'ream5content. @Amy$*1# too# mi,-t -a&e ,ot into
t-e 'ream5content .nc-an,e'# b.t it yie$'* to t-e inf$.ence of t-e @+i$$iam1 ,ro./#
ina*m.c- a* o.t of t-e w-o$e ran,e of reco$$ection* co&ere' by t-i* name an e$ement i*
*o.,-t o.t w-ic- i* ab$e to f.rni*- a 'o.b$e 'etermination for @amy$*1. @Pro/y$*1 i* c$o*e$y
a**ociate' wit- @amy$*1< from t-e @+i$$iam1 ,ro./ come* M.nic- wit- it* /ro/y$ae.m.
0ot- ,ro./* are .nite' in @/ro/y$*55/ro/y$ae.m1. A* t-o.,- by a com/romi*e# t-i*
interme'iate e$ement t-en make* it* way into t-e 'ream5content. %ere a common mean
w-ic- /ermit* of a m.$ti/$e 'etermination -a* been create'. It t-.* become* /a$/ab$e t-at
a m.$ti/$e 'etermination m.*t faci$itate /enetration into t-e 'ream5content. For t-e
/.r/o*e of t-i* mean5formation a 'i*/$acement of t-e attention -a* been .n-e*itatin,$y
effecte' from w-at i* rea$$y inten'e' to *omet-in, a'6acent to it in t-e a**ociation*.
T-e *t.'y of t-e 'ream of Irma1* in6ection -a* now enab$e' .* to obtain *ome in*i,-t into
t-e /roce** of con'en*ation w-ic- occ.r* in t-e formation of 'ream*. +e /ercei&e# a*
/ec.$iaritie* of t-e con'en*in, /roce**# a *e$ection of t-o*e e$ement* w-ic- occ.r *e&era$
time* o&er in t-e 'ream5content# t-e formation of new .nitie* 3com/o*ite /er*on*# mi=e'
ima,e*4# an' t-e /ro'.ction of common mean*. T-e /.r/o*e w-ic- i* *er&e' by
con'en*ation# an' t-e mean* by w-ic- it i* bro.,-t abo.t# wi$$ be in&e*ti,ate' w-en we
come to *t.'y in a$$ t-eir bearin,* t-e /*yc-ic /roce**e* at work in t-e formation of
'ream*. ?et .* for t-e /re*ent be content wit- e*tab$i*-in, t-e fact of 'ream5con'en*ation
a* a re$ation between t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* an' t-e 'ream5content w-ic- 'e*er&e* attention.
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T-e con'en*ation5work of 'ream* become* mo*t /a$/ab$e w-en it take* wor'* an' name*
a* it* ob6ect*. Genera$$y */eakin,# wor'* are often treate' in 'ream* a* t-in,*# an'
t-erefore .n'er,o t-e *ame combination* a* t-e i'ea* of t-in,*. T-e re*.$t* of *.c-
'ream* are comica$ an' biCarre wor'5formation*.
1. A co$$ea,.e *ent an e**ay of -i*# in w-ic- -e -a'# in my o/inion# o&ere*timate' t-e
&a$.e of a recent /-y*io$o,ica$ 'i*co&ery# an' -a' e=/re**e' -im*e$f# moreo&er# in
e=tra&a,ant term*. On t-e fo$$owin, ni,-t I 'reame' a *entence w-ic- ob&io.*$y referre'
to t-i* e**ay: @T-at i* a tr.$y norek'a$ *ty$e.1 T-e *o$.tion of t-i* wor'5formation at fir*t
,a&e me *ome 'iffic.$ty< it wa* .n;.e*tionab$y forme' a* a /aro'y of t-e *./er$ati&e*
@co$o**a$1# @/yrami'a$1< b.t it wa* not ea*y to *ay w-ere it came from. At $a*t t-e mon*ter
fe$$ a/art into t-e two name* 7ora an' &(dal# from two we$$5known /$ay* by Ib*en. I -a'
/re&io.*$y rea' a new*/a/er artic$e on Ib*en by t-e writer w-o*e $ate*t work I wa* now
critici*in, in my 'ream.
. One of my fema$e /atient* 'ream* t-at a man "ith a fair %eard and a peculiar
'litterin' e$e is pointin' to a si'n%oard attached to a tree "hich reads: uclamparia 44
"et.8
!nal$sis. 55 T-e man wa* rat-er a.t-oritati&e5$ookin,# an' -i* /ec.$iar ,$itterin, eye at
once reca$$e' t-e c-.rc- of San Pao$o# near Rome# w-ere *-e -a' *een t-e mo*aic
/ortrait* of t-e Po/e*. One of t-e ear$y Po/e* -a' a ,o$'en eye 3t-i* i* rea$$y an o/tica$
i$$.*ion# to w-ic- t-e ,.i'e* .*.a$$y ca$$ attention4. F.rt-er a**ociation* *-owe' t-at t-e
,enera$ /-y*io,nomy of t-e man corre*/on'e' wit- -er own c$er,yman 3/o/e4# an' t-e
*-a/e of t-e fair bear' reca$$e' -er 'octor 3my*e$f4# w-i$e t-e *tat.re of t-e man in t-e
'ream reca$$e' -er fat-er. A$$ t-e*e /er*on* *tan' in t-e *ame re$ation to -er< t-ey are a$$
,.i'in, an' 'irectin, t-e co.r*e of -er $ife. On f.rt-er ;.e*tionin,# t-e ,o$'en eye
reca$$e' ,o$' 55 money 55 t-e rat-er e=/en*i&e /*yc-oana$ytic treatment# w-ic- ,i&e* -er
a ,reat 'ea$ of concern. Go$'# moreo&er# reca$$* t-e ,o$' c.re for a$co-o$i*m 55 %err D.#
w-om *-e wo.$' -a&e marrie'# if it -a' not been for -i* c$in,in, to t-e 'i*,.*tin,
a$co-o$ -abit 55 *-e 'oe* not ob6ect to anyone1* takin, an occa*iona$ 'rink< *-e -er*e$f
*ometime* 'rink* beer an' $i;.e.r*. T-i* a,ain brin,* -er back to -er &i*it to San Pao$o
3fuori la mura4 an' it* *.rro.n'in,*. S-e remember* t-at in t-e nei,-bo.rin, mona*tery
of t-e Tre Fontane *-e 'rank a $i;.e.r ma'e of eucal$ptus by t-e Tra//i*t monk* of t-e
mona*tery. S-e t-en re$ate* -ow t-e monk* tran*forme' t-i* ma$aria$ an' *wam/y re,ion
into a 'ry an' w-o$e*ome nei,-bo.r-oo' by /$antin, n.mber* of eucal$ptus tree*. T-e
wor' @uclamparia1 t-en re*o$&e* it*e$f into eucal$ptus an' malarie# an' t-e wor' "et
refer* to t-e former *wam/y nat.re of t-e $oca$ity. +et a$*o *.,,e*t* 'ry. Dr$ i* act.a$$y
t-e name of t-e man w-om *-e wo.$' -a&e marrie' b.t for -i* o&er5in'.$,ence in
a$co-o$. T-e /ec.$iar name of Dr$ i* of Germanic ori,in 3drei M t-ree4 an' -ence# a$$.'e*
to t-e mona*tery of t-e T-ree 3drei4 Fo.ntain*. In ta$kin, of Mr Dry1* -abit *-e .*e' t-e
*tron, e=/re**ion: @%e co.$' 'rink a fo.ntain.1 Mr Dry 6oco*e$y refer* to -i* -abit by
*ayin,: @Ho. know I m.*t 'rink beca.*e I am a$way* dr$1 3referrin, to -i* name4. T-e
eucal$ptus refer* a$*o to -er ne.ro*i*# w-ic- wa* at fir*t 'ia,no*e' a* malaria. S-e went
to Ita$y beca.*e -er attack* of an=iety# w-ic- were accom/anie' by marke' ri,or* an'
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*-i&erin,# were t-o.,-t to be of ma$aria$ ori,in. S-e bo.,-t *ome e.ca$y/t.* oi$ from t-e
monk*# an' *-e maintain* t-at it -a* 'one -er m.c- ,oo'.
T-e con'en*ation uclamparia44"et i* t-erefore t-e /oint of 6.nction for t-e 'ream a* we$$
a* for t-e ne.ro*i*.
2. In a rat-er $on, an' conf.*e' 'ream of my own# t-e a//arent n.c$e.* of w-ic- i* a
*ea&oya,e#
it occ.r* to me t-at t-e ne=t /ort i* Bearsin'# an' ne=t after t-at Fliess. T-e $atter
i* t-e name of my frien' in 0.# to w-ic- city I -a&e often 6o.rneye'. 0.t Bearsin' i* /.t
to,et-er from t-e name* of t-e /$ace* in t-e nei,-bo.r-oo' of Kienna# w-ic- *o
fre;.ent$y en' in @in,1: Biet?in', Liesin', Moedlin' 3t-e o$' Me'e$itC# meae deliciae# @my
6oy1< t-at i*# my own name# t-e German for @6oy1 bein, Freude4# an' t-e En,$i*- hearsa$#
w-ic- /oint* to ca$.mny# an' e*tab$i*-e* t-e re$ation to t-e in'ifferent 'ream5*tim.$.* of
t-e 'ay 55 a /oem in Flie'ende <l=tter abo.t a *$an'ero.* 'warf# @Sa,ter %ater,e*a,t1
3Sai'-e %a*-e*ai'4. 0y t-e combination of t-e fina$ *y$$ab$e in' wit- t-e name Fliess,
Vlissin'en i* obtaine'# w-ic- i* a rea$ /ort t-ro.,- w-ic- my brot-er /a**e* w-en -e
come* to &i*it .* from En,$an'. 0.t t-e En,$i*- for Vlissin'en i* Flushin'# w-ic-
*i,nifie* %lushin'# an' reca$$* /atient* *.fferin, from er$throtho%ia 3fear of b$.*-in,4#
w-om I *ometime* treat# an' a$*o a recent /.b$ication of 0ec-terew1*# re$atin, to t-i*
ne.ro*i*# t-e rea'in, of w-ic- an,ere' me.9
7. )/on anot-er occa*ion I -a' a 'ream w-ic- con*i*te' of two *e/arate /art*. T-e fir*t
wa* t-e &i&i'$y remembere' wor' @!utodidas(er1: t-e *econ' wa* a fait-f.$ re/ro'.ction
in t-e 'ream5content of a *-ort an' -arm$e** fancy w-ic- -a' been 'e&e$o/e' a few 'ay*
ear$ier# an' w-ic- wa* to t-e effect t-at I m.*t te$$ Profe**or N.# w-en I ne=t *aw -im:
@T-e /atient abo.t w-o*e con'ition I $a*t con*.$te' yo. i* rea$$y *.fferin, from a
ne.ro*i*# 6.*t a* yo. *.*/ecte'.1 So not on$y m.*t t-e new$y5coine' @!utodidas(er1 *ati*fy
t-e re;.irement t-at it *-o.$' contain or re/re*ent a com/re**e' meanin,# b.t t-i*
meanin, m.*t -a&e a &a$i' connection wit- my re*o$&e 55 re/eate' from wakin, $ife 55 to
,i&e Profe**or N. '.e cre'it for -i* 'ia,no*i*.
Now !utodidas(er i* ea*i$y *e/arate' into author 3German# !utor4# autodidact# an'
Las(er# wit- w-om i* a**ociate' t-e name Lasalle. T-e fir*t of t-e*e wor'* $ea'* to t-e
occa*ion of t-e 'ream 55 w-ic- t-i* time i* *i,nificant. I -a' bro.,-t -ome to my wife
*e&era$ &o$.me* by a we$$5known a.t-or w-o i* a frien' of my brot-er1*# an' w-o# a* I
-a&e $earne'# come* from t-e *ame nei,-bo.r-oo' a* my*e$f 3>. >. Da&i'4. One e&enin,
*-e to$' me -ow /rofo.n'$y im/re**e' *-e -a' been by t-e /at-etic *a'ne** of a *tory in
one of Da&i'1* no&e$* 3a *tory of wa*te' ta$ent*4# an' o.r con&er*ation t.rne' ./on t-e
*i,n* of ta$ent w-ic- we /ercei&e in o.r own c-i$'ren. )n'er t-e inf$.ence of w-at *-e
-a' 6.*t rea'# my wife e=/re**e' *ome concern abo.t o.r c-i$'ren# an' I comforte' -er
wit- t-e remark t-at /reci*e$y *.c- 'an,er* a* *-e feare' can be a&erte' by trainin,.
D.rin, t-e ni,-t my t-o.,-t* /rocee'e' fart-er# took ./ my wife1* concern for t-e
c-i$'ren# an' interwo&e wit- it a$$ *ort* of ot-er t-in,*. Somet-in, w-ic- t-e no&e$i*t -a'
*ai' to my brot-er on t-e *.b6ect of marria,e *-owe' my t-o.,-t* a by/at- w-ic- mi,-t
$ea' to re/re*entation in t-e 'ream. T-i* /at- $e' to 0re*$a.< a $a'y w-o wa* a &ery ,oo'
frien' of o.r* -a' marrie' an' ,one to $i&e t-ere. I fo.n' in 0re*$a. Las(er an' Lasalle#
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two e=am/$e* to 6.*tify t-e fear $e*t o.r boy* *-o.$' be r.ine' by women# e=am/$e*
w-ic- enab$e' me to re/re*ent *im.$taneo.*$y two way* of inf$.encin, a man to -i*
.n'oin,.: T-e Cherche? la femme# by w-ic- t-e*e t-o.,-t* may be *.mmari*e'# $ea'*
me# if taken in anot-er *en*e# to my brot-er# w-o i* *ti$$ .nmarrie' an' w-o*e name i*
!leander. Now I *ee t-at !le# a* we abbre&iate t-e name# *o.n'* a$mo*t $ike an
in&er*ion of Las(er# an' t-at t-i* fact m.*t -a&e contrib.te' to *en' my t-o.,-t* on a
'eto.r by way of 0re*$a..
0.t t-e /$ayin, wit- name* an' *y$$ab$e* in w-ic- I am -ere en,a,e' -a* yet anot-er
meanin,. It re/re*ent* t-e wi*- t-at my brot-er may en6oy a -a//y fami$y $ife# an' t-i* in
t-e fo$$owin, manner: In t-e no&e$ of arti*tic $ife# L+8euvre# w-ic-# by &irt.e of it*
content# m.*t -a&e been in a**ociation wit- my 'ream5t-o.,-t*# t-e a.t-or# a* i* we$$
known# -a* inci'enta$$y ,i&en a 'e*cri/tion of -i* own /er*on an' -i* own 'ome*tic
-a//ine**# an' a//ear* .n'er t-e name of 3ando?. In t-e metamor/-o*i* of -i* name -e
/robab$y went to work a* fo$$ow*: Iola# w-en in&erte' 3a* c-i$'ren are fon' of in&ertin,
name*4 ,i&e* !lo?. 0.t t-i* wa* *ti$$ too .n'i*,.i*e'< -e t-erefore re/$ace' t-e *y$$ab$e
!l# w-ic- *tan'* at t-e be,innin, of t-e name A$e=an'er# by t-e t-ir' *y$$ab$e of t-e *ame
name# sand# an' t-.* arri&e' at 3ando?. My autodidas(er ori,inate' in a *imi$ar fa*-ion.
My fanta*y 55 t-at I am te$$in, Profe**or N. t-at t-e /atient w-om we -a&e bot- *een i*
*.fferin, from a ne.ro*i* 55 fo.n' it* way into t-e 'ream in t-e fo$$owin, manner:
S-ort$y before t-e c$o*e of my workin, year I -a' a /atient in w-o*e ca*e my /ower* of
'ia,no*i* fai$e' me. A *erio.* or,anic tro.b$e 55 /o**ib$y *ome a$terati&e 'e,eneration of
t-e */ina$ cor' 55 wa* to be a**.me'# b.t co.$' not be conc$.*i&e$y 'emon*trate'. It
wo.$' -a&e been tem/tin, to 'ia,no*e t-e tro.b$e a* a ne.ro*i*# an' t-i* wo.$' -a&e /.t
an en' to a$$ my 'iffic.$tie*# b.t for t-e fact t-at t-e *e=.a$ anamne*i*# fai$in, w-ic- I am
.nwi$$in, to a'mit a ne.ro*i*# wa* *o ener,etica$$y 'enie' by t-e /atient. In my
embarra**ment I ca$$e' to my a**i*tance t-e /-y*ician w-om I re*/ect mo*t of a$$ men 3a*
ot-er* 'o a$*o4# an' to w-o*e a.t-ority I *.rren'er mo*t com/$ete$y. %e $i*tene' to my
'o.bt*# to$' me -e t-o.,-t t-em 6.*tifie'# an' t-en *ai': @Fee/ on ob*er&in, t-e man# it
i* /robab$y a ne.ro*i*.1 Since I know t-at -e 'oe* not *-are my o/inion* concernin, t-e
etio$o,y of t-e ne.ro*e*# I refraine' from contra'ictin, -im# b.t I 'i' not concea$ my
*ce/tici*m. A few 'ay* $ater I informe' t-e /atient t-at I 'i' not know w-at to 'o wit-
-im# an' a'&i*e' -im to ,o to *omeone e$*e. T-ere./on# to my ,reat a*toni*-ment# -e
be,an to be, my /ar'on for -a&in, $ie' to me< -e -a' fe$t *o a*-ame'< an' now -e
re&ea$e' to me 6.*t t-at /iece of *e=.a$ etio$o,y w-ic- I -a' e=/ecte'# an' w-ic- I fo.n'
nece**ary for a**.min, t-e e=i*tence of a ne.ro*i*. T-i* wa* a re$ief to me# b.t at t-e
*ame time a -.mi$iation< for I -a' to a'mit t-at my con*.$tant# w-o wa* not 'i*concerte'
by t-e ab*ence of anamne*i*# -a' 6.',e' t-e ca*e more correct$y. I ma'e ./ my min' to
te$$ -im# w-en ne=t I *aw -im# t-at -e -a' been ri,-t an' I -a' been wron,.
T-i* i* 6.*t w-at I 'o in t-e 'ream. 0.t w-at *ort of a wi*- i* f.$fi$$e' if I acknow$e',e
t-at I am mi*takenI T-i* i* /reci*e$y my wi*-< I wi*- to be mi*taken a* re,ar'* my fear* 5
5 t-at i* to *ay# I wi*- t-at my wife# w-o*e fear* I -a&e a//ro/riate' in my
'reamt-o.,-t*#
may /ro&e to be mi*taken. T-e *.b6ect to w-ic- t-e fact of bein, ri,-t or wron,
i* re$ate' in t-e 'ream i* not far remo&e' from t-at w-ic- i* rea$$y of intere*t to t-e
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'ream5t-o.,-t*. +e -a&e t-e *ame /air of a$ternati&e*# of eit-er or,anic or f.nctiona$
im/airment ca.*e' by a woman# or act.a$$y by t-e *e=.a$ $ife 55 eit-er tabetic /ara$y*i* or
a ne.ro*i* 55 wit- w-ic- $atter t-e nat.re of ?a*a$$e1* .n'oin, i* in'irect$y connecte'.
In t-i* we$$5con*tr.cte' 3an' on caref.$ ana$y*i* ;.ite tran*/arent4 'ream# Profe**or N.
a//ear* not mere$y on acco.nt of t-i* ana$o,y# an' my wi*- to be /ro&e' mi*taken# or t-e
a**ociate' reference* to 0re*$a. an' to t-e fami$y of o.r marrie' frien' w-o $i&e* t-ere#
b.t a$*o on acco.nt of t-e fo$$owin, $itt$e 'ia$o,.e w-ic- fo$$owe' o.r con*.$tation:
After -e -a' ac;.itte' -im*e$f of -i* /rofe**iona$ '.tie* by makin, t-e abo&e5mentione'
*.,,e*tion. Dr N. /rocee'e' to 'i*c.** /er*ona$ matter*. @%ow many c-i$'ren -a&e yo.
nowI1 55 @Si=.1 55 A t-o.,-tf.$ an' re*/ectf.$ ,e*t.re. 55 @Gir$*# boy*I1 55 @T-ree of eac-.
T-ey are my /ri'e an' my ric-e*.1 55 @+e$$# yo. m.*t be caref.$< t-ere i* no 'iffic.$ty
abo.t t-e ,ir$*# b.t t-e boy* are a 'iffic.$ty $ater on a* re,ar'* t-eir ./brin,in,.1 I re/$ie'
t-at .nti$ now t-ey -a' been &ery tractab$e: ob&io.*$y t-i* /ro,no*i* of my boy*1 f.t.re
/$ea*e' me a* $itt$e a* -i* 'ia,no*i* of my /atient# w-om -e be$ie&e' to be *.fferin, on$y
from a ne.ro*i*. T-e*e two im/re**ion*# t-en# are connecte' by t-eir conti,.ity# by t-eir
bein, *.cce**i&e$y recei&e'< an' w-en I incor/orate t-e *tory of t-e ne.ro*i* into t-e
'ream# I *.b*tit.te it for t-e con&er*ation on t-e *.b6ect of ./brin,in,# w-ic- i* e&en
more c$o*e$y connecte' wit- t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*# *ince it to.c-e* *o c$o*e$y ./on t-e
an=iety *.b*e;.ent$y e=/re**e' by my wife. T-.*# e&en my fear t-at N. may /ro&e to be
ri,-t in -i* remark* on t-e 'iffic.$tie* to be met wit- in brin,in, ./ boy* i* a'mitte' into
t-e 'ream5content# ina*m.c- a* it i* concea$e' be-in' t-e re/re*entation of my wi*- t-at
I may be wron, to -arbo.r *.c- a//re-en*ion*. T-e *ame fanta*y *er&e* wit-o.t
a$teration to re/re*ent bot- t-e conf$ictin, a$ternati&e*.
E=amination5'ream* /re*ent t-e *ame 'iffic.$tie* to inter/retation t-at I -a&e a$rea'y
'e*cribe' a* c-aracteri*tic of mo*t ty/ica$ 'ream*. T-e a**ociati&e materia$ w-ic- t-e
'reamer *.//$ie* on$y rare$y *.ffice* for inter/retation. A 'ee/er .n'er*tan'in, of *.c-
'ream* -a* to be acc.m.$ate' from a con*i'erab$e n.mber of e=am/$e*. Not $on, a,o I
arri&e' at a con&iction t-at rea**.rance* $ike @0.t yo. a$rea'y are a 'octor1# an' *o on#
not on$y con&ey a con*o$ation b.t im/$y a re/roac- a* we$$. T-i* wo.$' -a&e r.n: @Ho.
are a$rea'y *o o$'# *o far a'&ance' in $ife# an' yet yo. *ti$$ commit *.c- fo$$ie*# are ,.i$ty
of *.c- c-i$'i*- be-a&io.r.1 T-i* mi=t.re of *e$f5critici*m an' con*o$ation wo.$'
corre*/on' wit- t-e e=amination5'ream*. After t-i* it i* no $on,er *.r/ri*in, t-at t-e
re/roac-e* in t-e $a*t ana$y*e' e=am/$e* concernin, @fo$$ie*1 an' @c-i$'i*- be-a&io.r1
*-o.$' re$ate to re/etition* of re/re-en*ib$e *e=.a$ act*.
T-e &erba$ tran*formation* in 'ream* are &ery *imi$ar to t-o*e w-ic- are known to occ.r
in /aranoia# an' w-ic- are ob*er&e' a$*o in -y*teria an' ob*e**ion*. T-e $in,.i*tic trick*
of c-i$'ren# w-o at a certain a,e act.a$$y treat wor'* a* ob6ect*# an' e&en in&ent new
$an,.a,e* an' artificia$ *ynta=e*# are a common *o.rce of *.c- occ.rrence* bot- in
'ream* an' in t-e /*yc-one.ro*e*.
T-e ana$y*i* of non*en*ica$ wor'5formation* in 'ream* i* /artic.$ar$y we$$ *.ite' to
'emon*trate t-e 'e,ree of con'en*ation effecte' in t-e 'ream5work. From t-e *ma$$
n.mber of t-e *e$ecte' e=am/$e* -ere con*i'ere' it m.*t not be conc$.'e' t-at *.c-
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materia$ i* *e$'om ob*er&e' or i* at a$$ e=ce/tiona$. It i*# on t-e contrary# &ery fre;.ent#
b.t owin, to t-e 'e/en'ence of 'ream5inter/retation on /*yc-oana$ytic treatment &ery
few e=am/$e* are note' 'own an' re/orte'# an' mo*t of t-e ana$y*e* w-ic- are re/orte'
are com/re-en*ib$e on$y to t-e */ecia$i*t in ne.ro/at-o$o,y.
+-en a */oken .tterance# e=/re**$y 'i*tin,.i*-e' a* *.c- from a t-o.,-t# occ.r* in a
'ream# it i* an in&ariab$e r.$e t-at t-e 'ream5*/eec- -a* ori,inate' from a remembere'
*/eec- in t-e 'ream5materia$. T-e wor'in, of t-e */eec- -a* eit-er been /re*er&e' in it*
entirety or -a* been *$i,-t$y a$tere' in e=/re**ion< fre;.ent$y t-e 'ream5*/eec- i* /iece'
to,et-er from 'ifferent reco$$ection* of */oken remark*< t-e wor'in, -a* remaine' t-e
*ame# b.t t-e *en*e -a* /er-a/* become ambi,.o.*# or 'iffer* from t-e wor'in,. Not
infre;.ent$y t-e 'ream5*/eec- *er&e* mere$y a* an a$$.*ion to an inci'ent in connection
wit- w-ic- t-e remembere' */eec- wa* ma'e.D
1 Reference* to t-e con'en*ation in 'ream* are to be fo.n' in t-e work* of many writer*
on t-e *.b6ect. D. Pre$ *tate* in -i* 2hilospohie der M$sti( t-at -e i* ab*o$.te$y certain
t-at a con'en*ation5/roce** of t-e *.cce**ion of i'ea* -a* occ.rre'.
In e*timatin, t-e *i,nificance of t-i* /a**a,e we may reca$$ t-e meanin, of 'ream* of
c$imbin, *tair*# a* e=/$aine' in t-e c-a/ter on Symbo$i*m.
2 Tran*$ate' by 0ayar' Tay$or.
7 T-e fanta*tic nat.re of t-e *it.ation re$atin, to t-e 'reamer1* wet5n.r*e i* *-own by t-e
circ.m*tance# ob6ecti&e$y a*certaine'# t-at t-e n.r*e in t-i* ca*e wa* -i* mot-er. F.rt-er#
I may ca$$ attention to t-e re,ret of t-e yo.n, man in t-e anec'ote re$ate' on /. 1"8 3t-at
-e -a' not taken better a'&anta,e of -i* o//ort.nitie* wit- -i* wet5n.r*e4 a* t-e /robab$e
*o.rce of t-i* 'ream.
8 Gi&en by tran*$ator# a* t-e a.t-or1* e=am/$e co.$' not be tran*$ate'.
9 T-e *ame ana$y*i* an' *ynt-e*i* of *y$$ab$e* 55 a &eritab$e c-emi*try of *y$$ab$e* 55
*er&e* .* for many a 6e*t in wakin, $ife. @+-at i* t-e c-ea/e*t met-o' of obtainin,
*i$&erI Ho. ,o to a fie$' w-ere *i$&er5berrie* are ,rowin, an' /ick t-em< t-en t-e berrie*
are e$iminate' an' t-e *i$&er remain* in a free *tate.1 JTran*$ator1* e=am/$e.L T-e fir*t
/er*on w-o rea' an' critici*e' t-i* book ma'e t-e ob6ection 55 wit- w-ic- ot-er rea'er*
wi$$ /robab$y a,ree 55 @t-at t-e 'reamer often a//ear* too witty.1 T-at i* tr.e# *o $on, a* it
a//$ie* to t-e 'reamer< it in&o$&e* a con'emnation on$y w-en it* a//$ication i* e=ten'e'
to t-e inter/reter of t-e 'ream. In wakin, rea$ity I can make &ery $itt$e c$aim to t-e
/re'icate @witty1< if my 'ream* a//ear witty# t-i* i* not t-e fa.$t of my in'i&i'.a$ity# b.t
of t-e /ec.$iar /*yc-o$o,ica$ con'ition* .n'er w-ic- t-e 'ream i* fabricate'# an' i*
intimate$y connecte' wit- t-e t-eory of wit an' t-e comica$. T-e 'ream become* witty
beca.*e t-e *-orte*t an' mo*t 'irect way to t-e e=/re**ion of it* t-o.,-t* i* barre' for it<
t-e 'ream i* .n'er con*traint. My rea'er* may con&ince t-em*e$&e* t-at t-e 'ream* of
my /atient* ,i&e t-e im/re**ion of bein, ;.ite a* witty 3at $ea*t# in intention4# a* my own#
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an' e&en more *o. Ne&ert-e$e**# t-i* re/roac- im/e$$e' me to com/are t-e tec-ni;.e of
wit wit- t-e 'ream5work.
: ?a*ker 'ie' of /ro,re**i&e /ara$y*i*< t-at i*# of t-e con*e;.ence* of an infection ca.,-t
from a woman 3*y/-i$i*4< ?a*a$$e# a$*o a *y/-i$itic# wa* ki$$e' in a '.e$ w-ic- -e fo.,-t
on acco.nt of t-e $a'y w-om -e -a' been co.rtin,.
D In t-e ca*e of a yo.n, man w-o wa* *.fferin, from ob*e**ion*# b.t w-o*e inte$$ect.a$
f.nction* were intact an' -i,-$y 'e&e$o/e'# I recent$y fo.n' t-e on$y e=ce/tion to t-i*
r.$e T-e */eec-e* w-ic- occ.rre' in -i* 'ream* 'i' not ori,inate in */eec-e* w-ic- -e
-a' -ear' or -a' ma'e -im*e$f# b.t corre*/on'e' to t-e .n'i*torte' &erba$ e=/re**ion of
-i* ob*e**i&e t-o.,-t*# w-ic- came to -i* wakin, con*cio.*ne** on$y in an a$tere' form.
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1! THE *OR3 OF DISP,A+EMENT
Anot-er an' /robab$y no $e** *i,nificant re$ation m.*t -a&e a$rea'y force' it*e$f ./on o.r
attention w-i$e we were co$$ectin, e=am/$e* of 'ream5con'en*ation. +e may -a&e
notice' t-at t-e*e e$ement* w-ic- obtr.'e t-em*e$&e* in t-e 'ream5content a* it* e**entia$
com/onent* 'o not by any mean* /$ay t-i* *ame /art in t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*. A* a
coro$$ary to t-i*# t-e con&er*e of t-i* *tatement i* a$*o tr.e. T-at w-ic- i* ob&io.*$y t-e
e**entia$ content of t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* nee' not be re/re*ente' at a$$ in t-e 'ream. T-e
'ream i*# a* it were# centred else"here< it* content i* arran,e' abo.t e$ement* w-ic- 'o
not con*tit.te t-e centra$ /oint of t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*. T-.*# for e=am/$e# in t-e 'ream of
t-e botanica$ mono,ra/- t-e centra$ /oint of t-e 'ream5content i* e&i'ent$y t-e e$ement
@botanica$1< in t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* we are concerne' wit- t-e com/$ication* an' conf$ict*
re*.$tin, from *er&ice* ren'ere' between co$$ea,.e* w-ic- /$ace t-em .n'er m.t.a$
ob$i,ation*< $ater on wit- t-e re/roac- t-at I am in t-e -abit of *acrificin, too m.c- time
to my -obbie*< an' t-e e$ement @botanica$1 fin'* no /$ace in t-i* n.c$e.* of t-e
'reamt-o.,-t*#
.n$e** it i* $oo*e$y connecte' wit- it by antit-e*i*# for botany wa* ne&er amon,
my fa&o.rite *.b6ect*. In t-e Sa//-o5'ream of my /atient# a*cen'in, an' 'e*cen'in,#
bein, ./*tair* an' 'own# i* ma'e t-e centra$ /oint< t-e 'ream# -owe&er# i* concerne'
wit- t-e 'an,er of *e=.a$ re$ation* wit- /er*on* of @$ow1 'e,ree< *o t-at on$y one of t-e
e$ement* of t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* *eem* to -a&e fo.n' it* way into t-e 'ream5content# an'
t-i* i* .n'.$y e=/an'e'. A,ain# in t-e 'ream of my .nc$e# t-e fair bear'# w-ic- *eem* to
be it* centra$ /oint# a//ear* to -a&e no rationa$ connection wit- t-e 'e*ire for ,reatne**
w-ic- we -a&e reco,ni*e' a* t-e n.c$e.* of t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*. S.c- 'ream* &ery
nat.ra$$y ,i&e .* an im/re**ion of a @'i*/$acement1. In com/$ete contra*t to t-e*e
e=am/$e*# t-e 'ream of Irma1* in6ection *-ow* t-at in'i&i'.a$ e$ement* may c$aim t-e
*ame /$ace in 'ream5formation a* t-at w-ic- t-ey occ./y in t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*. T-e
reco,nition of t-i* new an' .tter$y incon*tant re$ation between t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* an'
t-e 'ream5content wi$$ /robab$y a*toni*- .* at fir*t. If we fin' in a /*yc-ic /roce** of
norma$ $ife t-at one i'ea -a* been *e$ecte' from amon, a n.mber of ot-er*# an' -a*
ac;.ire' a /artic.$ar em/-a*i* in o.r con*cio.*ne**# we are wont to re,ar' t-i* a* /roof
t-at a /ec.$iar /*yc-ic &a$.e 3a certain 'e,ree of intere*t4 attac-e* to t-e &ictorio.* i'ea.
+e now 'i*co&er t-at t-i* &a$.e of t-e in'i&i'.a$ e$ement in t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* i* not
retaine' in 'ream5formation# or i* not taken into acco.nt. For t-ere i* no 'o.bt w-ic- of
t-e e$ement* of t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* are of t-e -i,-e*t &a$.e< o.r 6.',ment inform* .*
imme'iate$y. In 'ream5formation t-e e**entia$ e$ement*# t-o*e t-at are em/-a*i*e' by
inten*i&e intere*t# may be treate' a* t-o.,- t-ey were *.bor'inate# w-i$e t-ey are
re/$ace' in t-e 'ream by ot-er e$ement*# w-ic- were certain$y *.bor'inate in t-e
'reamt-o.,-t*.
It *eem* at fir*t a* t-o.,- t-e /*yc-ic inten*ity1 of in'i&i'.a$ i'ea* were of no
acco.nt in t-eir *e$ection for 'ream5formation# b.t on$y t-eir ,reater or $e**er m.$ti/$icity
of 'etermination. One mi,-t be inc$ine' to t-ink t-at w-at ,et* into t-e 'ream i* not w-at
i* im/ortant in t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*# b.t w-at i* containe' in t-em *e&era$ time* o&er< b.t
o.r .n'er*tan'in, of 'ream5formation i* not m.c- a'&ance' by t-i* a**.m/tion< to be,in
wit-# we cannot be$ie&e t-at t-e two moti&e* of m.$ti/$e 'etermination an' intrin*ic &a$.e
can inf$.ence t-e *e$ection of t-e 'ream ot-erwi*e t-an in t-e *ame 'irection. T-o*e i'ea*
in t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* w-ic- are mo*t im/ortant are /robab$y a$*o t-o*e w-ic- rec.r mo*t
fre;.ent$y# *ince t-e in'i&i'.a$ 'ream5t-o.,-t* ra'iate from t-em a* centre*. An' yet t-e
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'ream may re6ect t-e*e inten*i&e$y em/-a*i*e' an' e=ten*i&e$y reinforce' e$ement*# an'
may take ./ into it* content ot-er e$ement* w-ic- are on$y e=ten*i&e$y reinforce'.
T-i* 'iffic.$ty may be *o$&e' if we fo$$ow ./ yet anot-er im/re**ion recei&e' '.rin, t-e
in&e*ti,ation of t-e o&er5'etermination of t-e 'ream5content. Many rea'er* of t-i*
in&e*ti,ation may a$rea'y -a&e 'eci'e'# in t-eir own min'*# t-at t-e 'i*co&ery of t-e
m.$ti/$e 'etermination of t-e 'ream5e$ement* i* of no ,reat im/ortance# beca.*e it i*
ine&itab$e. Since in ana$y*i* we /rocee' from t-e 'ream5e$ement*# an' re,i*ter a$$ t-e
i'ea* w-ic- a**ociate t-em*e$&e* wit- t-e*e e$ement*# i* it any won'er t-at t-e*e
e$ement* *-o.$' rec.r wit- /ec.$iar fre;.ency in t-e t-o.,-t5materia$ obtaine' in t-i*
mannerI +-i$e I cannot a'mit t-e &a$i'ity of t-i* ob6ection# I am now ,oin, to *ay
*omet-in, t-at *o.n'* rat-er $ike it: Amon, t-e t-o.,-t* w-ic- ana$y*i* brin,* to $i,-t
are many w-ic- are far remo&e' from t-e n.c$e.* of t-e 'ream# an' w-ic- *tan' o.t $ike
artificia$ inter/o$ation* ma'e for a 'efinite /.r/o*e. T-eir /.r/o*e may rea'i$y be
'etecte'< t-ey e*tab$i*- a connection# often a force' an' far5fetc-e' connection# between
t-e 'ream5content an' t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*# an' in many ca*e*# if t-e*e e$ement* were
wee'e' o.t of t-e ana$y*i*# t-e com/onent* of t-e 'ream5content wo.$' not on$y not be
o&er5'etermine'# b.t t-ey wo.$' not be *.fficient$y 'etermine'. +e are t-.* $e' to t-e
conc$.*ion t-at m.$ti/$e 'etermination# 'eci*i&e a* re,ar'* t-e *e$ection ma'e by t-e
'ream# i* /er-a/* not a$way* a /rimary factor in 'ream5formation# b.t i* often a
*econ'ary /ro'.ct of a /*yc-ic force w-ic- i* a* yet .nknown to .*. Ne&ert-e$e**# it m.*t
be of im/ortance for t-e entrance of t-e in'i&i'.a$ e$ement* into t-e 'ream# for we may
ob*er&e t-at in ca*e* w-ere m.$ti/$e 'etermination 'oe* not /rocee' ea*i$y from t-e
'ream5materia$ it i* bro.,-t abo.t wit- a certain effort.
It now become* &ery /robab$e t-at a /*yc-ic force e=/re**e* it*e$f in t-e 'ream5work
w-ic-# on t-e one -an'# *tri/* t-e e$ement* of t-e -i,- /*yc-ic &a$.e of t-eir inten*ity
an'# on t-e ot-er -an'# %$ means of over4determination# create* new *i,nificant &a$.e*
from e$ement* of *$i,-t &a$.e# w-ic- new &a$.e* t-en make t-eir way into t-e
'reamcontent.
Now if t-i* i* t-e met-o' of /roce'.re# t-ere -a* occ.rre' in t-e /roce** of
'ream5formation a transference and displacement of the ps$chic intensities of t-e
in'i&i'.a$ e$ement*# from w-ic- re*.$t* t-e te=t.a$ 'ifference between t-e 'ream5content
an' t-e t-o.,-t5content. T-e /roce** w-ic- we -ere a**.me to be o/erati&e i* act.a$$y
t-e mo*t e**entia$ /art of t-e 'ream5work< it may fit$y be ca$$e' dream4displacement5
Dream4displacement and dream4condensation are t-e two craft*men to w-om we may
c-ief$y a*cribe t-e *tr.ct.re of t-e 'ream.
I t-ink it wi$$ be ea*y to reco,ni*e t-e /*yc-ic force w-ic- e=/re**e* it*e$f in
'ream'i*/$acement.
T-e re*.$t of t-i* 'i*/$acement i* t-at t-e 'ream5content no $on,er -a* any
$ikene** to t-e n.c$e.* of t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*# an' t-e 'ream re/ro'.ce* on$y a 'i*torte'
form of t-e 'ream5wi*- in t-e .ncon*cio.*. 0.t we are a$rea'y ac;.ainte' wit-
'ream'i*tortion<
we -a&e trace' it back to t-e cen*or*-i/ w-ic- one /*yc-ic in*tance in t-e
/*yc-ic $ife e=erci*e* o&er anot-er. Dream5'i*/$acement i* one of t-e c-ief mean* of
ac-ie&in, t-i* 'i*tortion. Is fecit, cui profuit. +e m.*t a**.me t-at 'ream5'i*/$acement i*
bro.,-t abo.t by t-e inf$.ence of t-i* cen*or*-i/# t-e en'o/*yc-ic 'efence.
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T-e manner in w-ic- t-e factor* of 'i*/$acement# con'en*ation an' o&er5'etermination
interact wit- one anot-er in 'ream5formation 55 w-ic- i* t-e r.$in, factor an' w-ic- t-e
*.bor'inate one 55 a$$ t-i* wi$$ be re*er&e' a* a *.b6ect for $ater in&e*ti,ation. In t-e
meantime# we may *tate# a* a *econ' con'ition w-ic- t-e e$ement* t-at fin' t-eir way
into t-e 'ream m.*t *ati*fy# t-at the$ must %e "ithdra"n from the resistance of the
censorship. 0.t -encefort-# in t-e inter/retation of 'ream*# we *-a$$ reckon wit-
'ream'i*/$acement
a* an .n;.e*tionab$e fact.
1 T-e /*yc-ic inten*ity or &a$.e of an i'ea 55 t-e em/-a*i* '.e to intere*t 55 i* of co.r*e to
be 'i*tin,.i*-e' from /erce/t.a$ or conce/t.a$ inten*ity.
Since I re,ar' t-e attrib.tion of 'ream5'i*tortion to t-e cen*or*-i/ a* t-e centra$ /oint of
my conce/tion of t-e 'ream# I wi$$ -ere ;.ote t-e c$o*in, /a**a,e of a *tory# Tr=umen
"ie ;achen# from 2hantasien eines Gealisten# by ?ynke.* 3Kienna# *econ' e'ition#
1!""4# in w-ic- I fin' t-i* c-ief feat.re of my 'octrine re/ro'.ce':
@(oncernin, a man w-o /o**e**e* t-e remarkab$e fac.$ty of ne&er 'reamin, non*en*e . .
.1
@Ho.r mar&e$$o.* fac.$ty of 'reamin, a* if yo. were awake i* ba*e' ./on yo.r &irt.e*#
./on yo.r ,oo'ne**# yo.r 6.*tice# an' yo.r $o&e of tr.t-< it i* t-e mora$ c$arity of yo.r
nat.re w-ic- make* e&eryt-in, abo.t yo. inte$$i,ib$e to me.1
@0.t if I rea$$y ,i&e t-o.,-t to t-e matter#1 wa* t-e re/$y# @I a$mo*t be$ie&e t-at a$$ men
are ma'e a* I am# an' t-at no one e&er 'ream* non*en*eA A 'ream w-ic- one remember*
*o 'i*tinct$y t-at one can re$ate it afterwar'*# an' w-ic-# t-erefore# i* no 'ream of
'e$iri.m# al"a$s -a* a meanin,< w-y# it cannot be ot-erwi*eA For t-at w-ic- i* in
contra'iction to it*e$f can ne&er be combine' into a w-o$e. T-e fact t-at time an' */ace
are often t-oro.,-$y *-aken ./# 'etract* not at a$$ from t-e rea$ content of t-e 'ream#
beca.*e bot- are wit-o.t any *i,nificance w-ate&er for it* e**entia$ content. +e often 'o
t-e *ame t-in, in wakin, $ife< t-ink of fairyta$e*# of *o many bo$' an' /re,nant creation*
of fanta*y# of w-ic- on$y a foo$i*- /er*on wo.$' *ay: @@T-at i* non*en*eA For it i*n1t
/o**ib$e.11 1
@If on$y it were a$way* /o**ib$e to inter/ret 'ream* correct$y# a* yo. -a&e 6.*t 'one wit-
mineA1 *ai' t-e frien'.
@T-at i* certain$y not an ea*y ta*k# b.t wit- a $itt$e attention it m.*t a$way* be /o**ib$e to
t-e 'reamer. 55 Ho. a*k w-y it i* ,enera$$y im/o**ib$eI In yo.r ca*e t-ere *eem* to be
*omet-in, &ei$e' in yo.r 'ream*# *omet-in, .nc-a*te in a */ecia$ an' e=a$te' fa*-ion# a
certain *ecrecy in yo.r nat.re# w-ic- it i* 'iffic.$t to fat-om< an' t-at i* w-y yo.r 'ream*
*o often *eem to be wit-o.t meanin, or e&en non*en*ica$. 0.t in t-e /rofo.n'e*t *en*e#
t-i* i* by no mean* t-e ca*e< in'ee' it cannot be# for a man i* a$way* t-e *ame /er*on#
w-et-er -e wake* or 'ream*.1
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+! THE MEANS OF REPRESENTATION IN DREAMS
0e*i'e* t-e two factor* of condensation an' displacement in 'ream*# w-ic- we -a&e
fo.n' to be at work in t-e tran*formation of t-e $atent 'ream5materia$ into t-e manife*t
'ream5content# we *-a$$# in t-e co.r*e of t-i* in&e*ti,ation# come ./on two f.rt-er
con'ition* w-ic- e=erci*e an .n;.e*tionab$e inf$.ence o&er t-e *e$ection of t-e materia$
t-at e&ent.a$$y a//ear* in t-e 'ream. 0.t fir*t# e&en at t-e ri*k of *eemin, to interr./t o.r
/ro,re**# I *-a$$ take a /re$iminary ,$ance at t-e /roce**e* by w-ic- t-e inter/retation of
'ream* i* accom/$i*-e'. I 'o not 'eny t-at t-e be*t way of e=/$ainin, t-em# an' of
con&incin, t-e critic of t-eir re$iabi$ity# wo.$' be to take a *in,$e 'ream a* an e=am/$e# to
'etai$ it* inter/retation# a* I 'i' 3in (-a/ter Two4 in t-e ca*e of t-e 'ream of Irma1*
in6ection# b.t t-en to a**emb$e t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* w-ic- I -a' 'i*co&ere'# an' from
t-em to recon*tr.ct t-e formation of t-e 'ream 55 t-at i* to *ay# to *.//$ement
'reamana$y*i*
by 'ream5*ynt-e*i*. I -a&e 'one t-i* wit- *e&era$ */ecimen* for my own
in*tr.ction< b.t I cannot .n'ertake to 'o it -ere# a* I am /re&ente' by a n.mber of
con*i'eration* 3re$atin, to t-e /*yc-ic materia$ nece**ary for *.c- a 'emon*tration4 *.c-
a* any ri,-t5t-inkin, /er*on wo.$' a//ro&e. In t-e ana$y*i* of 'ream* t-e*e
con*i'eration* /re*ent $e** 'iffic.$ty# for an ana$y*i* may be incom/$ete an' *ti$$ retain it*
&a$.e# e&en if it $ea'* on$y a $itt$e way into t-e *tr.ct.re of t-e 'ream. I 'o not *ee -ow a
*ynt-e*i*# to be con&incin,# co.$' be anyt-in, *-ort of com/$ete. I co.$' ,i&e a com/$ete
*ynt-e*i* on$y of t-e 'ream* of *.c- /er*on* a* are .nknown to t-e rea'in, /.b$ic. Since#
-owe&er# ne.rotic /atient* are t-e on$y /er*on* w-o f.rni*- me wit- t-e mean* of
makin, *.c- a *ynt-e*i*# t-i* /art of t-e 'e*cri/tion of 'ream* m.*t be /o*t/one' .nti$ I
can carry t-e /*yc-o$o,ica$ e=/$anation of t-e ne.ro*e* far eno.,- to 'emon*trate t-eir
re$ation to o.r *.b6ect.1 T-i* wi$$ be 'one e$*ew-ere.
From my attem/t* to con*tr.ct 'ream* *ynt-etica$$y from t-eir 'ream5t-o.,-t*# I know
t-at t-e materia$ w-ic- i* yie$'e' by inter/retation &arie* in &a$.e. Part of it con*i*t* of
t-e e**entia$ 'ream5t-o.,-t*# w-ic- wo.$' com/$ete$y re/$ace t-e 'ream an' wo.$' in
t-em*e$&e* be a *.fficient *.b*tit.te for it# were t-ere no 'ream5cen*or*-i/. To t-e ot-er
/art one i* wont to a*cribe *$i,-t im/ortance# nor 'oe* one *et any &a$.e on t-e a**ertion
t-at a$$ t-e*e t-o.,-t* -a&e /artici/ate' in t-e formation of t-e 'ream< on t-e contrary#
t-ey may inc$.'e notion* w-ic- are a**ociate' wit- e=/erience* t-at -a&e occ.rre'
*.b*e;.ent$y to t-e 'ream# between t-e 'ream an' t-e inter/retation. T-i* /art com/ri*e*
not on$y a$$ t-e connectin,5/at-* w-ic- -a&e $e' from t-e manife*t to t-e $atent
'reamcontent#
b.t a$*o t-e interme'iate an' a//ro=imatin, a**ociation* by mean* of w-ic- one
-a* arri&e' at a know$e',e of t-e*e connectin,5/at-* '.rin, t-e work of inter/retation.
At t-i* /oint we are intere*te' e=c$.*i&e$y in t-e e**entia$ 'ream5t-o.,-t*. T-e*e
common$y re&ea$ t-em*e$&e* a* a com/$e= of t-o.,-t* an' memorie* of t-e mo*t
intricate /o**ib$e con*tr.ction# wit- a$$ t-e c-aracteri*tic* of t-e t-o.,-t5/roce**e* known
to .* in wakin, $ife. Not infre;.ent$y t-ey are train* of t-o.,-t w-ic- /rocee' from more
t-an one centre# b.t w-ic- are not wit-o.t /oint* of contact< an' a$mo*t in&ariab$y we
fin'# a$on, wit- a train of t-o.,-t# it* contra'ictory co.nter/art# connecte' wit- it by t-e
a**ociation of contra*t.
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T-e in'i&i'.a$ /art* of t-i* com/$icate' *tr.ct.re nat.ra$$y *tan' in t-e mo*t manifo$'
$o,ica$ re$ation* to one anot-er. T-ey con*tit.te fore,ro.n' an' back,ro.n'# 'i,re**ion*#
i$$.*tration*# con'ition*# $ine* of ar,.ment an' ob6ection*. +-en t-e w-o$e ma** of t-e*e
'ream5t-o.,-t* i* *.b6ecte' to t-e /re**.re of t-e 'ream5work# '.rin, w-ic- t-e
fra,ment* are t.rne' abo.t# broken ./ an' com/acte'# *omew-at $ike 'riftin, ice# t-e
;.e*tion ari*e*# w-at become* of t-e $o,ica$ tie* w-ic- -a' -it-erto /ro&i'e' t-e
framework of t-e *tr.ct.reI +-at re/re*entation 'o @if# @beca.*e1# @a* t-o.,-1# @a$t-o.,-1#
@eit-er 55 or1 an' a$$ t-e ot-er con6.nction*# wit-o.t w-ic- we cannot .n'er*tan' a /-ra*e
or a *entence# recei&e in o.r 'ream*I
To be,in wit-# we m.*t an*wer t-at t-e 'ream -a* at it* 'i*/o*a$ no mean* of
re/re*entin, t-e*e $o,ica$ re$ation* between t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*. In mo*t ca*e* it
'i*re,ar'* a$$ t-e*e con6.nction*# an' .n'ertake* t-e e$aboration on$y of t-e materia$
content of t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*. It i* $eft to t-e inter/retation of t-e 'ream to re*tore t-e
co-erence w-ic- t-e 'ream5work -a* 'e*troye'.
If 'ream* $ack t-e abi$ity to e=/re** t-e*e re$ation*# t-e /*yc-ic materia$ of w-ic- t-ey
are wro.,-t m.*t be re*/on*ib$e for t-i* 'efect. A* a matter of fact# t-e re/re*entati&e
art* 55 /aintin, an' *c.$/t.re 55 are *imi$ar$y re*tricte'# a* com/are' wit- /oetry# w-ic- i*
ab$e to em/$oy */eec-< an' -ere a,ain t-e rea*on for t-i* $imitation $ie* in t-e materia$ by
t-e e$aboration of w-ic- t-e two /$a*tic art* en'ea&o.r to e=/re** *omet-in,. 0efore t-e
art of /aintin, arri&e' at an .n'er*tan'in, of t-e $aw* of e=/re**ion by w-ic- it i* bo.n'#
it attem/te' to make ./ for t-i* 'eficiency. In o$' /aintin,* $itt$e $abe$* -.n, o.t of t-e
mo.t-* of t-e /er*on* re/re*ente'# ,i&in, in writin, t-e */eec- w-ic- t-e arti*t 'e*/aire'
of e=/re**in, in t-e /ict.re.
%ere# /er-a/* an ob6ection wi$$ be rai*e'# c-a$$en,in, t-e a**ertion t-at o.r 'ream*
'i*/en*e wit- t-e re/re*entation of $o,ica$ re$ation*. T-ere are 'ream* in w-ic- t-e mo*t
com/$icate' inte$$ect.a$ o/eration* take /$ace< ar,.ment* for an' a,ain*t are a''.ce'#
6oke* an' com/ari*on* are ma'e# 6.*t a* in o.r wakin, t-o.,-t*. 0.t -ere a,ain
a//earance* are 'ece/ti&e< if t-e inter/retation of *.c- 'ream* i* contin.e' it wi$$ be
fo.n' t-at all these thin's are dream4material, not the representation of intellectual
activit$ in the dream. T-e content of t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* i* re/ro'.ce' by t-e a//arent
t-inkin, in o.r 'ream*# b.t not the relations of the dream4thou'hts to one another# in t-e
'etermination of w-ic- re$ation* t-inkin, con*i*t*. I *-a$$ ,i&e *ome e=am/$e* of t-i*.
0.t t-e fact w-ic- i* mo*t ea*i$y e*tab$i*-e' i* t-at a$$ */eec-e* w-ic- occ.r in 'ream*#
an' w-ic- are e=/re**$y 'e*i,nate' a* *.c-# are .nc-an,e' or on$y *$i,-t$y mo'ifie'
re/$ica* of */eec-e* w-ic- occ.r $ikewi*e amon, t-e memorie* in t-e 'ream5materia$.
Often t-e */eec- i* on$y an a$$.*ion to an e&ent containe' in t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*< t-e
meanin, of t-e 'ream i* ;.ite 'ifferent.
%owe&er# I *-a$$ not 'i*/.te t-e fact t-at e&en critica$ t-o.,-t5acti&ity# w-ic- 'oe* not
*im/$y re/eat materia$ from t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*# /$ay* a /art in 'ream5formation. I *-a$$
-a&e to e=/$ain t-e inf$.ence of t-i* factor at t-e c$o*e of t-i* 'i*c.**ion. It wi$$ t-en
become c$ear t-at t-i* t-o.,-t acti&ity i* e&oke' not by t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*# b.t by t-e
'ream it*e$f# after it i*# in a certain *en*e# a$rea'y com/$ete'.
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Pro&i*iona$$y# t-en# it i* a,ree' t-at t-e $o,ica$ re$ation* between t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* 'o
not obtain any /artic.$ar re/re*entation in t-e 'ream. For in*tance# w-ere t-ere i* a
contra'iction in t-e 'ream# t-i* i* eit-er a contra'iction 'irecte' a,ain*t t-e 'ream it*e$f
or a contra'iction containe' in one of t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*< a contra'iction in t-e 'ream
corre*/on'* wit- a contra'iction %et"een t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* on$y in t-e mo*t in'irect
an' interme'iate fa*-ion.
0.t 6.*t a* t-e art of /aintin, fina$$y *.ccee'e' in 'e/ictin,# in t-e /er*on* re/re*ente'# at
$ea*t t-e intention* be-in' t-eir wor'* 55 ten'erne**# menace# a'monition# an' t-e $ike by
ot-er mean* t-an by f$oatin, $abe$*# *o a$*o t-e 'ream -a* fo.n' it /o**ib$e to ren'er an
acco.nt of certain of t-e $o,ica$ re$ation* between it* 'ream5t-o.,-t* by an a//ro/riate
mo'ification of t-e /ec.$iar met-o' of 'ream5re/re*entation. It wi$$ be fo.n' by
e=/erience t-at 'ifferent 'ream* ,o to 'ifferent $en,t-* in t-i* re*/ect< w-i$e one 'ream
wi$$ entire$y 'i*re,ar' t-e $o,ica$ *tr.ct.re of it* materia$# anot-er attem/t* to in'icate it
a* com/$ete$y a* /o**ib$e. In *o 'oin, t-e 'ream 'e/art* more or $e** wi'e$y from t-e
te=t w-ic- it -a* to e$aborate< an' it* attit.'e i* e;.a$$y &ariab$e in re*/ect to t-e tem/ora$
artic.$ation of t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*# if *.c- -a* been e*tab$i*-e' in t-e .ncon*cio.* 3a*#
for e=am/$e# in t-e 'ream of Irma1* in6ection4.
0.t w-at are t-e mean* by w-ic- t-e 'ream5work i* enab$e' to in'icate t-o*e re$ation* in
t-e 'ream5materia$ w-ic- are 'iffic.$t to re/re*entI I *-a$$ attem/t to en.merate t-e*e#
one by one.
In t-e fir*t /$ace# t-e 'ream ren'er* an acco.nt of t-e connection w-ic- i* .n'eniab$y
/re*ent between a$$ t-e /ortion* of t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* by combinin, t-i* materia$ into a
.nity a* a *it.ation or a /rocee'in,. It re/ro'.ce* lo'ical connection in t-e form of
simultaneit$< in t-i* ca*e it be-a&e* rat-er $ike t-e /ainter w-o ,ro./* to,et-er a$$ t-e
/-i$o*o/-er* or /oet* in a /ict.re of t-e Sc-oo$ of At-en*# or Parna**.*. T-ey ne&er were
a**emb$e' in any -a$$ or on any mo.ntain5to/# a$t-o.,- to t-e ref$ecti&e min' t-ey 'o
con*tit.te a comm.nity.
T-e 'ream carrie* o.t in 'etai$ t-i* mo'e of re/re*entation. +-ene&er it *-ow* two
e$ement* c$o*e to,et-er# it &o.c-e* for a /artic.$ar$y intimate connection between t-eir
corre*/on'in, re/re*entati&e* in t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*. It i* a* in o.r met-o' of writin,: to
*i,nifie* t-at t-e two $etter* are to be /rono.nce' a* one *y$$ab$e< w-i$e t wit- o
fo$$owin, a b$ank */ace in'icate* t-at t i* t-e $a*t $etter of one wor' an' o t-e fir*t $etter
of anot-er. (on*e;.ent$y# 'ream5combination* are not ma'e ./ of arbitrary# com/$ete$y
incon,r.o.* e$ement* of t-e 'ream5materia$# b.t of e$ement* t-at are /retty intimate$y
re$ate' in t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* a$*o.
For re/re*entin, causal relations o.r 'ream* em/$oy two met-o'*# w-ic- are e**entia$$y
re'.cib$e to one. T-e met-o' of re/re*entation more fre;.ent$y em/$oye' 55 in ca*e*# for
e=am/$e# w-ere t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* are to t-e effect: @0eca.*e t-i* wa* t-.* an' t-.*# t-i*
an' t-at m.*t -a//en1 55 con*i*t* in makin, t-e *.bor'inate c$a.*e a /refatory 'ream an'
6oinin, t-e /rinci/a$ c$a.*e on to it in t-e form of t-e main 'ream. If my inter/retation i*
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correct# t-e *e;.ence may $ikewi*e be re&er*e'. T-e /rinci/a$ c$a.*e a$way* corre*/on'*
to t-at /art of t-e 'ream w-ic- i* e$aborate' in t-e ,reate*t 'etai$.
An e=ce$$ent e=am/$e of *.c- a re/re*entation of ca.*a$ity wa* once /ro&i'e' by a
fema$e /atient# w-o*e 'ream I *-a$$ *.b*e;.ent$y ,i&e in f.$$. T-e 'ream con*i*te' of a
*-ort /ro$o,.e# an' of a &ery circ.m*tantia$ an' &ery 'efinite$y centre'
'reamcom/o*ition.
I mi,-t entit$e it @F$owery $an,.a,e1. T-e /re$iminary 'ream i* a* fo$$ow*:
3he 'oes to the t"o maids in the (itchen and scolds them for ta(in' so lon' to prepare )a
little %ite of food+5 3he also sees a ver$ lar'e num%er of heav$ (itchen utensils in the
(itchen turned upside do"n in order to drain, even heaped up in stac(s5 The t"o maids
'o
to fetch "ater, and have, as it "ere, to clim% into a river, "hich reaches up to the house
or into the court$ard.
T-en fo$$ow* t-e main 'ream# w-ic- be,in* a* fo$$ow*: 3he is clim%in' do"n from a
hei'ht over a curiousl$ shaped trellis, and she is 'lad that her dress doesn+t 'et cau'ht
an$"here, etc. Now t-e /re$iminary 'ream refer* to t-e -o.*e of t-e $a'y1* /arent*. T-e
wor'* w-ic- are */oken in t-e kitc-en are wor'* w-ic- *-e -a* /robab$y often -ear'
*/oken by -er mot-er. T-e /i$e* of c$.m*y /ot* an' /an* are taken from an .n/retentio.*
-ar'ware *-o/ $ocate' in t-e *ame -o.*e. T-e *econ' /art of t-i* 'ream contain* an
a$$.*ion to t-e 'reamer1* fat-er# w-o wa* a$way* /e*terin, t-e mai'*# an' w-o '.rin, a
f$oo' 55 for t-e -o.*e *too' c$o*e to t-e bank of t-e ri&er 55 contracte' a fata$ i$$ne**. T-e
t-o.,-t w-ic- i* concea$e' be-in' t-e /re$iminary 'ream i* *omet-in, $ike t-i*: @0eca.*e
I wa* born in t-i* -o.*e# in *.c- *or'i' an' .n/$ea*ant *.rro.n'in,* . . .1 T-e main 'ream
take* ./ t-e *ame t-o.,-t# an' /re*ent* it in a form t-at -a* been a$tere' by a
wi*-f.$fi$ment:
@I am of e=a$te' ori,in.1 Pro/er$y t-en: @0eca.*e I am of *.c- -.mb$e ori,in#
t-e co.r*e of my $ife -a* been *o an' *o.1
A* far a* I can *ee# t-e 'i&i*ion of a 'ream into two .ne;.a$ /ortion* 'oe* not a$way*
*i,nify a ca.*a$ re$ation between t-e t-o.,-t* of t-e two /ortion*. It often *eem* a*
t-o.,- in t-e two 'ream* t-e *ame materia$ were /re*ente' from 'ifferent /oint* of &iew<
t-i* i* certain$y t-e ca*e w-en a *erie* of 'ream*# 'reame' t-e *ame ni,-t# en' in a
*emina$ emi**ion# t-e *omatic nee' enforcin, a more an' more 'efinite e=/re**ion. Or
t-e two 'ream* -a&e /rocee'e' from two *e/arate centre* in t-e 'ream materia$# an' t-ey
o&er$a/ one anot-er in t-e content# *o t-at t-e *.b6ect w-ic- in one 'ream con*tit.te* t-e
centre co5o/erate* in t-e ot-er a* an a$$.*ion# an' vice versa. 0.t in a certain n.mber of
'ream* t-e 'i&i*ion into *-ort /re$iminary 'ream* an' $on, *.b*e;.ent 'ream* act.a$$y
*i,nifie* a ca.*a$ re$ation between t-e two /ortion*. T-e ot-er met-o' of re/re*entin, t-e
ca.*a$ re$ation i* em/$oye' wit- $e** com/re-en*i&e materia$# an' con*i*t* in t-e
tran*formation of an ima,e in t-e 'ream into anot-er ima,e# w-et-er it be of a /er*on or
a t-in,. On$y w-ere t-i* tran*formation i* act.a$$y *een occ.rrin, in t-e 'ream *-a$$ we
*erio.*$y in*i*t on t-e ca.*a$ re$ation< not w-ere we *im/$y note t-at one t-in, -a* taken
t-e /$ace of anot-er. I *ai' t-at bot- met-o'* of re/re*entin, t-e ca.*a$ re$ation are rea$$y
re'.cib$e to t-e *ame met-o'< in bot- ca*e* causation i* re/re*ente' by *.cce**ion#
*ometime* by t-e *.cce**ion of 'ream*# *ometime* by t-e imme'iate tran*formation of
one ima,e into anot-er. In t-e ,reat ma6ority of ca*e*# of co.r*e# t-e ca.*a$ re$ation i* not
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re/re*ente' at a$$# b.t i* efface' ami'*t t-e *.cce**ion of e$ement* t-at i* .na&oi'ab$e
e&en in t-e 'ream5/roce**.
Dream* are ;.ite inca/ab$e of e=/re**in, t-e a$ternati&e @eit-er 55 or1< it i* t-eir c.*tom to
take bot- member* of t-i* a$ternati&e into t-e *ame conte=t# a* t-o.,- t-ey -a' an e;.a$
ri,-t to be t-ere. A c$a**ic e=am/$e of t-i* i* containe' in t-e 'ream of Irma1* in6ection.
It* $atent t-o.,-t* ob&io.*$y mean: I am not re*/on*ib$e for t-e /er*i*tence of Irma1*
/ain*< t-e re*/on*ibi$ity re*t* either wit- -er re*i*tance to acce/tin, t-e *o$.tion or wit-
t-e fact t-at *-e i* $i&in, .n'er .nfa&o.rab$e *e=.a$ con'ition*# w-ic- I am .nab$e to
c-an,e# or -er /ain* are not -y*terica$ at a$$# b.t or,anic. T-e 'ream# -owe&er# carrie* o.t
a$$ t-e*e /o**ibi$itie*# w-ic- are a$mo*t m.t.a$$y e=c$.*i&e# an' i* ;.ite rea'y to a'' a
fo.rt- *o$.tion 'eri&e' from t-e 'ream5wi*-. After inter/retin, t-e 'ream# I t-en in*erte'
t-e either 55 or in it* conte=t in t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*.
0.t w-en in narratin, a 'ream t-e narrator i* inc$ine' to em/$oy t-e a$ternati&e either 55
or: @It wa* eit-er a ,ar'en or a $i&in,5room#1 etc.# t-ere i* not rea$$y an a$ternati&e in t-e
'ream5t-o.,-t*# b.t an @an'1 55 a *im/$e a''ition. +-en we .*e either 55 or we are a* a
r.$e 'e*cribin, a ;.a$ity of &a,.ene** in *ome e$ement of t-e 'ream# b.t a &a,.ene**
w-ic- may *ti$$ be c$eare' ./. T-e r.$e to be a//$ie' in t-i* ca*e i* a* fo$$ow*: T-e
in'i&i'.a$ member* of t-e a$ternati&e are to be treate' a* e;.a$ an' connecte' by an
@an'1. For in*tance# after waitin, $on, an' &ain$y for t-e a''re** of frien' w-o i*
tra&e$$in, in Ita$y# I 'ream t-at I recei&e a te$e,ram w-ic- ,i&e* me t-e a''re**. On t-e
te$e,ra/- form I *ee /rinte' in b$.e $etter*: t-e fir*t wor' i* b$.rre' 55 /er-a/* via
or villa< t-e *econ' i* 'i*tinct$y 3e?erno#
or e&en 3Casa4.
T-e *econ' wor'# w-ic- remin'* me of Ita$ian name*# an' of o.r 'i*c.**ion* on
etymo$o,y# a$*o e=/re**e* my annoyance in re*/ect of t-e fact t-at my frien' -a* ke/t -i*
a''re** a *ecret from me< b.t eac- of t-e /o**ib$e fir*t t-ree wor'* may be reco,ni*e' on
ana$y*i* a* an in'e/en'ent an' e;.a$$y 6.*tifiab$e *tartin,5/oint in t-e concatenation of
i'ea*.
D.rin, t-e ni,-t before t-e f.nera$ of my fat-er I 'reame' of a /rinte' /$acar'# a car' or
/o*ter rat-er $ike t-e notice* in t-e waitin,5room* of rai$way *tation* w-ic- anno.nce
t-at *mokin, i* /ro-ibite'. T-e *i,n rea'* eit-er:
Oou are re0uested to shut the e$es
or
Oou are re0uested to shut one e$e
an a$ternati&e w-ic- I am in t-e -abit of re/re*entin, in t-e fo$$owin, form:
the
%ou are re&uested to shut eye's(.
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178
one
Eac- of t-e two &er*ion* -a* it* */ecia$ meanin,# an' $ea'* a$on, /artic.$ar /at-* in t-e
'ream5inter/retation. I -a' ma'e t-e *im/$e*t /o**ib$e f.nera$ arran,ement*# for I knew
w-at t-e 'ecea*e' t-o.,-t abo.t *.c- matter*. Ot-er member* of t-e fami$y# -owe&er#
'i' not a//ro&e of *.c- /.ritanica$ *im/$icity< t-ey t-o.,-t we *-o.$' fee$ a*-ame' in
t-e /re*ence of t-e ot-er mo.rner*. %ence one of t-e wor'in,* of t-e 'ream a*k* for t-e
@*-.ttin, of one eye1# t-at i* to *ay# it a*k* t-at /eo/$e *-o.$' *-ow con*i'eration. T-e
*i,nificance of t-e &a,.ene**# w-ic- i* -ere re/re*ente' by an either 55 or# i* /$ain$y to be
*een. T-e 'ream5work -a* not *.ccee'e' in concoctin, a co-erent an' yet ambi,.o.*
wor'in, for t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*. T-.* t-e two /rinci/a$ train* of t-o.,-t are *e/arate'
from eac- ot-er# e&en in t-e 'ream5content.
In *ome few ca*e* t-e 'i&i*ion of a 'ream into two e;.a$ /art* e=/re**e* t-e a$ternati&e
w-ic- t-e 'ream fin'* it *o 'iffic.$t to /re*ent.
T-e attit.'e of 'ream* to t-e cate,ory of antithesis an' contradiction i* &ery *trikin,.
T-i* cate,ory i* *im/$y i,nore'< t-e wor' @No1 'oe* not *eem to e=i*t for a 'ream.
Dream* are /artic.$ar$y fon' of re'.cin, antit-e*e* to .niformity# or re/re*entin, t-em a*
one an' t-e *ame t-in,. Dream* $ikewi*e take t-e $iberty of re/re*entin, any e$ement
w-ate&er by it* 'e*ire' o//o*ite# *o t-at it i* at fir*t im/o**ib$e to te$$# in re*/ect of any
e$ement w-ic- i* ca/ab$e of -a&in, an o//o*ite# w-et-er it i* containe' in t-e
'reamt-o.,-t*
in t-e ne,ati&e or t-e /o*iti&e *en*e. In one of t-e recent$y cite' 'ream*# w-o*e
intro'.ctory /ortion we -a&e a$rea'y inter/rete' 3@beca.*e my ori,in i* *o an' *o14# t-e
'reamer c$imb* 'own o&er a tre$$i*# an' -o$'* a b$o**omin, bo.,- in -er -an'*. Since
t-i* /ict.re *.,,e*t* to -er t-e an,e$ in /aintin,* of t-e Ann.nciation 3-er own name i*
Mary4 bearin, a $i$y5*tem in -i* -an'# an' t-e w-ite5robe' ,ir$* wa$kin, in /roce**ion on
(or/.* (-ri*ti Day# w-en t-e *treet* are 'ecorate' wit- ,reen bo.,-*# t-e b$o**omin,
bo.,- in t-e 'ream i* ;.ite c$ear$y an a$$.*ion to *e=.a$ innocence. 0.t t-e bo.,- i*
t-ick$y *t.''e' wit- re' b$o**om*# eac- of w-ic- re*emb$e* a came$$ia. At t-e en' of -er
wa$k 3*o t-e 'ream contin.e*4 t-e b$o**om* are a$rea'y be,innin, to fa$$< t-en fo$$ow
.nmi*takab$e a$$.*ion* to men*tr.ation. 0.t t-i* &ery bo.,-# w-ic- i* carrie' $ike a
$i$y*tem
an' a* t-o.,- by an innocent ,ir$# i* a$*o an a$$.*ion to (ami$$e# w-o# a* we know#
.*.a$$y wore a w-ite came$$ia# b.t a re' one '.rin, men*tr.ation. T-e *ame b$o**omin,
bo.,- 3@t-e f$ower of mai'en-oo'1 in Goet-e1* *on,* of t-e mi$$er1* 'a.,-ter4 re/re*ent*
at once *e=.a$ innocence an' it* o//o*ite. Moreo&er# t-e *ame 'ream# w-ic- e=/re**e*
t-e 'reamer1* 6oy at -a&in, *.ccee'e' in /a**in, t-ro.,- $ife .n*.$$ie'# -int* in *e&era$
/$ace* 3a* in t-e fa$$in, of t-e b$o**om4 at t-e o//o*ite train of t-o.,-t# name$y# t-at *-e
-a' been ,.i$ty of &ario.* *in* a,ain*t *e=.a$ /.rity 3t-at i*# in -er c-i$'-oo'4. In t-e
ana$y*i* of t-e 'ream we may c$ear$y 'i*tin,.i*- t-e two train* of t-o.,-t# of w-ic- t-e
comfortin, one *eem* to be *./erficia$# an' t-e re/roac-f.$ one more /rofo.n'. T-e two
are 'iametrica$$y o//o*e' to eac- ot-er# an' t-eir *imi$ar yet contra*tin, e$ement* -a&e
been re/re*ente' by i'entica$ 'ream5e$ement*.
T-e mec-ani*m of 'ream5formation i* fa&o.rab$e in t-e -i,-e*t 'e,ree to on$y one of t-e
$o,ica$ re$ation*. T-i* re$ation i* t-at of *imi$arity# a,reement# conti,.ity# @6.*t a*1< a
re$ation w-ic- may be re/re*ente' in o.r 'ream*# a* no ot-er can be# by t-e mo*t &arie'
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e=/e'ient*. T-e @*creenin,1 w-ic- occ.r* in t-e 'ream5materia$# or t-e ca*e* of @6.*t a*1#
are t-e c-ief /oint* of *.//ort for 'ream5formation# an' a not incon*i'erab$e /art of t-e
'ream5work con*i*t* in creatin, new @*creenin,*1 of t-i* kin' in ca*e* w-ere t-o*e t-at
a$rea'y e=i*t are /re&ente' by t-e re*i*tance of t-e cen*or*-i/ from makin, t-eir way into
t-e 'ream. T-e effort towar'* con'en*ation e&ince' by t-e 'ream5work faci$itate* t-e
re/re*entation of a re$ation of *imi$arity.
3imilarit$, a'reement, communit$# are ;.ite ,enera$$y e=/re**e' in 'ream* by contraction
into a unit$# w-ic- i* eit-er a$rea'y fo.n' in t-e 'ream5materia$ or i* new$y create'. T-e
fir*t ca*e may be referre' to a* identification# t-e *econ' a* composition. I'entification i*
.*e' w-ere t-e 'ream i* concerne' wit- /er*on*# com/o*ition w-ere t-in,* con*tit.te t-e
materia$ to be .nifie'< b.t com/o*ition* are a$*o ma'e of /er*on*. ?oca$itie* are often
treate' a* /er*on*.
I'entification con*i*t* in ,i&in, re/re*entation in t-e 'ream5content to on$y one of two or
more /er*on* w-o are re$ate' by *ome common feat.re# w-i$e t-e *econ' /er*on or ot-er
/er*on* a//ear to be *.//re**e' a* far a* t-e 'ream i* concerne'. In t-e 'ream t-i* one
@*creenin,1 /er*on enter* into a$$ t-e re$ation* an' *it.ation* w-ic- 'eri&e from t-e
/er*on* w-om *-e *creen*. In ca*e* of com/o*ition# -owe&er# w-en /er*on* are
combine'# t-ere are a$rea'y /re*ent in t-e 'ream5ima,e feat.re* w-ic- are c-aracteri*tic
of# b.t not common to# t-e /er*on* in ;.e*tion# *o t-at a new .nity# a com/o*ite /er*on#
a//ear* a* t-e re*.$t of t-e .nion of t-e*e feat.re*. T-e combination it*e$f may be
effecte' in &ario.* way*. Eit-er t-e 'ream5/er*on bear* t-e name of one of t-e /er*on* to
w-om -e refer* 55 an' in t-i* ca*e we *im/$y know# in a manner t-at i* ;.ite ana$o,o.* to
know$e',e in wakin, $ife# t-at t-i* or t-at /er*on i* inten'e' 55 w-i$e t-e &i*.a$ feat.re*
be$on, to anot-er /er*on< or t-e 'ream5ima,e it*e$f i* com/o.n'e' of &i*.a$ feat.re*
w-ic- in rea$ity are 'eri&e' from t-e two. A$*o# in /$ace of t-e &i*.a$ feat.re*# t-e /art
/$aye' by t-e *econ' /er*on may be re/re*ente' by t-e attit.'e* an' ,e*t.re* w-ic- are
.*.a$$y a*cribe' to -im by t-e wor'* -e */eak*# or by t-e *it.ation* in w-ic- -e i* /$ace'.
In t-i* $atter met-o' of c-aracteri*ation t-e *-ar/ 'i*tinction between t-e i'entification
an' t-e combination of /er*on* be,in* to 'i*a//ear. 0.t it may a$*o -a//en t-at t-e
formation of *.c- a com/o*ite /er*on i* .n*.cce**f.$. T-e *it.ation* or action* of t-e
'ream are t-en attrib.te' to one /er*on# an' t-e ot-er 55 a* a r.$e t-e more im/ortant 55 i*
intro'.ce' a* an inacti&e */ectator. Per-a/* t-e 'reamer wi$$ *ay: @My mot-er wa* t-ere
too1 3Steke$4. S.c- an e$ement of t-e 'ream5content i* t-en com/arab$e to a 'eterminati&e
in -iero,$y/-ic *cri/t w-ic- i* not meant to be e=/re**e'# b.t i* inten'e' on$y to e=/$ain
anot-er *i,n.
T-e common feat.re w-ic- 6.*tifie* t-e .nion of two /er*on 55 t-at i* to *ay# w-ic-
enab$e* it to be ma'e 55 may eit-er be re/re*ente' in t-e 'ream or it may be ab*ent. A* a
r.$e i'entification or com/o*ition of /er*on* act.a$$y *er&e* to a&oi' t-e nece**ity of
re/re*entin, t-i* common feat.re. In*tea' of re/eatin,: @A i* i$$5'i*/o*e' towar'* me#
an' *o i* 01# I make# in my 'ream# a com/o*ite /er*on of A an' 0< or I concei&e A a*
'oin, *omet-in, w-ic- i* a$ien to -i* c-aracter# b.t w-ic- i* c-aracteri*tic of 0. T-e
'ream5/er*on obtaine' in t-i* way a//ear* in t-e 'ream in *ome new connection# an' t-e
fact t-at -e *i,nifie* bot- A an' 0 6.*tifie* my in*ertin, t-at w-ic- i* common to bot-
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/er*on* 55 t-eir -o*ti$ity towar'* me 55 at t-e /ro/er /$ace in t-e 'ream5inter/retation. In
t-i* manner I often ac-ie&e a ;.ite e=traor'inary 'e,ree of con'en*ation of t-e
'reamcontent<
I am ab$e to 'i*/en*e wit- t-e 'irect re/re*entation of t-e &ery com/$icate'
re$ation* be$on,in, to one /er*on# if I can fin' a *econ' /er*on w-o -a* an e;.a$ c$aim to
*ome of t-e*e re$ation*. It wi$$ be rea'i$y .n'er*too' -ow far t-i* re/re*entation by
mean* of i'entification may circ.m&ent t-e cen*orin, re*i*tance w-ic- *et* ./ *.c- -ar*-
con'ition* for t-e 'ream5work. T-e t-in, t-at offen'* t-e cen*or*-i/ may re*i'e in t-o*e
&ery i'ea* w-ic- are connecte' in t-e 'ream5materia$ wit- t-e one /er*on< I now fin' a
*econ' /er*on# w-o $ikewi*e *tan'* in *ome re$ation to t-e ob6ectionab$e materia$# b.t
on$y to a /art of it. (ontact at t-at one /oint w-ic- offen'* t-e cen*or*-i/ now 6.*tifie*
my formation of a com/o*ite /er*on# w-o i* c-aracteri*e' by t-e in'ifferent feat.re* of
eac-. T-i* /er*on# t-e re*.$t of combination or i'entification# bein, free of t-e
cen*or*-i/# i* now *.itab$e for incor/oration in t-e 'ream5content. T-.*# by t-e
a//$ication of 'ream5con'en*ation# I -a&e *ati*fie' t-e 'eman'* of t-e 'ream5cen*or*-i/.
+-en a common feat.re of two /er*on* i* re/re*ente' in a 'ream# t-i* i* .*.a$$y a -int to
$ook for anot-er concea$e' common feat.re# t-e re/re*entation of w-ic- i* ma'e
im/o**ib$e by t-e cen*or*-i/. %ere a 'i*/$acement of t-e common feat.re -a* occ.rre'#
w-ic- in *ome 'e,ree faci$itate* re/re*entation. From t-e circ.m*tance t-at t-e
com/o*ite /er*on i* *-own to me in t-e 'ream wit- an in'ifferent common feat.re# I
m.*t infer t-at anot-er common feat.re w-ic- i* by no mean* in'ifferent e=i*t* in t-e
'ream5t-o.,-t*.
Accor'in,$y# t-e i'entification or combination of /er*on* *er&e* &ario.* /.r/o*e* in o.r
'ream*< in t-e fir*t /$ace# t-at of re/re*entin, a feat.re common to two /er*on*<
*econ'$y# t-at of re/re*entin, a displaced common feat.re< an'# t-ir'$y# t-at of
e=/re**in, a comm.nity of feat.re* w-ic- i* mere$y "ished for. A* t-e wi*- for a
comm.nity of feat.re* in two /er*on* often coinci'e* wit- t-e interchan'in' of t-e*e
/er*on*# t-i* re$ation a$*o i* e=/re**e' in 'ream* by i'entification. In t-e 'ream of Irma1*
in6ection I wi*- to e=c-an,e one /atient for anot-er 55 t-at i* to *ay# I wi*- t-i* ot-er
/er*on to be my /atient# a* t-e former /er*on -a* been< t-e 'ream 'ea$* wit- t-i* wi*- by
*-owin, me a /er*on w-o i* ca$$e' Irma# b.t w-o i* e=amine' in a /o*ition *.c- a* I
-a&e -a' occa*ion to *ee on$y t-e ot-er /er*on occ./y. In t-e 'ream abo.t my .nc$e t-i*
*.b*tit.tion i* ma'e t-e centre of t-e 'ream< I i'entify my*e$f wit- t-e mini*ter by
6.',in, an' treatin, my co$$ea,.e* a* *-abbi$y a* -e 'oe*.
It -a* been my e=/erience 55 an' to t-i* I -a&e fo.n' no e=ce/tion 55 t-at e&ery 'ream
treat* of one*e$f. Dream* are ab*o$.te$y e,oi*tic.2 In ca*e* w-ere not my e,o b.t on$y a
*tran,e /er*on occ.r* in t-e 'ream5content# I may *afe$y a**.me t-at by mean* of
i'entification my e,o i* concea$e' be-in' t-at /er*on. I am /ermitte' to *.//$ement my
e,o. On ot-er occa*ion*# w-en my e,o a//ear* in t-e 'ream t-e *it.ation in w-ic- it i*
/$ace' te$$* me t-at anot-er /er*on i* concea$in, -im*e$f# by mean* of i'entification#
be-in' t-e e,o. In t-i* ca*e I m.*t be /re/are' to fin' t-at in t-e inter/retation I *-o.$'
tran*fer *omet-in, w-ic- i* connecte' wit- t-i* /er*on 55 t-e -i''en common feat.re 55
to my*e$f. T-ere are a$*o 'ream* in w-ic- my e,o a//ear* to,et-er wit- ot-er /er*on*
w-o# w-en t-e i'entification i* re*o$&e'# once more *-ow t-em*e$&e* to be my e,o.
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T-ro.,- t-e*e i'entification* I *-a$$ t-en -a&e to connect wit- my e,o certain i'ea* to
w-ic- t-e cen*or*-i/ -a* ob6ecte'. I may a$*o ,i&e my e,o m.$ti/$e re/re*entation in my
'ream# eit-er 'irect$y or by mean* of i'entification wit- ot-er /eo/$e. 0y mean* of
*e&era$ *.c- i'entification* an e=traor'inary amo.nt of t-o.,-t materia$ may be
con'en*e'.7 T-at one1* e,o *-o.$' a//ear in t-e *ame 'ream *e&era$ time* or in 'ifferent
form* i* f.n'amenta$$y no more *.r/ri*in, t-an t-at it *-o.$' a//ear# in con*cio.*
t-inkin,# many time* an' in 'ifferent /$ace* or in 'ifferent re$ation*: a*# for e=am/$e# in
t-e *entence: @+-en I t-ink w-at a -ea$t-y c-i$' I wa*.1
Sti$$ ea*ier t-an in t-e ca*e of /er*on* i* t-e re*o$.tion of i'entification* in t-e ca*e of
$oca$itie* 'e*i,nate' by t-eir own name*# a* -ere t-e 'i*t.rbin, inf$.ence of t-e
a$$/owerf.$
e,o i* $ackin,. In one of my 'ream* of Rome 3/.!94 t-e name of t-e /$ace in
w-ic- I fin' my*e$f i* Gome< I am *.r/ri*e'# -owe&er# by a $ar,e n.mber of German
/$acar'* at a *treet corner. T-i* $a*t i* a wi*-5f.$fi$ment# w-ic- imme'iate$y *.,,e*t*
2ra'ue< t-e wi*- it*e$f /robab$y ori,inate' at a /erio' of my yo.t- w-en I wa* imb.e'
wit- a German nationa$i*tic */irit w-ic- to'ay i* ;.ite *.b'.e'. At t-e time of my 'ream
I wa* $ookin, forwar' to meetin, a frien' in 2ra'ue< t-e i'entification of Rome wit-
Pra,.e i* t-erefore e=/$aine' by a 'e*ire' common feat.re< I wo.$' rat-er meet my
frien' in Rome t-an in Pra,.e< for t-e /.r/o*e of t-i* meetin, I *-o.$' $ike to e=c-an,e
Pra,.e for Rome.
T-e /o**ibi$ity of creatin, com/o*ite formation* i* one of t-e c-ief ca.*e* of t-e fanta*tic
c-aracter *o common in 'ream*# in t-at it intro'.ce* into t-e 'ream5content e$ement*
w-ic- co.$' ne&er -a&e been ob6ect* of /erce/tion. T-e /*yc-ic /roce** w-ic- occ.r* in
t-e creation of com/o*ite formation* i* ob&io.*$y t-e *ame a* t-at w-ic- we em/$oy in
concei&in, or fi,.rin, a 'ra,on or a centa.r in o.r wakin, *en*e*. T-e on$y 'ifference i*
t-at in t-e fanta*tic creation* of wakin, $ife t-e im/re**ion inten'e' i* it*e$f t-e 'eci*i&e
factor# w-i$e t-e com/o*ite formation in t-e 'ream i* 'etermine' by a factor 55 t-e
common feat.re in t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* 55 w-ic- i* in'e/en'ent of it* form. (om/o*ite
formation* in 'ream* may be ac-ie&e' in a ,reat many 'ifferent way*. In t-e mo*t art$e**
of t-e*e met-o'* on$y t-e /ro/ertie* of t-e one t-in, are re/re*ente'# an' t-i*
re/re*entation i* accom/anie' by a know$e',e t-at t-ey refer to anot-er ob6ect a$*o. A
more caref.$ tec-ni;.e combine* feat.re* of t-e one ob6ect wit- t-o*e of t-e ot-er in a
new ima,e# w-i$e it make* *ki$f.$ .*e of any rea$$y e=i*tin, re*emb$ance* between t-e
two ob6ect*. T-e new creation may /ro&e to be w-o$$y ab*.r'# or e&en *.cce**f.$ a* a
fanta*y# accor'in, a* t-e materia$ an' t-e wit em/$oye' in con*tr.ctin, it may /ermit. If
t-e ob6ect* to be con'en*e' into a .nity are too incon,r.o.*# t-e 'ream5work i* content
wit- creatin, a com/o*ite formation wit- a com/arati&e$y 'i*tinct n.c$e.*# to w-ic- are
attac-e' more in'efinite mo'ification*. T-e .nification into one ima,e -a* -ere been to
*ome e=tent .n*.cce**f.$< t-e two re/re*entation* o&er$a/ one anot-er# an' ,i&e ri*e to
*omet-in, $ike a conte*t between t-e &i*.a$ ima,e*. Simi$ar re/re*entation* mi,-t be
obtaine' in a 'rawin, if one were to attem/t to ,i&e form to a .nifie' ab*traction of
'i*/arate /erce/t.a$ ima,e*.
Dream* nat.ra$$y abo.n' in *.c- com/o*ite formation*< I -a&e ,i&en *e&era$ e=am/$e* of
t-e*e in t-e 'ream* a$rea'y ana$y*e'# an' wi$$ now cite more *.c- e=am/$e*. In t-e
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'ream on /. 1!!# w-ic- 'e*cribe* t-e career of my /atient @in f$owery $an,.a,e1# t-e
'ream5e,o carrie* a */ray of b$o**om in -er -an' w-ic-# a* we -a&e *een# *i,nifie* at
once *e=.a$ innocence an' *e=.a$ tran*,re**ion. Moreo&er# from t-e manner in w-ic- t-e
b$o**om* are *et on# t-ey reca$$ c-erry5b$o**om< t-e b$o**om* t-em*e$&e*# con*i'ere'
*in,$y# are camellias# an' fina$$y t-e w-o$e */ray ,i&e* t-e 'reamer t-e im/re**ion of an
eotic /$ant. T-e common feat.re in t-e e$ement* of t-i* com/o*ite formation i* re&ea$e'
by t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*. T-e b$o**omin, */ray i* ma'e ./ of a$$.*ion* to /re*ent* by
w-ic- *-e wa* in'.ce' or wa* to -a&e been in'.ce' to be-a&e in a manner a,reeab$e to
t-e ,i&er. So it wa* wit- c-errie* in -er c-i$'-oo'# an' wit- a came$$ia5tree in -er $ater
year*< t-e e=otic c-aracter i* an a$$.*ion to a m.c-5tra&e$$e' nat.ra$i*t# w-o *o.,-t to win
-er fa&o.r by mean* of a 'rawin, of a f$ower. Anot-er fema$e /atient contri&e* a
com/o*ite meanin, o.t of %athin' machines at a *ea*i'e re*ort# co.ntry privies# an' t-e
attics of o.r city 'we$$in,5-o.*e*. A reference to -.man nake'ne** an' e=/o*.re i*
common to t-e fir*t two e$ement*< an' we may infer from t-eir connection wit- t-e t-ir'
e$ement t-at 3in -er c-i$'-oo'4 t-e ,arret wa* $ikewi*e t-e *cene of bo'i$y e=/o*.re. A
'reamer of t-e ma$e *e= make* a com/o*ite $oca$ity o.t of two /$ace* in w-ic-
@treatment1 i* ,i&en 55 my office an' t-e a**emb$y room* in w-ic- -e fir*t became
ac;.ainte' wit- -i* wife. Anot-er# a fema$e /atient# after -er e$'er brot-er -a* /romi*e'
to re,a$e -er wit- ca&iare# 'ream* t-at -i* $e,* are covered all over "ith %lac( %eads of
caviare. T-e two e$ement*# @taint1 in a mora$ *en*e an' t-e reco$$ection of a c.taneo.*
er./tion in c-i$'-oo' w-ic- ma'e -er $e,* $ook a* t-o.,- *t.''e' o&er wit- red in*tea'
of b$ack */ot*# -a&e -ere been combine' wit- t-e bea'* of caviare to form a new i'ea 55
t-e i'ea of @"hat she 'ets from her %rother.1 In t-i* 'ream /art* of t-e -.man bo'y are
treate' a* ob6ect*# a* i* .*.a$$y t-e ca*e in 'ream*. In one of t-e 'ream* recor'e' by
FerencCi t-ere occ.r* a com/o*ite formation ma'e ./ of t-e /er*on of a ph$sician an' a
horse# an' t-i* com/o*ite bein, wear* a ni'htshirt. T-e common feat.re in t-e*e t-ree
com/onent* wa* re&ea$e' in t-e ana$y*i*# after t-e ni,-t*-irt -a' been reco,ni*e' a* an
a$$.*ion to t-e fat-er of t-e 'reamer in a *cene of c-i$'-oo'. In eac- of t-e t-ree ca*e*
t-ere wa* *ome ob6ect of -er *e=.a$ c.rio*ity. A* a c-i$' *-e -a' often been taken by -er
n.r*e to t-e army *t.'# w-ere *-e -a' t-e am/$e*t o//ort.nity to *ati*fy -er c.rio*ity# at
t-at time *ti$$ .nin-ibite'.
I -a&e a$rea'y *tate' t-at t-e 'ream -a* no mean* of e=/re**in, t-e re$ation of
contra'iction# contra*t# ne,ation. I *-a$$ now contra'ict t-i* a**ertion for t-e fir*t time. A
certain n.mber of ca*e* of w-at may be *.mme' ./ .n'er t-e wor' @contra*t1 obtain
re/re*entation# a* we -a&e *een# *im/$y by mean* of i'entification 55 t-at i*# w-en an
e=c-an,e# a *.b*tit.tion# can be bo.n' ./ wit- t-e contra*t. Of t-i* we -a&e cite'
re/eate' e=am/$e*. (ertain ot-er of t-e contra*t* in t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*# w-ic- /er-a/*
come .n'er t-e cate,ory of @inverted, turned into the opposite1# are re/re*ente' in 'ream*
in t-e fo$$owin, remarkab$e manner# w-ic- may a$mo*t be 'e*cribe' a* witty. T-e
@in&er*ion1 'oe* not it*e$f make it* way into t-e 'ream5content# b.t manife*t* it* /re*ence
in t-e materia$ by t-e fact t-at a /art of t-e a$rea'y forme' 'ream5content w-ic- i*# for
ot-er rea*on*# c$o*e$y connecte' in conte=t i* 55 a* it were *.b*e;.ent$y 55 inverted. It i*
ea*ier to i$$.*trate t-i* /roce** t-an to 'e*cribe it. In t-e bea.tif.$ @)/ an' Down1 'ream
3/. 1:94 t-e 'ream5re/re*entation of a*cen'in, i* an in&er*ion of it* /rototy/e in t-e
'ream5t-o.,-t*: t-at i*# of t-e intro'.ctory *cene of Da.'et1* 3appho< in t-e 'ream
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c$imbin, i* 'iffic.$t at fir*t an' ea*y $ater on# w-erea* in t-e no&e$ it i* ea*y at fir*t# an'
$ater become* more an' more 'iffic.$t. A,ain# @abo&e1 an' @be$ow1# wit- reference to t-e
'reamer1* brot-er# are re&er*e' in t-e 'ream. T-i* /oint* to a re$ation of in&er*ion or
contra*t between two /art* of t-e materia$ in t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*# w-ic- in'ee' we fo.n'
in t-em# for in t-e c-i$'i*- fanta*y of t-e 'reamer -e i* carrie' by -i* n.r*e# w-i$e in t-e
no&e$# on t-e contrary# t-e -ero carrie* -i* be$o&e'. My 'ream of Goet-e1* attack on %err
M. 3to be cite' $ater4 $ikewi*e contain* an in&er*ion of t-i* *ort# w-ic- m.*t be *et ri,-t
before t-e 'ream can be inter/rete'. In t-i* 'ream Goet-e attack* a yo.n, man# %err M.<
t-e rea$ity# a* containe' in t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*# i* t-at an eminent man# a frien' of mine#
-a* been attacke' by an .nknown yo.n, a.t-or. In t-e 'ream I reckon time from t-e 'ate
of Goet-e1* 'eat-< in rea$ity t-e reckonin, wa* ma'e from t-e year in w-ic- t-e /ara$ytic
wa* born. T-e t-o.,-t w-ic- inf$.ence* t-e 'ream5materia$ re&ea$* it*e$f a* my
o//o*ition to t-e treatment of Goet-e a* t-o.,- -e were a $.natic. @It i* t-e ot-er way
abo.t#1 *ay* t-e 'ream< @if yo. 'on1t .n'er*tan' t-e book it i* yo. w-o are feeb$e5min'e'#
not t-e a.t-or.1 A$$ t-e*e 'ream* of in&er*ion# moreo&er# *eem to me to im/$y an a$$.*ion
to t-e contem/t.o.* /-ra*e# @to t.rn one1* back ./on a /er*on1 3German: einem die
Eehrseite ?ei'en# $it. to *-ow a /er*on one1* back*i'e4: cf. t-e in&er*ion in re*/ect of t-e
'reamer1* brot-er in t-e Sa//-o 'ream. It i* f.rt-er wort- notin, -ow fre;.ent$y
in&er*ion i* em/$oye' in /reci*e$y t-o*e 'ream* w-ic- are in*/ire' by re/re**e'
-omo*e=.a$ im/.$*e*.
Moreo&er# in&er*ion# or tran*formation into t-e o//o*ite# i* one of t-e mo*t fa&o.re' an'
mo*t &er*ati$e met-o'* of re/re*entation w-ic- t-e 'ream5work -a* at it* 'i*/o*a$. It
*er&e*# in t-e fir*t /$ace# to enab$e t-e wi*-5f.$fi$ment to /re&ai$ a,ain*t a 'efinite
e$ement of t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*. @If on$y it were t-e ot-er way abo.tA1 i* often t-e be*t
e=/re**ion for t-e reaction of t-e e,o a,ain*t a 'i*a,reeab$e reco$$ection. 0.t in&er*ion
become* e=traor'inari$y .*ef.$ in t-e *er&ice of t-e cen*or*-i/# for it effect*# in t-e
materia$ to be re/re*ente'# a 'e,ree of 'i*tortion w-ic- at fir*t *im/$y /ara$y*e* o.r
.n'er*tan'in, of t-e 'ream. It i* t-erefore a$way* /ermi**ib$e# if a 'ream *t.bborn$y
ref.*e* to *.rren'er it* meanin,# to &ent.re on t-e e=/erimenta$ in&er*ion of 'efinite
/ortion* of it* manife*t content. T-en# not infre;.ent$y# e&eryt-in, become* c$ear.
0e*i'e* t-e in&er*ion of content# t-e tem/ora$ in&er*ion m.*t not be o&er$ooke'. A
fre;.ent 'e&ice of 'ream5'i*tortion con*i*t* in /re*entin, t-e fina$ i**.e of t-e e&ent or
t-e conc$.*ion of t-e train of t-o.,-t at t-e be,innin, of t-e 'ream# an' a//en'in, at t-e
en' of t-e 'ream# an' a//en'in, at t-e en' of t-e 'ream t-e /remi*e* of t-e conc$.*ion#
or t-e ca.*e* of t-e e&ent. Anyone w-o for,et* t-i* tec-nica$ 'e&ice of 'ream5'i*tortion
*tan'* -e$/$e** before t-e /rob$em of 'ream5inter/retation.8
In many ca*e*# in'ee'# we 'i*co&er t-e meanin, of t-e 'ream on$y w-en we -a&e
*.b6ecte' t-e 'ream5content to a m.$ti/$e in&er*ion# in accor'ance wit- t-e 'ifferent
re$ation*. For e=am/$e# in t-e 'ream of a yo.n, /atient w-o i* *.fferin, from ob*e**iona$
ne.ro*i*# t-e memory of t-e c-i$'i*- 'eat-5wi*- 'irecte' a,ain*t a 'rea'e' fat-er
concea$e' it*e$f be-in' t-e fo$$owin, wor'*: Bis father scolds him %ecause he comes
home so late# b.t t-e conte=t of t-e /*yc-oana$ytic treatment an' t-e im/re**ion* of t-e
'reamer *-ow t-at t-e *entence m.*t be rea' a* fo$$ow*: Be is an'r$ "ith his father# an'
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f.rt-er# t-at -i* fat-er a$way* came home too earl$ 3i.e. too *oon4. %e wo.$' -a&e
/referre' t-at -i* fat-er *-o.$' not come -ome at a$$# w-ic- i* i'entica$ wit- t-e wi*-
3*ee /. 172 ff.4 t-at -i* fat-er wo.$' 'ie. A* a $itt$e boy# '.rin, t-e /ro$on,e' ab*ence of
-i* fat-er# t-e 'reamer wa* ,.i$ty of a *e=.a$ a,,re**ion a,ain*t anot-er c-i$'# an' wa*
/.ni*-e' by t-e t-reat: @>.*t yo. wait .nti$ yo.r fat-er come* -omeA1
If we *-o.$' *eek to trace t-e re$ation* between t-e 'ream5content an' t-e 'reamt-o.,-t*
a $itt$e fart-er# we *-a$$ 'o t-i* be*t by makin, t-e 'ream it*e$f o.r /oint of
'e/art.re# an' a*kin, o.r*e$&e*: +-at 'o certain forma$ c-aracteri*tic* of t-e
'ream/re*entation
*i,nify in re$ation to t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*I Fir*t an' foremo*t amon, t-e
forma$ c-aracteri*tic* w-ic- are bo.n' to im/re** .* in 'ream* are t-e 'ifference* in t-e
*en*ory inten*ity of t-e *in,$e 'ream5ima,e*# an' in t-e 'i*tinctne** of &ario.* /art* of
t-e 'ream# or of w-o$e 'ream* a* com/are' wit- one anot-er. T-e 'ifference* in t-e
inten*ity of in'i&i'.a$ 'ream ima,e* co&er t-e w-o$e ,am.t# from a *-ar/ne** of
'efinition w-ic- one i* inc$ine' 55 a$t-o.,- wit-o.t warrant 55 to rate more -i,-$y t-an
t-at of rea$ity# to a /ro&okin, in'i*tinctne** w-ic- we 'ec$are to be c-aracteri*tic of
'ream*# beca.*e it rea$$y i* not w-o$$y com/arab$e to any of t-e 'e,ree* of in'i*tinctne**
w-ic- we occa*iona$$y /ercei&e in rea$ ob6ect*. Moreo&er# we .*.a$$y 'e*cribe t-e
im/re**ion w-ic- we recei&e of an in'i*tinct ob6ect in a 'ream a* @f$eetin,1# w-i$e we
t-ink of t-e more 'i*tinct 'ream5ima,e* a* -a&in, been /erce/tib$e a$*o for a $on,er
/erio' of time. +e m.*t now a*k o.r*e$&e* by w-at con'ition* in t-e 'ream5materia$
t-e*e 'ifference* in t-e 'i*tinctne** of t-e in'i&i'.a$ /ortion* of t-e 'ream5content are
bro.,-t abo.t.
0efore /rocee'in, fart-er# it i* nece**ary to 'ea$ wit- certain e=/ectation* w-ic- *eem to
be a$mo*t ine&itab$e. Since act.a$ *en*ation* e=/erience' '.rin, *$ee/ may con*tit.te /art
of t-e 'ream5materia$# it wi$$ /robab$y be a**.me' t-at t-e*e *en*ation*# or t-e
'reame$ement*
re*.$tin, from t-em# are em/-a*i*e' by a */ecia$ inten*ity# or con&er*e$y# t-at
anyt-in, w-ic- i* /artic.$ar$y &i&i' in t-e 'ream can /robab$y be trace' to *.c- rea$
*en*ation* '.rin, *$ee/. My e=/erience# -owe&er# -a* ne&er confirme' t-i*. It i* not tr.e
t-at t-o*e e$ement* of a 'ream w-ic- are 'eri&ati&e* of rea$ im/re**ion* /ercei&e' in
*$ee/ 3ner&e *tim.$i4 are 'i*tin,.i*-e' by t-eir */ecia$ &i&i'ne** from ot-er* w-ic- are
ba*e' on memorie*. T-e factor of rea$ity i* ino/erati&e in 'eterminin, t-e inten*ity of
'ream5ima,e*.
F.rt-er# it mi,-t be e=/ecte' t-at t-e *en*ory inten*ity 3&i&i'ne**4 of *in,$e 'reamima,e*
i* in /ro/ortion to t-e /*yc-ic inten*ity of t-e e$ement* corre*/on'in, to t-em in
t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*. In t-e $atter# inten*ity i* i'entica$ wit- /*yc-ic &a$.e< t-e mo*t
inten*e e$ement* are in fact t-e mo*t *i,nificant# an' t-e*e con*tit.te t-e centra$ /oint of
t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*. +e know# -owe&er# t-at it i* /reci*e$y t-e*e e$ement* w-ic- are
.*.a$$y not a'mitte' to t-e 'ream5content# owin, to t-e &i,i$ance of t-e cen*or*-i/. Sti$$#
it mi,-t be /o**ib$e for t-eir mo*t imme'iate 'eri&ati&e*# w-ic- re/re*ent t-em in t-e
'ream# to reac- a -i,-er 'e,ree of inten*ity wit-o.t# -owe&er# for t-at rea*on con*tit.tin,
t-e centra$ /oint of t-e 'ream5re/re*entation. T-i* a**.m/tion a$*o &ani*-e* a* *oon a*
we com/are t-e 'ream an' t-e 'ream5materia$. T-e inten*ity of t-e e$ement* in t-e one
-a* not-in, to 'o wit- t-e inten*ity of t-e e$ement* in t-e ot-er< a* a matter of fact# a
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com/$ete @transvaluation of all ps$chic values1 take* /$ace between t-e 'ream5materia$
an' t-e 'ream. T-e &ery e$ement of t-e 'ream w-ic- i* tran*ient an' -aCy# an' *creene'
by more &i,oro.* ima,e*# i* often 'i*co&ere' to be t-e one an' on$y 'irect 'eri&ati&e of
t-e to/ic t-at com/$ete$y 'ominate* t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*.
T-e inten*ity of t-e 'ream5e$ement* /ro&e* to be 'etermine' in a 'ifferent manner: t-at
i*# by two factor* w-ic- are m.t.a$$y in'e/en'ent. It wi$$ rea'i$y be .n'er*too' t-at t-o*e
e$ement* by mean* of w-ic- t-e wi*-5f.$fi$ment e=/re**e* it*e$f are t-o*e w-ic- are
inten*e$y re/re*ente'. 0.t ana$y*i* te$$* .* t-at from t-e mo*t &i&i' e$ement* of t-e 'ream
t-e ,reate*t n.mber of train* of t-o.,-t /rocee'# an' t-at t-o*e w-ic- are mo*t &i&i' are
at t-e *ame time t-o*e w-ic- are be*t 'etermine'. No c-an,e of meanin, i* in&o$&e' if
we e=/re** t-i* $atter em/irica$ /ro/o*ition in t-e fo$$owin, form.$a: T-e ,reate*t
inten*ity i* *-own by t-o*e e$ement* of t-e 'ream for w-o*e formation t-e mo*t
e=ten*i&e condensation4"or( wa* re;.ire'. +e may# t-erefore# e=/ect t-at it wi$$ be
/o**ib$e to e=/re** t-i* con'ition# a* we$$ a* t-e ot-er con'ition of t-e wi*-5f.$fi$ment in
a *in,$e form.$a.
I m.*t .tter a warnin, t-at t-e /rob$em w-ic- I -a&e 6.*t been con*i'erin, 55 t-e ca.*e*
of t-e ,reater or $e**er inten*ity or 'i*tinctne** of *in,$e e$ement* in 'ream* 55 i* not to be
confo.n'e' wit- t-e ot-er /rob$em 55 t-at of &ariation* in t-e 'i*tinctne** of w-o$e
'ream* or *ection* of 'ream*. In t-e former ca*e t-e o//o*ite of 'i*tinctne** i* -aCine**<
in t-e $atter# conf.*ion. It i*# of co.r*e# .n'eniab$e t-at in bot- *ca$e* t-e two kin'* of
inten*itie* ri*e an' fa$$ in .ni*on. A /ortion of t-e 'ream w-ic- *eem* c$ear to .* .*.a$$y
contain* &i&i' e$ement*< an ob*c.re 'ream# on t-e contrary# i* com/o*e' of $e** &i&i'
e$ement*. 0.t t-e /rob$em offere' by t-e *ca$e of 'efinition# w-ic- ran,e* from t-e
a//arent$y c$ear to t-e in'i*tinct or conf.*e'# i* far more com/$icate' t-an t-e /rob$em of
t-e f$.ct.ation* in &i&i'ne** of t-e 'ream5e$ement*. For rea*on* w-ic- wi$$ be ,i&en
$ater# t-e former cannot at t-i* *ta,e be f.rt-er 'i*c.**e'. In i*o$ate' ca*e* one ob*er&e*#
not wit-o.t *.r/ri*e# t-at t-e im/re**ion of 'i*tinctne** or in'i*tinctne** /ro'.ce' by a
'ream -a* not-in, to 'o wit- t-e 'ream5*tr.ct.re# b.t /rocee'* from t-e 'ream5materia$#
a* one of it* in,re'ient*. T-.*# for e=am/$e# I remember a 'ream w-ic- on wakin,
*eeme' *o /artic.$ar$y we$$5con*tr.cte'# f$aw$e** an' c$ear t-at I ma'e ./ my min'#
w-i$e I wa* *ti$$ in a *omno$ent *tate# to a'mit a new cate,ory of 'ream* 55 t-o*e w-ic-
-a' not been *.b6ect to t-e mec-ani*m of con'en*ation an' 'i*tortion# an' w-ic- mi,-t
t-.* be 'e*cribe' a* @fanta*ie* '.rin, *$ee/.1 A c$o*er e=amination# -owe&er# /ro&e' t-at
t-i* .n.*.a$ 'ream *.ffere' from t-e *ame *tr.ct.ra$ f$aw* an' breac-e* a* e=i*t in a$$
ot-er 'ream*< *o I aban'one' t-e i'ea of a cate,ory of @'ream5fanta*ie*1.9 T-e content of
t-e 'ream# re'.ce' to it* $owe*t term*# wa* t-at I wa* e=/o.n'in, to a frien' a 'iffic.$t
an' $on,5*o.,-t t-eory of bi*e=.a$ity# an' t-e wi*-5f.$fi$$in, /ower of t-e 'ream wa*
re*/on*ib$e for t-e fact t-at t-i* t-eory 3w-ic-# by t-e way# wa* not comm.nicate' in t-e
'ream4 a//eare' to be *o $.ci' an' f$aw$e**. T-.*# w-at I be$ie&e' to be a 6.',ment a*
re,ar'* t-e fini*-e' 'ream wa* a /art# an' in'ee' t-e mo*t e**entia$ /art# of t-e
'reamcontent.
%ere t-e 'ream5work reac-e' o.t# a* it were# into my fir*t wakin, t-o.,-t*# an'
/re*ente' to me# in t-e form of a /ud'ment of t-e 'ream# t-at /art of t-e 'ream5materia$
w-ic- it -a' fai$e' to re/re*ent wit- /reci*ion in t-e 'ream. I wa* once confronte' wit-
t-e e=act co.nter/art of t-i* ca*e by a fema$e /atient w-o at fir*t ab*o$.te$y 'ec$ine' to
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re$ate a 'ream w-ic- wa* nece**ary for t-e ana$y*i* @beca.*e it wa* *o -aCy an'
conf.*e'1# an' w-o fina$$y 'ec$are'# after re/eate'$y /rote*tin, t-e inacc.racy of -er
'e*cri/tion# t-at it *eeme' to -er t-at *e&era$ /er*on* 55 -er*e$f# -er -.*ban'# an' -er
fat-er 55 -a' occ.rre' in t-e 'ream# an' t-at *-e -a' not known w-et-er -er -.*ban' wa*
-er fat-er# or w-o rea$$y wa* -er fat-er# or *omet-in, of t-at *ort. (om/ari*on of t-i*
'ream wit- t-e i'ea* w-ic- occ.rre' to t-e 'reamer in t-e co.r*e of t-e *ittin, *-owe'
beyon' a 'o.bt t-at it 'ea$t wit- t-e rat-er common/$ace *tory of a mai'*er&ant w-o -a*
to confe** t-at *-e i* e=/ectin, a c-i$'# an' -ear* 'o.bt* e=/re**e' a* to @w-o t-e fat-er
rea$$y i*1.: T-e ob*c.rity manife*te' by t-i* 'ream# t-erefore# wa* once more a /ortion of
t-e 'ream5e=citin, materia$. A fra,ment of t-i* materia$ wa* re/re*ente' in t-e form of
t-e 'ream. The form of the dream or of dreamin' is emplo$ed "ith astonishin' fre0uenc$
to represent the concealed content.
G$o**e* on t-e 'ream# an' *eemin,$y -arm$e** comment* on it# often *er&e in t-e mo*t
*.bt$e manner to concea$ 55 a$t-o.,-# of co.r*e# t-ey rea$$y betray 55 a /art of w-at i*
'reame'. A*# for e=am/$e# w-en t-e 'reamer *ay*: Bere the dream "as "iped out# an'
t-e ana$y*i* ,i&e* an infanti$e remini*cence of $i*tenin, to *omeone c$eanin, -im*e$f after
'efecation. Or anot-er e=am/$e# w-ic- 'e*er&e* to be recor'e' in 'etai$: A yo.n, man
-a* a &ery 'i*tinct 'ream# remin'in, -im of fanta*ie* of -i* boy-oo' w-ic- -a&e
remaine' con*cio.*. %e fo.n' -im*e$f in a -ote$ at a *ea*ona$ re*ort< it wa* ni,-t< -e
mi*took t-e n.mber of -i* room# an' entere' a room in w-ic- an e$'er$y $a'y an' -er two
'a.,-ter* were .n're**in, to ,o to be'. %e contin.e*: @Then there are some 'aps in the
dream< *omet-in, i* mi**in,< an' at t-e en' t-ere wa* a man in t-e room# w-o wante' to
t-row me o.t# an' wit- w-om I -a' to *tr.,,$e.1 %e trie* in &ain to reca$$ t-e content an'
intention of t-e boyi*- fanta*y to w-ic- t-e 'ream ob&io.*$y a$$.'e'. 0.t we fina$$y
become aware t-at t-e re;.ire' content -a' a$rea'y been ,i&en in -i* remark* concernin,
t-e in'i*tinct /art of t-e 'ream. T-e @,a/*1 are t-e ,enita$ a/ert.re* of t-e women w-o are
,oin, to be': @%ere *omet-in, i* mi**in,1 'e*cribe* t-e /rinci/a$ c-aracteri*tic of t-e
fema$e ,enita$*. In -i* yo.n, 'ay* -e b.rne' wit- c.rio*ity to *ee t-e fema$e ,enita$*# an'
wa* *ti$$ inc$ine' to a'-ere to t-e infanti$e *e=.a$ t-eory w-ic- attrib.te* a ma$e or,an to
women.
A &ery *imi$ar form wa* a**.me' in an ana$o,o.* remini*cence of anot-er 'reamer. %e
'reame': I 'o "ith Fr=ulein E5 into the restaurant of the Vol(s'arten . . . t-en come* a
'ark /$ace# an interr./tion . . . then I find m$self in the salon of a %rothel, "here I see t"o
or three "omen, one in a chemise and dra"ers.
!nal$sis. 55 FrO.$ein F. i* t-e 'a.,-ter of -i* former em/$oyer< a* -e -im*e$f a'mit*# *-e
wa* a *i*ter5*.b*tit.te. %e rare$y -a' t-e o//ort.nity of ta$kin, to -er# b.t t-ey once -a'
a con&er*ation in w-ic- @one reco,ni*e' one1* *e=.a$ity# *o to */eak# a* t-o.,- one were
to *ay: I am a man an' yo. are a woman.1 %e -a' been on$y once to t-e abo&e5mentione'
re*ta.rant# w-en -e wa* accom/anie' by t-e *i*ter of -i* brot-er5in5$aw# a ,ir$ to w-om
-e wa* ;.ite in'ifferent. On anot-er occa*ion -e accom/anie' t-ree $a'ie* to t-e 'oor of
t-e re*ta.rant. T-e $a'ie* were -i* *i*ter# -i* *i*ter5in5$aw# an' t-e ,ir$ a$rea'y mentione'.
%e wa* /erfect$y in'ifferent to a$$ t-ree of t-em# b.t t-ey a$$ be$on,e' to t-e @*i*ter
cate,ory1. %e -a' &i*ite' a brot-e$ b.t rare$y# /er-a/* two or t-ree time* in -i* $ife.
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T-e inter/retation i* ba*e' on t-e @'ark /$ace1# t-e @interr./tion1 in t-e 'ream# an'
inform* .* t-at on occa*ion# b.t in fact on$y rare$y# ob*e**e' by -i* boyi*- c.rio*ity# -e
-a' in*/ecte' t-e ,enita$* of -i* *i*ter# a few year* -i* 6.nior. A few 'ay* $ater t-e
mi*'emeano.r in'icate' in t-e 'ream rec.rre' to -i* con*cio.* memory.
A$$ 'ream* of t-e *ame ni,-t be$on,# in re*/ect of t-eir content# to t-e *ame w-o$e< t-eir
'i&i*ion into *e&era$ /art*# t-eir ,ro./in, an' n.mber# are a$$ f.$$ of meanin, an' may be
re,ar'e' a* /iece* of information abo.t t-e $atent 'ream5t-o.,-t*. In t-e inter/retation of
'ream* con*i*tin, of *e&era$ main *ection*# or of 'ream* be$on,in, to t-e *ame ni,-t# we
m.*t not o&er$ook t-e /o**ibi$ity t-at t-e*e 'ifferent an' *.cce**i&e 'ream* mean t-e
*ame t-in,# e=/re**in, t-e *ame im/.$*e* in 'ifferent materia$. T-at one of t-e*e
-omo$o,o.* 'ream* w-ic- come* fir*t in time i* .*.a$$y t-e mo*t 'i*torte' an' mo*t
ba*-f.$# w-i$e t-e ne=t 'ream i* bo$'er an' more 'i*tinct.
E&en P-arao-1* 'ream of t-e ear* an' t-e kine# w-ic- >o*e/- inter/rete'# wa* of t-i*
kin'. It i* ,i&en by >o*e/-.* in ,reater 'etai$ t-an in t-e 0ib$e. After re$atin, t-e fir*t
'ream# t-e Fin, *ai': @After I -a' *een t-i* &i*ion I awake' o.t of my *$ee/# an'# bein,
in 'i*or'er# an' con*i'erin, wit- my*e$f w-at t-i* a//earance *-o.$' be# I fe$$ a*$ee/
a,ain# an' *aw anot-er 'ream m.c- more won'erf.$ t-an t-e fore,oin,# w-ic- *ti$$ 'i'
more affri,-t an' 'i*t.rb me.1 After $i*tenin, to t-e re$ation of t-e 'ream# >o*e/- *ai':
@T-i* 'ream# O Fin,# a$t-o.,- *een .n'er two form*# *i,nifie* one an' t-e *ame e&ent of
t-in,*.1D
>.n,# in -i* <eitra' sur 2s$cholo'ie des GerDchtes# re$ate* -ow a &ei$e' erotic 'ream of a
*c-oo$,ir$ wa* .n'er*too' by -er frien'* wit-o.t inter/retation# an' contin.e' by t-em
wit- &ariation*# an' -e remark*# wit- reference to one of t-e*e narrate' 'ream*# @t-at t-e
conc$.'in, i'ea of a $on, *erie* of 'ream5ima,e* -a' /reci*e$y t-e *ame content a* t-e
fir*t ima,e of t-e *erie* -a' en'ea&o.re' to re/re*ent. T-e cen*or*-i/ t-r.*t t-e com/$e=
o.t of t-e way a* $on, a* /o**ib$e by a con*tant renewa$ of *ymbo$ic *creenin,*#
'i*/$acement*# tran*formation* into *omet-in, -arm$e**# etc.1 Sc-erner wa* we$$
ac;.ainte' wit- t-i* /ec.$iarity of 'ream5re/re*entation# an' 'e*cribe* it in -i* Le%en des
Traumes in term* of a */ecia$ $aw in t-e A//en'i= to -i* 'octrine of or,anic *tim.$ation:
@0.t fina$$y# in a$$ *ymbo$ic 'ream5formation* emanatin, from 'efinite ner&e *tim.$i# t-e
fanta*y ob*er&e* t-e ,enera$ $aw t-at at t-e be,innin, of t-e 'ream it 'e/ict* t-e
*tim.$atin, ob6ect on$y by t-e remote*t an' free*t a$$.*ion*# b.t towar'* t-e en'# w-en
t-e ,ra/-ic im/.$*e become* e=-a.*te'# t-e *tim.$.* it*e$f i* nake'$y re/re*ente' by it*
a//ro/riate or,an or it* f.nction< w-ere./on t-e 'ream# it*e$f 'e*cribin, it* or,anic
moti&e# ac-ie&e* it* en' . . .1
A /retty confirmation of t-i* $aw of Sc-erner1* -a* been f.rni*-e' by Otto Rank in -i*
e**ay &in Traum, der sich sel%st deutet. T-i* 'ream# re$ate' to -im by a ,ir$# con*i*te' of
two 'ream* of t-e *ame ni,-t# *e/arate' by an inter&a$ of time# t-e *econ' of w-ic-
en'e' wit- an or,a*m. It wa* /o**ib$e to inter/ret t-i* or,a*tic 'ream in 'etai$ in */ite of
t-e few i'ea* contrib.te' by t-e 'reamer# an' t-e wea$t- of re$ation* between t-e two
'ream5content* ma'e it /o**ib$e to reco,ni*e t-at t-e fir*t 'ream e=/re**e' in mo'e*t
$an,.a,e t-e *ame t-in, a* t-e *econ'# *o t-at t-e $atter 55 t-e or,a*tic 'ream 55 faci$itate'
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a f.$$ e=/$anation of t-e former. From t-i* e=am/$e# Rank &ery 6.*tifiab$y ar,.e* t-e
*i,nificance of or,a*tic 'ream* for t-e t-eory of 'ream* in ,enera$.
0.t in my e=/erience it i* on$y in rare ca*e* t-at one i* in a /o*ition to tran*$ate t-e
$.ci'ity or conf.*ion of a 'ream# re*/ecti&e$y# into a certainty or 'o.bt in t-e
'reammateria$.
?ater on I *-a$$ -a&e to 'i*c$o*e a -it-erto .nmentione' factor in 'reamformation#
./on w-o*e o/eration t-i* ;.a$itati&e *ca$e in 'ream* i* e**entia$$y 'e/en'ent.
In many 'ream* in w-ic- a certain *it.ation an' en&ironment are /re*er&e' for *ome
time# t-ere occ.r interr./tion* w-ic- may be 'e*cribe' in t-e fo$$owin, wor'*: @0.t t-en
it *eeme' a* t-o.,- it were# at t-e *ame time# anot-er /$ace# an' t-ere *.c- an' *.c- a
t-in, -a//ene'.1 In t-e*e ca*e* w-at interr./t* t-e main action of t-e 'ream# w-ic- after
a w-i$e may be contin.e' a,ain# re&ea$* it*e$f in t-e 'ream5materia$ a* a *.bor'inate
c$a.*e# an inter/o$ate' t-o.,-t. (on'itiona$ity in t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* i* re/re*ente' by
*im.$taneity in t-e 'ream5content 3"enn or "ann M if or w-en# w-i$e4.
+e may now a*k# +-at i* t-e meanin, of t-e *en*ation of in-ibite' mo&ement w-ic- *o
often occ.r* in 'ream*# an' i* *o c$o*e$y a$$ie' to an=ietyI One want* to mo&e# an' i*
.nab$e to *tir from t-e */ot< or want* to accom/$i*- *omet-in,# an' enco.nter* ob*tac$e
after ob*tac$e. T-e train i* abo.t to *tart# an' one cannot reac- it< one1* -an' i* rai*e' to
a&en,e an in*.$t# an' it* *tren,t- fai$*# etc. +e -a&e a$rea'y met wit- t-i* *en*ation in
e=-ibition5'ream*# b.t -a&e a* yet ma'e no *erio.* attem/t to inter/ret it. It i*
con&enient# b.t ina'e;.ate# to an*wer t-at t-ere i* motor /ara$y*i* in *$ee/# w-ic-
manife*t* it*e$f by mean* of t-e *en*ation a$$.'e' to. +e may a*k: @+-y i* it# t-en# t-at
we 'o not 'ream contin.a$$y of *.c- in-ibite' mo&ement*I1 An' we may /ermi**ib$y
*.*/ect t-at t-i* *en*ation# w-ic- may at any time occ.r '.rin, *$ee/# *er&e* *ome *ort of
/.r/o*e for re/re*entation# an' i* e&oke' on$y w-en t-e nee' of t-i* re/re*entation i*
/re*ent in t-e 'ream5materia$.
Inabi$ity to 'o a t-in, 'oe* not a$way* a//ear in t-e 'ream a* a *en*ation< it may a//ear
*im/$y a* /art of t-e 'ream5content. I t-ink one ca*e of t-i* kin' i* e*/ecia$$y fitte' to
en$i,-ten .* a* to t-e meanin, of t-i* /ec.$iarity. I *-a$$ ,i&e an abri',e' &er*ion of a
'ream in w-ic- I *eem to be acc.*e' of 'i*-one*ty. The scene is a miture made up of a
private sanatorium and several other places5 ! manservant appears, to summon me to an
in0uir$5 I (no" in the dream that somethin' has %een missed, and that the in0uir$ is
ta(in' place %ecause I am suspected of havin' appropriated the lost article5 !nal$sis
sho"s that in0uir$ is to %e ta(en in t"o senses6 it includes the meanin' of medical
eamination5 <ein' conscious of m$ innocence, and m$ position as consultant in this
sanatorium, I calml$ follo" the manservant5 ;e are received at the door %$ another
manservant "ho sa$s, pointin' at me, )Bave $ou %rou'ht himA ;h$, he is a respecta%le
man5+ Thereupon, and unattended, I enter a 'reat hall "here there are man$ machines,
"hich reminds me of an inferno "ith its hellish instruments of punishment5 I see a
collea'ue strapped to an appliance6 he has ever$ reason to %e interested in m$
appearance, %ut he ta(es no notice of me5 I understand that I ma$ no" 'o5 Then I cannot
find m$ hat, and cannot 'o after all.
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T-e wi*- t-at t-e 'ream f.$fi$* i* ob&io.*$y t-e wi*- t-at my -one*ty *-a$$ be
acknow$e',e'# an' t-at I may be /ermitte' to ,o< t-ere m.*t t-erefore be a$$ *ort* of
materia$ in t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* w-ic- com/ri*e a contra'iction of t-i* wi*-. T-e fact t-at
I may ,o i* t-e *i,n of my ab*o$.tion< if# t-en# t-e 'ream /ro&i'e* at it* c$o*e an e&ent
w-ic- /re&ent* me from ,oin,# we may rea'i$y conc$.'e t-at t-e *.//re**e' materia$ of
t-e contra'iction i* a**ertin, it*e$f in t-i* feat.re. T-e fact t-at I cannot fin' my -at
t-erefore mean*: @Ho. are not after a$$ an -one*t man.1 T-e inabi$ity to 'o *omet-in, in
t-e 'ream i* the epression of a contradiction, a )7o+< *o t-at o.r ear$ier a**ertion# to t-e
effect t-at t-e 'ream i* not ca/ab$e of e=/re**in, a ne,ation# m.*t be re&i*e'
accor'in,$y.!
In ot-er 'ream* in w-ic- t-e inabi$ity to 'o *omet-in, occ.r*# not mere$y a* a *it.ation#
b.t a$*o a* a *en*ation# t-e *ame contra'iction i* more em/-atica$$y e=/re**e' by t-e
*en*ation of in-ibite' mo&ement# or a wi$$ to w-ic- a co.nter5wi$$ i* o//o*e'. T-.* t-e
*en*ation of in-ibite' mo&ement re/re*ent* a conflict of "ill. +e *-a$$ *ee $ater on t-at
t-i* &ery motor /ara$y*i* '.rin, *$ee/ i* one of t-e f.n'amenta$ con'ition* of t-e /*yc-ic
/roce** w-ic- f.nction* '.rin, 'reamin,. Now an im/.$*e w-ic- i* con&eye' to t-e
motor *y*tem i* none ot-er t-an t-e wi$$# an' t-e fact t-at we are certain t-at t-i* im/.$*e
wi$$ be in-ibite' in *$ee/ make* t-e w-o$e /roce** e=traor'inari$y we$$5a'a/te' to t-e
re/re*entation of a "ill towar'* *omet-in, an' of a @7o1 w-ic- o//o*e* it*e$f t-ereto.
From my e=/$anation of an=iety# it i* ea*y to .n'er*tan' w-y t-e *en*ation of t-e
in-ibite' wi$$ i* *o c$o*e$y a$$ie' to an=iety# an' w-y it i* *o often connecte' wit- it in
'ream*. An=iety i* a $ibi'ina$ im/.$*e w-ic- emanate* from t-e .ncon*cio.* an' i*
in-ibite' by t-e /recon*cio.*.1" T-erefore# w-en a *en*ation of in-ibition in t-e 'ream i*
accom/anie' by an=iety# t-e 'ream m.*t be concerne' wit- a &o$ition w-ic- wa* at one
time ca/ab$e of aro.*in, $ibi'o< t-ere m.*t be a *e=.a$ im/.$*e.
A* for t-e 6.',ment w-ic- i* often e=/re**e' '.rin, a 'ream: @Of co.r*e# it i* on$y a
'ream1# an' t-e /*yc-ic force to w-ic- it may be a*cribe'# I *-a$$ 'i*c.** t-e*e ;.e*tion*
$ater on. For t-e /re*ent I wi$$ mere$y *ay t-at t-ey are inten'e' to 'e/reciate t-e
im/ortance of w-at i* bein, 'reame'. T-e intere*tin, /rob$em a$$ie' to t-i*# a* to w-at i*
meant if a certain content in t-e 'ream i* c-aracteri*e' in t-e 'ream it*e$f a* -a&in, been
@'reame'1 55 t-e ri''$e of a @'ream wit-in a 'ream1 55 -a* been *o$&e' in a *imi$ar *en*e
by +. Steke$# by t-e ana$y*i* of *ome con&incin, e=am/$e*. %ere a,ain t-e /art of t-e
'ream @'reame'1 i* to be 'e/reciate' in &a$.e an' robbe' of it* rea$ity< t-at w-ic- t-e
'reamer contin.e* to 'ream after wakin, from t-e @'ream wit-in a 'ream1 i* w-at t-e
'ream5wi*- 'e*ire* to /.t in /$ace of t-e ob$iterate' rea$ity. It may t-erefore be a**.me'
t-at t-e /art @'reame'1 contain* t-e re/re*entation of t-e rea$ity# t-e rea$ memory# w-i$e#
on t-e ot-er -an'# t-e contin.e' 'ream contain* t-e re/re*entation of w-at t-e 'reamer
mere$y wi*-e*. T-e inc$.*ion of a certain content in @a 'ream wit-in a 'ream1 i* t-erefore
e;.i&a$ent to t-e wi*- t-at w-at -a* been c-aracteri*e' a* a 'ream -a' ne&er occ.rre'. In
ot-er wor'*: w-en a /artic.$ar inci'ent i* re/re*ente' by t-e 'ream5work in a @'ream1# it
*i,nifie* t-e *tron,e*t confirmation of t-e rea$ity of t-i* inci'ent# t-e mo*t em/-atic
affirmation of it. T-e 'ream5work .ti$i*e* t-e 'ream it*e$f a* a form of re/.'iation# an'
t-ereby confirm* t-e t-eory t-at a 'ream i* a wi*-5f.$fi$ment.
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1 I -a&e *ince ,i&en t-e com/$ete ana$y*i* an' *ynt-e*i* of two 'ream* in t-e <ruchstDc(
einer B$sterieanal$se# 1!"8 3Ges5 3chriften# 0'. &iii4. Fra,ment of an Ana$y*i* of a (a*e
of %y*teria# tran*$ate' by Strac-ey# Collected 2apers# &o$. iii# %o,art- Pre**# ?on'on. O.
Rank1* ana$y*i*# &in Traum der sich sel%st deutet# 'e*er&e* mention a* t-e mo*t com/$ete
inter/retation of a com/arati&e$y $on, 'ream.
From a work of F. Abe$1* Der Ge'ensinn der *r"orte# 1DD7 3*ee my re&iew of it in t-e
0$e.$er5Fre.' >ahr%uch# ii# 1!1" 3Ges5 3chriften# 0'. =4# I $earne' t-e *.r/ri*in, fact#
w-ic- i* confirme' by ot-er /-i$o$o,i*t*# t-at t-e o$'e*t $an,.a,e* be-a&e' 6.*t a*
'ream* 'o in t-i* re,ar'. T-ey -a' ori,ina$$y on$y one wor' for bot- e=treme* in a *erie*
of ;.a$itie* or acti&itie* 3*tron,5weak# o$'5yo.n,# far5near# bin'5*e/arate4# an' forme'
*e/arate 'e*i,nation* for t-e two o//o*ite* on$y *econ'ari$y# by *$i,-t mo'ification* of
t-e common /rimiti&e wor'. Abe$ 'emon*trate* a &ery $ar,e n.mber of t-o*e
re$ation*-i/* in ancient E,y/tian# an' /oint* to 'i*tinct remnant* of t-e *ame
'e&e$o/ment in t-e Semitic an' In'o5Germanic $an,.a,e*.
2 cf. -ere t-e ob*er&ation* ma'e on //. 191ff.
7 If I 'o not know be-in' w-ic- of t-e /er*on* a//earin, in t-e 'ream I am to $ook for my
e,o# I ob*er&e t-e fo$$owin, r.$e: T-at /er*on in t-e 'ream w-o i* *.b6ect to an emotion
w-ic- I am aware of w-i$e a*$ee/ i* t-e one t-at concea$* my e,o.
8 T-e -y*terica$ attack often em/$oy* t-e *ame 'e&ice of tem/ora$ in&er*ion in or'er to
concea$ it* meanin, from t-e ob*er&er. T-e attack of a -y*terica$ ,ir$# for e=am/$e#
con*i*t* in enactin, a $itt$e romance# w-ic- *-e -a* ima,ine' in t-e .ncon*cio.* in
connection wit- an enco.nter in a tram. A man# attracte' by t-e bea.ty of -er foot#
a''re**e* -er w-i$e *-e i* rea'in,# w-ere./on *-e ,oe* wit- -im an' a /a**ionate
$o&e*cene
en*.e*. %er attack be,in* wit- t-e re/re*entation of t-i* *cene by writ-in,
mo&ement* of t-e bo'y 3accom/anie' by mo&ement* of t-e $i/* an' fo$'in, of t-e arm*
to *i,nify ki**e* an' embrace*4# w-ere./on *-e -.rrie* into t-e ne=t room# *it* 'own on a
c-air# $ift* -er *kirt in or'er to *-ow -er foot# act* a* t-o.,- *-e were abo.t to rea' a
book# an' */eak* to me 3an*wer* me4. (f. t-e ob*er&ation of Artemi'or.*: @In
inter/retin, 'ream*torie* one m.*t con*i'er t-em t-e fir*t time from t-e be,innin, to t-e
en'# an' t-e *econ' time from t-e en' to t-e be,innin,.1
9 I 'o not know to'ay w-et-er I wa* 6.*tifie' in 'oin, *o.
: Accom/anyin, -y*terica$ *ym/tom*# amenorr-oea an' /rofo.n' 'e/re**ion were t-e
c-ief tro.b$e* of t-i* /atient.
D >o*e/-.*# !nti0uities of the >e"s# book ii# c-a/. &# tran*. by +m. +-i*ton# Da&i'
McFay# P-i$a'e$/-ia.
! A reference to an e=/erience of c-i$'-oo' emer,e*# in t-e com/$ete ana$y*i*# t-ro.,-
t-e fo$$owin, connectin, $ink*: @T-e Moor -a* 'one -i* '.ty# t-e Moor can ,o.1 An' t-en
fo$$ow* t-e wa,,i*- ;.e*tion: @%ow o$' i* t-e Moor w-en -e -a* 'one -i* '.tyI1 55 @A
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year# t-en -e can ,o 3wa$k4.1 3It i* *ai' t-at I came into t-e wor$' wit- *o m.c- b$ack
c.r$y -air t-at my mot-er 'ec$are' t-at I wa* a $itt$e Moor.4 T-e fact t-at I cannot fin'
my -at i* an e=/erience of t-e 'ay w-ic- -a* been e=/$oite' in &ario.* *en*e*. O.r
*er&ant# w-o i* a ,eni.* at *towin, t-in,* away# -a' -i''en t-e -at. A re6ection of
me$anc-o$y t-o.,-t* of 'eat- i* concea$e' be-in' t-e conc$.*ion of t-e 'ream: @I -a&e
not near$y 'one my '.ty yet< I cannot ,o yet.1 0irt- an' 'eat- to,et-er 55 a* in t-e 'ream
of Goet-e an' t-e /ara$ytic# w-ic- wa* a $itt$e ear$ier in 'ate.
1" T-i* t-eory i* not in accor'ance wit- more recent &iew*.
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D! REGARD FOR REPRESENTA1I,IT-
+e -a&e -it-erto been concerne' wit- in&e*ti,atin, t-e manner in w-ic- o.r 'ream*
re/re*ent t-e re$ation* between t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*# b.t we -a&e often e=ten'e' o.r
in;.iry to t-e f.rt-er ;.e*tion a* to w-at a$teration* t-e 'ream5materia$ it*e$f .n'er,oe*
for t-e /.r/o*e* of 'ream5formation. +e now know t-at t-e 'ream5materia$# after bein,
*tri//e' of a ,reat many of it* re$ation*# i* *.b6ecte' to com/re**ion# w-i$e at t-e *ame
time 'i*/$acement* of t-e inten*ity of it* e$ement* enforce a /*yc-ic tran*&a$.ation of t-i*
materia$. T-e 'i*/$acement* w-ic- we -a&e con*i'ere' were *-own to be *.b*tit.tion* of
one /artic.$ar i'ea for anot-er# in *ome way re$ate' to t-e ori,ina$ by it* a**ociation*# an'
t-e 'i*/$acement* were ma'e to faci$itate t-e con'en*ation# ina*m.c- a* in t-i* manner#
in*tea' of two e$ement*# a common mean between t-em fo.n' it* way into t-e 'ream. So
far no mention -a* been ma'e of any ot-er kin' of 'i*/$acement. 0.t we $earn from t-e
ana$y*e* t-at 'i*/$acement of anot-er kin' 'oe* occ.r# an' t-at it manife*t* it*e$f in an
echan'e of the ver%al epression for t-e t-o.,-t in ;.e*tion. In bot- ca*e* we are
'ea$in, wit- a 'i*/$acement a$on, a c-ain of a**ociation*# b.t t-e *ame /roce** take*
/$ace in 'ifferent /*yc-ic */-ere*# an' t-e re*.$t of t-i* 'i*/$acement in t-e one ca*e i*
t-at one e$ement i* re/$ace' by anot-er# w-i$e in t-e ot-er ca*e an e$ement e=c-an,e* it*
&erba$ *-a/e for anot-er.
T-i* *econ' kin' of 'i*/$acement occ.rrin, in 'ream5formation i* not on$y of ,reat
t-eoretica$ intere*t# b.t i* a$*o /ec.$iar$y we$$5fitte' to e=/$ain t-e a//earance of fanta*tic
ab*.r'ity in w-ic- 'ream* 'i*,.i*e t-em*e$&e*. Di*/$acement .*.a$$y occ.r* in *.c- a
way t-at a co$o.r$e** an' ab*tract e=/re**ion of t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t i* e=c-an,e' for one
t-at i* /ictoria$ an' concrete. T-e a'&anta,e# an' a$on, wit- it t-e /.r/o*e# of t-i*
*.b*tit.tion i* ob&io.*. +-ate&er i* /ictoria$ i* capa%le of representation in 'ream* an'
can be fitte' into a *it.ation in w-ic- ab*tract e=/re**ion wo.$' confront t-e
'reamre/re*entation
wit- 'iffic.$tie* not .n$ike t-o*e w-ic- wo.$' ari*e if a /o$itica$ $ea'in,
artic$e -a' to be re/re*ente' in an i$$.*trate' 6o.rna$. Not on$y t-e /o**ibi$ity of
re/re*entation# b.t a$*o t-e intere*t* of con'en*ation an' of t-e cen*or*-i/# may be
f.rt-ere' by t-i* e=c-an,e. Once t-e ab*tract$y e=/re**e' an' .n*er&iceab$e
'reamt-o.,-t
i* tran*$ate' into /ictoria$ $an,.a,e# t-o*e contact* an' i'entitie* between t-i*
new e=/re**ion an' t-e re*t of t-e 'ream5materia$ w-ic- are re;.ire' by t-e 'ream5work#
an' w-ic- it contri&e* w-ene&er t-ey are not a&ai$ab$e# are more rea'i$y /ro&i'e'# *ince
in e&ery $an,.a,e concrete term*# owin, to t-eir e&o$.tion# are ric-er in a**ociation* t-an
are ab*tract term*. It may be ima,ine' t-at a ,oo' /art of t-e interme'iate work in
'ream5formation# w-ic- *eek* to re'.ce t-e *e/arate 'ream5t-o.,-t* to t-e ter*e*t an'
mo*t .nifie' e=/re**ion in t-e 'ream# i* effecte' in t-i* manner# by fittin, /ara/-ra*e* of
t-e &ario.* t-o.,-t*. T-e one t-o.,-t w-o*e mo'e of e=/re**ion -a* /er-a/* been
'etermine' by ot-er factor* wi$$ t-erewit- e=ert a 'i*trib.ti&e an' *e$ecti&e inf$.ence on
t-e e=/re**ion* a&ai$ab$e for t-e ot-er*# an' it may e&en 'o t-i* from t-e &ery *tart# 6.*t
a* it wo.$' in t-e creati&e acti&ity of a /oet. +-en a /oem i* to be written in r-yme'
co./$et*# t-e *econ' r-ymin, $ine i* bo.n' by two con'ition*: it m.*t e=/re** t-e
meanin, a$$otte' to it# an' it* e=/re**ion m.*t /ermit of a r-yme wit- t-e fir*t $ine. T-e
be*t /oem* are# of co.r*e# t-o*e in w-ic- one 'oe* not 'etect t-e effort to fin' a r-yme#
INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS
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an' in w-ic- bot- t-o.,-t* -a&e a* a matter of co.r*e# by m.t.a$ in'.ction# *e$ecte' t-e
&erba$ e=/re**ion w-ic-# wit- a $itt$e *.b*e;.ent a'6.*tment# wi$$ /ermit of t-e r-yme.
In *ome ca*e* t-e c-an,e of e=/re**ion *er&e* t-e /.r/o*e* of 'ream5con'en*ation more
'irect$y# in t-at it /ro&i'e* an arran,ement of wor'* w-ic-# bein, ambi,.o.*# /ermit* of
t-e e=/re**ion of more t-an one of t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*. T-e w-o$e ran,e of &erba$ wit i*
t-.* ma'e to *er&e t-e /.r/o*e of t-e 'ream5work. T-e /art /$aye' by wor'* in
'reamformation
o.,-t not to *.r/ri*e .*. A wor'# a* t-e /oint of 6.nction of a n.mber of i'ea*#
/o**e**e*# a* it were# a /re'e*tine' ambi,.ity# an' t-e ne.ro*e* 3ob*e**ion*# /-obia*4
take a'&anta,e of t-e o//ort.nitie* for con'en*ation an' 'i*,.i*e affor'e' by wor'*
;.ite a* ea,er$y a* 'o 'ream*.1 T-at 'ream5'i*tortion a$*o /rofit* by t-i* 'i*/$acement of
e=/re**ion may be rea'i$y 'emon*trate'. It i* in'ee' conf.*in, if one ambi,.o.* wor' i*
*.b*tit.te' for two wit- *in,$e meanin,*# an' t-e re/$acement of *ober# e&ery'ay
$an,.a,e by a /$a*tic mo'e of e=/re**ion baff$e* o.r .n'er*tan'in,# e*/ecia$$y *ince a
'ream ne&er te$$* .* w-et-er t-e e$ement* /re*ente' by it are to be inter/rete' $itera$$y or
meta/-orica$$y# w-et-er t-ey refer to t-e 'ream5materia$ 'irect$y# or on$y by mean* of
inter/o$ate' e=/re**ion*. Genera$$y */eakin,# in t-e inter/retation of any e$ement of a
'ream it i* 'o.btf.$ w-et-er it
3a4 i* to be acce/te' in t-e ne,ati&e or t-e /o*iti&e *en*e 3contra*t
re$ation4<
3b4 i* to be inter/rete' -i*torica$$y 3a* a memory4<
3c4 i* *ymbo$ic< or w-et-er
3'4 it* &a$.ation i* to be ba*e' ./on it* wor'in,.
In */ite of t-i* &er*ati$ity# we may *ay t-at t-e re/re*entation effecte' by t-e 'ream5work#
"hich "as never even intended to %e understood# 'oe* not im/o*e ./on t-e tran*$ator any
,reater 'iffic.$tie* t-an t-o*e t-at t-e ancient writer* of -iero,$y/-ic* im/o*e' ./on t-eir
rea'er*.
I -a&e a$rea'y ,i&en *e&era$ e=am/$e* of 'ream5re/re*entation* w-ic- are -e$' to,et-er
on$y by ambi,.ity of e=/re**ion 3@-er mo.t- o/en* wit-o.t 'iffic.$ty1# in t-e 'ream of
Irma1* in6ection< @I cannot ,o yet after a$$1# in t-e $a*t 'ream re$ate'# etc.4. I *-a$$ now cite
a 'ream in t-e ana$y*i* of w-ic- /$a*tic re/re*entation of t-e ab*tract t-o.,-t* /$ay* a
,reater /art. T-e 'ifference between *.c- 'ream5inter/retation an' t-e inter/retation by
mean* of *ymbo$* may ne&ert-e$e** be c$ear$y 'efine'< in t-e *ymbo$ic inter/retation of
'ream* t-e key to t-e *ymbo$i*m i* *e$ecte' arbitrari$y by t-e inter/reter# w-i$e in o.r
own ca*e* of &erba$ 'i*,.i*e t-e*e key* are .ni&er*a$$y known an' are taken from
e*tab$i*-e' mo'e* of */eec-. Pro&i'e' one -it* on t-e ri,-t i'ea on t-e ri,-t occa*ion#
one may *o$&e 'ream* of t-i* kin'# eit-er com/$ete$y or in /art# in'e/en'ent$y of any
*tatement* ma'e by t-e 'reamer.
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A $a'y# a frien' of mine# 'ream*: 3he is at the opera5 It is a ;a'nerian performance,
"hich has lasted until M5#5 in the mornin'5 In the stalls and pit there are ta%les, at "hich
people are eatin' and drin(in'5 Ber cousin and his $oun' "ife, "ho have /ust returned
from their hone$moon, are sittin' at one of these ta%les6 %eside them is a mem%er of the
aristocrac$5 The $oun' "ife is said to have %rou'ht him %ac( "ith her from the
hone$moon 0uite openl$, /ust as she mi'ht have %rou'ht %ac( a hat5 In the middle of the
stalls there is a hi'h to"er, on the top of "hich there is a platform surrounded %$ an iron
railin'5 There, hi'h overhead, stands the conductor, "ith the features of Bans Gichter,
continuall$ runnin' round %ehind the railin', perspirin' terri%l$6 and from this position
he is conductin' the orchestra, "hich is arran'ed round the %ase of the to"er5 3he
herself is sittin' in a %o "ith a friend of her o"n se 3known to me4. Ber $oun'er sister
tries to hand her up, from the stalls, a lar'e lump of coal, alle'in' that she had not
(no"n that it "ould %e so lon', and that she must %$ this time %e misera%l$ cold5 9!s
thou'h the %oes ou'ht to have %een heated durin' the lon' performance.4
A$t-o.,- in ot-er re*/ect* t-e 'ream ,i&e* a ,oo' /ict.re of t-e *it.ation# it i*# of co.r*e#
non*en*ica$ eno.,-: t-e tower in t-e mi''$e of t-e *ta$$*# from w-ic- t-e con'.ctor $ea'*
t-e orc-e*tra# an' abo&e a$$ t-e coa$ w-ic- -er *i*ter -an'* ./ to -er. I /.r/o*e$y a*ke'
for no ana$y*i* of t-i* 'ream. +it- *ome know$e',e of t-e /er*ona$ re$ation* of t-e
'reamer# I wa* ab$e to inter/ret /art* of it in'e/en'ent$y of -er. I knew t-at *-e -a' fe$t
inten*e *ym/at-y for a m.*ician w-o*e career -a' been /remat.re$y bro.,-t to an en' by
in*anity. I t-erefore 'eci'e' to take t-e tower in t-e *ta$$* ver%all$. It t-en emer,e' t-at
t-e man w-om *-e wi*-e' to *ee in t-e /$ace of %an* Ric-ter to"ered abo&e a$$ t-e ot-er
member* of t-e orc-e*tra. T-i* tower m.*t be 'e*cribe' a* a composite formation %$
means of apposition< by it* *.b*tr.ct.re it re/re*ent* t-e ,reatne** of t-e man# b.t by t-e
rai$in, at t-e to/# be-in' w-ic- -e r.n* ro.n' $ike a /ri*oner or an anima$ in a ca,e 3an
a$$.*ion to t-e name of t-e .nfort.nate man4# it re/re*ent* -i* $ater fate. @?.natic5tower1
i* /er-a/* t-e e=/re**ion in w-ic- t-e two t-o.,-t* mi,-t -a&e met.
Now t-at we -a&e 'i*co&ere' t-e 'ream1* met-o' of re/re*entation# we may try# wit- t-e
*ame key# to .n$ock t-e meanin, of t-e *econ' a//arent ab*.r'ity# t-at of t-e coa$ w-ic-
-er *i*ter -an'* ./ to t-e 'reamer. @(oa$1 *-o.$' mean @*ecret $o&e1.
No fire# no coa$ *o -ot$y ,$ow*
A* t-e *ecret $o&e of w-ic- no one know*.
S-e an' -er frien' remain seated2 w-i$e -er yo.n,er *i*ter# w-o *ti$$ -a* a /ro*/ect of
marryin,# -an'* -er ./ t-e coa$ @beca.*e *-e 'i' not know that it "ould %e so lon'.1
+-at wo.$' be *o $on, i* not to$' in t-e 'ream. If it were an anec'ote# we *-o.$' *ay @t-e
/erformance1< b.t in t-e 'ream we may con*i'er t-e *entence a* it i*# 'ec$are it to be
ambi,.o.*# an' a'' @before *-e marrie'1. T-e inter/retation @*ecret $o&e1 i* t-en
confirme' by t-e mention of t-e co.*in w-o i* *ittin, wit- -i* wife in t-e *ta$$*# an' by
t-e open love4affair attrib.te' to t-e $atter. T-e contra*t* between *ecret an' o/en $o&e#
between t-e 'reamer1* fire an' t-e co$'ne** of t-e yo.n, wife# 'ominate t-e 'ream.
Moreo&er# -ere once a,ain t-ere i* a /er*on @in a hi'h position1 a* a mi''$e term between
t-e ari*tocrat an' t-e m.*ician w-o i* 6.*tifie' in rai*in, -i,- -o/e*.
INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS
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In t-e abo&e ana$y*i* we -a&e at $a*t bro.,-t to $i,-t a t-ir' factor# w-o*e /art in t-e
tran*formation of t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* into t-e 'ream5content i* by no mean* tri&ia$:
name$y# con*i'eration of t-e suita%ilit$ of the dream4thou'hts for representation in the
particular ps$chic material of "hich the dream ma(es use 55 t-at i*# for t-e mo*t /art in
&i*.a$ ima,e*. Amon, t-e &ario.* *.bor'inate i'ea* a**ociate' wit- t-e e**entia$
'reamt-o.,-t*#
t-o*e wi$$ be /referre' w-ic- /ermit of &i*.a$ re/re*entation# an' t-e 'reamwork
'oe* not -e*itate to reca*t t-e intractab$e t-o.,-t* into anot-er &erba$ form# e&en
t-o.,- t-i* i* a more .n.*.a$ form# /ro&i'e' it make* re/re*entation /o**ib$e# an' t-.*
/.t* an en' to t-e /*yc-o$o,ica$ 'i*tre** ca.*e' by *tran,.$ate' t-inkin,. T-i* /o.rin, of
t-e t-o.,-t5content into anot-er mo.$' may at t-e *ame time *er&e t-e work of
con'en*ation# an' may e*tab$i*- re$ation* wit- anot-er t-o.,-t w-ic- ot-erwi*e wo.$'
not -a&e been e*tab$i*-e'. It i* e&en /o**ib$e t-at t-i* *econ' t-o.,-t may it*e$f -a&e
/re&io.*$y c-an,e' it* ori,ina$ e=/re**ion for t-e /.r/o*e of meetin, t-e fir*t one
-a$fway.
%erbert Si$berer7 -a* 'e*cribe' a ,oo' met-o' of 'irect$y ob*er&in, t-e tran*formation of
t-o.,-t* into ima,e* w-ic- occ.r* in 'ream5formation# an' -a* t-.* ma'e it /o**ib$e to
*t.'y in i*o$ation t-i* one factor of t-e 'ream5work. If w-i$e in a *tate of fati,.e an'
*omno$ence -e im/o*e' ./on -im*e$f a menta$ effort# it fre;.ent$y -a//ene' t-at t-e
t-o.,-t e*ca/e' -im# an' in it* /$ace t-ere a//eare' a /ict.re in w-ic- -e co.$'
reco,ni*e t-e *.b*tit.te for t-e t-o.,-t. Not ;.ite a//ro/riate$y# Si$berer 'e*cribe' t-i*
*.b*tit.tion a* @a.to5*ymbo$ic1. I *-a$$ cite -ere a few e=am/$e* from Si$berer1* work# an'
on acco.nt of certain /ec.$iaritie* of t-e /-enomena ob*er&e' I *-a$$ refer to t-e *.b6ect
$ater on.
&ample 1. 55 I remember t-at I -a&e to correct a -a$tin, /a**a,e in an
e**ay.
3$m%ol. 55 I *ee my*e$f /$anin, a /iece of woo'.
&ample 8. 55 I en'ea&o.r to ca$$ to min' t-e aim of certain meta/-y*ica$
*t.'ie* w-ic- I am /ro/o*in, to .n'ertake.
T-i* aim# I ref$ect# con*i*t* in workin, one1* way t-ro.,-# w-i$e *eekin,
for t-e ba*i* of e=i*tence# to e&er -i,-er form* of con*cio.*ne** or $e&e$*
of bein,.
3$m%ol. 55 I r.n a $on, knife .n'er a cake a* t-o.,- to take a *$ice o.t of
it.
Interpretation. 55 My mo&ement wit- t-e knife *i,nifie* @workin, one1*
way t-ro.,-1. . . . T-e e=/$anation of t-e ba*i* of t-e *ymbo$i*m i* a*
fo$$ow*: At tab$e it 'e&o$&e* ./on me now an' a,ain to c.t an' 'i*trib.te
a cake# a b.*ine** w-ic- I /erform wit- a $on,# f$e=ib$e knife# an' w-ic-
nece**itate* a certain amo.nt of care. In /artic.$ar# t-e neat e=traction of
t-e c.t *$ice* of cake /re*ent* a certain amo.nt of 'iffic.$ty< t-e knife
INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS
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m.*t be caref.$$y /.*-e' under t-e *$ice* in ;.e*tion 3t-e *$ow @workin,
one1* way t-ro.,-1 in or'er to ,et to t-e bottom4. 0.t t-ere i* yet more
*ymbo$i*m in t-e /ict.re. T-e cake of t-e *ymbo$ wa* rea$$y a @'obo*cake1
55 t-at i*# a cake in w-ic- t-e knife -a* to c.t t-ro.,- *e&era$ la$ers
3t-e $e&e$* of con*cio.*ne** an' t-o.,-t4.
&ample !. 55 I $o*t t-e t-rea' in a train of t-o.,-t. I make an effort to
fin' it a,ain# b.t I -a&e to reco,ni*e t-at t-e /oint of 'e/art.re -a*
com/$ete$y e*ca/e' me.
3$m%ol. 55 Part of a form of ty/e# t-e $a*t $ine* of w-ic- -a&e fa$$en o.t.1
In &iew of t-e /art /$aye' by wittici*m*# /.n*# ;.otation*# *on,*# an' /ro&erb* in t-e
inte$$ect.a$ $ife of e'.cate' /er*on*# it wo.$' be entire$y in accor'ance wit- o.r
e=/ectation* to fin' 'i*,.i*e* of t-i* *ort .*e' wit- e=treme fre;.ency in t-e
re/re*entation of t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*. On$y in t-e ca*e of a few ty/e* of materia$ -a* a
,enera$$y &a$i' 'ream5*ymbo$i*m e*tab$i*-e' it*e$f on t-e ba*i* of ,enera$$y known
a$$.*ion* an' &erba$ e;.i&a$ent*. A ,oo' /art of t-i* *ymbo$i*m# -owe&er# i* common to
t-e /*yc-one.ro*e*# $e,en'*# an' /o/.$ar .*a,e* a* we$$ a* to 'ream*.
In fact# if we $ook more c$o*e$y into t-e matter# we m.*t reco,ni*e t-at in em/$oyin, t-i*
kin' of *.b*tit.tion t-e 'ream5work i* 'oin, not-in, at a$$ ori,ina$. For t-e ac-ie&ement
of it* /.r/o*e# w-ic- in t-i* ca*e i* re/re*entation wit-o.t interference from t-e
cen*or*-i/# it *im/$y fo$$ow* t-e /at-* w-ic- it fin'* a$rea'y marke' o.t in .ncon*cio.*
t-inkin,# an' ,i&e* t-e /reference to t-o*e tran*formation* of t-e re/re**e' materia$
w-ic- are /ermitte' to become con*cio.* a$*o in t-e form of wittici*m* an' a$$.*ion*#
an' wit- w-ic- a$$ t-e fanta*ie* of ne.rotic* are re/$ete. %ere we *.''en$y be,in to
.n'er*tan' t-e 'ream5inter/retation* of Sc-erner# w-o*e e**entia$ correctne** I -a&e
&in'icate' e$*ew-ere. T-e /reocc./ation of t-e ima,ination wit- one1* own bo'y i* by no
mean* /ec.$iar to or c-aracteri*tic of t-e 'ream a$one. My ana$y*e* -a&e *-own me t-at it
i* con*tant$y fo.n' in t-e .ncon*cio.* t-inkin, of ne.rotic*# an' may be trace' back to
*e=.a$ c.rio*ity# w-o*e ob6ect# in t-e a'o$e*cent yo.t- or mai'en# i* t-e ,enita$* of t-e
o//o*ite *e=# or e&en of t-e *ame *e=. 0.t# a* Sc-erner an' Ko$ke$t &ery tr.$y in*i*t# t-e
-o.*e 'oe* not con*tit.te t-e on$y ,ro./ of i'ea* w-ic- i* em/$oye' for t-e
*ymbo$i*ation of t-e bo'y# eit-er in 'ream* or in t-e .ncon*cio.* fanta*ie* of ne.ro*i*.
To be *.re# I know /atient* w-o -a&e *tea'i$y a'-ere' to an arc-itect.ra$ *ymbo$i*m for
t-e bo'y an' t-e ,enita$* 3*e=.a$ intere*t# of co.r*e# e=ten'* far beyon' t-e re,ion of t-e
e=terna$ ,enita$ or,an*4 55 /atient* for w-om /o*t* an' /i$$ar* *i,nify $e,* 3a* in t-e 3on'
of 3on's4# to w-om e&ery 'oor *.,,e*t* a bo'i$y a/ert.re 3@-o$e14# an' e&ery water5/i/e
t-e .rinary *y*tem# an' *o on. 0.t t-e ,ro./* of i'ea* a//ertainin, to /$ant5$ife# or to t-e
kitc-en# are 6.*t a* often c-o*en to concea$ *e=.a$ ima,e*<8 in re*/ect of t-e former
e&ery'ay $an,.a,e# t-e *e'iment of ima,inati&e com/ari*on* 'atin, from t-e remote*t
time*# -a* ab.n'ant$y /a&e' t-e way 3t-e @&ineyar'1 of t-e ?or'# t-e @*ee'1 of Abra-am#
t-e @,ar'en1 of t-e mai'en in t-e 3on' of 3on's4. T-e .,$ie*t a* we$$ a* t-e mo*t intimate
'etai$* of *e=.a$ $ife may be t-o.,-t or 'reame' of in a//arent$y innocent a$$.*ion* to
c.$inary o/eration*# an' t-e *ym/tom* of -y*teria wi$$ become ab*o$.te$y .ninte$$i,ib$e if
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we for,et t-at *e=.a$ *ymbo$i*m may concea$ it*e$f be-in' t-e mo*t common/$ace an'
incon*/ic.o.* matter* a* it* *afe*t -i'in,5/$ace. T-at *ome ne.rotic c-i$'ren cannot $ook
at b$oo' an' raw meat# t-at t-ey &omit at t-e *i,-t of e,,* an' macaroni# an' t-at t-e
'rea' of *nake*# w-ic- i* nat.ra$ to mankin'# i* mon*tro.*$y e=a,,erate' in ne.rotic* 55
a$$ t-i* -a* a 'efinite *e=.a$ meanin,. +-ere&er t-e ne.ro*i* em/$oy* a 'i*,.i*e of t-i*
*ort# it trea'* t-e /at-* once tro''en by t-e w-o$e of -.manity in t-e ear$y *ta,e* of
ci&i$i*ation 55 /at-* to w-o*e t-in$y &ei$e' e=i*tence o.r i'iomatic e=/re**ion*# /ro&erb*#
*./er*tition*# an' c.*tom* te*tify to t-i* 'ay.
I -ere in*ert t-e /romi*e' @f$ower5'ream1 of a fema$e /atient# in w-ic- I *-a$$ /rint in
Roman ty/e e&eryt-in, w-ic- i* to be *e=.a$$y inter/rete'. T-i* bea.tif.$ 'ream $o*t a$$
it* c-arm for t-e 'reamer once it -a' been inter/rete'.
3a4 Pre$iminary 'ream: 3he 'oes to the t"o maids in the (itchen and scolds them for
ta(in' so lon' to prepare )a little %ite of food+5 3he also sees a ver$ lar'e num%er of
heav$ (itchen utensils in the (itchen, heaped into piles and turned upside do"n in order
to drain. ?ater a''ition: The t"o maids 'o to fetch "ater, and have, as it "ere, to clim%
into a river "hich reaches up to the house or into the court$ard.9
3b4 Main 'ream:: 3he is descendin' from a hei'htD over curiousl$ constructed railin's, or
a fence "hich is composed of lar'e s0uare trellis"or( hurdles "ith small s0uare
apertures.! It is reall$ not adapted for clim%in'6 she is constantl$ afraid that she cannot
find a place for her foot, and she is 'lad that her dress doesn+t 'et cau'ht an$"here, and
that she is a%le to clim% do"n it so respecta%l$.1" !s she clim%s she is carr$in' a bi,
branc- in her hand#11 reall$ li(e a tree, "hich is thic(l$ studded "ith re' f$ower*< a
spreadin' %ranch, "ith man$ t"i's.1 ;ith this is connected the idea of cherr$4%lossoms
30$Bten M f$ower*4# %ut the$ loo( li(e full$ opened came$$ia*# "hich of course do not 'ro"
on trees5 !s she is descendin', she first has one, then suddenl$ t"o, and then a'ain onl$
one.12 ;hen she has reached the 'round the lo"er flo"ers have alread$ %e'un to fall5
7o" that she has reached the %ottom she sees an )odd man+ "ho is com%in' 55 as she
"ould li(e to put it 55 /ust such a tree, that is, "ith a piece of "ood he is scrapin' t-ick
b.nc-e* of -air from it, "hich han' from it li(e moss5 8ther men have chopped off such
%ranches in a 'arden, and have flun' them into the road, "here the$ are l$in' a%out, so
that a num%er of people ta(e some of them5 <ut she as(s "hether this is ri'ht, "hether
she ma$ ta(e one, too.17 In the 'arden there stands a $oun' man 9he is a forei'ner, and
(no"n to her: to"ard "hom she 'oes in order to as( him ho" it is possi%le to transplant
such branc-e* in -er own ,ar'en.18 Be em%races her, "hereupon she stru''les and as(s
him "hat he is thin(in' of, "hether it is permissi%le to em%race her in such a manner5 Be
sa$s there is nothin' "ron' in it, that it is permitted.19 Be then declares himself "illin' to
'o "ith her into the ot-er ,ar'en# in order to sho" her ho" to put them in, and he sa$s
somethin' to her "hich she does not 0uite understand: )<esides this I need three metres
9later she sa$s: s0uare metres: or three fathoms of 'round5+ It seems as thou'h he "ere
as(in' her for somethin' in return for his "illin'ness, as thou'h he had the intention of
in'emnifyin, 3reimb.r*in,4 -im*e$f in -er ,ar'en# as thou'h he "anted to evade some
la" or other, to derive some advanta'e from it "ithout causin' her an in/ur$5 3he does
not (no" "hether or not he reall$ sho"s her an$thin'.
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T-e abo&e 'ream# w-ic- -a* been ,i&en /rominence on acco.nt of it* *ymbo$ic e$ement*#
may be 'e*cribe' a* a @bio,ra/-ica$1 'ream. S.c- 'ream* occ.r fre;.ent$y in
/*yc-oana$y*i*# b.t /er-a/* on$y rare$y o.t*i'e it.1:
I -a&e# of co.r*e# an ab.n'ance of *.c- materia$# b.t to re/ro'.ce it -ere wo.$' $ea' .*
too far into t-e con*i'eration of ne.rotic con'ition*. E&eryt-in, /oint* to t-e *ame
conc$.*ion# name$y# t-at we nee' not a**.me t-at any */ecia$ *ymbo$i*in, acti&ity of t-e
/*yc-e i* o/erati&e in 'ream5formation< t-at# on t-e contrary# t-e 'ream make* .*e of
*.c- *ymbo$i*ation* a* are to be fo.n' rea'y5ma'e in .ncon*cio.* t-inkin,# *ince t-e*e#
by rea*on of t-eir ea*e of re/re*entation# an' for t-e mo*t /art by rea*on of t-eir bein,
e=em/t from t-e cen*or*-i/# *ati*fy more effecti&e$y t-e re;.irement* of
'reamformation.
1 cf. ;it and its Gelation to the *nconscious.
%.,o +o$f.
2 JT-e German sit?en 'e%lie%en i* often a//$ie' to women w-o -a&e not *.ccee'e' in
,ettin, marrie'. 55 TRANS.L
7 0$e.$er5Fre.' >ahr%uch# i# 1!"!.
8 A ma** of corroborati&e materia$ may be fo.n' in t-e t-ree *.//$ementary &o$.me* of
E'war' F.c-*1* Illustrierte 3itten'eschichte< /ri&ate$y /rinte' by A. ?an,e# M.nic-.
9 For t-e inter/retation of t-i* /re$iminary 'ream# w-ic- i* to be re,ar'e' a* @ca.*a$1# *ee
/. 1!!.
: %er career.
D E=a$te' ori,in# t-e wi*-5contra*t to t-e /re$iminary 'ream.
! A com/o*ite formation# w-ic- .nite* two $oca$itie*# t-e *o5ca$$e' ,arret 3German: <oden
M f$oor# ,arret4 of -er fat-er1* -o.*e# in w-ic- *-e .*e' to /$ay wit- -er brot-er# t-e
ob6ect of -er $ater fanta*ie*# an' t-e farm of a ma$icio.* .nc$e# w-o .*e' to tea*e -er.
1" +i*-5contra*t to an act.a$ memory of -er .nc$e1* farm# to t-e effect t-at *-e .*e' to
e=/o*e -er*e$f w-i$e *-e wa* a*$ee/.
11 >.*t a* t-e an,e$ bear* a $i$y5*tem in t-e Ann.nciation.
1 For t-e e=/$anation of t-i* com/o*ite formation# *ee //. "5"2< innocence#
men*tr.ation# La Dame au Cam,lias.
12 Referrin, to t-e /$.ra$ity of t-e /er*on* w-o *er&e -er fanta*ie*.
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199
17 +-et-er it i* /ermi**ib$e to ma*t.rbate. J@3ich einen herunterreissen1 mean* @to /.$$ off1
an' co$$o;.ia$$y @to ma*t.rbate1. 55 TRANS.L
18 T-e branc- 3!st4 -a* $on, been .*e' to re/re*ent t-e ma$e or,an# an'# moreo&er#
contain* a &ery 'i*tinct a$$.*ion to t-e fami$y name of t-e 'reamer
19 Refer* to matrimonia$ /reca.tion*# a* 'oe* t-at w-ic- imme'iate$y fo$$ow*.
1: An ana$o,o.* @bio,ra/-ica$1 'ream i* recor'e' on /. 7# amon, t-e e=am/$e* of 'ream
*ymbo$i*m.
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19:
E! REPRESENTATION IN DREAMS 1- S-M1O,S: SOME F.RTHER
T-PI+A, DREAMS
T-e ana$y*i* of t-e $a*t bio,ra/-ica$ 'ream *-ow* t-at I reco,ni*e' t-e *ymbo$i*m in
'ream* from t-e &ery o.t*et. 0.t it wa* on$y $itt$e by $itt$e t-at I arri&e' at a f.$$
a//reciation of it* e=tent an' *i,nificance# a* t-e re*.$t of increa*in, e=/erience# an'
.n'er t-e inf$.ence of t-e work* of +. Steke$# concernin, w-ic- I may -ere fittin,$y *ay
*omet-in,.
T-i* a.t-or# w-o -a* /er-a/* in6.re' /*yc-oana$y*i* a* m.c- a* -e -a* benefite' it#
/ro'.ce' a $ar,e n.mber of no&e$ *ymbo$ic tran*$ation*# to w-ic- no cre'ence wa* ,i&en
at fir*t# b.t mo*t of w-ic- were $ater confirme' an' -a' to be acce/te'. Steke$1* *er&ice*
are in no way be$itt$e' by t-e remark t-at t-e *ce/tica$ re*er&e wit- w-ic- t-e*e *ymbo$*
were recei&e' wa* not .n6.*tifie'. For t-e e=am/$e* ./on w-ic- -e ba*e' -i*
inter/retation* were often .ncon&incin,# an'# moreo&er# -e em/$oye' a met-o' w-ic-
m.*t be re6ecte' a* *cientifica$$y .nre$iab$e. Steke$ fo.n' -i* *ymbo$ic meanin,* by way
of int.ition# by &irt.e of -i* in'i&i'.a$ fac.$ty of imme'iate$y .n'er*tan'in, t-e *ymbo$*.
0.t *.c- an art cannot be ,enera$$y a**.me'< it* efficiency i* imm.ne from critici*m# an'
it* re*.$t* -a&e t-erefore no c$aim to cre'ibi$ity. It i* a* t-o.,- one were to ba*e one1*
'ia,no*i* of infectio.* 'i*ea*e* on t-e o$factory im/re**ion* recei&e' be*i'e t-e *ick5be'#
a$t-o.,- of co.r*e t-ere -a&e been c$inician* to w-om t-e *en*e of *me$$ 55 atro/-ie' in
mo*t /eo/$e 55 -a* been of ,reater *er&ice t-an to ot-er*# an' w-o rea$$y -a&e been ab$e
to 'ia,no*e a ca*e of ab'omina$ ty/-.* by t-eir *en*e of *me$$.
T-e /ro,re**i&e e=/erience of /*yc-oana$y*i* -a* enab$e' .* to 'i*co&er /atient* w-o
-a&e 'i*/$aye' in a *.r/ri*in, 'e,ree t-i* imme'iate .n'er*tan'in, of 'ream5*ymbo$i*m.
Many of t-e*e /atient* *.ffere' from 'ementia /raeco=# *o t-at for a time t-ere wa* an
inc$ination to *.*/ect t-at a$$ 'reamer* wit- *.c- an .n'er*tan'in, of *ymbo$* were
*.fferin, from t-at 'i*or'er. 0.t t-i* 'i' not /ro&e to be t-e ca*e< it i* *im/$y a ;.e*tion
of a /er*ona$ ,ift or i'io*yncra*y wit-o.t /erce/tib$e /at-o$o,ica$ *i,nificance.
+-en one -a* fami$iari*e' one*e$f wit- t-e e=ten*i&e em/$oyment of *ymbo$i*m for t-e
re/re*entation of *e=.a$ materia$ in 'ream*# one nat.ra$$y a*k* one*e$f w-et-er many of
t-e*e *ymbo$* -a&e not a /ermanent$y e*tab$i*-e' meanin,# $ike t-e *i,n* in *-ort-an'<
an' one e&en t-ink* of attem/tin, to com/i$e a new 'ream5book on t-e $ine* of t-e ci/-er
met-o'. In t-i* connection it *-o.$' be note' t-at *ymbo$i*m 'oe* not a//ertain
e*/ecia$$y to 'ream*# b.t rat-er to t-e .ncon*cio.* ima,ination# an' /artic.$ar$y to t-at of
t-e /eo/$e# an' it i* to be fo.n' in a more 'e&e$o/e' con'ition in fo$k$ore# myt-*#
$e,en'*# i'iomatic /-ra*e*# /ro&erb*# an' t-e c.rrent wittici*m* of a /eo/$e t-an in
'ream*. +e *-o.$' -a&e# t-erefore# to ,o far beyon' t-e /ro&ince of 'ream5inter/retation
in or'er f.$$y to in&e*ti,ate t-e meanin, of *ymbo$i*m# an' to 'i*c.** t-e n.mero.*
/rob$em* 55 for t-e mo*t /art *ti$$ .n*o$&e' 55 w-ic- are a**ociate' wit- t-e conce/t of t-e
*ymbo$.1 +e *-a$$ -ere confine o.r*e$&e* to *ay t-at re/re*entation by a *ymbo$ come*
.n'er t-e -ea'in, of t-e in'irect re/re*entation*# b.t t-at we are warne' by a$$ *ort* of
*i,n* a,ain*t in'i*criminate$y c$a**in, *ymbo$ic re/re*entation wit- t-e ot-er mo'e* of
in'irect re/re*entation before we -a&e c$ear$y concei&e' it* 'i*tin,.i*-in, c-aracteri*tic*.
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19D
In a n.mber of ca*e* t-e common ;.a$ity *-are' by t-e *ymbo$ an' t-e t-in, w-ic- it
re/re*ent* i* ob&io.*# in ot-er* it i* concea$e'< in t-e*e $atter ca*e* t-e c-oice of t-e
*ymbo$ a//ear* to be eni,matic. An' t-e*e are t-e &ery ca*e* t-at m.*t be ab$e to
e$.ci'ate t-e .$timate meanin, of t-e *ymbo$ic re$ation< t-ey /oint to t-e fact t-at it i* of
a ,enetic nat.re. +-at i* to'ay *ymbo$ica$$y connecte' wa* /robab$y .nite'# in /rimiti&e
time*# by conce/t.a$ an' $in,.i*tic i'entity. T-e *ymbo$ic re$ation*-i/ *eem* to be a
re*i'.e an' remin'er of a former i'entity. It may a$*o be note' t-at in many ca*e* t-e
*ymbo$ic i'entity e=ten'* beyon' t-e $in,.i*tic i'entity# a* -a' a$rea'y been a**erte' by
Sc-.bert 31D174.2
Dream* em/$oy t-i* *ymbo$i*m to ,i&e a 'i*,.i*e' re/re*entation to t-eir $atent t-o.,-t*.
Amon, t-e *ymbo$* t-.* em/$oye' t-ere are# of co.r*e# many w-ic- con*tant$y# or a$$ b.t
con*tant$y# mean t-e *ame t-in,. 0.t we m.*t bear in min' t-e c.rio.* /$a*ticity of
/*yc-ic materia$. Often eno.,- a *ymbo$ in t-e 'ream5content may -a&e to be inter/rete'
not *ymbo$ica$$y b.t in accor'ance wit- it* /ro/er meanin,< at ot-er time* t-e 'reamer#
-a&in, to 'ea$ wit- */ecia$ memory5materia$# may take t-e $aw into -i* own -an'* an'
em/$oy anyt-in, w-ate&er a* a *e=.a$ *ymbo$# t-o.,- it i* not ,enera$$y *o em/$oye'.
+-ere&er -e -a* t-e c-oice of *e&era$ *ymbo$* for t-e re/re*entation of a 'ream5content#
-e wi$$ 'eci'e in fa&o.r of t-at *ymbo$ w-ic- i* in a''ition ob6ecti&e$y re$ate' to -i*
ot-er t-o.,-t5materia$< t-at i* to *ay# -e wi$$ em/$oy an in'i&i'.a$ moti&ation be*i'e* t-e
ty/ica$$y &a$i' one.
A$t-o.,- *ince Sc-erner1* time t-e more recent in&e*ti,ation* of 'ream5/rob$em* -a&e
'efinite$y e*tab$i*-e' t-e e=i*tence of 'ream5*ymbo$i*m 55 e&en %a&e$ock E$$i*
acknow$e',e* t-at o.r 'ream* are in'.bitab$y f.$$ of *ymbo$* 55 it m.*t yet be a'mitte'
t-at t-e e=i*tence of *ymbo$* in 'ream* -a* not on$y faci$itate' 'ream5inter/retation# b.t
-a* a$*o ma'e it more 'iffic.$t. T-e tec-ni;.e of inter/retation in accor'ance wit- t-e
'reamer1* free a**ociation* more often t-an ot-erwi*e $ea&e* .* in t-e $.rc- a* far a* t-e
*ymbo$ic e$ement* of t-e 'ream5content are concerne'. A ret.rn to t-e arbitrarine** of
'ream5inter/retation a* it wa* /racti*e' in anti;.ity# an' i* *eemin,$y re&i&e' by Steke$1*
wi$' inter/retation*# i* contrary to *cientific met-o'. (on*e;.ent$y# t-o*e e$ement* in t-e
'ream5content w-ic- are to be *ymbo$ica$$y re,ar'e' com/e$ .* to em/$oy a combine'
tec-ni;.e# w-ic- on t-e one -an' i* ba*e' on t-e 'reamer1* a**ociation*# w-i$e on t-e
ot-er -an' t-e mi**in, /ortion* -a&e to be *.//$ie' by t-e inter/reter1* .n'er*tan'in, of
t-e *ymbo$*. (ritica$ circ.m*/ection in t-e *o$.tion of t-e *ymbo$* m.*t coinci'e wit-
caref.$ *t.'y of t-e *ymbo$* in e*/ecia$$y tran*/arent e=am/$e* of 'ream* in or'er to
*i$ence t-e re/roac- of arbitrarine** in 'ream5inter/retation. T-e .ncertaintie* w-ic- *ti$$
a'-ere to o.r f.nction a* 'ream5inter/reter* are '.e /art$y to o.r im/erfect know$e',e
3w-ic-# -owe&er# can be /ro,re**i&e$y increa*e'4 an' /art$y to certain /ec.$iaritie* of t-e
'ream5*ymbo$* t-em*e$&e*. T-e*e often /o**e** many an' &arie' meanin,*# *o t-at# a* in
(-ine*e *cri/t# on$y t-e conte=t can f.rni*- t-e correct meanin,. T-i* m.$ti/$e
*i,nificance of t-e *ymbo$ i* a$$ie' to t-e 'ream1* fac.$ty of a'mittin,
o&erinter/retation*#
of re/re*entin,# in t-e *ame content# &ario.* wi*-5im/.$*e* an' t-o.,-tformation*#
often of a wi'e$y 'i&er,ent c-aracter.
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19!
After t-e*e $imitation* an' re*er&ation* I wi$$ /rocee'. T-e Em/eror an' t-e Em/re**
3Fin, an' Q.een47 in mo*t ca*e* rea$$y re/re*ent t-e 'reamer1* /arent*< t-e 'reamer
-im*e$f or -er*e$f i* t-e /rince or /rince**. 0.t t-e -i,- a.t-ority conce'e' to t-e
Em/eror i* a$*o conce'e' to ,reat men# *o t-at in *ome 'ream*# for e=am/$e# Goet-e
a//ear* a* a fat-er5*ymbo$ 3%it*c-mann4. 55 A$$ e$on,ate' ob6ect*# *tick*# tree5tr.nk*#
.mbre$$a* 3on acco.nt of t-e o/enin,# w-ic- mi,-t be $ikene' to an erection4# a$$ *-ar/
an' e$on,ate' wea/on*# kni&e*# 'a,,er*# an' /ike*# re/re*ent t-e ma$e member. A
fre;.ent# b.t not &ery inte$$i,ib$e *ymbo$ for t-e *ame i* a nai$5fi$e 3a reference to
r.bbin, an' *cra/in,I4. 55 Sma$$ bo=e*# c-e*t*# c./boar'*# an' o&en* corre*/on' to t-e
fema$e or,an< a$*o ca&itie*# *-i/*# an' a$$ kin'* of &e**e$*. 55 A room in a 'ream ,enera$$y
re/re*ent* a woman< t-e 'e*cri/tion of it* &ario.* entrance* an' e=it* i* *carce$y
ca$c.$ate' to make .* 'o.bt t-i* inter/retation.8 T-e intere*t a* to w-et-er t-e room i*
@o/en1 or @$ocke'1 wi$$ be rea'i$y .n'er*too' in t-i* connection. 3(f. Dora1* 'ream in
Fra'ment of an !nal$sis of B$steria.4 T-ere i* no nee' to be e=/$icit a* to t-e *ort of key
t-at wi$$ .n$ock t-e room< t-e *ymbo$i*m of @$ock an' key1 -a* been ,racef.$$y if broa'$y
em/$oye' by )-$an' in -i* *on, of t-e Graf &%erstein. 55 T-e 'ream of wa$kin, t-ro.,-
a *.ite of room* *i,nifie* a brot-e$ or a -arem. 0.t# a* %. Sac-* -a* *-own by an
a'mirab$e e=am/$e# it i* a$*o em/$oye' to re/re*ent marria,e 3contra*t4. An intere*tin,
re$ation to t-e *e=.a$ in&e*ti,ation* of c-i$'-oo' emer,e* w-en t-e 'reamer 'ream* of
two room* w-ic- were /re&io.*$y one# or fin'* t-at a fami$iar room in a -o.*e of w-ic-
-e 'ream* -a* been 'i&i'e' into two# or t-e re&er*e. In c-i$'-oo' t-e fema$e ,enita$* an'
an.* 3t-e @be-in'194 are concei&e' of a* a *in,$e o/enin, accor'in, to t-e infanti$e c$oaca
t-eory# an' on$y $ater i* it 'i*co&ere' t-at t-i* re,ion of t-e bo'y contain* two *e/arate
ca&itie* an' o/enin,*. Stee/ inc$ine*# $a''er*# an' *tair*# an' ,oin, ./ or 'own t-em# are
*ymbo$ic re/re*entation* of t-e *e=.a$ act.: Smoot- wa$$* o&er w-ic- one c$imb*# faca'e*
of -o.*e*# acro** w-ic- one $et* one*e$f 'own 55 often wit- a *en*e of ,reat an=iety 55
corre*/on' to erect -.man bo'ie*# an' /robab$y re/eat in o.r 'ream* c-i$'i*- memorie*
of c$imbin, ./ /arent* or n.r*e*. @Smoot-1 wa$$* are men< in an=iety 'ream* one often
-o$'* firm$y to @/ro6ection*1 on -o.*e*. Tab$e*# w-et-er bare or co&ere'# an' boar'*# are
women# /er-a/* by &irt.e of contra*t# *ince t-ey -a&e no /rotr.'in, conto.r*. @+oo'1#
,enera$$y */eakin,# *eem*# in accor'ance wit- it* $in,.i*tic re$ation*# to re/re*ent
feminine matter 3Materie4. T-e name of t-e i*$an' Ma'eira mean* @woo'1 in Port.,.e*e.
Since @be' an' boar'1 3mensa et thorus4 con*tit.te marria,e# in 'ream* t-e $atter i* often
*.b*tit.te' for t-e former# an' a* far a* /racticab$e t-e *e=.a$ re/re*entation5com/$e= i*
tran*/o*e' to t-e eatin,5com/$e=. 55 Of artic$e* of 're**# a woman1* -at may &ery often be
inter/rete' wit- certainty a* t-e ma$e ,enita$*. In t-e 'ream* of men one often fin'* t-e
necktie a* a *ymbo$ for t-e /eni*< t-i* i* not on$y beca.*e necktie* -an, 'own in front of
t-e bo'y# an' are c-aracteri*tic of men# b.t a$*o beca.*e one can *e$ect t-em at /$ea*.re#
a free'om w-ic- nat.re /ro-ibit* a* re,ar'* t-e ori,ina$ of t-e *ymbo$. Per*on* w-o
make .*e of t-i* *ymbo$ in 'ream* are &ery e=tra&a,ant in t-e matter of tie*# an' /o**e**
w-o$e co$$ection* of t-em.D A$$ com/$icate' mac-ine* an' a//$iance* are &ery /robab$y
t-e ,enita$* 55 a* a r.$e t-e ma$e ,enita$* 55 in t-e 'e*cri/tion of w-ic- t-e *ymbo$i*m of
'ream* i* a* in'efati,ab$e a* -.man wit. It i* ;.ite .nmi*takab$e t-at a$$ wea/on* an'
too$* are .*e' a* *ymbo$* for t-e ma$e or,an: e.,. /$o.,-*-are# -ammer# ,.n# re&o$&er#
'a,,er# *wor'# etc. A,ain# many of t-e $an'*ca/e* *een in 'ream*# e*/ecia$$y t-o*e t-at
contain bri',e* or woo'e' mo.ntain*# may be rea'i$y reco,ni*e' a* 'e*cri/tion* of t-e
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,enita$*. Marcinow*ki co$$ecte' a *erie* of e=am/$e* in w-ic- t-e 'reamer e=/$aine' -i*
'ream by mean* of 'rawin,*# in or'er to re/re*ent t-e $an'*ca/e* an' /$ace* a//earin, in
it. T-e*e 'rawin,* c$ear$y *-owe' t-e 'i*tinction between t-e manife*t an' t-e $atent
meanin, of t-e 'ream. +-erea*# nai&e$y re,ar'e'# t-ey *eeme' to re/re*ent /$an*# ma/*#
an' *o fort-# c$o*er in&e*ti,ation *-owe' t-at t-ey were re/re*entation* of t-e -.man
bo'y# of t-e ,enita$*# etc.# an' on$y after concei&in, t-em t-.* co.$' t-e 'ream be
.n'er*too'.! Fina$$y# w-ere one fin'* incom/re-en*ib$e neo$o,i*m* one may *.*/ect
combination* of com/onent* -a&in, a *e=.a$ *i,nificance. 55 (-i$'ren# too# often *i,nify
t-e ,enita$*# *ince men an' women are in t-e -abit of fon'$y referrin, to t-eir ,enita$
or,an* a* @$itt$e man1# @$itt$e woman1# @$itt$e t-in,1. T-e @$itt$e brot-er1 wa* correct$y
reco,ni*e' by Steke$ a* t-e /eni*. To /$ay wit- or to beat a $itt$e c-i$' i* often t-e 'ream1*
re/re*entation of ma*t.rbation. T-e 'ream5work re/re*ent* ca*tration by ba$'ne**#
-airc.ttin,#
t-e $o** of teet-# an' be-ea'in,. A* an in*.rance a,ain*t ca*tration# t-e 'ream
.*e* one of t-e common *ymbo$* of a /eni* in 'o.b$e or m.$ti/$e form< an' t-e
a//earance in a 'ream of a $iCar' 55 an anima$ w-o*e tai$# if /.$$e' off# i* re,enerate' by a
new ,rowt- 55 -a* t-e *ame meanin,. Mo*t of t-o*e anima$* w-ic- are .ti$i*e' a* ,enita$
*ymbo$* in myt-o$o,y an' fo$k$ore /$ay t-i* /art a$*o in 'ream*: t-e fi*-# t-e *nai$# t-e
cat# t-e mo.*e 3on acco.nt of t-e -airine** of t-e ,enita$*4# b.t abo&e a$$ t-e *nake# w-ic-
i* t-e mo*t im/ortant *ymbo$ of t-e ma$e member. Sma$$ anima$* an' &ermin are
*.b*tit.te* for $itt$e c-i$'ren# e.,. .n'e*ire' *i*ter* or brot-er*. To be infecte' wit-
&ermin i* often t-e e;.i&a$ent for /re,nancy. 55 A* a &ery recent *ymbo$ of t-e ma$e
or,an I may mention t-e air*-i/# w-o*e em/$oyment i* 6.*tifie' by it* re$ation to f$yin,#
an' a$*o# occa*iona$$y# by it* form. 55 Steke$ -a* ,i&en a n.mber of ot-er *ymbo$*# not yet
*.fficient$y &erifie'# w-ic- -e -a* i$$.*trate' by e=am/$e*. T-e work* of t-i* a.t-or# an'
e*/ecia$$y -i* book Die 3prache des Traumes# contain t-e ric-e*t co$$ection of
inter/retation* of *ymbo$*# *ome of w-ic- were in,enio.*$y ,.e**e' an' were /ro&e' to
be correct ./on in&e*ti,ation# a*# for e=am/$e# in t-e *ection on t-e *ymbo$i*m of 'eat-.
T-e a.t-or1* $ack of critica$ ref$ection# an' -i* ten'ency to ,enera$i*e at a$$ co*t*# make
-i* inter/retation* 'o.btf.$ or ina//$icab$e# *o t-at in makin, .*e of -i* work* ca.tion i*
.r,ent$y a'&i*e'. I *-a$$ t-erefore re*trict my*e$f to mentionin, a few e=am/$e*.
Gi'ht an' left# accor'in, to Steke$# are to be .n'er*too' in 'ream* in an et-ica$ *en*e.
@T-e ri,-t5-an' /at- a$way* *i,nifie* t-e way to ri,-teo.*ne**# t-e $eft5-an' /at- t-e
/at- to crime. T-.* t-e $eft may *i,nify -omo*e=.a$ity# ince*t# an' /er&er*ion# w-i$e t-e
ri,-t *i,nifie* marria,e# re$ation* wit- a /ro*tit.te# etc. T-e meanin, i* a$way*
'etermine' by t-e in'i&i'.a$ mora$ *tan'/oint of t-e 'reamer1 3loc5 cit5# /. 7994. Gelatives
in 'ream* ,enera$$y *tan' for t-e ,enita$* 3//. 2:2 ff.4. %ere I can confirm t-i* meanin,
on$y for t-e *on# t-e 'a.,-ter# an' t-e yo.n,er *i*ter 55 t-at i*# w-ere&er @$itt$e t-in,1
co.$' be em/$oye'. On t-e ot-er -an'# &erifie' e=am/$e* a$$ow .* to reco,ni*e sisters a*
*ymbo$* of t-e brea*t*# an' %rothers a* *ymbo$* of t-e $ar,er -emi*/-ere*. To be .nab$e
to o&ertake a carria,e i* inter/rete' by Steke$ a* re,ret at bein, .nab$e to catc- ./ wit- a
'ifference in a,e 3/. 7:!4. T-e lu''a'e of a tra&e$$er i* t-e b.r'en of *in by w-ic- one i*
o//re**e' 3i%id.4. 0.t a tra&e$$er1* $.,,a,e often /ro&e* to be an .nmi*takab$e *ymbo$ of
one1* own ,enita$*. To n.mber*# w-ic- fre;.ent$y occ.r in 'ream*# Steke$ -a* a**i,ne' a
fi=e' *ymbo$ic meanin,# b.t t-e*e inter/retation* *eem neit-er *.fficient$y &erifie' nor of
.ni&er*a$ &a$i'ity# a$t-o.,- in in'i&i'.a$ ca*e* t-ey can .*.a$$y be reco,ni*e' a*
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/$a.*ib$e. +e -a&e# at a$$ e&ent*# ab.n'ant confirmation t-at t-e fi,.re t-ree i* a *ymbo$
of t-e ma$e ,enita$*. One of Steke$1* ,enera$i*ation* refer* to t-e 'o.b$e meanin, of t-e
,enita$ *ymbo$*. @+-ere i* t-ere a *ymbo$#1 -e a*k*# @w-ic- 3if in any way /ermitte' by
t-e ima,ination4 may not be .*e' *im.$taneo.*$y in t-e ma*c.$ine an' t-e feminine
*en*eI1 To be *.re# t-e c$a.*e in /arent-e*i* retract* m.c- of t-e ab*o$.te c-aracter of t-i*
a**ertion# for t-i* 'o.b$e meanin, i* not a$way* /ermitte' by t-e ima,ination. Sti$$# I
t-ink it i* not *./erf$.o.* to *tate t-at in my e=/erience t-i* ,enera$ *tatement of Steke$1*
re;.ire* e$aboration. 0e*i'e* t-o*e *ymbo$* w-ic- are 6.*t a* fre;.ent$y em/$oye' for t-e
ma$e a* for t-e fema$e ,enita$*# t-ere are ot-er* w-ic- /re/on'erant$y# or a$mo*t
e=c$.*i&e$y# 'e*i,nate one of t-e *e=e*# an' t-ere are yet ot-er* w-ic-# *o far a* we know#
-a&e on$y t-e ma$e or on$y t-e fema$e *i,nification. To .*e $on,# *tiff ob6ect* an'
wea/on* a* *ymbo$* of t-e fema$e ,enita$*# or -o$$ow ob6ect* 3c-e*t*# bo=e*# etc.4 a*
*ymbo$* of t-e ma$e ,enita$*# i* certain$y not /ermitte' by t-e ima,ination.
It i* tr.e t-at t-e ten'ency of 'ream*# an' of t-e .ncon*cio.* fanta*y# to em/$oy t-e
*e=.a$ *ymbo$* bi*e=.a$$y# re&ea$* an arc-aic trait# for in c-i$'-oo' t-e 'ifference in t-e
,enita$* i* .nknown# an' t-e *ame ,enita$* are attrib.te' to bot- *e=e*. One may a$*o be
mi*$e' a* re,ar'* t-e *i,nificance of a bi*e=.a$ *ymbo$ if one for,et* t-e fact t-at in *ome
'ream* a ,enera$ re&er*a$ of *e=e* take* /$ace# *o t-at t-e ma$e or,an i* re/re*ente' by
t-e fema$e# an' vice versa. S.c- 'ream* e=/re**# for e=am/$e# t-e wi*- of a woman to be
a man.
T-e ,enita$* may e&en be re/re*ente' in 'ream* by ot-er /art* of t-e bo'y: t-e ma$e
member by t-e -an' or t-e foot# t-e fema$e ,enita$ orifice by t-e mo.t-# t-e ear# or e&en
t-e eye. T-e *ecretion* of t-e -.man bo'y 55 m.c.*# tear*# .rine# *emen# etc. 55 may be
.*e' in 'ream* interc-an,eab$y. T-i* *tatement of Steke$1*# correct in t-e main# -a*
*.ffere' a 6.*tifiab$e critica$ re*triction a* t-e re*.$t of certain comment* of R. Reit$er1*
3Internat5 Ieitschr5 fDr 2s$ch.# i# 1!124. T-e ,i*t of t-e matter i* t-e re/$acement of an
im/ortant *ecretion# *.c- a* t-e *emen# by an in'ifferent one.
T-e*e &ery incom/$ete in'ication* may *.ffice to *tim.$ate ot-er* to make a more
/ain*takin, co$$ection.1" I -a&e attem/te' a m.c- more 'etai$e' acco.nt of
'ream*ymbo$i*m
in my Introductor$ Lectures on 2s$choanal$sis 3tran*. by >oan Ri&iere< A$$en
an' )nwin# ?on'on4.
I *-a$$ now a//en' a few in*tance* of t-e .*e of *.c- *ymbo$*# w-ic- wi$$ *-ow -ow
im/o**ib$e it i* to arri&e at t-e inter/retation of a 'ream if one e=c$.'e* 'ream*ymbo$i*m#
b.t a$*o -ow in many ca*e* it i* im/erati&e$y force' ./on one. At t-e *ame
time# I m.*t e=/re**$y warn t-e in&e*ti,ator a,ain*t o&ere*timatin, t-e im/ortance of
*ymbo$* in t-e inter/retation of 'ream*# re*trictin, t-e work of 'ream5tran*$ation to t-e
tran*$ation of *ymbo$*# an' ne,$ectin, t-e tec-ni;.e of .ti$i*in, t-e a**ociation* of t-e
'reamer. T-e two tec-ni;.e* of 'ream5inter/retation m.*t *.//$ement one anot-er<
/ractica$$y# -owe&er# a* we$$ a* t-eoretica$$y# /rece'ence i* retaine' by t-e $atter /roce**#
w-ic- a**i,n* t-e fina$ *i,nificance to t-e .tterance* of t-e 'reamer# w-i$e t-e
*ymbo$tran*$ation*
w-ic- we .n'ertake /$ay an a.=i$iary /art.
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1. T-e -at a* t-e *ymbo$ of a man 3of t-e ma$e ,enita$*4:11 3A fra,ment from t-e 'ream of
a yo.n, woman w-o *.ffere' from a,ora/-obia a* t-e re*.$t of -er fear of tem/tation.4
@I am "al(in' in the street in summer6 I am "earin' a stra" hat of peculiar shape, the
middle piece of "hich is %ent up"ards, "hile the side pieces han' do"n"ards 9here the
description hesitates:, and in such a fashion that one han's lo"er than the other5 I am
cheerful and in a confident mood, and as I pass a num%er of $oun' officers I thin( to
m$self: Oou can+t do an$thin' to me.1
A* *-e co.$' /ro'.ce no a**ociation* to t-e -at# I *ai' to -er: @T-e -at i* rea$$y a ma$e
,enita$ or,an# wit- it* rai*e' mi''$e /iece an' t-e two 'ownwar'5-an,in, *i'e /iece*.1 It
i* /er-a/* /ec.$iar t-at -er -at *-o.$' be *.//o*e' to be a man# b.t after a$$ one *ay*:
*nter die Bau%e (ommen 3to ,et .n'er t-e ca/4 w-en we mean: to ,et marrie'. I
intentiona$$y refraine' from inter/retin, t-e 'etai$* concernin, t-e .ne;.a$ 'e/en'ence of
t-e two *i'e /iece*# a$t-o.,- t-e 'etermination of 6.*t *.c- 'etai$* m.*t /oint t-e way to
t-e inter/retation. I went on to *ay t-at if# t-erefore# *-e -a' a -.*ban' wit- *.c-
*/$en'i' ,enita$* *-e wo.$' not -a&e to fear t-e officer*< t-at i*# *-e wo.$' -a&e not-in,
to wi*- from t-em# for it wa* e**entia$$y -er tem/tation5fanta*ie* w-ic- /re&ente' -er
from ,oin, abo.t .n/rotecte' an' .naccom/anie'. T-i* $a*t e=/$anation of -er an=iety I
-a' a$rea'y been ab$e to ,i&e -er re/eate'$y on t-e ba*i* of ot-er materia$.
It i* ;.ite remarkab$e -ow t-e 'reamer be-a&e' after t-i* inter/retation. S-e wit-'rew
-er 'e*cri/tion of t-e -at# an' wo.$' not a'mit t-at *-e -a' *ai' t-at t-e two *i'e /iece*
were -an,in, 'own. I wa*# -owe&er# too *.re of w-at I -a' -ear' to a$$ow my*e$f to be
mi*$e'# an' *o I in*i*te' t-at *-e 'i' *ay it. S-e wa* ;.iet for a w-i$e# an' t-en fo.n' t-e
co.ra,e to a*k w-y it wa* t-at one of -er -.*ban'1* te*tic$e* wa* $ower t-an t-e ot-er#
an' w-et-er it wa* t-e *ame wit- a$$ men. +it- t-i* t-e /ec.$iar 'etai$ of t-e -at wa*
e=/$aine'# an' t-e w-o$e inter/retation wa* acce/te' by -er.
T-e -at *ymbo$ wa* fami$iar to me $on, before t-e /atient re$ate' t-i* 'ream. From ot-er
b.t $e** tran*/arent ca*e* I be$ie&e' t-at I mi,-t a**.me t-e -at co.$' a$*o *tan' for t-e
fema$e ,enita$*.1
. T-e @$itt$e one1 a* t-e ,enita$ or,an. 0ein, r.n o&er a* a *ymbo$ of *e=.a$ interco.r*e.
3Anot-er 'ream of t-e *ame a,ora/-obic /atient.4
@Ber mother sends a"a$ her little dau'hter so that she has to 'o alone5 3he then drives
"ith her mother to the rail"a$ station, and sees her little one "al(in' ri'ht alon' the
trac(, so that she is %ound to %e run over5 3he hears the %ones crac(5 9!t this she
eperiences a feelin' of discomfort %ut no real horror5: 3he then loo(s out throu'h the
carria'e "indo", to see "hether the parts cannot %e seen %ehind5 Then she reproaches
her mother for allo"in' the little one to 'o out alone.1
!nal$sis. 55 It i* not an ea*y matter to ,i&e -ere a com/$ete inter/retation of t-e 'ream. It
form* /art of a cyc$e of 'ream*# an' can be f.$$y .n'er*too' on$y in connection wit- t-e
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re*t. For it i* not ea*y to obtain t-e materia$ nece**ary to 'emon*trate t-e *ymbo$i*m in a
*.fficient$y i*o$ate' con'ition. T-e /atient at fir*t fin'* t-at t-e rai$way 6o.rney i* to be
inter/rete' -i*torica$$y a* an a$$.*ion to a 'e/art.re from a *anatori.m for ner&o.*
'i*ea*e*# wit- w-o*e 'irector *-e wa* of co.r*e in $o&e. %er mot-er fetc-e' -er away#
an' before -er 'e/art.re t-e /-y*ician came to t-e rai$way *tation an' ,a&e -er a b.nc-
of f$ower*< *-e fe$t .ncomfortab$e beca.*e -er mot-er witne**e' t-i* attention. %ere t-e
mot-er# t-erefore# a//ear* a* t-e 'i*t.rber of -er ten'er fee$in,*# a ro$e act.a$$y /$aye' by
t-i* *trict woman '.rin, -er 'a.,-ter1* ,ir$-oo'. 55 T-e ne=t a**ociation referre' to t-e
*entence: @S-e t-en $ook* to *ee w-et-er t-e /art* cannot be *een be-in'.1 In t-e
'reamfaca'e
one wo.$' nat.ra$$y be com/e$$e' to t-ink of t-e /iece* of t-e $itt$e 'a.,-ter w-o
-a' been r.n o&er an' cr.*-e'. T-e a**ociation# -owe&er# t.rn* in ;.ite a 'ifferent
'irection. S-e reca$$* t-at *-e once *aw -er fat-er in t-e bat-room# nake'# from be-in'<
*-e t-en be,in* to ta$k abo.t *e= 'ifference*# an' remark* t-at in t-e man t-e ,enita$* can
be *een from be-in'# b.t in t-e woman t-ey cannot. In t-i* connection *-e now -er*e$f
offer* t-e inter/retation t-at @t-e $itt$e one1 i* t-e ,enita$ or,an# an' -er $itt$e one 3*-e -a*
a fo.r5year5o$' 'a.,-ter4 -er own or,an. S-e re/roac-e* -er mot-er for wantin, -er to
$i&e a* t-o.,- *-e -a' no ,enita$*# an' reco,ni*e* t-i* re/roac- in t-e intro'.ctory
*entence of t-e 'ream: t-e mot-er *en'* -er $itt$e one away# *o t-at *-e -a* to ,o a$one.
In -er fanta*y# ,oin, a$one t-ro.,- t-e *treet* mean* -a&in, no man# no *e=.a$ re$ation*
3coire M to ,o to,et-er4# an' t-i* *-e 'oe* not $ike. Accor'in, to a$$ -er *tatement*# *-e
rea$$y *.ffere' a* a ,ir$ t-ro.,- -er mot-er1* 6ea$o.*y# beca.*e -er fat-er *-owe' a
/reference for -er.
T-e 'ee/er inter/retation of t-i* 'ream 'e/en'* ./on anot-er 'ream of t-e *ame ni,-t# in
w-ic- t-e 'reamer i'entifie* -er*e$f wit- -er brot-er. S-e wa* a @tomboy1# an' wa*
a$way* bein, to$' t-at *-e *-o.$' -a&e been born a boy. T-i* i'entification wit- t-e
brot-er *-ow* wit- e*/ecia$ c$earne** t-at @t-e $itt$e one1 *i,nifie* t-e ,enita$ or,an. T-e
mot-er t-reatene' -im 3-er4 wit- ca*tration# w-ic- co.$' on$y be .n'er*too' a* a
/.ni*-ment for /$ayin, wit- t-e ,enita$ /art*# an' t-e i'entification# t-erefore# *-ow* t-at
*-e -er*e$f -a' ma*t.rbate' a* a c-i$'# t-o.,- *-e -a' retaine' on$y a memory of -er
brot-er1* -a&in, 'one *o. An ear$y know$e',e of t-e ma$e ,enita$*# w-ic- *-e $o*t $ater#
m.*t# accor'in, to t-e a**ertion* of t-i* *econ' 'ream# -a&e been ac;.ire' at t-i* time.
Moreo&er# t-e *econ' 'ream /oint* to t-e infanti$e *e=.a$ t-eory t-at ,ir$* ori,inate from
boy* a* a re*.$t of ca*tration. After I -a' to$' -er of t-i* c-i$'i*- be$ief# *-e at once
confirme' it by an anec'ote in w-ic- t-e boy a*k* t-e ,ir$: @+a* it c.t offI1 to w-ic- t-e
,ir$ re/$ie*: @No# it1* a$way* been $ike t-at.1 (on*e;.ent$y t-e *en'in, away of @t-e $itt$e
one1# of t-e ,enita$ or,an# in t-e fir*t 'ream refer* a$*o to t-e t-reatene' ca*tration.
Fina$$y# *-e b$ame* -er mot-er for not -a&in, borne -er a* a boy.
T-at @bein, r.n o&er1 *ymbo$i*e* *e=.a$ interco.r*e wo.$' not be e&i'ent from t-i* 'ream
if we -a' not $earne' it from many ot-er *o.rce*.
2. Re/re*entation of t-e ,enita$* by b.i$'in,*# *tair*# an' *-aft*.
3Dream of a yo.n, man in-ibite' by a fat-er com/$e=.4
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@Be is ta(in' a "al( "ith his father in a place "hich is certainl$ the 2rater, for one can
see the Gotunda, in front of "hich there is a small vesti%ule to "hich there is attached a
captive %alloon6 the %alloon, ho"ever, seems rather limp5 Bis father as(s him "hat this is
all for6 he is surprised at it, %ut he eplains it to his father5 The$ come into a court$ard in
"hich lies a lar'e sheet of tin5 Bis father "ants to pull off a %i' piece of this, %ut first
loo(s round to see if an$one is "atchin'5 Be tells his father that all he needs to do is to
spea( to the overseer, and then he can ta(e as much as he "ants to "ithout an$ more ado5
From this court$ard a fli'ht of stairs leads do"n into a shaft, the "alls of "hich are
softl$ upholstered, rather li(e a leather armchair5 !t the end of this shaft there is a lon'
platform, and then a ne" shaft %e'ins . . . 1
!nal$sis. 55 T-i* 'reamer be$on,e' to a ty/e of /atient w-ic- i* not at a$$ /romi*in, from
a t-era/e.tic /oint of &iew< ./ to a certain /oint in t-e ana$y*i* *.c- /atient* offer no
re*i*tance w-ate&er# b.t from t-at /oint onwar'* t-ey /ro&e to be a$mo*t inacce**ib$e.
T-i* 'ream -e ana$y*e' a$mo*t in'e/en'ent$y. @T-e Rot.n'a#1 -e *ai'# @i* my ,enita$*# t-e
ca/ti&e ba$$oon in front i* my /eni*# abo.t w-o*e f$acci'ity I -a&e been worrie'.1 +e
m.*t# -owe&er# inter/ret it in ,reater 'etai$: t-e Rot.n'a i* t-e b.ttock*# con*tant$y
a**ociate' by t-e c-i$' wit- t-e ,enita$*< t-e *ma$$er *tr.ct.re in front i* t-e *crot.m. In
t-e 'ream -i* fat-er a*k* -im w-at t-i* i* a$$ for 55 t-at i*# -e a*k* -im abo.t t-e /.r/o*e
an' arran,ement of t-e ,enita$*. It i* ;.ite e&i'ent t-at t-i* *tate of affair* *-o.$' be
re&er*e'# an' t-at -e o.,-t to be t-e ;.e*tioner. A* *.c- ;.e*tionin, on t-e /art of t-e
fat-er ne&er occ.rre' in rea$ity# we m.*t concei&e t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t a* a wi*-# or
/er-a/* take it con'itiona$$y# a* fo$$ow*. @If I -a' a*ke' my fat-er for *e=.a$
en$i,-tenment . . . 1 T-e contin.ation of t-i* t-o.,-t we *-a$$ /re*ent$y fin' in anot-er
/$ace.
T-e co.rtyar' in w-ic- t-e *-eet of tin i* */rea' o.t i* not to be concei&e' *ymbo$ica$$y
in t-e fir*t in*tance# b.t ori,inate* from -i* fat-er1* /$ace of b.*ine**. For rea*on* of
'i*cretion I -a&e in*erte' t-e tin for anot-er materia$ in w-ic- t-e fat-er 'ea$* wit-o.t#
-owe&er# c-an,in, anyt-in, in t-e &erba$ e=/re**ion of t-e 'ream. T-e 'reamer -a'
entere' -i* fat-er1* b.*ine**# an' -a' taken a terrib$e 'i*$ike to t-e *omew-at
;.e*tionab$e /ractice* ./on w-ic- it* /rofit main$y 'e/en'e'. %ence t-e contin.ation of
t-e abo&e 'ream5t-o.,-t 3@if I -a' a*ke' -im14 wo.$' be: @%e wo.$' -a&e 'ecei&e' me
6.*t a* -e 'oe* -i* c.*tomer*.1 For t-e @/.$$in, off1# w-ic- *er&e* to re/re*ent commercia$
'i*-one*ty# t-e 'reamer -im*e$f ,i&e* a *econ' e=/$anation# name$y# ma*t.rbation. T-i*
i* not on$y ;.ite fami$iar to .* 3*ee abo&e# /. !4# b.t a,ree* &ery we$$ wit- t-e fact t-at
t-e *ecrecy of ma*t.rbation i* e=/re**e' by it* o//o*ite 3one can 'o it ;.ite o/en$y4.
T-.*# it a,ree* entire$y wit- o.r e=/ectation* t-at t-e a.to5erotic acti&ity *-o.$' be
attrib.te' to t-e fat-er# 6.*t a* wa* t-e ;.e*tionin, in t-e fir*t *cene of t-e 'ream. T-e
*-aft -e at once inter/ret* a* t-e &a,ina# by referrin, to t-e *oft ./-o$*terin, of t-e wa$$*.
T-at t-e action of coition in t-e &a,ina i* 'e*cribe' a* a ,oin, 'own in*tea' of in t-e
.*.a$ way a* a ,oin, ./ a,ree* wit- w-at I -a&e fo.n' in ot-er in*tance*.12
T-e 'etai$* 55 t-at at t-e en' of t-e fir*t *-aft t-ere i* a $on, /$atform# an' t-en a new
*-aft 55 -e -im*e$f e=/$ain* bio,ra/-ica$$y. %e -a' for *ome time -a' *e=.a$ interco.r*e
wit- women# b.t -a' ,i&en it ./ on acco.nt of in-ibition*# an' now -o/e* to be ab$e to
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be,in it a,ain wit- t-e ai' of t-e treatment. T-e 'ream# -owe&er# become* in'i*tinct
towar'* t-e en'# an' to t-e e=/erience' inter/reter it become* e&i'ent t-at in t-e *econ'
*cene of t-e 'ream t-e inf$.ence of anot-er *.b6ect -a* a$rea'y be,.n to a**ert it*e$f<
w-ic- i* in'icate' by -i* fat-er1* b.*ine**# -i* 'i*-one*t /ractice*# an' t-e &a,ina
re/re*ente' by t-e fir*t *-aft# *o t-at one may a**.me a reference to -i* mot-er.
7. T-e ma$e or,an *ymbo$i*e' by /er*on* an' t-e fema$e by a $an'*ca/e.
3Dream of a woman of t-e $ower c$a**# w-o*e -.*ban' i* a /o$iceman# re/orte' by 0.
Dattner.4
@. . . Then someone %ro(e into the house and she aniousl$ called for a policeman5 <ut he
"ent peacefull$ "ith t"o tramps into a church,1# to "hich a 'reat man$ steps led up615
%ehind the church there "as a mountain1R on top of "hich there "as a dense forest51M The
policeman "as provided "ith a helmet, a 'or'et, and a cloa(51S The t"o va'rants, "ho
"ent alon' "ith the policeman 0uite peacea%l$, had sac(4li(e aprons tied round their
loins519 ! road led from the church to the mountains5 This road "as over'ro"n on each
side "ith 'rass and %rush"ood, "hich %ecame thic(er and thic(er as it reached the top of
the mountain, "here it spread out into 0uite a forest.1
8. (a*tration 'ream* of c-i$'ren.
3a4 @! %o$ a'ed three $ears and five months, for "hom his father+s return from militar$
service is clearl$ inconvenient, "a(es one mornin' in a distur%ed and ecited state, and
constantl$ repeats the 0uestion: ;h$ did Dadd$ carr$ his head on a plateA Last ni'ht
Dadd$ carried his head on a plate.1
3b4 @! student "ho is no" sufferin' from a severe o%sessional neurosis remem%ers that in
his sith $ear he repeatedl$ had the follo"in' dream: Be 'oes to the %ar%er to have his
hair cut5 Then a lar'e "oman "ith severe features comes up to him and cuts off his head5
Be reco'nises the "oman as his mother.1
9. A mo'ifie' *tairca*e 'ream.
To one of my /atient*# a *e=.a$ ab*tainer# w-o wa* &ery i$$# w-o*e fanta*y wa* fi=ate'
./on -i* mot-er# an' w-o re/eate'$y 'reame' of c$imbin, *tair* w-i$e accom/anie' by
-i* mot-er# I once remarke' t-at mo'erate ma*t.rbation wo.$' /robab$y -a&e been $e**
-armf.$ to -im t-an -i* enforce' ab*tinence. T-e inf$.ence of t-i* remark /ro&oke' t-e
fo$$owin, 'ream:
Bis piano teacher reproaches him for ne'lectin' his piano4pla$in', and for not
practisin' the Et.'e* of Moscheles and Clementi+s Gra'.* a' Parna**.m. +it- reference
to t-i* -e remarke' t-at t-e Gradus# too# i* a *tairway# an' t-at t-e /iano it*e$f i* a
*tairway# a* it -a* a *ca$e.
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It may be *ai' t-at t-ere i* no c$a** of i'ea* w-ic- cannot be en$i*te' in t-e re/re*entation
of *e=.a$ fact* an' wi*-e*.
:. T-e *en*ation of rea$ity an' t-e re/re*entation of re/etition.
A man# now t-irty5fi&e# re$ate* a c$ear$y remembere' 'ream w-ic- -e c$aim* to -a&e -a'
w-en -e wa* fo.r year* of a,e: The notar$ "ith "hom his father+s "ill "as deposited 55
-e -a' $o*t -i* fat-er at t-e a,e of t-ree 55 %rou'ht t"o lar'e &mperor4pears, of "hich he
"as 'iven one to eat5 The other la$ on the "indo"sill of the livin'4room. %e woke wit-
t-e con&iction of t-e rea$ity of w-at -e -a' 'reamt# an' ob*tinate$y a*ke' -i* mot-er to
,i&e -im t-e *econ' /ear< it wa*# -e *ai'# *ti$$ $yin, on t-e win'ow*i$$. %i* mot-er
$a.,-e' at t-i*.
!nal$sis. 55 T-e notary wa* a 6o&ia$ o$' ,ent$eman w-o# a* -e *eem* to remember# rea$$y
*ometime* bro.,-t /ear* wit- -im. T-e win'ow5*i$$ wa* a* -e *aw it in t-e 'ream.
Not-in, e$*e occ.r* to -im in t-i* connection# e=ce/t# /er-a/*# t-at -i* mot-er -a*
recent$y to$' -im a 'ream. S-e -a* two bir'* *ittin, on -er -ea'< *-e won'er* w-en t-ey
wi$$ f$y away# b.t t-ey 'o not f$y away# an' one of t-em f$ie* to -er mo.t- an' *.ck* at
it.
T-e 'reamer1* inabi$ity to f.rni*- a**ociation* 6.*tifie* t-e attem/t to inter/ret it by t-e
*.b*tit.tion of *ymbo$*. T-e two /ear* 55 pommes ou poires 55 are t-e brea*t* of t-e
mot-er w-o n.r*e' -im< t-e win'ow5*i$$ i* t-e /ro6ection of t-e bo*om# ana$o,o.* to t-e
ba$conie* in t-e 'ream of -o.*e*. %i* *en*ation of rea$ity after wakin, i* 6.*tifie'# for -i*
mot-er -a' act.a$$y *.ck$e' -im for m.c- $on,er t-an t-e c.*tomary term# an' -er brea*t
wa* *ti$$ a&ai$ab$e. T-e 'ream i* to be tran*$ate': @Mot-er# ,i&e 3*-ow4 me t-e brea*t
a,ain at w-ic- I once .*e' to 'rink.1 T-e @once1 i* re/re*ente' by t-e eatin, of t-e one
/ear# t-e @a,ain1 by t-e 'e*ire for t-e ot-er. The temporal repetition of an act i* -abit.a$$y
re/re*ente' in 'ream* by the numerical multiplication of an o%/ect.
It i* nat.ra$$y a &ery *trikin, /-enomenon t-at *ymbo$i*m *-o.$' a$rea'y /$ay a /art in
t-e 'ream of a c-i$' of fo.r# b.t t-i* i* t-e r.$e rat-er t-an t-e e=ce/tion. One may *ay
t-at t-e 'reamer -a* comman' of *ymbo$i*m from t-e &ery fir*t.
T-e ear$y a,e at w-ic- /eo/$e make .*e of *ymbo$ic re/re*entation# e&en a/art from t-e
'ream5$ife# may be *-own by t-e fo$$owin, .ninf$.ence' memory of a $a'y w-o i* now
twenty*e&en: 3he is in her fourth $ear5 The nursemaid is drivin' her, "ith her %rother,
eleven months $oun'er, and a cousin, "ho is %et"een the t"o in a'e, to the lavator$, so
that the$ can do their little %usiness there %efore 'oin' for their "al(5 !s the oldest, she
sits on the seat and the other t"o on cham%ers5 3he as(s her 9female: cousin: Bave $ou a
purse, tooA ;alter has a little sausa'e, I have a purse5 The cousin ans"ers: Oes, I have a
purse, too5 The nursemaid listens, lau'hin', and relates the conversation to the mother,
"hose reaction is a sharp reprimand.
%ere a 'ream may be in*erte' w-o*e e=ce$$ent *ymbo$i*m /ermitte' of inter/retation
wit- $itt$e a**i*tance from t-e 'reamer:
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D. T-e ;.e*tion of *ymbo$i*m in t-e 'ream* of norma$ /er*on*."
An ob6ection fre;.ent$y rai*e' by t-e o//onent* of /*yc-oana$y*i* 55 an' recent$y a$*o by
%a&e$ock E$$i*1 55 i* t-at# a$t-o.,- 'ream5*ymbo$i*m may /er-a/* be a /ro'.ct of t-e
ne.rotic /*yc-e# it -a* no &a$i'ity w-ate&er in t-e ca*e of norma$ /er*on*. 0.t w-i$e
/*yc-oana$y*i* reco,ni*e* no e**entia$ 'i*tinction*# b.t on$y ;.antitati&e 'ifference*#
between t-e /*yc-ic $ife of t-e norma$ /er*on an' t-at of t-e ne.rotic# t-e ana$y*i* of
t-o*e 'ream* in w-ic-# in *o.n' an' *ick /er*on* a$ike# t-e re/re**e' com/$e=e* 'i*/$ay
t-e *ame acti&ity# re&ea$* t-e ab*o$.te i'entity of t-e mec-ani*m* a* we$$ a* of t-e
*ymbo$i*m. In'ee'# t-e nat.ra$ 'ream* of -ea$t-y /er*on* often contain a m.c- *im/$er#
more tran*/arent# an' more c-aracteri*tic *ymbo$i*m t-an t-o*e of ne.rotic*# w-ic-#
owin, to t-e ,reater *trictne** of t-e cen*or*-i/ an' t-e more e=ten*i&e 'ream5'i*tortion
re*.$tin, t-erefrom# are fre;.ent$y tro.b$e' an' ob*c.re'# an' are t-erefore more 'iffic.$t
to tran*$ate. T-e fo$$owin, 'ream *er&e* to i$$.*trate t-i* fact. T-i* 'ream come* from a
non5ne.rotic ,ir$ of a rat-er /r.'i*- an' re*er&e' ty/e. In t-e co.r*e of con&er*ation I
fo.n' t-at *-e wa* en,a,e' to be marrie'# b.t t-at t-ere were -in'rance* in t-e way of
t-e marria,e w-ic- t-reatene' to /o*t/one it. S-e re$ate' */ontaneo.*$y t-e fo$$owin,
'ream:
I arran'e the centre of a ta%le "ith flo"ers for a %irthda$. On bein, ;.e*tione' *-e *tate*
t-at in t-e 'ream *-e *eeme' to be at -ome 3*-e -a* no -ome at t-e time4 an'
e=/erience' a fee$in, of -a//ine**.
T-e @/o/.$ar1 *ymbo$i*m enab$e* me to tran*$ate t-e 'ream for my*e$f. It i* t-e
e=/re**ion of -er wi*- to be marrie': t-e tab$e# wit- t-e f$ower* in t-e centre# i* *ymbo$ic
of -er*e$f an' -er ,enita$*. S-e re/re*ent* -er f.t.re wi*-e* a* f.$fi$$e'# ina*m.c- a* *-e
i* a$rea'y occ./ie' wit- t-o.,-t* of t-e birt- of a c-i$'< *o t-e we''in, -a* taken /$ace
$on, a,o.
I ca$$ -er attention to t-e fact t-at @t-e centre of a tab$e1 i* an .n.*.a$ e=/re**ion# w-ic-
*-e a'mit*< b.t -ere# of co.r*e# I cannot ;.e*tion -er more 'irect$y. I caref.$$y refrain
from *.,,e*tin, to -er t-e meanin, of t-e *ymbo$*# an' a*k -er on$y for t-e t-o.,-t*
w-ic- occ.r to -er min' in connection wit- t-e in'i&i'.a$ /art* of t-e 'ream. In t-e
co.r*e of t-e ana$y*i* -er re*er&e ,a&e way to a 'i*tinct intere*t in t-e inter/retation# an'
a frankne** w-ic- wa* ma'e /o**ib$e by t-e *erio.* tone of t-e con&er*ation. 55 To my
;.e*tion a* to w-at kin' of f$ower* t-ey -a' been# -er fir*t an*wer i* @epensive flo"ers6
one has to pa$ for them1< t-en *-e a''* t-at t-ey were lilies4of4the4valle$, violets, and
pin(s or carnations. I took t-e wor' lil$ in t-i* 'ream in it* /o/.$ar *en*e# a* a *ymbo$ of
c-a*tity< *-e confirme' t-i*# a* /.rity occ.rre' to -er in a**ociation wit- lil$5 Valle$ i* a
common feminine 'ream5*ymbo$. T-e c-ance 6.=ta/o*ition of t-e two *ymbo$* in t-e
name of t-e f$ower i* ma'e into a /iece of 'ream5*ymbo$i*m# an' *er&e* to em/-a*i*e t-e
/recio.*ne** of -er &ir,inity 55 epensive flo"ers6 one has to pa$ for them 55 an'
e=/re**e* t-e e=/ectation t-at -er -.*ban' wi$$ know -ow to a//reciate it* &a$.e. T-e
comment# epensive flo"ers# etc.# -a*# a* wi$$ be *-own# a 'ifferent meanin, in e&ery one
of t-e t-ree 'ifferent f$ower5*ymbo$*.
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I t-o.,-t of w-at *eeme' to me a &ent.re*ome e=/$anation of t-e -i''en meanin, of t-e
a//arent$y ;.ite a*e=.a$ wor' violets by an .ncon*cio.* re$ation to t-e Frenc- viol. 0.t
to my *.r/ri*e t-e 'reamer1* a**ociation wa* t-e En,$i*- wor' violate. T-e acci'enta$
/-onetic *imi$arity of t-e two wor'* violet an' violate i* .ti$i*e' by t-e 'ream to e=/re**
in @t-e $an,.a,e of f$ower*1 t-e i'ea of t-e &io$ence of 'ef$oration 3anot-er wor' w-ic-
make* .*e of f$ower*ymbo$i*m4# an' /er-a/* a$*o to ,i&e e=/re**ion to a ma*oc-i*tic
ten'ency on t-e /art of t-e ,ir$. 55 An e=ce$$ent e=am/$e of t-e wor' bri',e* acro** w-ic-
r.n t-e /at-* to t-e .ncon*cio.*. @8ne has to pa$ for them1 -ere mean* $ife# wit- w-ic-
*-e -a* to /ay for becomin, a wife an' a mot-er.
In a**ociation wit- pin(s# w-ic- *-e t-en ca$$* carnations, I t-ink of carnal. 0.t -er
a**ociation i* colour# to w-ic- *-e a''* t-at carnations are t-e f$ower* w-ic- -er fiancN
,i&e* -er fre;.ent$y an' in $ar,e ;.antitie*. At t-e en' of t-e con&er*ation *-e *.''en$y
a'mit*# */ontaneo.*$y# t-at *-e -a* not to$' me t-e tr.t-< t-e wor' t-at occ.rre' to -er
wa* not colour# b.t incarnation# t-e &ery wor' I e=/ecte'. Moreo&er# e&en t-e wor'
@co$o.r1 i* not a remote a**ociation< it wa* 'etermine' by t-e meanin, of carnation 3i.e.
flesh4colour4 55 t-at i*# by t-e com/$e=. T-i* $ack of -one*ty *-ow* t-at t-e re*i*tance
-ere i* at it* ,reate*t beca.*e t-e *ymbo$i*m i* -ere mo*t tran*/arent# an' t-e *tr.,,$e
between $ibi'o an' re/re**ion i* mo*t inten*e in connection wit- t-i* /-a$$ic t-eme. T-e
remark t-at t-e*e f$ower* were often ,i&en -er by -er fiancN i*# to,et-er wit- t-e 'o.b$e
meanin, of carnation# a *ti$$ f.rt-er in'ication of t-eir /-a$$ic *i,nificance in t-e 'ream.
T-e occa*ion of t-e /re*ent of f$ower* '.rin, t-e 'ay i* em/$oye' to e=/re** t-e t-o.,-t
of a *e=.a$ /re*ent an' a ret.rn /re*ent. S-e ,i&e* -er &ir,inity an' e=/ect* in ret.rn for
it a ric- $o&e5$ife. 0.t t-e wor'*: @epensive flo"ers6 one has to pa$ for them1 may -a&e a
rea$# financia$ meanin,. 55 T-e f$ower5*ymbo$i*m in t-e 'ream t-.* com/ri*e* t-e
&ir,ina$ fema$e# t-e ma$e *ymbo$# an' t-e reference to &io$ent 'ef$oration. It i* to be note'
t-at *e=.a$ f$ower5*ymbo$i*m# w-ic-# of co.r*e# i* &ery wi'e*/rea'# *ymbo$i*e* t-e
-.man *e=.a$ or,an* by f$ower*# t-e *e=.a$ or,an* of /$ant*< in'ee'# /re*ent* of f$ower*
between $o&er* may /er-a/* -a&e t-i* .ncon*cio.* *i,nificance.
T-e birt-'ay for w-ic- *-e i* makin, /re/aration* in t-e 'ream /robab$y *i,nifie* t-e
birt- of a c-i$'. S-e i'entifie* -er*e$f wit- t-e bri'e,room# an' re/re*ent* -im /re/arin,
-er for a birt- 3-a&in, coit.* wit- -er4. It i* a* t-o.,- t-e $atent t-o.,-t* were to *ay: @If
I were -e# I wo.$' not wait# b.t I wo.$' 'ef$ower t-e bri'e wit-o.t a*kin, -er< I wo.$'
.*e &io$ence.1 In'ee'# t-e wor' violate /oint* to t-i*. T-.* e&en t-e *a'i*tic $ibi'ina$
com/onent* fin' e=/re**ion.
In a 'ee/er *trat.m of t-e 'ream t-e *entence I arran'e# etc.# /robab$y -a* an a.to5erotic#
t-at i*# an infanti$e *i,nificance.
S-e a$*o -a* a know$e',e 55 /o**ib$e on$y in t-e 'ream 55 of -er /-y*ica$ nee'< *-e *ee*
-er*e$f f$at $ike a tab$e# *o t-at *-e em/-a*i*e* a$$ t-e more -er &ir,inity# t-e co*t$ine** of
t-e centre 3anot-er time *-e ca$$* it a centre4piece of flo"ers4. E&en t-e -oriConta$
e$ement of t-e tab$e may contrib.te *omet-in, to t-e *ymbo$. 55 T-e concentration of t-e
'ream i* wort-y of remark< not-in, i* *./erf$.o.*# e&ery wor' i* a *ymbo$.
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?ater on *-e brin,* me a *.//$ement to t-i* 'ream: @I decorate the flo"ers "ith 'reen
crin(led paper.1 S-e a''* t-at it wa* fanc$ paper of t-e *ort w-ic- i* .*e' to 'i*,.i*e
or'inary f$ower/ot*. S-e *ay* a$*o: @To -i'e .nti'y t-in,*# w-ate&er wa* to be *een
w-ic- wa* not /retty to t-e eye< t-ere i* a ,a/# a $itt$e */ace in t-e f$ower*. T-e /a/er
$ook* $ike &e$&et or mo**.1 +it- decorate *-e a**ociate* decorum# a* I e=/ecte'. T-e
,reen co$o.r i* &ery /rominent# an' wit- t-i* *-e a**ociate* hope# yet anot-er reference to
/re,nancy. 55 In t-i* /art of t-e 'ream t-e i'entification wit- t-e man i* not t-e 'ominant
feat.re# b.t t-o.,-t* of *-ame an' frankne** e=/re** t-em*e$&e*. S-e make* -er*e$f
bea.tif.$ for -im< *-e a'mit* /-y*ica$ 'efect*# of w-ic- *-e i* a*-ame' an' w-ic- *-e
wi*-e* to correct. T-e a**ociation* velvet an' moss 'i*tinct$y /oint to crines pu%is.
T-e 'ream i* an e=/re**ion of t-o.,-t* -ar'$y known to t-e wakin, *tate of t-e ,ir$<
t-o.,-t* w-ic- 'ea$ wit- t-e $o&e of t-e *en*e* an' it* or,an*< *-e i* @/re/are' for a
birt-'ay1# i.e. *-e -a* coit.*< t-e fear of 'ef$oration an' /er-a/* t-e /$ea*.rab$y tone'
/ain fin' e=/re**ion< *-e a'mit* -er /-y*ica$ 'efect* an' o&ercom/en*ate* t-em by
mean* of an o&er5e*timation of t-e &a$.e of -er &ir,inity. %er *-ame e=c.*e* t-e
emer,in, *en*.a$ity by t-e fact t-at t-e aim of it a$$ i* t-e c-i$'. E&en materia$
con*i'eration*# w-ic- are forei,n to t-e $o&er# fin' e=/re**ion -ere. T-e affect of t-e
*im/$e 'ream 55 t-e fee$in, of b$i** 55 *-ow* t-at -ere *tron, emotiona$ com/$e=e* -a&e
fo.n' *ati*faction.
I c$o*e wit- t-e 55
!. Dream of a c-emi*t.
3A yo.n, man w-o -a* been tryin, to ,i&e ./ -i* -abit of ma*t.rbation by *.b*tit.tin,
interco.r*e wit- a woman.4
2reliminar$ statement: On t-e 'ay before t-e 'ream -e -a' been in*tr.ctin, a *t.'ent a*
to Gri'nard+s reaction# in w-ic- ma,ne*i.m i* 'i**o$&e' in ab*o$.te$y /.re et-er .n'er
t-e cata$ytic inf$.ence of io'ine. Two 'ay* ear$ier t-ere -a' been an e=/$o*ion in t-e
co.r*e of t-e *ame reaction# in w-ic- *omeone -a' b.rne' -i* -an'.
Dream I. Be is 'oin' to ma(e phen$lma'nesium%romide6 he sees the apparatus "ith
particular distinctness, %ut he has su%stituted himself for the ma'nesium5 Be is no" in a
curious, "averin' attitude5 Be (eeps on repeatin' to himself: )This is the ri'ht thin', it is
"or(in', m$ feet are %e'innin' to dissolve, and m$ (nees are 'ettin' soft5+ Then he
reaches do"n and feels for his feet, and mean"hile 9he does not (no" ho": he ta(es his
le's out of the car%o$, and then a'ain he sa$s to himself: )That can+t %e 5 5 5 Oes, it has
%een done correctl$5+ Then he partiall$ "a(es, and repeats the dream to himself, %ecause
he "ants to tell it to me5 Be is positivel$ afraid of the anal$sis of the dream5 Be is much
ecited durin' this state of semi4sleep, and repeats continuall$: )2hen$l, phen$l.1
Dream II. Be is in 5 5 5 "ith his "hole famil$5 Be is supposed to %e at the 3chottentor at
half4past eleven in order to (eep an appointment "ith the lad$ in 0uestion, %ut he does
not "a(e until half4past eleven5 Be sa$s to himself: )It is too late no"6 "hen $ou 'et there
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it "ill %e half4past t"elve5+ The net moment he sees the "hole famil$ 'athered a%out the
ta%le 44 his mother and the parlour4maid "ith the soup4tureen "ith peculiar distinctness5
Then he sa$s to himself: );ell, if "e are sittin' do"n to eat alread$, I certainl$ can+t 'et
a"a$.1
!nal$sis. %e fee$* *.re t-at e&en t-e fir*t 'ream contain* a reference to t-e $a'y w-om -e
i* to meet at t-e /$ace of ren'eC&o.* 3t-e 'ream wa* 'reame' '.rin, t-e ni,-t before t-e
e=/ecte' meetin,4. T-e *t.'ent w-om -e wa* in*tr.ctin, i* a /artic.$ar$y .n/$ea*ant
fe$$ow< t-e c-emi*t -a' *ai' to -im: @T-at i*n1t ri,-t# beca.*e t-e ma,ne*i.m wa* *ti$$
.naffecte'#1 an' t-e *t.'ent -a' an*were'# a* t-o.,- -e were ;.ite .nconcerne': @Nor it
i*.1 %e -im*e$f m.*t be t-i* *t.'ent< -e i* a* in'ifferent to -i* anal$sis a* t-e *t.'ent i* to
-i* s$nthesis< t-e he in t-e 'ream# -owe&er# w-o /erform* t-e o/eration# i* my*e$f. %ow
.n/$ea*ant -e m.*t *eem to me wit- -i* in'ifference to t-e re*.$tA
A,ain# -e i* t-e materia$ wit- w-ic- t-e ana$y*i* 3*ynt-e*i*4 i* ma'e. For t-e ;.e*tion i*
t-e *.cce** of t-e treatment. T-e $e,* in t-e 'ream reca$$ an im/re**ion of t-e /re&io.*
e&enin,. %e met a $a'y at a 'ancin, c$a** of w-om -e wi*-e' to make a con;.e*t< -e
/re**e' -er to -im *o c$o*e$y t-at *-e once crie' o.t. A* -e cea*e' to /re** -er $e,* -e
fe$t -er firm# re*/on'in, /re**.re a,ain*t -i* $ower t-i,-* a* far a* 6.*t abo&e t-e knee*#
t-e */ot mentione' in t-e 'ream. In t-i* *it.ation# t-en# t-e woman i* t-e ma,ne*i.m in
t-e retort# w-ic- i* at $a*t workin,. %e i* feminine towar'* me# a* -e i* &iri$e towar'* t-e
woman. If -e *.ccee'* wit- t-e woman# t-e treatment wi$$ a$*o *.ccee'. Fee$in, -im*e$f
an' becomin, aware of -i* knee* refer* to ma*t.rbation# an' corre*/on'* to -i* fati,.e of
t-e /re&io.* 'ay . . . T-e ren'eC&o.* -a' act.a$$y been ma'e for -a$f5/a*t e$e&en. %i*
wi*- to o&er*$ee/ -im*e$f an' to kee/ to -i* *e=.a$ ob6ect at -ome 3t-at i*# ma*t.rbation4
corre*/on'* to -i* re*i*tance.
%e *ay*# in re*/ect to t-e re/etition of t-e name /-eny$# t-at a$$ t-e*e ra'ica$* en'in, in $l
-a&e a$way* been /$ea*in, to -im< t-ey are &ery con&enient to .*e: benCy$# acety$# etc.
T-at# -owe&er# e=/$aine' not-in,. 0.t w-en I /ro/o*e' t-e root 3chlemihl -e $a.,-e'
-earti$y# an' to$' me t-at '.rin, t-e *.mmer -e -a' rea' a book by PrN&o*t w-ic-
containe' a c-a/ter: Les eclus de l+amour# an' in t-i* t-ere wa* *ome mention of
3chlemilies< an' in rea'in, of t-e*e o.tca*t* -e *ai' to -im*e$f: @T-at i* my ca*e.1 %e
wo.$' -a&e /$aye' t-e 3chlemihl if -e -a' mi**e' t-e a//ointment.
It *eem* t-at t-e *e=.a$ *ymbo$i*m of 'ream* -a* a$rea'y been 'irect$y confirme' by
e=/eriment. In 1!1 Dr F. Sc-rGtter# at t-e in*tance of %. Swobo'a# /ro'.ce' 'ream* in
'ee/$y -y/noti*e' /er*on* by *.,,e*tion* w-ic- 'etermine' a $ar,e /art of t-e
'reamcontent.
If t-e *.,,e*tion /ro/o*e' t-at t-e *.b6ect *-o.$' 'ream of norma$ or abnorma$
*e=.a$ re$ation*# t-e 'ream carrie' o.t t-e*e or'er* by re/$acin, *e=.a$ materia$ by t-e
*ymbo$* wit- w-ic- /*yc-oana$ytic 'ream5inter/retation -a* ma'e .* fami$iar. T-.*#
fo$$owin, t-e *.,,e*tion t-at t-e 'reamer *-o.$' 'ream of -omo*e=.a$ re$ation* wit- a
$a'y frien'# t-i* frien' a//eare' in t-e 'ream carryin, a *-abby tra&e$$in,5ba,# ./on
w-ic- t-ere wa* a $abe$ wit- t-e /rinte' wor'*: @For $a'ie* on$y1. T-e 'reamer wa*
be$ie&e' ne&er to -a&e -ear' of 'ream5*ymbo$i*ation or of 'ream5inter/retation.
)nfort.nate$y# t-e &a$.e of t-i* im/ortant in&e*ti,ation wa* 'imini*-e' by t-e fact t-at
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Dr Sc-rGtter *-ort$y afterwar'* committe' *.ici'e. Of -i* 'ream5e=/eriment* -e ,a&e .*
on$y a /re$iminary re/ort in t-e Ientral%latt fDr 2s$choanal$se.
Simi$ar re*.$t* were re/orte' in 1!2 by G. Roffen*tein. E*/ecia$$y intere*tin, were t-e
e=/eriment* /erforme' by 0et$-eim an' %artmann# beca.*e t-ey e$iminate' -y/no*i*.
T-e*e a.t-or* to$' *torie* of a cr.'e *e=.a$ content to conf.*e' /atient* *.fferin, from
For*akoff1* /*yc-o*i*# an' ob*er&e' t-e 'i*tortion* w-ic- a//eare' w-en t-e materia$
re$ate' wa* re/ro'.ce'.2 It wa* *-own t-at t-e re/ro'.ce' materia$ containe' *ymbo$*
ma'e fami$iar by t-e inter/retation of 'ream* 3c$imbin, *tair*# *tabbin, an' *-ootin, a*
*ymbo$* of coit.*# kni&e* an' ci,arette* a* *ymbo$* of t-e /eni*4. S/ecia$ &a$.e wa*
attac-e' to t-e a//earance of t-e *ymbo$ of c$imbin, *tair*# for# a* t-e a.t-or* 6.*t$y
ob*er&e'# @a *ymbo$i*ation of t-i* *ort co.$' not be effecte' by a con*cio.* wi*- to
'i*tort.1
On$y w-en we -a&e forme' a '.e e*timate of t-e im/ortance of *ymbo$i*m in 'ream* can
we contin.e t-e *t.'y of t-e t$pical dreams w-ic- wa* interr./te' in an ear$ier c-a/ter
3/. 1914. I fee$ 6.*tifie' in 'i&i'in, t-e*e 'ream* ro.,-$y into two c$a**e*: fir*t# t-o*e
w-ic- a$way* rea$$y -a&e t-e *ame meanin,# an' *econ'# t-o*e w-ic- 'e*/ite t-e *ame or
a *imi$ar content m.*t ne&ert-e$e** be ,i&en t-e mo*t &arie' inter/retation*. Of t-e
ty/ica$ 'ream* be$on,in, to t-e fir*t c$a** I -a&e a$rea'y 'ea$t fair$y f.$$y wit- t-e
e=amination5'ream.
On acco.nt of t-eir *imi$ar affecti&e c-aracter# t-e 'ream* of mi**in, a train 'e*er&e to
be ranke' wit- t-e e=amination5'ream*< moreo&er# t-eir inter/retation 6.*tifie* t-i*
a//ro=imation. T-ey are con*o$ation5'ream*# 'irecte' a,ain*t anot-er an=iety /ercei&e'
in 'ream* 55 t-e fear of 'eat-. @To 'e/art1 i* one of t-e mo*t fre;.ent an' one of t-e mo*t
rea'i$y e*tab$i*-e' of t-e 'eat-5*ymbo$*. T-e 'ream t-erefore *ay* con*o$in,$y:
@Rea**.re yo.r*e$f# yo. are not ,oin, to 'ie 3to 'e/art41# 6.*t a* t-e e=amination5'ream
ca$m* .* by *ayin,: @Don1t be afrai'< t-i* time# too# not-in, wi$$ -a//en to yo..1 T-e
'iffic.$ty in .n'er*tan'in, bot- kin'* of 'ream* i* '.e to t-e fact t-at t-e an=iety i*
attac-e' /reci*e$y to t-e e=/re**ion of con*o$ation.
T-e meanin, of t-e @'ream* '.e to 'enta$ *tim.$.*1 w-ic- I -a&e often eno.,- -a' to
ana$y*e in my /atient* e*ca/e' me for a $on, time beca.*e# m.c- to my a*toni*-ment#
t-ey -abit.a$$y offere' too ,reat a re*i*tance to inter/retation. 0.t fina$$y an
o&erw-e$min, ma** of e&i'ence con&ince' me t-at in t-e ca*e of men not-in, ot-er t-an
t-e ma*t.rbatory 'e*ire* of /.berty f.rni*- t-e moti&e /ower of t-e*e 'ream*. I *-a$$
ana$y*e two *.c- 'ream*# one of w-ic- i* a$*o a @f$yin, 'ream1. T-e two 'ream* were
'reame' by t-e *ame /er*on 55 a yo.n, man of /rono.nce' -omo*e=.a$ity w-ic-#
-owe&er# -a* been in-ibite' in $ife.
Be is "itnessin' a performance of Fi'e$io from the stalls of the opera4house6 he is sittin'
net to L5, "hose personalit$ is con'enial to him, and "hose friendship he "ould li(e to
have5 3uddenl$ he flies dia'onall$ ri'ht across the stalls6 he then puts his hand in his
mouth and dra"s out t"o of his teeth.
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%e -im*e$f 'e*cribe* t-e f$i,-t by *ayin, t-at it wa* a* t-o.,- -e were t-rown into t-e
air. A* t-e o/era /erforme' wa* Fidelio# -e reca$$* t-e wor'*:
%e w-o a c-armin, wife ac;.ire* . . .
0.t t-e ac;.i*ition of e&en t-e mo*t c-armin, wife i* not amon, t-e wi*-e* of t-e
'reamer. Two ot-er $ine* wo.$' be more a//ro/riate:
%e w-o *.ccee'* in t-e $.cky 3bi,4 t-row
T-e frien' of a frien' to be . . .
T-e 'ream t-.* contain* t-e @$.cky 3bi,4 t-row1# w-ic- i* not# -owe&er# a wi*-5f.$fi$ment
on$y. For it concea$* a$*o t-e /ainf.$ ref$ection t-at in -i* *tri&in, after frien'*-i/ -e -a*
often -a' t-e mi*fort.ne to be @t-rown o.t1# an' t-e fear $e*t t-i* fate may be re/eate' in
t-e ca*e of t-e yo.n, man by w-o*e *i'e -e -a* en6oye' t-e /erformance of Fidelio. T-i*
i* now fo$$owe' by a confe**ion# *-amef.$ to a man of -i* refinement# to t-e effect t-at
once# after *.c- a re6ection on t-e /art of a frien'# -i* /rofo.n' *e=.a$ $on,in, ca.*e'
-im to ma*t.rbate twice in *.cce**ion.
T-e ot-er 'ream i* a* fo$$ow*: T"o universit$ professors of his ac0uaintance are treatin'
him in m$ place5 8ne of them does somethin' to his penis6 he is afraid of an operation5
The other thrusts an iron %ar a'ainst his mouth, so that he loses one or t"o teeth5 Be is
%ound "ith four sil( hand(erchiefs.
T-e *e=.a$ *i,nificance of t-i* 'ream can -ar'$y be 'o.bte'. T-e *i$k -an'kerc-ief*
a$$.'e to an i'entification wit- a -omo*e=.a$ of -i* ac;.aintance. T-e 'reamer# w-o -a*
ne&er ac-ie&e' coition 3nor -a* -e e&er act.a$$y *o.,-t *e=.a$ interco.r*e4 wit- men#
concei&e* t-e *e=.a$ act on t-e $ine* of ma*t.rbation wit- w-ic- -e wa* fami$iar '.rin,
/.berty.
I be$ie&e t-at t-e fre;.ent mo'ification* of t-e ty/ica$ 'ream '.e to 'enta$ *tim.$.* 55
t-at# for e=am/$e# in w-ic- anot-er /er*on 'raw* t-e toot- from t-e 'reamer1* mo.t- 55
wi$$ be ma'e inte$$i,ib$e by t-e *ame e=/$anation.7 It may# -owe&er# be 'iffic.$t to
.n'er*tan' -ow @'enta$ *tim.$.*1 can -a&e come to -a&e t-i* *i,nificance. 0.t -ere I may
'raw attention to t-e fre;.ent @'i*/$acement from be$ow to abo&e1 w-ic- i* at t-e *er&ice
of *e=.a$ re/re**ion# an' by mean* of w-ic- a$$ kin'* of *en*ation* an' intention*
occ.rrin, in -y*teria# w-ic- o.,-t to be $oca$i*e' in t-e ,enita$*# may at a$$ e&ent* be
rea$i*e' in ot-er# .nob6ectionab$e /art* of t-e bo'y. +e -a&e a ca*e of *.c- 'i*/$acement
w-en t-e ,enita$* are re/$ace' by t-e face in t-e *ymbo$i*m of .ncon*cio.* t-o.,-t. T-i*
i* corroborate' by t-e fact t-at &erba$ .*a,e re$ate* t-e b.ttock* to t-e c-eek*#8 an' t-e
la%ia minora to t-e $i/* w-ic- enc$o*e t-e orifice of t-e mo.t-. T-e no*e i* com/are' to
t-e /eni* in n.mero.* a$$.*ion*# an' in eac- ca*e t-e /re*ence of -air com/$ete* t-e
re*emb$ance. On$y one feat.re 55 t-e teet- 55 i* beyon' a$$ /o**ibi$ity of bein, com/are'
in t-i* way< b.t it i* 6.*t t-i* coinci'ence of a,reement an' 'i*a,reement w-ic- make*
t-e teet- *.itab$e for /.r/o*e* of re/re*entation .n'er t-e /re**.re of *e=.a$ re/re**ion.
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I wi$$ not a**ert t-at t-e inter/retation of 'ream* '.e to 'enta$ *tim.$.* a* 'ream* of
ma*t.rbation 3t-e correctne** of w-ic- I cannot 'o.bt4 -a* been free' of a$$ ob*c.rity.9 I
carry t-e e=/$anation a* far a* I am ab$e# an' m.*t $ea&e t-e re*t .n*o$&e'. 0.t I m.*t
refer to yet anot-er re$ation in'icate' by a co$$o;.ia$ e=/re**ion. In A.*tria t-ere i* in .*e
an in'e$icate 'e*i,nation for t-e act of ma*t.rbation# name$y: @To /.$$ one o.t1# or @to /.$$
one off1.: I am .nab$e to *ay w-ence t-e*e co$$o;.ia$i*m* ori,inate# or on w-at
*ymbo$i*m* t-ey are ba*e'< b.t t-e teet- wo.$' &ery we$$ fit in wit- t-e fir*t of t-e two.
Dream* of /.$$in, teet-# an' of teet- fa$$in, o.t# are inter/rete' in /o/.$ar be$ief to mean
t-e 'eat- of a connection. P*yc-oana$y*i* can a'mit of *.c- a meanin, on$y at t-e mo*t
a* a 6okin, a$$.*ion to t-e *en*e a$rea'y in'icate'.
To t-e *econ' ,ro./ of ty/ica$ 'ream* be$on, t-o*e in w-ic- one i* f$yin, or -o&erin,#
fa$$in,# *wimmin,# etc. +-at 'o t-e*e 'ream* *i,nifyI %ere we cannot ,enera$i*e. T-ey
mean# a* we *-a$$ $earn# *omet-in, 'ifferent in eac- ca*e< on$y# t-e *en*ory materia$
w-ic- t-ey contain a$way* come* from t-e *ame *o.rce.
+e m.*t conc$.'e from t-e information obtaine' in /*yc-oana$y*i* t-at t-e*e 'ream*
a$*o re/eat im/re**ion* of o.r c-i$'-oo' 55 t-at i*# t-at t-ey refer to t-e ,ame* in&o$&in,
mo&ement w-ic- -a&e *.c- an e=traor'inary attraction for c-i$'ren. +-ere i* t-e .nc$e
w-o -a* ne&er ma'e a c-i$' f$y by r.nnin, wit- it acro** t-e room# wit- o.t*tretc-e'
arm*# or -a* ne&er /$aye' at fa$$in, wit- it by rockin, it on -i* knee an' t-en *.''en$y
*trai,-tenin, -i* $e,# or by $iftin, it abo&e -i* -ea' an' *.''en$y /reten'in, to wit-'raw
-i* *.//ortin, -an'I At *.c- moment* c-i$'ren *-o.t wit- 6oy an' in*atiab$y 'eman' a
re/etition of t-e /erformance# e*/ecia$$y if a $itt$e fri,-t an' 'iCCine** are in&o$&e' in it.
In after year* t-ey re/eat t-eir *en*ation* in 'ream*# b.t in 'ream* t-ey omit t-e -an'*
t-at -e$' t-em# *o t-at now t-ey are free to f$oat or fa$$. +e know t-at a$$ *ma$$ c-i$'ren
-a&e a fon'ne** for *.c- ,ame* a* rockin, an' *ee*awin,< an' w-en t-ey *ee ,ymna*tic
/erformance* at t-e circ.* t-eir reco$$ection of *.c- ,ame* i* refre*-e'. In *ome boy* t-e
-y*terica$ attack con*i*t* *im/$y in t-e re/ro'.ction of *.c- /erformance*# w-ic- t-ey
accom/$i*- wit- ,reat 'e=terity. Not infre;.ent$y *e=.a$ *en*ation* are e=cite' by t-e*e
,ame* of mo&ement# innocent t-o.,- t-ey are in t-em*e$&e*. To e=/re** t-e matter in a
few wor'*: it i* t-e*e rom/in, ,ame* of c-i$'-oo' w-ic- are bein, re/eate' in 'ream* of
f$yin,# fa$$in,# &erti,o# an' t-e $ike# b.t t-e /$ea*.rab$e *en*ation* are now tran*forme'
into an=iety. 0.t# a* e&ery mot-er know*# t-e rom/in, of c-i$'ren often eno.,- en'* in
;.arre$$in, an' tear*.
I -a&e t-erefore ,oo' rea*on for re6ectin, t-e e=/$anation t-at it i* t-e con'ition of o.r
c.taneo.* *en*ation* '.rin, *$ee/# t-e *en*ation of t-e mo&ement* of t-e $.n,*# etc.# t-at
e&oke 'ream* of f$yin, an' fa$$in,. A* I *ee it# t-e*e *en*ation* -a&e t-em*e$&e* been
re/ro'.ce' from t-e memory to w-ic- t-e 'ream refer* 55 t-at t-ey are t-erefore
'reamcontent#
an' not 'ream5*o.rce*.D
T-i* materia$# con*i*tin, of *en*ation* of motion# *imi$ar in c-aracter# an' ori,inatin,
from t-e *ame *o.rce*# i* now .*e' for t-e re/re*entation of t-e mo*t manifo$'
'reamt-o.,-t*.
Dream* of f$yin, or -o&erin,# for t-e mo*t /art /$ea*.rab$y tone'# wi$$ ca$$ for
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1D7
t-e mo*t wi'e$y 'ifferin, inter/retation* 55 inter/retation* of a ;.ite */ecia$ nat.re in t-e
ca*e of *ome 'reamer*# an' inter/retation* of a ty/ica$ nat.re in t-at of ot-er*. One of my
/atient* wa* in t-e -abit of 'reamin, &ery fre;.ent$y t-at *-e wa* -o&erin, a $itt$e way
abo&e t-e *treet wit-o.t to.c-in, t-e ,ro.n'. S-e wa* &ery *-ort of *tat.re# an' *-e
*-.nne' e&ery *ort of contamination in&o$&e' by interco.r*e wit- -.man bein,*. %er
'ream of *.*/en*ion 55 w-ic- rai*e' -er feet abo&e t-e ,ro.n' an' a$$owe' -er -ea' to
tower into t-e air 55 f.$fi$$e' bot- of -er wi*-e*. In t-e ca*e of ot-er 'reamer* of t-e *ame
*e=# t-e 'ream of f$yin, -a' t-e *i,nificance of t-e $on,in,: @If on$y I were a $itt$e bir'A1
Simi$ar$y# ot-er* become an,e$* at ni,-t# beca.*e no one -a* e&er ca$$e' t-em an,e$* by
'ay. T-e intimate connection between f$yin, an' t-e i'ea of a bir' make* it
com/re-en*ib$e t-at t-e 'ream of f$yin,# in t-e ca*e of ma$e 'reamer*# *-o.$' .*.a$$y
-a&e a coar*e$y *en*.a$ *i,nificance<! an' we *-o.$' not be *.r/ri*e' to -ear t-at t-i* or
t-at 'reamer i* a$way* &ery /ro.' of -i* abi$ity to f$y.
Dr Pa.$ Fe'ern 3Kienna4 -a* /ro/o.n'e' t-e fa*cinatin, t-eory t-at a ,reat many f$yin,
'ream* are erection 'ream*# *ince t-e remarkab$e /-enomenon of erection# w-ic-
con*tant$y occ./ie* t-e -.man fanta*y# cannot fai$ to be im/re**i&e a* an a//arent
*.*/en*ion of t-e $aw* of ,ra&ity 3cf. t-e win,e' /-a$$i of t-e ancient*4.
It i* a notewort-y fact t-at a /r.'ent e=/erimenter $ike Mo.r$y Ko$'# w-o i* rea$$y a&er*e
to any kin' of inter/retation# ne&ert-e$e** 'efen'* t-e erotic inter/retation of t-e 'ream*
of f$yin, an' -o&erin,.2" %e 'e*cribe* t-e erotic e$ement a* @t-e mo*t im/ortant moti&e
factor of t-e -o&erin, 'ream1# an' refer* to t-e *tron, *en*e of bo'i$y &ibration w-ic-
accom/anie* t-i* ty/e of 'ream# an' t-e fre;.ent connection of *.c- 'ream* wit-
erection* an' emi**ion*.
Dream* of fallin' are more fre;.ent$y c-aracteri*e' by an=iety. T-eir inter/retation#
w-en t-ey occ.r in women# offer* no 'iffic.$ty# beca.*e t-ey near$y a$way* acce/t t-e
*ymbo$ic meanin, of fa$$in,# w-ic- i* a circ.m$oc.tion for ,i&in, way to an erotic
tem/tation. +e -a&e not yet e=-a.*te' t-e infanti$e *o.rce* of t-e 'ream of fa$$in,<
near$y a$$ c-i$'ren -a&e fa$$en occa*iona$$y# an' t-en been /icke' ./ an' fon'$e'< if t-ey
fe$$ o.t of be' at ni,-t# t-ey were /icke' ./ by t-e n.r*e an' taken into -er be'.
Peo/$e w-o 'ream often# an' wit- ,reat en6oyment# of s"immin'# c$ea&in, t-e wa&e*#
etc.# -a&e .*.a$$y been be'wetter*# an' t-ey now re/eat in t-e 'ream a /$ea*.re w-ic-
t-ey -a&e $on, *ince $earne' to for,o. +e *-a$$ *oon $earn# from one e=am/$e or anot-er#
to w-at re/re*entation* 'ream* of *wimmin, ea*i$y $en' t-em*e$&e*.
T-e inter/retation of 'ream* of fire 6.*tifie* a /ro-ibition of t-e n.r*ery# w-ic- forbi'*
c-i$'ren to @/$ay wit- fire1 *o t-at t-ey may not wet t-e be' at ni,-t. T-e*e 'ream* a$*o
are ba*e' on remini*cence* of t-e enuresis nocturna of c-i$'-oo'. In my Fra'ment of an
!nal$sis of B$steria21 I -a&e ,i&en t-e com/$ete ana$y*i* an' *ynt-e*i* of *.c- a 'ream
of fire in connection wit- t-e infanti$e -i*tory of t-e 'reamer# an' -a&e *-own for t-e
re/re*entation of w-at mat.rer im/.$*e* t-i* infanti$e materia$ -a* been .ti$i*e'.
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1D8
It wo.$' be /o**ib$e to cite ;.ite a n.mber of ot-er @ty/ica$1 'ream*# if by *.c- one
.n'er*tan'* 'ream* in w-ic- t-ere i* a fre;.ent rec.rrence# in t-e 'ream* of 'ifferent
/er*on*# of t-e *ame manife*t 'ream5content. For e=am/$e: 'ream* of /a**in, t-ro.,-
narrow a$$ey*# or a w-o$e *.ite of room*< 'ream* of b.r,$ar*# in re*/ect of w-om ner&o.*
/eo/$e take mea*.re* of /reca.tion before ,oin, to be'< 'ream* of bein, c-a*e' by wi$'
anima$* 3b.$$*# -or*e*4< or of bein, t-reatene' wit- kni&e*# 'a,,er*# an' $ance*. T-e $a*t
two t-eme* are c-aracteri*tic of t-e manife*t 'ream5content of /er*on* *.fferin, from
an=iety# etc. A */ecia$ in&e*ti,ation of t-i* c$a** of materia$ wo.$' be we$$ wort- w-i$e.
In $ie. of t-i* I *-a$$ offer two ob*er&ation*# w-ic- 'o not# -owe&er# a//$y e=c$.*i&e$y to
ty/ica$ 'ream*.
T-e more one i* occ./ie' wit- t-e *o$.tion of 'ream*# t-e rea'ier one become* to
acknow$e',e t-at t-e ma6ority of t-e 'ream* of a'.$t* 'ea$ wit- *e=.a$ materia$ an' ,i&e
e=/re**ion to erotic wi*-e*. On$y t-o*e w-o rea$$y ana$y*e 'ream*# t-at i*# t-o*e w-o
/enetrate from t-eir manife*t content to t-e $atent 'ream5t-o.,-t*# can form an o/inion
on t-i* *.b6ect< b.t ne&er t-o*e w-o are *ati*fie' wit- re,i*terin, mere$y t-e manife*t
content 3a*# for e=am/$e# NOcke in -i* writin,* on *e=.a$ 'ream*4. ?et .* reco,ni*e at
once t-at t-ere i* not-in, a*toni*-in, in t-i* fact# w-ic- i* entire$y con*i*tent wit- t-e
/rinci/$e* of 'ream5inter/retation. No ot-er in*tinct -a* -a' to .n'er,o *o m.c-
*.//re**ion# from t-e time of c-i$'-oo' onwar'*# a* t-e *e=.a$ in*tinct in a$$ it*
n.mero.* com/onent*:2 from no ot-er in*tinct are *o many an' *.c- inten*e .ncon*cio.*
wi*-e* $eft o&er# w-ic- now# in t-e *$ee/in, *tate# ,enerate 'ream*. In
'reaminter/retation
t-i* im/ortance of t-e *e=.a$ com/$e=e* m.*t ne&er be for,otten# t-o.,-
one m.*t not# of co.r*e# e=a,,erate it to t-e e=c$.*ion of a$$ ot-er factor*.
Of many 'ream* it may be a*certaine'# by caref.$ inter/retation# t-at t-ey may e&en be
.n'er*too' bi*e=.a$$y# ina*m.c- a* t-ey yie$' an in'i*/.tab$e o&er5inter/retation# in
w-ic- t-ey rea$i*e -omo*e=.a$ im/.$*e* 55 t-at i*# im/.$*e* w-ic- are contrary to t-e
norma$ *e=.a$ acti&ity of t-e 'reamer. 0.t t-at a$$ 'ream* are to be inter/rete' bi*e=.a$$y#
a* Steke$22 maintain*# an' A'$er#27 *eem* to me to be a ,enera$i*ation a* in*.*ce/tib$e of
/roof a* it i* im/robab$e# an' one w-ic-# t-erefore# I *-o.$' be $ot- to 'efen'< for I
*-o.$'# abo&e a$$# be at a $o** to know -ow to 'i*/o*e of t-e ob&io.* fact t-at t-ere are
many 'ream* w-ic- *ati*fy ot-er t-an erotic nee'* 3takin, t-e wor' in t-e wi'e*t *en*e4#
a*# for e=am/$e# 'ream* of -.n,er# t-ir*t# comfort# etc. An' ot-er *imi$ar a**ertion*# to
t-e effect t-at @be-in' e&ery 'ream one fin'* a reference to 'eat-1 3Steke$4# or t-at e&ery
'ream *-ow* @an a'&ance from t-e feminine to t-e ma*c.$ine $ine1 3A'$er4# *eem to me to
,o far beyon' t-e a'mi**ib$e in t-e inter/retation of 'ream*. T-e a**ertion t-at all
dreams call for a seual interpretation# a,ain*t w-ic- t-ere i* *.c- an .ntirin, /o$emic in
t-e $iterat.re of t-e *.b6ect# i* ;.ite forei,n to my Interpretation of Dreams. It wi$$ not be
fo.n' in any of t-e ei,-t e'ition* of t-i* book# an' i* in /a$/ab$e contra'iction to t-e re*t
of it* content*.
+e -a&e *tate' e$*ew-ere t-at 'ream* w-ic- are con*/ic.o.*$y innocent common$y
embo'y cr.'e erotic wi*-e*# an' t-i* we mi,-t confirm by n.mero.* f.rt-er e=am/$e*.
0.t many 'ream* w-ic- a//ear in'ifferent# in w-ic- we *-o.$' ne&er *.*/ect a ten'ency
in any /artic.$ar 'irection# may be trace'# accor'in, to t-e ana$y*i*# to .nmi*takab$y
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*e=.a$ wi*-5im/.$*e*# often of an .n*.*/ecte' nat.re. For e=am/$e# w-o# before it -a'
been inter/rete'# wo.$' -a&e *.*/ecte' a *e=.a$ wi*- in t-e fo$$owin, 'reamI T-e
'reamer re$ate*: <et"een t"o statel$ palaces there stands, a little "a$ %ac(, a small
house, "hose doors are closed5 M$ "ife leads me alon' the little %it of road leadin' to
the house and pushes the door open, and then I slip 0uic(l$ and easil$ into the interior of
a court$ard that slopes steepl$ up"ards.
Anyone w-o -a* -a' e=/erience in t-e tran*$atin, of 'ream* wi$$# of co.r*e# at once be
remin'e' t-at /enetration into narrow */ace* an' t-e o/enin, of $ocke' 'oor* are amon,
t-e commone*t of *e=.a$ *ymbo$*# an' wi$$ rea'i$y *ee in t-i* 'ream a re/re*entation of
attem/te' coition from be-in' 3between t-e two *tate$y b.ttock* of t-e fema$e bo'y4. T-e
narrow# *tee/ /a**a,e i*# of co.r*e# t-e &a,ina< t-e a**i*tance attrib.te' to t-e wife of t-e
'reamer re;.ire* t-e inter/retation t-at in rea$ity it i* on$y con*i'eration for t-e wife
w-ic- i* re*/on*ib$e for ab*tention from *.c- an attem/t. Moreo&er# in;.iry *-ow* t-at
on t-e /re&io.* 'ay a yo.n, ,ir$ -a' entere' t-e -o.*e-o$' of t-e 'reamer< *-e -a'
/$ea*e' -im# an' -a' ,i&en -im t-e im/re**ion t-at *-e wo.$' not be a$to,et-er a&er*e to
an a//roac- of t-i* *ort. T-e $itt$e -o.*e between t-e two /a$ace* i* taken from t-e
remini*cence of t-e %ra'*c-in in Pra,.e# an' once more /oint* to t-e ,ir$# w-o i* a nati&e
of t-at city.
If# in con&er*ation wit- my /atient*# I em/-a*i*e t-e fre;.ency of t-e Oe'i/.* 'ream 55
t-e 'ream of -a&in, *e=.a$ interco.r*e wit- one1* mot-er 55 I e$icit t-e an*wer: @I cannot
remember *.c- a 'ream.1 Imme'iate$y afterwar'*# -owe&er# t-ere ari*e* t-e reco$$ection
of anot-er# an .nreco,ni*ab$e# in'ifferent 'ream# w-ic- t-e /atient -a* 'reame'
re/eate'$y# an' w-ic- on ana$y*i* /ro&e* to be a 'ream wit- t-i* &ery content 55 t-at i*#
yet anot-er Oe'i/.* 'ream. I can a**.re t-e rea'er t-at 'i*,.i*e' 'ream* of *e=.a$
interco.r*e wit- t-e 'reamer1* mot-er are far more fre;.ent t-an .n'i*,.i*e' 'ream* to
t-e *ame effect.28
T-ere are 'ream* of $an'*ca/e* an' $oca$itie* in w-ic- em/-a*i* i* a$way* $ai' ./on t-e
a**.rance: @I -a&e been -ere before.1 0.t t-i* @d,/a vu1 -a* a */ecia$ *i,nificance in
'ream*. In t-i* ca*e t-e $oca$ity i* a$way* t-e ,enita$* of t-e mot-er< of no ot-er /$ace can
it be a**erte' wit- *.c- certainty t-at one @-a* been -ere before.1 I wa* once /.CC$e' by
t-e acco.nt of a 'ream ,i&en by a /atient aff$icte' wit- ob*e**iona$ ne.ro*i*. %e 'reame'
t-at -e ca$$e' at a -o.*e w-ere -e -a' been t"ice before. 0.t t-i* &ery /atient -a' $on,
a,o to$' me of an e/i*o'e of -i* *i=t- year. At t-at time -e *-are' -i* mot-er1* be'# an'
-a' ab.*e' t-e occa*ion by in*ertin, -i* fin,er into -i* mot-er1* ,enita$* w-i$e *-e wa*
a*$ee/.
A $ar,e n.mber of 'ream*# w-ic- are fre;.ent$y f.$$ of an=iety# an' often -a&e for
content t-e tra&er*in, of narrow */ace*# or *tayin, $on, in t-e water# are ba*e' ./on
fanta*ie* concernin, t-e intra5.terine $ife# t-e *o6o.rn in t-e mot-er1* womb# an' t-e act
of birt-. I -ere in*ert t-e 'ream of a yo.n, man w-o# in -i* fanta*y# -a* e&en /rofite' by
t-e intra5.terine o//ort.nity of */yin, ./on an act of coition between -i* /arent*.
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1D:
@Be is in a deep shaft, in "hich there is a "indo", as in the 3emmerin' tunnel5 Throu'h
this he sees at first an empt$ landscape, and then he composes a picture in it, "hich is
there all at once and fills up the empt$ space5 The picture represents a field "hich is
%ein' deepl$ tilled %$ an implement, and the "holesome air, the associated idea of hard
"or(, and the %luish4%lac( clods of earth ma(e a pleasant impression on him5 Be then
'oes on and sees a "or( on education l$in' open 5 5 5 and is surprised that so much
attention is devoted in it to the seual feelin's 9of children:, "hich ma(es him thin( of
me.1
%ere i* a /retty water5'ream of a fema$e /atient# w-ic- wa* t.rne' to */ecia$ acco.nt in
t-e co.r*e of treatment.
!t her usual holida$ resort on the 44 La(e, she flin's herself into the dar( "ater at a
place
"here the pale moon is reflected in the "ater.
Dream* of t-i* *ort are /art.rition 'ream*< t-eir inter/retation i* effecte' by re&er*in, t-e
fact recor'e' in t-e manife*t 'ream5content< t-.*# in*tea' of @f$in,in, one*e$f into t-e
water1# rea' @comin, o.t of t-e water1 55 t-at i*# @bein, born1.29 T-e /$ace from w-ic- one
i* born may be reco,ni*e' if one t-ink* of t-e -.moro.* *en*e of t-e Frenc- @la lune1.
T-e /a$e moon t-.* become* t-e w-ite @bottom1# w-ic- t-e c-i$' *oon ,.e**e* to be t-e
/$ace from w-ic- it came. Now w-at can be t-e meanin, of t-e /atient1* wi*-in, to be
born at a -o$i'ay re*ortI I a*ke' t-e 'reamer t-i*# an' *-e re/$ie' wit-o.t -e*itation:
@%a*n1t t-e treatment ma'e me a* t-o.,- I were %orn a'ainI1 T-.* t-e 'ream become* an
in&itation to contin.e t-e treatment at t-i* *.mmer re*ort 55 t-at i*# to &i*it -er t-ere<
/er-a/* it a$*o contain* a &ery ba*-f.$ a$$.*ion to t-e wi*- to become a mot-er -er*e$f.2:
Anot-er 'ream of /art.rition# wit- it* inter/retation# I take from a /a/er by E. >one*.
@3he
stood at the seashore "atchin' a small %o$, "ho seemed to %e hers, "adin' into the
"ater5 This he did till the "ater covered him and she could onl$ see his head %o%%in' up
and do"n near the surface5 The scene then chan'ed to the cro"ded hall of an hotel5 Ber
hus%and left her, and she ))entered into conversation "ith++ a stran'er.
@T-e *econ' -a$f of t-e 'ream wa* 'i*co&ere' in t-e ana$y*i* to re/re*ent f$i,-t from -er
-.*ban'# an' t-e enterin, into intimate re$ation* wit- a t-ir' /er*on# be-in' w-om wa*
/$ain$y in'icate' Mr S.1* brot-er# mentione' in a former 'ream. T-e fir*t /art of t-e
'ream wa* a fair$y e&i'ent birt-5fanta*y. In 'ream* a* in myt-o$o,y# t-e 'e$i&ery of a
c-i$' from t-e .terine water* i* common$y re/re*ente'# by way of 'i*tortion# a* t-e entry
of t-e c-i$' into water< amon, many ot-er in*tance*# t-e birt-* of A'oni*# O*iri*# Mo*e*#
an' 0acc-.* are we$$5known i$$.*tration* of t-i*. T-e bobbin, ./ an' 'own of t-e -ea'
in t-e water at once reca$$e' to t-e /atient t-e *en*ation of ;.ickenin, w-ic- *-e -a'
e=/erience' in -er on$y /re,nancy. T-inkin, of t-e boy ,oin, into t-e water in'.ce' a
re&erie in w-ic- *-e *aw -er*e$f takin, -im o.t of t-e water# carryin, -im into t-e
n.r*ery# wa*-in, an' 're**in, -im# an' in*ta$$in, -im in -er -o.*e-o$'.
@T-e *econ' -a$f of t-e 'ream# t-erefore# re/re*ent* t-o.,-t* concernin, t-e e$o/ement#
w-ic- be$on,e' to t-e fir*t -a$f of t-e .n'er$yin, $atent content< t-e fir*t -a$f of t-e
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'ream corre*/on'e' wit- t-e *econ' -a$f of t-e $atent content# t-e birt- fanta*y. 0e*i'e*
t-i* in&er*ion in t-e or'er# f.rt-er in&er*ion* took /$ace in eac- -a$f of t-e 'ream. In t-e
fir*t -a$f t-e c-i$' entere' t-e water# an' t-en -i* -ea' bobbe'< in t-e .n'er$yin,
'reamt-o.,-t*
t-e ;.ickenin, occ.rre' fir*t# an' t-en t-e c-i$' $eft t-e water 3a 'o.b$e
in&er*ion4. In t-e *econ' -a$f -er -.*ban' $eft -er< in t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* *-e $eft -er
-.*ban'.1
Anot-er /art.rition 'ream i* re$ate' by Abra-am 55 t-e 'ream of a yo.n, woman
e=/ectin, -er fir*t confinement: From one point of the floor of the room a su%terranean
channel leads directl$ into the "ater 9path of parturition44amniotic fluid:5 3he lifts up a
trap in the door, and there immediatel$ appears a creature dressed in %ro"nish fDr,
"hich almost resem%les a seal5 This creature chan'es into the dreamer+s $oun'er
%rother, to "hom her relation has al"a$s %een maternal in character.
Rank -a* *-own from a n.mber of 'ream* t-at /art.rition5'ream* em/$oy t-e *ame
*ymbo$* a* mict.rition5'ream*. T-e erotic *tim.$.* e=/re**e* it*e$f in t-e*e 'ream* a* an
.ret-ra$ *tim.$.*. T-e *tratification of meanin, in t-e*e 'ream* corre*/on'* wit- a
c-an,e in t-e *i,nificance of t-e *ymbo$ *ince c-i$'-oo'.
+e may -ere t.rn back to t-e interr./te' t-eme 3*ee /. 2:4 of t-e /art /$aye' by or,anic#
*$ee/5'i*t.rbin, *tim.$i in 'ream5formation. Dream* w-ic- -a&e come into e=i*tence
.n'er t-e*e inf$.ence* not on$y re&ea$ ;.ite frank$y t-e wi*-5f.$fi$$in, ten'ency# an' t-e
c-aracter of con&enience5'ream*# b.t t-ey &ery often 'i*/$ay a ;.ite tran*/arent
*ymbo$i*m a* we$$# *ince wakin, not infre;.ent$y fo$$ow* a *tim.$.* w-o*e *ati*faction
in *ymbo$ic 'i*,.i*e -a* a$rea'y been &ain$y attem/te' in t-e 'ream. T-i* i* tr.e of
emi**ion 'ream* a* we$$ a* t-o*e e&oke' by t-e nee' to .rinate or 'efecate. T-e /ec.$iar
c-aracter of emi**ion 'ream* /ermit* .* 'irect$y to .nma*k certain *e=.a$ *ymbo$*
a$rea'y reco,ni*e' a* ty/ica$# b.t ne&ert-e$e** &io$ent$y 'i*/.te'# an' it a$*o con&ince* .*
t-at many an a//arent$y innocent 'ream5*it.ation i* mere$y t-e *ymbo$ic /re$.'e to a
cr.'e$y *e=.a$ *cene. T-i*# -owe&er# fin'* direct re/re*entation# a* a r.$e# on$y in t-e
com/arati&e$y infre;.ent emi**ion 'ream*# w-i$e it often eno.,- t.rn* into an
an=iety'ream#
w-ic- $ikewi*e $ea'* to wakin,.
T-e *ymbo$i*m of dreams due to urethral stimulus i* e*/ecia$$y ob&io.*# an' -a* a$way*
been 'i&ine'. %i//ocrate* -a' a$rea'y a'&ance' t-e t-eory t-at a 'i*t.rbance of t-e
b$a''er wa* in'icate' if one 'reamt of fo.ntain* an' */rin,* 3%a&e$ock E$$i*4. Sc-erner#
w-o -a* *t.'ie' t-e manifo$' *ymbo$i*m of t-e .ret-ra$ *tim.$.*# a,ree* t-at @t-e
/owerf.$ .ret-ra$ *tim.$.* a$way* t.rn* into t-e *tim.$ation of t-e *e=.a$ */-ere an' it*
*ymbo$ic ima,ery . . . T-e 'ream '.e to .ret-ra$ *tim.$.* i* often at t-e *ame time t-e
re/re*entati&e of t-e *e=.a$ 'ream.1
O. Rank# w-o*e conc$.*ion* 3in -i* /a/er on Die 3$m%olschichtun' im ;ec(traum4 I
-a&e -ere fo$$owe'# ar,.e* &ery /$a.*ib$y t-at a $ar,e n.mber of @'ream* '.e to .ret-ra$
*tim.$.*1 are rea$$y ca.*e' by *e=.a$ *tim.$i# w-ic- at fir*t *eek to ,ratify t-em*e$&e* by
way of re,re**ion to t-e infanti$e form of .ret-ra$ eroti*m. T-o*e ca*e* are e*/ecia$$y
in*tr.cti&e in w-ic- t-e .ret-ra$ *tim.$.* t-.* /ro'.ce' $ea'* to wakin, an' t-e
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em/tyin, of t-e b$a''er# w-ere./on# in */ite of t-i* re$ief# t-e 'ream i* contin.e'# an'
e=/re**e* it* nee' in .n'i*,.i*e'$y erotic ima,e*.2D
In a ;.ite ana$o,o.* manner 'ream* '.e to intestinal stimulus 'i*c$o*e t-e /ertinent
*ymbo$i*m# an' t-.* confirm t-e re$ation# w-ic- i* a$*o am/$y &erifie' by
et-no/*yc-o$o,y#
of 'old an' feces.2! @T-.*# for e=am/$e# a woman# at a time w-en *-e i*
.n'er t-e care of a /-y*ician on acco.nt of an intestinal disorder# 'ream* of a 'i,,er for
-i''en trea*.re w-o i* b.ryin, a trea*.re in t-e &icinity of a $itt$e woo'en *-e' w-ic-
$ook* $ike a r.ra$ priv$. A *econ' /art of t-e 'ream -a* a* it* content -ow *-e "ipes t-e
posterior of -er c-i$'# a $itt$e ,ir$# w-o -a* soiled herself.1
Dream* of @re*c.e1 are connecte' wit- /art.rition 'ream*. To re*c.e# e*/ecia$$y to re*c.e
from t-e water# i*# w-en 'reame' by a woman# e;.i&a$ent to ,i&in, birt-< t-i* *en*e i*#
-owe&er# mo'ifie' w-en t-e 'reamer i* a man.7"
Robber*# b.r,$ar*# an' ,-o*t*# of w-ic- we are afrai' before ,oin, to be'# an' w-ic-
*ometime* e&en 'i*t.rb o.r *$ee/# ori,inate in one an' t-e *ame c-i$'i*- remini*cence.
T-ey are t-e ni,-t$y &i*itor* w-o -a&e wake' t-e c-i$' in or'er to *et it on t-e c-amber#
*o t-at it may not wet t-e be'# or -a&e $ifte' t-e co&er$et in or'er to *ee c$ear$y -ow t-e
c-i$' i* -o$'in, it* -an'* w-i$e *$ee/in,. I -a&e been ab$e to in'.ce an e=act reco$$ection
of t-e noct.rna$ &i*itor in t-e ana$y*i* of *ome of t-e*e an=iety5'ream*. T-e robber* were
a$way* t-e fat-er< t-e ,-o*t* more /robab$y corre*/on'e' to fema$e /er*on* in w-ite
ni,-t,own*.
1 (f. t-e work* of 0$e.$er an' -i* P.ric- 'i*ci/$e*# Mae'er# Abra-am# an' ot-er*# an' of
t-e non5me'ica$ a.t-or* 3F$ein/a.$ an' ot-er*4 to w-om t-ey refer. 0.t t-e mo*t
/ertinent t-in,* t-at -a&e been *ai' on t-e *.b6ect wi$$ be fo.n' in t-e work of O. Rank
an' %. Sac-*# Die <edeutun' der 2s$choanal$se fDr die Geistes"issenschaft# 1!12# c-a/.
i< a$*o E. >one*# Die Theorie der 3$m%oli( Intern5 Ieitschr5 fDr 2s$choanal$se# &. 1!1!.
T-i* conce/tion wo.$' *eem to fin' an e=traor'inary confirmation in a t-eory a'&ance'
by %an* S/erber 3N%er den &influss seueller momente auf &ntstehun' und &nt"ic(lun'
der 3prache# in Ima'o# i# 1!14. S/erber be$ie&e* t-at /rimiti&e wor'* 'enote' *e=.a$
t-in,* e=c$.*i&e$y# an' *.b*e;.ent$y $o*t t-eir *e=.a$ *i,nificance an' were a//$ie' to
ot-er t-in,* an' acti&itie*# w-ic- were com/are' wit- t-e *e=.a$.
2 For e=am/$e# a *-i/ *ai$in, on t-e *ea may a//ear in t-e .rinary 'ream* of %.n,arian
'reamer*# 'e*/ite t-e fact t-at t-e term of @to *-i/1# for @to .rinate1# i* forei,n to t-i*
$an,.a,e 3FerencCi4. In t-e 'ream* of t-e Frenc- an' t-e ot-er romance /eo/$e* @room1
*er&e* a* a *ymbo$ic re/re*entation for woman1# a$t-o.,- t-e*e /eo/$e* -a&e not-in,
ana$o,o.* to t-e German Frauen?immer. Many *ymbo$* are a* o$' a* $an,.a,e it*e$f#
w-i$e ot-er* are contin.a$$y bein, coine' 3e.,. t-e aero/$ane# t-e Pe//e$in4.
7 JIn t-e )SA t-e fat-er i* re/re*ente' in 'ream* a* @t-e Pre*i'ent1# an' e&en more often
a* @t-e Go&ernor1 55 a tit$e w-ic- i* fre;.ent$y a//$ie' to t-e /arent in e&ery'ay $ife. 55
tran*.L
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8 @A /atient $i&in, in a boar'in,5-o.*e 'ream* t-at -e meet* one of t-e *er&ant*# an' a*k*
-er w-at -er n.mber i*< to -i* *.r/ri*e *-e an*wer*: 17. %e -a* in fact entere' into
re$ation* wit- t-e ,ir$ in ;.e*tion# an' -a* often -a' -er in -i* be'room. S-e feare'# a*
may be ima,ine'# t-at t-e $an'$a'y *.*/ecte' -er# an' -a' /ro/o*e'# on t-e 'ay before
t-e 'ream# t-at t-ey *-o.$' meet in one of t-e .nocc./ie' room*. In rea$ity t-i* room -a'
t-e n.mber 17# w-i$e in t-e 'ream t-e woman bore t-i* n.mber. A c$earer /roof of t-e
i'entification of woman an' room co.$' -ar'$y be ima,ine'.1 3Erne*t >one*# Intern5
Ieitschr5 f5 2s$choanal$se# ii# 1!174 3cf. Artemi'or.*# The 3$m%olism of Dreams
JGerman &er*ion by F. S. Fra.**# Kienna# 1DD1# /. 11"L: @T-.*# for e=am/$e# t-e
be'room *i,nifie* t-e wife# *.//o*in, one to be in t-e -o.*e.14
9 cf. @t-e cloaca t-eory1 in Three Contri%utions to the Theor$ of 3e.
: I may -ere re/eat w-at I -a&e *ai' in anot-er /$ace 3Die Iu(Dnfti'en Chancen der
ps$choanal$tischen Therapie, Ientral%latt fDr 2s$choanal$se# i# No. 1 an' # 1!1"# an'
Ges5 3chriften# 0'. &i4: @Some time a,o I $earne' t-at a /*yc-o$o,i*t w-o i* .nfami$iar
wit- o.r work remarke' to one of my frien'* t-at we were *.re$y o&ere*timatin, t-e
*ecret *e=.a$ *i,nificance of 'ream*. %e *tate' t-at -i* mo*t fre;.ent 'ream wa* t-at of
c$imbin, a f$i,-t of *tair*# an' t-at t-ere wa* *.re$y not-in, *e=.a$ be-in' t-i*. O.r
attention -a&in, been ca$$e' to t-i* ob6ection# we 'irecte' o.r in&e*ti,ation* to t-e
occ.rrence in 'ream* of f$i,-t* of *tair*# $a''er*# an' *te/*# an' we *oon a*certaine' t-at
*tair* 3or anyt-in, ana$o,o.* to t-em4 re/re*ent a 'efinite *ymbo$ of coit.*. T-e ba*i* for
t-i* com/ari*on i* not 'iffic.$t to fin'< wit- r-yt-mica$ inter&a$* an' increa*in,
breat-$e**ne** one reac-e* a -ei,-t# an' may t-en come 'own a,ain in a few ra/i'
6.m/*. T-.* t-e r-yt-m of coit.* i* re/ro'.ce' in c$imbin, *tair*. ?et .* not for,et to
con*i'er t-e co$$o;.ia$ .*a,e. T-i* te$$* .* t-at @mo.ntin,1 i*# wit-o.t f.rt-er a''ition#
.*e' a* a *.b*tit.ti&e 'e*i,nation for t-e *e=.a$ act. In Frenc-# t-e *te/ of a *tairca*e i*
ca$$e' la marche6 un vieu marcheur corre*/on'* e=act$y to t-e German# ein alter
3tei'er.1
D cf. in t-e Ientral%latt fDr 2s$choanal$se# ii# 9:8# t-e 'rawin, of a nineteen5year5o$'
manic /atient: a man wit- a *nake a* a neck5tie# w-ic- i* t.rnin, towar'* a ,ir$. A$*o t-e
*tory Der 3chamhafti'e 9!nthropoph$teia# &i# 2274: A woman entere' a bat-room# an'
t-ere came face to face wit- a man w-o -ar'$y -a' time to /.t on -i* *-irt. %e wa*
,reat$y embarra**e'# b.t at once co&ere' -i* t-roat wit- t-e front of -i* *-irt# an' *ai':
@P$ea*e e=c.*e me# I -a&e no necktie.1
! cf. Pfi*ter1* work* on cry/to,ra/-y an' /ict.re5/.CC$e*.
1" In */ite of a$$ t-e 'ifference* between Sc-erner1* conce/tion of 'ream5*ymbo$i*m an'
t-e one 'e&e$o/e' -ere# I m.*t *ti$$ in*i*t t-at Sc-erner *-o.$' be reco,ni*e' a* t-e tr.e
'i*co&erer of *ymbo$i*m in 'ream*# an' t-at t-e e=/erience of /*yc-oana$y*i* -a*
bro.,-t -i* book 3/.b$i*-e' in 1D914 into /o*t-.mo.* re/.te.
11 From 7achtr='e ?ur Traumdeutun' in Ientral%latt fDr 2s$choanal$se# i# No*. 8 an' 9#
1!11.
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1 cf. Firc-,raber for a *imi$ar e=am/$e 3Ientral%latt fDr 2s$choanal$se# iii# 1!1# /. !84.
Steke$ re/orte' a 'ream in w-ic- t-e -at wit- an ob$i;.e$y5*tan'in, feat-er in t-e mi''$e
*ymbo$i*e' t-e 3im/otent4 man.
12 cf. comment in t-e Ientral%latt fDr 2s$choanal$se# 1< an' *ee abo&e# /. !# note 27.
17 or c-a/e$ M &a,ina.
18 *ymbo$ of coit.*.
19 mon* Keneri*.
1: crine* /.bi*.
1D Demon* in c$oak* an' -oo'* are# accor'in, to t-e e=/$anation of a */ecia$i*t# of a
/-a$$ic c-aracter.
1! T-e two -a$&e* of t-e *crot.m.
" A$fre' Robit*ek in t-e Ientral%latt fDr 2s$choanal$se# ii# 1!11# /. 27".
1 The ;orld of Dreams# ?on'on# 1!11# /. 19D.
JT-i* %ebrew wor' i* we$$ known in German5*/eakin, co.ntrie*# e&en amon, Genti$e*#
an' *i,nifie* an .n$.cky# awkwar' /er*on. 55 tran*.L
2 N%er Fehlrea(tionen %ei der Eorsa(offschen 2s$chose, !rch5 f5 2s$chiatrie# 0'. $==ii.
1!7.
7 T-e e=traction of a toot- by anot-er i* .*.a$$y to be inter/rete' a* ca*tration 3cf.
-airc.ttin,<
Steke$4. One m.*t 'i*tin,.i*- between 'ream* '.e to 'enta$ *tim.$.* an' 'ream*
referrin, to t-e 'enti*t# *.c- a* -a&e been recor'e'# for e=am/$e# by (oriat 3Ientral%latt
fDr 2s$choanal$se# iii# 77"4.
8 JIn German <ac(en M c-eek* an' Binter%ac(en 3$it. @-in'c-eek*14 M b.ttock*. 55 tran*.L
9 Accor'in, to (. G. >.n,# 'ream* '.e to 'enta$ *tim.$.* in t-e ca*e of women -a&e t-e
*i,nificance of /art.rition 'ream*. E. >one* -a* ,i&en &a$.ab$e confirmation of t-i*. T-e
common e$ement of t-i* inter/retation wit- t-at re/re*ente' abo&e may be fo.n' in t-e
fact t-at in bot- ca*e* 3ca*tration55birt-4 t-ere i* a ;.e*tion of remo&in, a /art from t-e
w-o$e bo'y.
: cf. t-e @bio,ra/-ica$1 'ream on //. D5!.
D T-i* /a**a,e# 'ea$in, wit- 'ream* of motion# i* re/eate' on acco.nt of t-e conte=t. cf.
/. 198.
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! JA reference to t-e German *$an, wor' vo'eln 3to co/.$ate4 from Vo'el 3a bir'4. 55
tran*.L
2" N%er den Traum# Ge*. Sc-riften# 0'. iii.
21 Collected 2apers# &o$. iii# tran*. by A$i= an' >ame* Strac-ey# %o,art- Pre**# ?on'on.
2 cf. Three Contri%utions to the Theor$ of 3e.
22 +. Steke$# Die 3prache des Traumes# 1!11.
27 A$f. A'$er# Der 2s$chische Bermaphroditismus im Le%en und in der 7eurose# in
Fortschritte der Medi?in# 1!1"# No. 19# an' $ater /a/er* in t-e Ientral%latt fDr
2s$choanal$se# i# 1!1"511.
28 I -a&e /.b$i*-e' a ty/ica$ e=am/$e of *.c- a 'i*,.i*e' Oe'i/.* 'ream in No. 1 of t-e
Ientral%latt fDr 2s$choanal$se 3*ee be$ow4< anot-er# wit- a 'etai$e' ana$y*i*# wa*
/.b$i*-e' in No. 7 of t-e *ame 6o.rna$ by Otto Rank. For ot-er 'i*,.i*e' Oe'i/.* 'ream*
in w-ic- t-e e$e a//ear* a* a *ymbo$# *ee Rank 3Int5 Ieitschr5 fDr 2s5!5# i# 1!124. Pa/er*
./on eye 'ream* an' eye *ymbo$i*m by E'er# FerencCi# an' Reit$er wi$$ be fo.n' in t-e
*ame i**.e. T-e b$in'in, in t-e Oe'i/.* $e,en' an' e$*ew-ere i* a *.b*tit.te for
ca*tration. T-e ancient*# by t-e way# were not .nfami$iar wit- t-e *ymbo$ic inter/retation
of t-e .n'i*,.i*e' Oe'i/.* 'ream 3*ee O. Rank# >ahr%. ii# /. 827: @T-.*# a 'ream of
>.$i.* (ae*ar1* of *e=.a$ re$ation* wit- -i* mot-er -a* been -an'e' 'own to .*# w-ic- t-e
oneiro*co/i*t* inter/rete' a* a fa&o.rab$e omen *i,nifyin, -i* takin, /o**e**ion of t-e
eart- 3Mot-er Eart-4. E;.a$$y we$$ known i* t-e orac$e 'e$i&ere' to t-e Tar;.inii# to t-e
effect t-at t-at one of t-em wo.$' become t-e r.$er of Rome w-o *-o.$' be t-e fir*t to
ki** -i* mot-er 3osculum matri tulerit4# w-ic- 0r.t.* concei&e' a* referrin, to Mot-er
Eart- 3terram osculo conti'it, scilicet 0uod ea communis mater omnium mortalium esset#
?i&y# I# $=i4.1 (f. -ere t-e 'ream of %i//ia* in %ero'ot.*# KI# 1":: @0.t %i//ia* $e' t-e
barbarian* to Marat-on after -e -a' -a' t-e fo$$owin, 'ream5&i*ion t-e /re&io.* ni,-t. It
-a' *eeme' to %i//ia* t-at -e wa* *$ee/in, wit- -i* own mot-er. %e conc$.'e' from t-i*
'ream t-at -e wo.$' ret.rn -ome to At-en*# an' wo.$' re,ain /ower# an' t-at -e wo.$'
'ie in -i* fat-er$an' in -i* o$' a,e.1 T-e*e myt-* an' inter/retation* /oint to a correct
/*yc-o$o,ica$ in*i,-t. I -a&e fo.n' t-at t-o*e /er*on* w-o con*i'er t-em*e$&e* /referre'
or fa&o.re' by t-eir mot-er* manife*t in $ife t-at confi'ence in t-em*e$&e*# an' t-at
.n*-akab$e o/timi*m# w-ic- often *eem -eroic# an' not infre;.ent$y com/e$ act.a$
*.cce**.
Ty/ica$ e=am/$e of a 'i*,.i*e' Oe'i/.* 'ream:
A man 'ream*: Be has a secret affair "ith a "oman "hom another man "ishes to marr$5
Be is concerned lest the other should discover this relation and a%andon the marria'e6
he therefore %ehaves ver$ affectionatel$ to the man6 he nestles up to him and (isses him. 5
5 T-e fact* of t-e 'reamer1* $ife to.c- t-e 'ream5content on$y at one /oint. %e -a* a *ecret
affair wit- a marrie' woman# an' an e;.i&oca$ e=/re**ion of -er -.*ban'# wit- w-om -e
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i* on frien'$y term*# aro.*e' in -im t-e *.*/icion t-at -e mi,-t -a&e notice' *omet-in,
of t-i* re$ation*-i/. T-ere i*# -owe&er# in rea$ity# yet anot-er factor# t-e mention of w-ic-
wa* a&oi'e' in t-e 'ream# an' w-ic- a$one ,i&e* t-e key to it. T-e $ife of t-e -.*ban' i*
t-reatene' by an or,anic ma$a'y. %i* wife i* /re/are' for t-e /o**ibi$ity of -i* *.''en
'eat-# an' o.r 'reamer con*cio.*$y -arbo.r* t-e intention of marryin, t-e yo.n, wi'ow
after -er -.*ban'1* 'ecea*e. It i* t-ro.,- t-i* ob6ecti&e *it.ation t-at t-e 'reamer fin'*
-im*e$f tran*ferre' into t-e con*te$$ation of t-e Oe'i/.* 'ream< -i* wi*- i* to be enab$e'
to ki$$ t-e man# *o t-at -e may win t-e woman for -i* wife< -i* 'ream ,i&e* e=/re**ion to
t-e wi*- in a -y/ocritica$ 'i*tortion. In*tea' of re/re*entin, -er a* a$rea'y marrie' to t-e
ot-er man# it re/re*ent* t-e ot-er man on$y a* wi*-in, to marry -er# w-ic- in'ee'
corre*/on'* wit- -i* own *ecret intention# an' t-e -o*ti$e wi*-e* 'irecte' a,ain*t t-e man
are concea$e' .n'er 'emon*tration* of affection# w-ic- are remini*cence* of -i* c-i$'i*-
re$ation* to -i* fat-er.
29 For t-e myt-o$o,ica$ meanin, of water5birt-# *ee Rank: Der M$thus von der Ge%urt
des
Belden# 1!"!.
2: It wa* not for a $on, time t-at I $earne' to a//reciate t-e *i,nificance of t-e fanta*ie*
an' .ncon*cio.* t-o.,-t* re$atin, to $ife in t-e womb. T-ey contain t-e e=/$anation of
t-e c.rio.* 'rea'# fe$t by *o many /eo/$e# of bein, b.rie' a$i&e# a* we$$ a* t-e
/rofo.n'e*t .ncon*cio.* rea*on for t-e be$ief in a $ife after 'eat-# w-ic- re/re*ent* on$y
t-e /ro6ection into t-e f.t.re of t-i* my*terio.* $ife before birt-. The act of %irth,
moreover, is the first eperience attended %$ aniet$, and is thus, the source and model of
the affect of aniet$.
2D @T-e *ame *ymbo$ic re/re*entation* w-ic- in t-e infanti$e *en*e con*tit.te t-e ba*i* of
t-e &e*ica$ 'ream a//ear in t-e @@recent11 *en*e in /.re$y *e=.a$ *i,nificance: water M
.rine M *emen M amniotic f$.i'< *-i/ M @@to /.m/ *-i/11 3.rinate M *ee'5ca/*.$e< ,ettin,
wet M en.re*i* M coit.* M /re,nancy< *wimmin, M f.$$ b$a''er M 'we$$in,5/$ace of t-e
.nborn< rain M .rination M *ymbo$ of ferti$iCation< tra&e$$in, 36o.rneyin,5a$i,-tin,4 M
,ettin, o.t of be' M -a&in, *e=.a$ interco.r*e 3-oneymoon 6o.rney4< .rinatin, M *e=.a$
e6ac.$ation1 3Rankin# I# c.4.
2! Fre.'# Chara(ter und !naleroti(< Rank# Die 3$m%olschictun'# etc.< Dattner# Intern5
Ieitschr5 f5 2s$ch5 i# 1!12< Reik# Intern5 Ieitschr5# iii# 1!18.
7" For *.c- a 'ream *ee Pfi*ter# &in Fall von ps$choanal$tischer 3eelensor'e und
3eelenheilun'# in &van'elische Freiheit# 1!"!. (oncernin, t-e *ymbo$ of @re*c.in,1# *ee
my /a/er# Die Iu(Dnfti'en Chancender ps$choanal$tischen Therapie# in Ientral%latt fDr
2s$choanal$se# i# 1!1". A$*o <eitra'e ?ur 2s$cholo'ie des Lie%esle%ens# i. N%er einen
%esonderen T$pus der o%/e(t"ahl %eim Manne# in >ahr%uch fDr 2s5!5# 0'. ii# 1!1" 3Ges5
3chriften# 0'. &4. A$*o Rank# <eile'e ?ur Gettun'sphantasie in t-e Ientral%latt fDr
2s$choanal$se# i# 1!1"# /. 221< Reik# Iur Gettun'ss$m%olic< ibi'.# /. !!.
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F! E2AMP,ES 00 ARITHMETI+ AND SPEE+H IN DREAMS
0efore I /rocee' to a**i,n to it* /ro/er /$ace t-e fo.rt- of t-e factor* w-ic- contro$ t-e
formation of 'ream*# I *-a$$ cite a few e=am/$e* from my co$$ection of 'ream*# /art$y for
t-e /.r/o*e of i$$.*tratin, t-e coo/eration of t-e t-ree factor* wit- w-ic- we are a$rea'y
ac;.ainte'# an' /art$y for t-e /.r/o*e of a''.cin, e&i'ence for certain .n*.//orte'
a**ertion* w-ic- -a&e been ma'e# or of brin,in, o.t w-at nece**ari$y fo$$ow* from t-em.
It -a*# of co.r*e# been 'iffic.$t in t-e fore,oin, acco.nt of t-e 'ream5work to
'emon*trate my conc$.*ion* by mean* of e=am/$e*. E=am/$e* in *.//ort of i*o$ate'
*tatement* are con&incin, on$y w-en con*i'ere' in t-e conte=t of an inter/retation of a
'ream a* a w-o$e< w-en t-ey are wre*te' from t-eir conte=t# t-ey $o*e t-eir &a$.e< on t-e
ot-er -an'# a 'ream5inter/retation# e&en w-en it i* by no mean* /rofo.n'# *oon become*
*o e=ten*i&e t-at it ob*c.re* t-e t-rea' of t-e 'i*c.**ion w-ic- it i* inten'e' to i$$.*trate.
T-i* tec-nica$ con*i'eration m.*t be my e=c.*e if I now /rocee' to mi= to,et-er a$$ *ort*
of t-in,* w-ic- -a&e not-in, in common e=ce/t t-eir reference to t-e te=t of t-e
fore,oin, c-a/ter.
+e *-a$$ fir*t con*i'er a few e=am/$e* of &ery /ec.$iar or .n.*.a$ met-o'* of
re/re*entation in 'ream*. A $a'y 'reame' a* fo$$ow*: ! servant4'irl is standin' on a
ladder as thou'h to clean the "indo"s, and has "ith her a chimpan?ee and a 'orilla cat
3$ater correcte'# an'ora cat4. 3he thro"s the animals on to the dreamer6 the chimpan?ee
nestles up to her, and this is ver$ dis'ustin'. T-i* 'ream -a* accom/$i*-e' it* /.r/o*e by
a &ery *im/$e mean*# name$y# by takin, a mere fi,.re of */eec- $itera$$y# an'
re/re*entin, it in accor'ance wit- t-e $itera$ meanin, of it* wor'*. @Monkey1# $ike t-e
name* of anima$* in ,enera$# i* an o//robrio.* e/it-et# an' t-e *it.ation of t-e 'ream
mean* mere$y @to hurl invectives1. T-i* *ame co$$ection wi$$ *oon f.rni*- .* wit- f.rt-er
e=am/$e* of t-e em/$oyment of t-i* *im/$e artifice in t-e 'ream5work.
Anot-er 'ream /rocee'* in a &ery *imi$ar manner: ! "oman "ith a child "hich has a
conspicuousl$ deformed cranium6 the dreamer has heard that the child ac0uired this
deformit$ o"in' to its position in its mother+s "om%5 The doctor sa$s that the cranium
mi'ht %e 'iven a %etter shape %$ means of compression, %ut that this "ould in/ure the
%rain5 3he thin(s that %ecause it is a %o$ it "on+t suffer so much from deformit$. T-i*
'ream contain* a /$a*tic re/re*entation of t-e ab*tract conce/t @c-i$'i*- im/re**ion*1#
wit- w-ic- t-e 'reamer -a* become fami$iar in t-e co.r*e of t-e treatment.
In t-e fo$$owin, e=am/$e t-e 'ream5work fo$$ow* rat-er a 'ifferent co.r*e. T-e 'ream
contain* a reco$$ection of an e=c.r*ion to t-e %i$mteic-# near GraC: There is a terri%le
storm outside6 a misera%le hotel 44 the "ater is drippin' from the "alls, and the %eds are
damp. 3T-e $atter /art of t-e content wa* $e** 'irect$y e=/re**e' t-an I ,i&e it.4 T-e 'ream
*i,nifie* @superfluous1. T-e ab*tract i'ea occ.rrin, in t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* i* fir*t ma'e
e;.i&oca$ by a certain ab.*e of $an,.a,e< it -a* /er-a/* been re/$ace' by @o&erf$owin,1#
or by @f$.i'1 an' @*./er5f$.i' 35f$.o.*41# an' -a* t-en been bro.,-t to re/re*entation by an
acc.m.$ation of $ike im/re**ion*. +ater wit-in# water wit-o.t# water in t-e be'* in t-e
form of 'am/ne** 55 e&eryt-in, f$.i' an' @*./er1 f$.i'. T-at for t-e /.r/o*e* of 'ream5
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re/re*entation t-e */e$$in, i* m.c- $e** con*i'ere' t-an t-e *o.n' of wor'* o.,-t not to
*.r/ri*e .* w-en we remember t-at r-yme e=erci*e* a *imi$ar /ri&i$e,e.
T-e fact t-at $an,.a,e -a* at it* 'i*/o*a$ a ,reat n.mber of wor'* w-ic- were ori,ina$$y
.*e' in a /ictoria$ an' concrete *en*e# b.t are at /re*ent .*e' in a co$o.r$e** an' ab*tract
fa*-ion# -a*# in certain ot-er ca*e*# ma'e it &ery ea*y for t-e 'ream to re/re*ent it*
t-o.,-t*. T-e 'ream -a* on$y to re*tore to t-e*e wor'* t-eir f.$$ *i,nificance# or to fo$$ow
t-eir c-an,e of meanin, a $itt$e way back. For e=am/$e# a man 'ream* t-at -i* frien'#
w-o i* *tr.,,$in, to ,et o.t of a &ery ti,-t /$ace# ca$$* ./on -im for -e$/. T-e ana$y*i*
*-ow* t-at t-e ti,-t /$ace i* a -o$e# an' t-at t-e 'reamer *ymbo$ica$$y .*e* t-e*e &ery
wor'* to -i* frien': @0e caref.$# or yo.1$$ ,et yo.r*e$f into a -o$e.11 Anot-er 'reamer
c$imb* a mo.ntain from w-ic- -e obtain* an e=traor'inari$y e=ten*i&e &iew. %e i'entifie*
-im*e$f wit- -i* brot-er# w-o i* e'itin, a @re&iew1 'ea$in, wit- t-e Far Ea*t.
In a 'ream in Der GrDne Beinrich a */irite' -or*e i* /$.n,in, abo.t in a fie$' of t-e
fine*t oat*# e&ery ,rain of w-ic- i* rea$$y @a *weet a$mon'# a rai*in an' a new /enny
wra//e' in re' *i$k an' tie' wit- a bit of /i,1* bri*t$e.1 T-e /oet 3or t-e 'reamer4
imme'iate$y f.rni*-e* t-e meanin, of t-i* 'ream# for t-e -or*e fe$t -im*e$f /$ea*ant$y
tick$e'# *o t-at -e e=c$aime': @T-e oat* are /rickin, me1 3@I fee$ my oat*14.
In t-e o$' Nor*e *a,a* 3accor'in, to %enCen4 /ro$ific .*e i* ma'e in 'ream* of
co$$o;.ia$i*m* an' witty e=/re**ion*< one *carce$y fin'* a 'ream wit-o.t a 'o.b$e
meanin, or a /$ay ./on wor'*.
It wo.$' be a */ecia$ .n'ertakin, to co$$ect *.c- met-o'* of re/re*entation an' to arran,e
t-em in accor'ance wit- t-e /rinci/$e* ./on w-ic- t-ey are ba*e'. Some of t-e
re/re*entation* are a$mo*t witty. T-ey ,i&e one t-e im/re**ion t-at one wo.$' -a&e ne&er
,.e**e' t-eir meanin, if t-e 'reamer -im*e$f -a' not *.ccee'e' in e=/$ainin, it.
1. A man 'ream* that he is as(ed for a name, "hich, ho"ever, he cannot recall. %e
-im*e$f e=/$ain* t-at t-i* mean*: @I *-o.$'n1t 'ream of it.1
. A fema$e /atient re$ate* a 'ream in w-ic- all the persons concerned "ere sin'ularl$
lar'e. @T-at mean*#1 *-e a''*# @t-at it m.*t 'ea$ wit- an e/i*o'e of my ear$y c-i$'-oo'#
for at t-at time a$$ ,rown5./ /eo/$e nat.ra$$y *eeme' to me immen*e$y $ar,e.1 S-e -er*e$f
'i' not a//ear in t-e 'ream.
T-e tran*/o*ition into c-i$'-oo' i* e=/re**e' 'ifferent$y in ot-er 'ream* 55 by t-e
tran*$ation of time into */ace. One *ee* /er*on* an' *cene* a* t-o.,- at a ,reat 'i*tance#
at t-e en' of a $on, roa'# or a* t-o.,- one were $ookin, at t-em t-ro.,- t-e wron, en' of
a /air of o/era5,$a**e*.
2. A man w-o in wakin, $ife *-ow* an inc$ination to em/$oy ab*tract an' in'efinite
e=/re**ion*# b.t w-o ot-erwi*e -a* -i* wit* abo.t -im# 'ream*# in a certain connection#
that he reaches a rail"a$ station /ust as a train is comin' in5 <ut then the platform moves
to"ards the train, "hich stands still< an ab*.r' in&er*ion of t-e rea$ *tate of affair*. T-i*
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'etai$# a,ain# i* not-in, more t-an an in'ication to t-e effect t-at *omet-in, e$*e in t-e
'ream m.*t be in&erte'. T-e ana$y*i* of t-e *ame 'ream $ea'* to reco$$ection* of
/ict.rebook*
in w-ic- men were re/re*ente' *tan'in, on t-eir -ea'* an' wa$kin, on t-eir -an'*.
7. T-e *ame 'reamer# on anot-er occa*ion# re$ate* a *-ort 'ream w-ic- a$mo*t reca$$* t-e
tec-ni;.e of a reb.*. Bis uncle 'ives him a (iss in an automo%ile. %e imme'iate$y a''*
t-e inter/retation# w-ic- wo.$' ne&er -a&e occ.rre' to me: it mean* auto4erotism. In t-e
wakin, *tate t-i* mi,-t -a&e been *ai' in 6e*t.
8. At a New Hear1* E&e 'inner t-e -o*t# t-e /atriarc- of t-e fami$y# .*-ere' in t-e New
Hear wit- a */eec-. One of -i* *on*5in5$aw# a $awyer# wa* not inc$ine' to take t-e o$'
man *erio.*$y# e*/ecia$$y w-en in t-e co.r*e of -i* */eec- -e e=/re**e' -im*e$f a*
fo$$ow*: @+-en I o/en t-e $e',er for t-e O$' Hear an' ,$ance at it* /a,e* I *ee e&eryt-in,
on t-e a**et *i'e an' not-in,# t-ank t-e ?or'# on t-e *i'e of $iabi$ity< a$$ yo. c-i$'ren
-a&e been a ,reat asset# none of yo. a lia%ilit$.1 On -earin, t-i* t-e yo.n, $awyer t-o.,-t
of S# -i* wife1* brot-er# w-o wa* a c-eat an' a $iar# an' w-om -e -a' recent$y e=tricate'
from t-e entan,$ement* of t-e $aw. T-at ni,-t# in a 'ream# -e *aw t-e New Hear1*
ce$ebration once more# an' -ear' t-e */eec-# or rat-er *aw it. In*tea' of */eakin,# t-e o$'
man act.a$$y o/ene' t-e $e',er# an' on t-e *i'e marke' @a**et*1 -e *aw -i* name amon,*t
ot-er*# b.t on t-e ot-er *i'e# marke' @$iabi$ity1# t-ere wa* t-e name of -i* brot-er5in5$aw#
S. %owe&er# t-e wor' @?iabi$ity1 wa* c-an,e' into @?ie5Abi$ity1# w-ic- -e re,ar'e' a*
S.1* main c-aracteri*tic.
9 A 'reamer treats another person for a %ro(en %one. T-e ana$y*i* *-ow* t-at t-e
fract.re re/re*ent* a %ro(en marria'e vo", etc.
:. In t-e 'ream5content t-e time of 'ay often re/re*ent* a certain /erio' of t-e 'reamer1*
c-i$'-oo'. T-.*# for e=am/$e# 8.18 a.m. mean* to one 'reamer t-e a,e of fi&e year* an'
t-ree mont-*< w-en -e wa* t-at a,e# a yo.n,er brot-er wa* born.
D. Anot-er re/re*entation of a'e in a 'ream: ! "oman is "al(in' "ith t"o little 'irls6
there is a difference of fifteen months in their a'es. T-e 'reamer cannot t-ink of any
fami$y of -er ac;.aintance in w-ic- t-i* i* t-e ca*e. S-e -er*e$f inter/ret* it to mean t-at
t-e two c-i$'ren re/re*ent -er own /er*on# an' t-at t-e 'ream remin'* -er t-at t-e two
tra.matic e&ent* of -er c-i$'-oo' were *e/arate' by t-i* /erio' of time 32T an' 7U
year*4.
!. It i* not a*toni*-in, t-at /er*on* w-o are .n'er,oin, /*yc-oana$ytic treatment
fre;.ent$y 'ream of it# an' are com/e$$e' to ,i&e e=/re**ion in t-eir 'ream* to a$$ t-e
t-o.,-t* an' e=/ectation* aro.*e' by it. T-e ima,e c-o*en for t-e treatment i* a* a r.$e
t-at of a 6o.rney# .*.a$$y in a motorcar# t-i* bein, a mo'ern an' com/$icate' &e-ic$e< in
t-e reference to t-e */ee' of t-e car t-e /atient1* ironica$ -.mo.r i* ,i&en free /$ay. If t-e
@unconscious1# a* an e$ement of wakin, t-o.,-t# i* to be re/re*ente' in t-e 'ream# it i*
re/$ace'# a//ro/riate$y eno.,-# by su%terranean $oca$itie*# w-ic- at ot-er time*# w-en
t-ere i* no reference to ana$ytic treatment# -a&e re/re*ente' t-e fema$e bo'y or t-e
womb. <elo" in t-e 'ream &ery often refer* to t-e ,enita$*# an' it* o//o*ite# a%ove# to t-e
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face# mo.t- or brea*t. 0y "ild %easts t-e 'ream5work .*.a$$y *ymbo$i*e* /a**ionate
im/.$*e*< t-o*e of t-e 'reamer# an' a$*o t-o*e of ot-er /er*on* of w-om t-e 'reamer i*
afrai'< or t-.*# by mean* of a &ery *$i,-t 'i*/$acement# t-e /er*on* w-o e=/erience t-e*e
/a**ion*. From t-i* it i* not &ery far to t-e totemi*tic re/re*entation of t-e 'rea'e' father
by mean* of &icio.* anima$*# 'o,*# wi$' -or*e*# etc. One mi,-t *ay t-at wi$' bea*t* *er&e
to re/re*ent t-e li%ido# feare' by t-e e,o# an' combate' by re/re**ion. E&en t-e ne.ro*i*
it*e$f# t-e sic( person# i* often *e/arate' from t-e 'reamer an' e=-ibite' in t-e 'ream a*
an in'e/en'ent /er*on.
One may ,o *o far a* to *ay t-at t-e 'ream5work make* .*e of a$$ t-e mean* acce**ib$e to
it for t-e &i*.a$ re/re*entation of t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*# w-et-er t-e*e a//ear a'mi**ib$e or
ina'mi**ib$e to wakin, critici*m# an' t-.* e=/o*e* it*e$f to t-e 'o.bt a* we$$ a* t-e
'eri*ion of a$$ t-o*e w-o -a&e on$y -ear*ay know$e',e of 'ream5inter/retation# b.t -a&e
ne&er t-em*e$&e* /racti*e' it. Steke$1* book# Die 3prache des Traumes# i* e*/ecia$$y ric-
in *.c- e=am/$e*# b.t I a&oi' citin, i$$.*tration* from t-i* work a* t-e a.t-or1* $ack of
critica$ 6.',ment an' -i* arbitrary tec-ni;.e wo.$' make e&en t-e .n/re6.'ice' ob*er&er
fee$ 'o.btf.$.
1". From an e**ay by K. Ta.*k 3Eleider und Far%en im Dienste der Traumdarstellun'# in
Interna5 Ieitschr5 fDr 2s5!5 ii# 1!174:
3a4 A. 'ream* t-at he sees his former 'overness "earin' a dress of %lac( lustre, "hich fits
closel$ over her %uttoc(s. 55 T-at mean* -e 'ec$are* t-i* woman to be lustful.
3b4 (. in a 'ream sees a 'irl on the road to Q, %athed in a "hite li'ht and "earin' a "hite
%louse.
T-e 'reamer be,an an affair wit- a Mi** +-ite on t-i* roa'.
11. In an ana$y*i* w-ic- I carrie' o.t in t-e Frenc- $an,.a,e I -a' to inter/ret a 'ream in
w-ic- I a//eare' a* an e$e/-ant. I nat.ra$$y -a' to a*k w-y I wa* t-.* re/re*ente'. @Vous
me trompe?1# an*were' t-e 'reamer 3Trompe M tr.nk4.
T-e 'ream5work often *.ccee'* in re/re*entin, &ery refractory materia$# *.c- a* /ro/er
name*# by mean* of t-e force' e=/$oitation of &ery remote re$ation. In one of my 'ream*
old <rDc(e has set me a tas(5 I ma(e a preparation, and pic( somethin' out of it "hich
loo(s li(e crumpled tinfoil. 3I *-a$$ ret.rn to t-i* 'ream $ater4. T-e corre*/on'in,
a**ociation# w-ic- i* not ea*y to fin'# i* stanniol# an' now I know t-at I -a&e in min' t-e
name of t-e a.t-or 3tannius# w-ic- a//eare' on t-e tit$e5/a,e of a treati*e on t-e ner&o.*
*y*tem of fi*-e*# w-ic- in my yo.t- I re,ar'e' wit- re&erence. T-e fir*t *cientific
/rob$em w-ic- my teac-er *et me 'i' act.a$$y re$ate to t-e ner&o.* *y*tem of a fi*- 55 t-e
!mmocoetes. Ob&io.*$y# t-i* name co.$' not be .ti$i*e' in t-e /ict.re5/.CC$e.
%ere I m.*t not fai$ to inc$.'e a 'ream wit- a c.rio.* content# w-ic- i* wort- notin, a$*o
a* t-e 'ream of a c-i$'# an' w-ic- i* rea'i$y e=/$aine' by ana$y*i*. A $a'y te$$* me. @I can
remember t-at w-en I wa* a c-i$' I re/eate'$y 'reame' t-at God "ore a conical paper
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hat on Bis head. T-ey often .*e' to make me wear *.c- a -at at tab$e# *o t-at I *-o.$'n1t
be ab$e to $ook at t-e /$ate* of t-e ot-er c-i$'ren an' *ee -ow m.c- t-ey -a' recei&e' of
any /artic.$ar 'i*-. Since I -a' -ear' t-at Go' wa* omni*cient# t-e 'ream *i,nifie' t-at I
knew e&eryt-in, in */ite of t-e -at w-ic- I wa* ma'e to wear.1
+-at t-e 'ream5work con*i*t* in# an' it* .nceremonio.* -an'$in, of it* materia$# t-e
'ream5t-o.,-t*# may be *-own in an in*tr.cti&e manner by t-e n.mber* an' ca$c.$ation*
w-ic- occ.r in 'ream*. S./er*tition# by t-e way# re,ar'* n.mber* a* -a&in, a */ecia$
*i,nificance in 'ream*. I *-a$$ t-erefore ,i&e a few e=am/$e* of t-i* kin' from my
co$$ection.
1. From t-e 'ream of a $a'y# *-ort$y before t-e en' of -er treatment:
3he "ants to pa$ for somethin' or other6 her dau'hter ta(es 3 florins R5 (reu?er from her
purse6 %ut the mother sa$s: );hat are $ou doin'A It costs onl$ J1 (reu?er.1 T-i* fra,ment
of t-e 'ream wa* inte$$i,ib$e wit-o.t f.rt-er e=/$anation owin, to my know$e',e of t-e
'reamer1* circ.m*tance*. T-e $a'y wa* a forei,ner# w-o -a' /$ace' -er 'a.,-ter at
*c-oo$ in Kienna# an' wa* ab$e to contin.e my treatment a* $on, a* -er 'a.,-ter
remaine' in t-e city. In t-ree week* t-e 'a.,-ter1* *c-o$a*tic year wo.$' en'# an' t-e
treatment wo.$' t-en *to/. On t-e 'ay before t-e 'ream t-e /rinci/a$ of t-e *c-oo$ -a'
a*ke' -er w-et-er *-e co.$' not 'eci'e to $ea&e t-e c-i$' at *c-oo$ for anot-er year. S-e
-a' t-en ob&io.*$y ref$ecte' t-at in t-i* ca*e *-e wo.$' be ab$e to contin.e t-e treatment
for anot-er year. Now# t-i* i* w-at t-e 'ream refer* to# for a year i* e;.a$ to 3R5 'ay*< t-e
t-ree week* remainin, before t-e en' of t-e *c-o$a*tic year# an' of t-e treatment# are
e;.i&a$ent to J1 'ay* 3t-o.,- not to *o many -o.r* of treatment4. T-e n.mera$*# w-ic- in
t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* refer to /erio'* of time# are ,i&en money &a$.e* in t-e 'ream# an'
*im.$taneo.*$y a 'ee/er meanin, fin'* e=/re**ion 55 for @time is mone$1. 298 kre.Cer# of
co.r*e# are 3 florins R5 (reu?er. T-e *ma$$ne** of t-e *.m* w-ic- a//ear in t-e 'ream i* a
*e$f5e&i'ent wi*-5f.$fi$ment< t-e wi*- -a* re'.ce' bot- t-e co*t of t-e treatment an' t-e
year1* *c-oo$ fee*.
. In anot-er 'ream t-e n.mera$* are in&o$&e' in e&en more com/$e= re$ation*. A yo.n,
$a'y# w-o -a* been marrie' for *ome year*# $earn* t-at an ac;.aintance of -er*# of abo.t
t-e *ame a,e# E$i*e ?.# -a* 6.*t become en,a,e'. T-ere./on *-e 'ream*: 3he is sittin' in
the theatre "ith her hus%and, and one side of the stalls is 0uite empt$5 Ber hus%and tells
her that &lise L5 and her fiance had also "ished to come to the theatre, %ut that the$ onl$
could have o%tained poor seats6 three for 1 florin 5K (reu?er, and of course the$ could
not ta(e those5 3he thin(s the$ didn+t lose much, either.
+-at i* t-e ori,in of t-e 1 f$orin 8" kre.CerI A rea$$y in'ifferent inci'ent of t-e /re&io.*
'ay. T-e 'reamer1* *i*ter5in5$aw -a' recei&e' 15K f$orin* a* a /re*ent from -er -.*ban'#
an' -a*tene' to ,et ri' of t-em by b.yin, *ome 6ewe$ery. ?et .* note t-at 18" f$orin* i*
1KK times 1 f$orin 8" kre.Cer. 0.t w-ence t-e 2 in connection wit- t-e *eat* in t-e
t-eatreI T-ere i* on$y one a**ociation for t-i*# name$y# t-at t-e fiance i* t-ree mont-*
yo.n,er t-an -er*e$f. +-en we -a&e a*certaine' t-e *i,nificance of t-e fact t-at one *i'e
of t-e *ta$$* i* em/ty we -a&e t-e *o$.tion of t-e 'ream. T-i* feat.re i* an .n'i*,.i*e'
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a$$.*ion to a $itt$e inci'ent w-ic- -a' ,i&en -er -.*ban' a ,oo' e=c.*e for tea*in, -er.
S-e -a' 'eci'e' to ,o to t-e t-eatre t-at week< *-e -a' been caref.$ to obtain ticket* a
few 'ay* before-an'# an' -a' -a' to /ay t-e a'&ance bookin,5fee. +-en t-ey ,ot to t-e
t-eatre t-ey fo.n' t-at one *i'e of t-e -o.*e wa* a$mo*t em/ty< *o t-at *-e certain$y need
not have %een in such a hurr$.
I *-a$$ now *.b*tit.te t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* for t-e 'ream: @It *.re$y wa* non*en*e to marry
*o ear$y< t-ere wa* no need for my bein, in *.c- a -.rry. From E$i*e ?.1* e=am/$e I *ee
t-at I *-o.$' -a&e ,ot a -.*ban' 6.*t t-e *ame 55 an' one a hundred times better 55 if I -a'
on$y waite' 3antit-e*i* to t-e haste of -er *i*ter5in5$aw*4# I co.$' -a&e bo.,-t three *.c-
men for t-e money 3t-e 'owry4A1 55 O.r attention i* 'rawn to t-e fact t-at t-e n.mera$* in
t-i* 'ream -a&e c-an,e' t-eir meanin,* an' t-eir re$ation* to a m.c- ,reater e=tent t-an
in t-e one /re&io.*$y con*i'ere'. T-e tran*formin, an' 'i*tortin, acti&ity of t-e 'ream
-a* in t-i* ca*e been ,reater 55 a fact w-ic- we inter/ret a* meanin, t-at t-e*e
'reamt-o.,-t*
-a' to o&ercome an .n.*.a$ 'e,ree of en'o5/*yc-ic re*i*tance before t-ey
attaine' to re/re*entation. An' we m.*t not o&er$ook t-e fact t-at t-e 'ream contain* an
ab*.r' e$ement# name$y# t-at t"o /er*on* are e=/ecte' to take three seats. It wi$$ t-row
*ome $i,-t on t-e ;.e*tion of t-e inter/retation of ab*.r'ity in 'ream* if I remark t-at t-i*
ab*.r' 'etai$ of t-e 'ream5content i* inten'e' to re/re*ent t-e mo*t *tron,$y em/-a*i*e'
of t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*: @It wa* nonsense to marry *o ear$y.1 T-e fi,.re 2# w-ic- occ.r* in
a ;.ite *.bor'inate re$ation between t-e two /er*on* com/are' 3t-ree mont-*1 'ifference
in t-eir a,e*4# -a* t-.* been a'roit$y .ti$i*e' to /ro'.ce t-e i'ea of non*en*e re;.ire' by
t-e 'ream. T-e re'.ction of t-e act.a$ 18" f$orin* to 1 f$orin 8" kre.Cer corre*/on'* to
t-e 'reamer1* 'i*/ara,ement of -er -.*ban' in -er *.//re**e' t-o.,-t*.
2. Anot-er e=am/$e 'i*/$ay* t-e arit-metica$ /ower* of 'ream*# w-ic- -a&e bro.,-t t-em
into *.c- 'i*re/.te. A man 'ream*: Be is sittin' in the <5s+ house 3t-e 0.* are a fami$y
wit- w-ic- -e wa* former$y ac;.ainte'4# and he sa$s: )It "as nonsense that $ou didn+t
'ive me !m$ for m$ "ife5+ Thereupon, he as(s the 'irl: )Bo" old are $ouA+ !ns"er: )I
"as %orn in 1SSJ5+ )!h, then $ou are JS $ears old5+
Since t-e 'ream wa* 'reame' in t-e year 1D!D# t-i* i* ob&io.*$y ba' arit-metic# an' t-e
inabi$ity of t-e 'reamer to ca$c.$ate may# if it cannot be ot-erwi*e e=/$aine'# be $ikene'
to t-at of a ,enera$ /ara$ytic. My /atient wa* one of t-o*e men w-o cannot -e$/ t-inkin,
abo.t e&ery woman t-ey *ee. T-e /atient w-o for *ome mont-* came ne=t after -im in
my con*.$tin,5room wa* a yo.n, $a'y< -e met t-i* $a'y after -e -a' con*tant$y a*ke'
abo.t -er# an' -e wa* &ery an=io.* to make a ,oo' im/re**ion on -er. T-i* wa* t-e $a'y
w-o*e a,e -e e*timate' at JS. So m.c- for e=/$ainin, t-e re*.$t of -i* a//arent
ca$c.$ation. 0.t 1SSJ wa* t-e year in w-ic- -e -a' marrie'. %e -a' been .nab$e to
refrain from enterin, into con&er*ation wit- t-e two ot-er women w-om -e met at my
-o.*e 55 t-e two by no mean* yo.t-f.$ mai'* w-o a$ternate$y o/ene' t-e 'oor to -im 55
an' a* -e 'i' not fin' t-em &ery re*/on*i&e# -e -a' to$' -im*e$f t-at t-ey /robab$y
re,ar'e' -im a* e$'er$y an' @*erio.*1.
0earin, in min' t-e*e e=am/$e*# an' ot-er* of a *imi$ar nat.re 3to fo$$ow4# we may *ay:
T-e 'ream5work 'oe* not ca$c.$ate at a$$# w-et-er correct$y or incorrect$y< it on$y *trin,*
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to,et-er# in t-e form of a *.m# n.mera$* w-ic- occ.r in t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*# an' w-ic-
may *er&e a* a$$.*ion* to materia$ w-ic- i* in*.*ce/tib$e of re/re*entation. It t-.* 'ea$*
wit- fi,.re*# a* materia$ for e=/re**in, it* intention*# 6.*t a* it 'ea$* wit- a$$ ot-er
conce/t*# an' wit- name* an' */eec-e* w-ic- are on$y &erba$ ima,e*.
For t-e 'ream5work cannot com/o*e a new */eec-. No matter -ow many */eec-e* an'
an*wer*# w-ic- may in t-em*e$&e* be *en*ib$e or ab*.r'# may occ.r in 'ream*# ana$y*i*
a$way* *-ow* .* t-at t-e 'ream -a* mere$y taken from t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* fra,ment* of
*/eec-e* w-ic- -a&e rea$$y been 'e$i&ere' or -ear'# an' -a* 'ea$t wit- t-em in t-e mo*t
arbitrary fa*-ion. It -a* not on$y torn t-em from t-eir conte=t an' m.ti$ate' t-em#
acce/tin, one fra,ment an' re6ectin, anot-er# b.t it -a* often fitte' t-em to,et-er in a
no&e$ manner# *o t-at t-e */eec- w-ic- *eem* co-erent in 'ream i* 'i**o$&e' by ana$y*i*
into t-ree or fo.r com/onent*. In t-i* new a//$ication of t-e wor'* t-e 'ream -a* often
i,nore' t-e meanin, w-ic- t-ey -a' in t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*# an' -a* 'rawn an entire$y
new meanin, from t-em.2 )/on c$o*er in*/ection -e more 'i*tinct an' com/act
in,re'ient* of t-e 'ream5*/eec- may be 'i*tin,.i*-e' from ot-er*# w-ic- *er&e a*
connecti&e*# an' -a&e /robab$y been *.//$ie'# 6.*t a* we *.//$y omitte' $etter* an'
*y$$ab$e* in rea'in,. T-e 'ream5*/eec- t-.* -a* t-e *tr.ct.re of %reccia# in w-ic- t-e
$ar,er /iece* of &ario.* materia$ are -e$' to,et-er by a *o$i'ifie' co-e*i&e me'i.m.
Strict$y */eakin,# of co.r*e# t-i* 'e*cri/tion i* correct on$y for t-o*e 'ream5*/eec-e*
w-ic- -a&e *omet-in, of t-e *en*ory c-aracter of a */eec-# an' are 'e*cribe' a*
@*/eec-e*1. T-e ot-er*# w-ic- -a&e not# a* it were# been /ercei&e' a* -ear' or */oken
3w-ic- -a&e no accom/anyin, aco.*tic or motor em/-a*i* in t-e 'ream4 are *im/$y
t-o.,-t*# *.c- a* occ.r in o.r wakin, $ife# an' fin' t-eir way .nc-an,e' into many of
o.r 'ream*. O.r rea'in,# too# *eem* to /ro&i'e an ab.n'ant an' not ea*i$y traceab$e
*o.rce for t-e in'ifferent */eec-5materia$ of 'ream*. 0.t anyt-in, t-at i* at a$$
con*/ic.o.* a* a */eec- in a 'ream can be referre' to act.a$ */eec-e* w-ic- -a&e been
ma'e or -ear' by t-e 'reamer.
+e -a&e a$rea'y fo.n' e=am/$e* of t-e 'eri&ation of *.c- 'ream5*/eec-e* in t-e
ana$y*e* of 'ream* w-ic- -a&e been cite' for ot-er /.r/o*e*. T-.*# in t-e @innocent
market5'ream1 3//. D95:4 w-ere t-e */eec-: That is no lon'er to %e had *er&e* to i'entify
me wit- t-e b.tc-er# w-i$e a fra,ment of t-e ot-er */eec-: I don+t (no" that, I don+t ta(e
that# /reci*e$y f.$fi$* t-e ta*k of ren'erin, t-e 'ream innocent. On t-e /re&io.* 'ay t-e
'reamer# re/$yin, to *ome .nrea*onab$e 'eman' on t-e /art of -er cook# -a' wa&e' -er
a*i'e wit- t-e wor'*: I don+t (no" that, %ehave $ourself properl$# an' *-e afterwar'*
took into t-e 'ream t-e fir*t# in'ifferent *o.n'in, /art of t-e */eec- in or'er to a$$.'e to
t-e $atter /art# w-ic- fitte' we$$ into t-e fanta*y .n'er$yin, t-e 'ream# b.t w-ic- mi,-t
a$*o -a&e betraye' it.
%ere i* one of many e=am/$e* w-ic- a$$ $ea' to t-e *ame conc$.*ion:
! lar'e court$ard in "hich dead %odies are %ein' %urned5 The dreamer sa$s, )I+m 'oin',
I can+t stand the si'ht of it.1 3Not a 'i*tinct */eec-.4 Then he meets t"o %utcher %o$s and
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as(s, );ell, did it taste 'oodA+ !nd one of them ans"ers, )7o, it "asn+t 'ood5+ !s thou'h
it had %een human flesh.
T-e innocent occa*ion of t-i* 'ream i* a* fo$$ow*: After takin, *.//er wit- -i* wife# t-e
'reamer /ay* a &i*it to -i* wort-y b.t by no mean* appetisin' nei'h%our. T-e -o*/itab$e
o$' $a'y i* 6.*t *ittin, 'own to -er own *.//er# an' presses -im 3amon, men a
com/o*ite# *e=.a$$y *i,nificant wor' i* .*e' 6oco*e$y in t-e /$ace of t-i* wor'4 to ta*te it.
%e 'ec$ine*# *ayin, t-at -e -a* no a//etite. S-e re/$ie*: @Go on "ith $ou, $ou can
mana'e
it all ri'ht1# or *omet-in, of t-e kin'. T-e 'reamer i* t-.* force' to ta*te an' /rai*e w-at
i* offere' -im. @0.t t-at1* ,oo'A1 +-en -e i* a$one a,ain wit- -i* wife# -e com/$ain* of
-i* nei,-bo.r1* im/ort.nity# an' of t-e ;.a$ity of t-e foo' w-ic- -e -a* ta*te'. @I can1t
*tan' t-e *i,-t of it1# a /-ra*e t-at in t-e 'ream# too# 'oe* not emer,e a* an act.a$ */eec-#
i* a t-o.,-t re$atin, to t-e /-y*ica$ c-arm* of t-e $a'y w-o in&ite* -im# w-ic- may be
tran*$ate' by t-e *tatement t-at -e -a* no 'e*ire to $ook at -er.
T-e ana$y*i* of anot-er 'ream 55 w-ic- I wi$$ cite at t-i* *ta,e for t-e *ake of a &ery
'i*tinct */eec-# w-ic- con*tit.te* it* n.c$e.*# b.t w-ic- wi$$ be e=/$aine' on$y w-en we
come to e&a$.ate t-e affect* in 'ream* 55 i* more in*tr.cti&e. I 'ream &ery &i&i'$y: I have
'one to <rDc(e+s la%orator$ at ni'ht, and on hearin' a 'entle (noc(in' at the door, I
open it to 9the deceased: 2rofessor Fleischl, "ho enters in the compan$ of several
stran'ers, and after sa$in' a fe" "ords sits do"n at his ta%le. T-en fo$$ow* a *econ'
'ream: M$ friend Fl5 has come to Vienna, uno%trusivel$, in >ul$6 I meet him in the street,
in conversation "ith m$ 9deceased: friend 25, and I 'o "ith them some"here, and the$ sit
do"n facin' each other as thou'h at a small ta%le, "hile I sit facin' them at the narro"
end of the ta%le5 Fl5 spea(s of his sister, and sa$s: )In three40uarters of an hour she "as
dead,+ and then somethin' li(e )That is the threshold5+ !s 25 does not understand him, Fl5
turns to me, and as(s me ho" much I have told 25 of his affairs5 !t this, overcome %$
stran'e emotions, I tr$ to tell Fl5 that 25 9cannot possi%l$ (no" an$thin', of course,
%ecause he: is not alive5 <ut noticin' the mista(e m$self, I sa$: @Non &i=it.1 Then I loo(
searchin'l$ at 25, and under m$ 'a?e he %ecomes pale and %lurred, and his e$es turn a
sic(l$ %lue and at last he dissolves5 I re/oice 'reatl$ at this6 I no" understand that &rnst
Fleischl, too, is onl$ an apparition, a re&enant# and I find that it is 0uite possi%le that
such a person should eist onl$ so lon' as one "ishes him to, and that he can %e made to
disappear %$ the "ish of another person.
T-i* &ery /retty 'ream .nite* *o many of t-e eni,matica$ c-aracteri*tic* of t-e
'reamcontent
55 t-e critici*m ma'e in t-e 'ream it*e$f# ina*m.c- a* I my*e$f notice my mi*take
in *ayin, 7on viit in*tea' of 7on vivit# t-e .ncon*traine' interco.r*e wit- 'ecea*e'
/er*on*# w-om t-e 'ream it*e$f 'ec$are* to be 'ea'# t-e ab*.r'ity of my conc$.*ion# an'
t-e inten*e *ati*faction w-ic- it ,i&e* me 55 t-at @I wo.$' ,i&e my $ife1 to e=/o.n' t-e
com/$ete *o$.tion of t-e /rob$em. 0.t in rea$ity I am inca/ab$e of 'oin, w-at I 'o in t-e
'ream# i.e. of *acrificin, *.c- intimate frien'* to my ambition. An' if I attem/te' to
'i*,.i*e t-e fact*# t-e tr.e meanin, of t-e 'ream# wit- w-ic- I am /erfect$y fami$iar#
wo.$' be */oi$e'. I m.*t t-erefore be content to *e$ect a few of t-e e$ement* of t-e 'ream
for inter/retation# *ome -ere# an' *ome at a $ater *ta,e.
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T-e *cene in w-ic- I anni-i$ate P. wit- a ,$ance form* t-e centre of t-e 'ream. %i* eye*
become *tran,e an' weir'$y b$.e# an' t-en -e 'i**o$&e*. T-i* *cene i* an .nmi*takab$e
imitation of a *cene t-at wa* act.a$$y e=/erience'. I wa* a 'emon*trator at t-e
P-y*io$o,ica$ In*tit.te< I wa* on '.ty in t-e mornin,# an' 0rBcke $earne' t-at on *e&era$
occa*ion* I -a' been .n/.nct.a$ in my atten'ance at t-e *t.'ent*1 $aboratory. One
mornin,# t-erefore# -e arri&e' at t-e -o.r of o/enin,# an' waite' for me. +-at -e *ai' to
me wa* brief an' to t-e /oint< b.t it wa* not w-at -e *ai' t-at mattere'. +-at
o&erw-e$me' me wa* t-e terrib$e ,aCe of -i* b$.e eye*# before w-ic- I me$te' away 55 a*
P. 'oe* in t-e 'ream# for P. -a* e=c-an,e' ro$e* wit- me# m.c- to my re$ief. Anyone w-o
remember* t-e eye* of t-e ,reat ma*ter# w-ic- were won'erf.$$y bea.tif.$ e&en in -i* o$'
a,e# an' -a* e&er *een -im an,ere'# wi$$ rea'i$y ima,ine t-e emotion* of t-e yo.n,
tran*,re**or on t-at occa*ion.
0.t for a $on, w-i$e I wa* .nab$e to acco.nt for t-e 7on viit wit- w-ic- I /a** *entence
in t-e 'ream. Fina$$y# I remembere' t-at t-e rea*on w-y t-e*e two wor'* were *o 'i*tinct
in t-e 'ream wa* not beca.*e t-ey were -ear' or */oken# b.t beca.*e t-ey were seen.
T-en I knew at once w-ere t-ey came from. On t-e /e'e*ta$ of t-e *tat.e of t-e Em/eror
>o*e/- in t-e Kienna %ofb.r, are in*cribe' t-e fo$$owin, bea.tif.$ wor'*:
3aluti patriae viit
non diu sed totus.7
From t-i* in*cri/tion I -a' taken w-at fitte' one inimica$ train of t-o.,-t in my
'reamt-o.,-t*#
an' w-ic- wa* inten'e' to mean: @T-at fe$$ow -a* not-in, to *ay in t-e matter#
-e i* not rea$$y a$i&e.1 An' I now reca$$e' t-at t-e 'ream wa* 'reame' a few 'ay* after
t-e .n&ei$in, of t-e memoria$ to F$ei*c-$# in t-e c$oi*ter* of t-e )ni&er*ity# ./on w-ic-
occa*ion I -a' once more *een t-e memoria$ to 0rBcke# an' m.*t -a&e t-o.,-t wit-
re,ret 3in t-e .ncon*cio.*4 -ow my ,ifte' frien' P.# wit- a$$ -i* 'e&otion to *cience# -a'
by -i* /remat.re 'eat- forfeite' -i* 6.*t c$aim to a memoria$ in t-e*e -a$$*. So I *et ./
t-i* memoria$ to -im in t-e 'ream< >o*ef i* my frien' P.1* ba/ti*ma$ name.8
Accor'in, to t-e r.$e* of 'ream5inter/retation# I *-o.$' *ti$$ not be 6.*tifie' in re/$acin,
non vivit# w-ic- I nee'# by non viit# w-ic- i* /$ace' at my 'i*/o*a$ by t-e reco$$ection of
t-e Fai*er >o*ef memoria$. Some ot-er e$ement of t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* m.*t -a&e
contrib.te' to make t-i* /o**ib$e. Somet-in, now ca$$* my attention to t-e fact t-at in t-e
'ream *cene two train* of t-o.,-t re$atin, to my frien' P. meet# one -o*ti$e# t-e ot-er
affectionate 55 t-e former on t-e *.rface# t-e $atter co&ere' ./ 55 an' bot- are ,i&en
re/re*entation in t-e *ame wor'*: non viit. A* my frien' P. -a* 'e*er&e' we$$ of *cience#
I erect a memoria$ to -im< a* -e -a* been ,.i$ty of a ma$icio.* wi*- 3e=/re**e' at t-e en'
of t-e 'ream4# I anni-i$ate -im. I -a&e -ere con*tr.cte' a *entence wit- a */ecia$ ca'ence#
an' in 'oin, *o I m.*t -a&e been inf$.ence' by *ome e=i*tin, mo'e$. 0.t w-ere can I
fin' a *imi$ar antit-e*i*# a *imi$ar /ara$$e$ between two o//o*ite reaction* to t-e *ame
/er*on# bot- of w-ic- can c$aim to be w-o$$y 6.*tifie'# an' w-ic- ne&ert-e$e** 'o not
attem/t to affect one anot-erI On$y in one /a**a,e w-ic-# -owe&er# make* a /rofo.n'
im/re**ion ./on t-e rea'er 55 0r.t.*1* */eec- of 6.*tification in S-ake*/eare1* >ulius
Caesar. @A* (ae*ar $o&e' me# I wee/ for -im< a* -e wa* fort.nate# I re6oice at it< a* -e
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wa* &a$iant# I -ono.r -im< b.t a* -e wa* ambitio.*# I *$ew -im.1 %a&e we not -ere t-e
*ame &erba$ *tr.ct.re# an' t-e *ame antit-e*i* of t-o.,-t# a* in t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*I So I
am /$ayin, 0r.t.* in my 'ream. If on$y I co.$' fin' in my 'ream5t-o.,-t* anot-er
co$$atera$ connection to confirm t-i*A I t-ink it mi,-t be t-e fo$$owin,: @My frien' F$.
come* to Kienna in >.$y.1 T-i* 'etai$ i* not t-e ca*e in rea$ity. To my know$e',e# my
frien' -a* ne&er been in Kienna in >.$y. 0.t t-e mont- of >ul$ i* name' after >ulius
Caesar# an' mi,-t t-erefore &ery we$$ f.rni*- t-e re;.ire' a$$.*ion to t-e interme'iate
t-o.,-t 55 t-at I am /$ayin, t-e /art of 0r.t.*.9
Stran,e$y eno.,-# I once 'i' act.a$$y /$ay t-e /art of 0r.t.*. +-en I wa* a boy of
fo.rteen# I /re*ente' t-e *cene between 0r.t.* an' (ae*ar in Sc-i$$er1* /oem to an
a.'ience of c-i$'ren: wit- t-e a**i*tance of my ne/-ew# w-o wa* a year o$'er t-an I# an'
w-o -a' come to .* from En,$an' 55 an' wa* t-.* a revenant 55 for in -im I reco,ni*e t-e
/$aymate of my ear$y c-i$'-oo'. )nti$ t-e en' of my t-ir' year we -a' been in*e/arab$e<
we -a' $o&e' eac- ot-er an' fo.,-t eac- ot-er an'# a* I -a&e a$rea'y -inte'# t-i* c-i$'i*-
re$ation -a* 'etermine' a$$ my $ater fee$in,* in my interco.r*e wit- /er*on* of my own
a,e. My ne/-ew >o-n -a* *ince t-en -a' many incarnation*# w-ic- -a&e re&i&ifie' fir*t
one an' t-en anot-er a*/ect of a c-aracter t-at i* inera'icab$y fi=e' in my .ncon*cio.*
memory. At time* -e m.*t -a&e treate' me &ery ba'$y# an' I m.*t -a&e o//o*e' my
tyrant co.ra,eo.*$y# for in $ater year* I wa* often to$' of a *-ort */eec- in w-ic- I
'efen'e' my*e$f w-en my fat-er 55 -i* ,ran'fat-er 55 ca$$e' me to acco.nt: @+-y 'i' yo.
-it >o-nI1 @I hit him %ecause he hit me.1 It m.*t be t-i* c-i$'i*- *cene w-ic- ca.*e* non
vivit to become non viit# for in t-e $an,.a,e of $ater c-i$'-oo' *trikin, i* known a*
"ichsen 3German: "ichsen M to /o$i*-# to wa=# i.e. to t-ra*-4< an' t-e 'ream5work 'oe*
not 'i*'ain to take a'&anta,e of *.c- a**ociation*. My -o*ti$ity towar'* my frien' P.#
w-ic- -a* *o $itt$e fo.n'ation in rea$ity 55 -e wa* ,reat$y my *./erior# an' mi,-t
t-erefore -a&e been a new e'ition of my o$' /$aymate 55 may certain$y be trace' to my
com/$icate' re$ation* wit- >o-n '.rin, o.r c-i$'-oo'. I *-a$$# a* I -a&e *ai'# ret.rn to t-i*
'ream $ater on.
1 JGi&en by tran*$ator# a* t-e a.t-or1* e=am/$e co.$' not be tran*$ate'.L
Re/orte' by 0ri$$ in -i* Fundamental Conceptions of 2s$choanal$sis.
2 Ana$y*e* of ot-er n.merica$ 'ream* -a&e been ,i&en by >.n,# Marcinow*ki an' ot-er*.
S.c- 'ream* often in&o$&e &ery com/$icate' arit-metica$ o/eration*# w-ic- are none t-e
$e** *o$&e' by t-e 'reamer wit- a*toni*-in, confi'ence. (f. a$*o Erne*t >one*# D%er
un%e"usste Iahlen%ehandlun', Ientral%5 fDr 2s$choanal$se# 7# ii# 1!1# /. 714.
Ne.ro*i* be-a&e* in t-e *ame fa*-ion. I know a /atient w-o 55 in&o$.ntari$y an'
.nwi$$in,$y 55 -ear* 3-a$$.cinate*4 *on,* or fra,ment* of *on,* wit-o.t bein, ab$e to
.n'er*tan' t-eir *i,nificance for -er /*yc-ic $ife. S-e i* certain$y not a /aranoiac.
Ana$y*i* *-ow* t-at by e=erci*in, a certain $icence *-e ,a&e t-e te=t of t-e*e *on,* a
fa$*e a//$ication. @O-# t-o. b$i**f.$ oneA O-# t-o. -a//y oneA1 T-i* i* t-e fir*t $ine of a
(-ri*tma* caro$# b.t by not contin.in, it to t-e wor' @(-ri*tma*ti'e1# *-e t.rn* it into a
bri'a$ *on,# etc. T-e *ame mec-ani*m of 'i*tortion may o/erate# wit-o.t -a$$.cination#
mere$y in a**ociation.
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7 T-e in*cri/tion in fact rea'*: 3aluti pu%licae viit non diu sed totus. T-e moti&e of t-e
mi*take: patriae for pu%licae# -a* /robab$y been correct$y 'i&ine' by +itte$*.
8 A* an e=am/$e of o&er5'etermination: My e=c.*e for comin, $ate wa* t-at after workin,
$ate into t-e ni,-t# in t-e mornin, I -a' to make t-e $on, 6o.rney from Fai*er5>o*ef5
Stra**e to +O-rin,er Stra**e.
9 An' a$*o# (ae*ar M Eaiser.
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G! A1S.RD DREAMS 00 INTE,,E+T.A, PERFORMAN+ES IN DREAMS
%it-erto# in o.r inter/retation of 'ream*# we -a&e come ./on t-e e$ement of a%surdit$ in
t-e 'ream5content *o fre;.ent$y t-at we m.*t no $on,er /o*t/one t-e in&e*ti,ation of it*
ca.*e an' it* meanin,. +e remember# of co.r*e# t-at t-e ab*.r'ity of 'ream* -a*
f.rni*-e' t-e o//onent* of 'ream5inter/retation wit- t-eir c-ief ar,.ment for re,ar'in,
t-e 'ream a* mere$y t-e meanin,$e** /ro'.ct of an atten.ate' an' fra,mentary acti&ity of
t-e /*yc-e.
I wi$$ be,in wit- a few e=am/$e* in w-ic- t-e ab*.r'ity of t-e 'ream5content i* a//arent
on$y# 'i*a//earin, w-en t-e 'ream i* more t-oro.,-$y e=amine'. T-e*e are certain
'ream* w-ic- 55 acci'enta$$y# one be,in* by t-inkin, 55 are concerne' wit- t-e 'reamer1*
'ea' fat-er.
Dream 1. %ere i* t-e 'ream of a /atient w-o -a' $o*t -i* fat-er *i= year* before t-e 'ate
of t-e 'ream:
Bis father had %een involved in a terri%le accident5 Be "as travellin' %$ the ni'ht
epress "hen the train "as derailed, the seats "ere telescoped, and his head "as crushed
from side to side5 The dreamer sees him l$in' on his %ed6 from his left e$e%ro" a "ound
runs verticall$ up"ards5 The dreamer is surprised that his father should have met "ith an
accident 9since he is dead alread$# a* t-e 'reamer a''* in re$atin, -i* 'ream4. Bis
father+s e$es are so clear.
Accor'in, to t-e /re&ai$in, *tan'ar'* of 'ream5critici*m# t-i* 'ream5content wo.$' be
e=/$aine' a* fo$$ow*: At fir*t# w-i$e t-e 'reamer i* /ict.rin, -i* fat-er1* acci'ent# -e -a*
for,otten t-at -i* fat-er -a* a$rea'y been many year* in -i* ,ra&e< in t-e co.r*e of t-e
'ream t-i* memor$ awaken*# *o t-at -e i* *.r/ri*e' at -i* own 'ream e&en w-i$e -e i*
'reamin, it. Ana$y*i*# -owe&er# te$$* .* t-at it i* ;.ite *./erf$.o.* to *eek for *.c-
e=/$anation*. T-e 'reamer -a' commi**ione' a *c.$/tor to make a %ust of -i* fat-er# an'
-e -a' in*/ecte' t-e b.*t two 'ay* before t-e 'ream. It i* t-i* w-ic- *eem* to -im to
-a&e come to ,rief 3t-e German wor' mean* @,one wron,1 or @met wit- an acci'ent14. T-e
*c.$/tor -a* ne&er *een -i* fat-er# an' -a* -a' to work from /-oto,ra/-*. On t-e &ery
'ay before t-e 'ream t-e *on -a' *ent an o$' fami$y *er&ant to t-e *t.'io in or'er to *ee
w-et-er -e# too# wo.$' /a** t-e *ame 6.',ment ./on t-e marb$e b.*t 55 name$y# t-at it
wa* too narro" %et"een the temples. An' now fo$$ow* t-e memory5materia$ w-ic- -a*
contrib.te' to t-e formation of t-e 'ream: T-e 'reamer1* fat-er -a' a -abit# w-ene&er -e
wa* -ara**e' by b.*ine** care* or 'ome*tic 'iffic.$tie*# of /re**in, -i* tem/$e* between
-i* -an'*# a* t-o.,- -i* -ea' wa* ,rowin, too $ar,e an' -e wa* tryin, to com/re** it.
+-en t-e 'reamer wa* fo.r year* o$'# -e wa* /re*ent w-en a /i*to$ wa* acci'enta$$y
'i*c-ar,e'# an' -i* fat-er1* eye* were b$ackene' 9his e$es are so clear:. +-en -i* fat-er
wa* t-o.,-tf.$ or 'e/re**e'# -e -a' a 'ee/ f.rrow in -i* fore-ea' 6.*t w-ere t-e 'ream
*-ow* -i* wo.n'. T-e fact t-at in t-e 'ream t-i* wrink$e i* re/$ace' by a wo.n' /oint* to
t-e *econ' occa*ion for t-e 'ream. T-e 'reamer -a' taken a /-oto,ra/- of -i* $itt$e
'a.,-ter< t-e /$ate -a' fa$$en from -i* -an'# an' w-en -e /icke' it ./ it re&ea$e' a crack
w-ic- ran $ike a &ertica$ f.rrow acro** t-e c-i$'1* fore-ea'# e=ten'in, a* far a* t-e
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eyebrow. %e co.$' not -e$/ fee$in, a *./er*titio.* forebo'in,# for on t-e 'ay before -i*
mot-er1* 'eat- t-e ne,ati&e of -er /ortrait -a' been cracke'.
T-.*# t-e ab*.r'ity of t-i* 'ream i* *im/$y t-e re*.$t of a care$e**ne** of &erba$
e=/re**ion# w-ic- 'oe* not 'i*tin,.i*- between t-e b.*t or t-e /-oto,ra/- an' t-e
ori,ina$. +e are a$$ acc.*tome' to makin, remark* $ike: @Don1t yo. t-ink it1* e=act$y yo.r
fat-erI1 T-e a//earance of ab*.r'ity in t-i* 'ream mi,-t# of co.r*e# -a&e been ea*i$y
a&oi'e'. If it were /ermi**ib$e to form an o/inion on t-e *tren,t- of a *in,$e ca*e# one
mi,-t be tem/te' to *ay t-at t-i* *emb$ance of ab*.r'ity i* a'mitte' or e&en 'e*ire'.
Dream . %ere i* anot-er e=am/$e of t-e *ame kin' from my own 'ream* 3I $o*t my
fat-er in t-e year 1D!94: 55
!fter his death m$ father has pla$ed a part in the political life of the Ma'$ars, and has
united them into a political "hole< an' -ere I *ee# in'i*tinct$y# a $itt$e /ict.re: a num%er of
men, as thou'h in the Geichsta'6 a man is standin' on one or t"o chairs6 there are others
round a%out him5 I remem%er that on his death4%ed he loo(ed so li(e Gari%aldi, and I am
'lad that this promise has reall$ come true.
(ertain$y t-i* i* ab*.r' eno.,-. It wa* 'reame' at t-e time w-en t-e %.n,arian* were in
a *tate of anarc-y# owin, to Par$iamentary o%struction# an' were /a**in, t-ro.,- t-e
cri*i* from w-ic- Fo$oman 3?,ll *.b*e;.ent$y 'e$i&ere' t-em. T-e tri&ia$ circ.m*tance
t-at t-e *cene* be-e$' in 'ream* con*i*t of *.c- $itt$e /ict.re* i* not wit-o.t *i,nificance
for t-e e$.ci'ation of t-i* e$ement. T-e c.*tomary &i*.a$ 'ream5re/re*entation* of o.r
t-o.,-t* /re*ent ima,e* t-at im/re** .* a* bein, $ife5*iCe< my 'ream5/ict.re# -owe&er# i*
t-e re/ro'.ction of a woo'5c.t in*erte' in t-e te=t of an i$$.*trate' -i*tory of A.*tria#
re/re*entin, Maria T-ere*a in t-e Reic-*ta, of Pre**b.r, 55 t-e famo.* *cene of
Moriamur pro re'e nostro.1 ?ike Maria T-ere*a# my fat-er# in my 'ream# i* *.rro.n'e'
by t-e m.$tit.'e< b.t -e i* *tan'in, on one or two c-air* 33tDhlen4# an' i* t-.*# $ike a
3tuhlrichter 3/re*i'in, 6.',e4. 3%e -a* united t-em< -ere t-e interme'iary i* t-e /-ra*e:
@+e *-a$$ nee' no /ud'e.14 T-o*e of .* w-o *too' abo.t my fat-er1* 'eat-5be' 'i'
act.a$$y notice t-at -e $ooke' &ery $ike Gariba$'i. %e -a' a post4mortem ri*e of
tem/erat.re< -i* c-eek* *-one re''er an' re''er . . . in&o$.ntari$y we contin.e: @An'
be-in' -im# in .n*.b*tantia$ 3ra'iance4# $ay t-at w-ic- *.b'.e* .* a$$ 55 t-e common fate.1
T-i* ./$iftin, of o.r t-o.,-t* /re/are* .* for t-e fact t-at we *-a$$ -a&e to 'ea$ wit- t-i*
@common fate1. T-e post4mortem ri*e in tem/erat.re corre*/on'* to t-e wor'* @after -i*
'eat-1 in t-e 'ream5content. T-e mo*t a,oni*in, of -i* aff$iction* -a' been a com/$ete
/ara$y*i* of t-e inte*tine* 3o%struction4 '.rin, t-e $a*t few week* of -i* $ife. A$$ *ort* of
'i*re*/ectf.$ t-o.,-t* a**ociate t-em*e$&e* wit- t-i*. One of my contem/orarie*# w-o
$o*t -i* fat-er w-i$e *ti$$ at t-e @,ymna*i.m1 55 ./on w-ic- occa*ion I wa* /rofo.n'$y
mo&e'# an' ten'ere' -im my frien'*-i/ 55 once to$' me# 'eri*i&e$y# of t-e 'i*tre** of a
re$ati&e w-o*e fat-er -a' 'ie' in t-e *treet# an' -a' been bro.,-t -ome# w-en it
a//eare'# ./on .n're**in, t-e cor/*e# t-at at t-e moment of 'eat-# or post4mortem# an
e&ac.ation of t-e bowe$* 33tuhlentleerun'4 -a' taken /$ace. T-e 'a.,-ter wa* 'ee/$y
'i*tre**e' by t-i* circ.m*tance# beca.*e t-i* .,$y 'etai$ wo.$' ine&itab$y */oi$ -er
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memory of -er fat-er. +e -a&e now /enetrate' to t-e wi*- t-at i* embo'ie' in t-i*
'ream. To *tan' after one1* 'eat- before one1* c-i$'ren ,reat an' .n'efi$e': w-o wo.$'
not wi*- t-atI +-at now -a* become of t-e ab*.r'ity of t-i* 'reamI T-e a//earance of
ab*.r'ity wa* '.e on$y to t-e fact t-at a /erfect$y /ermi**ib$e fi,.re of */eec-# in w-ic-
we are acc.*tome' to i,nore any ab*.r'ity t-at may e=i*t a* between it* com/onent*# -a*
been fait-f.$$y re/re*ente' in t-e 'ream. %ere a,ain we can -ar'$y 'eny t-at t-e
a//earance of ab*.r'ity i* 'e*ire' an' -a* been /.r/o*e$y /ro'.ce'.
T-e fre;.ency wit- w-ic- 'ea' /er*on* a//ear in o.r 'ream* a* $i&in, an' acti&e an'
a**ociatin, wit- .* -a* e&oke' .n'.e a*toni*-ment# an' *ome c.rio.* e=/$anation*#
w-ic- affor' con*/ic.o.* /roof of o.r mi*.n'er*tan'in, of 'ream*. An' yet t-e
e=/$anation of t-e*e 'ream* i* c$o*e at -an'. %ow often it -a//en* t-at we *ay to
o.r*e$&e*: @If my fat-er were *ti$$ a$i&e# w-at wo.$' -e *ay to t-i*I1 T-e 'ream can
e=/re** t-i* if in no ot-er way t-an by -i* /re*ence in a 'efinite *it.ation. T-.*# for
in*tance# a yo.n, man w-o*e ,ran'fat-er -a* $eft -im a ,reat in-eritance 'ream* t-at t-e
o$' man i* a$i&e# an' ca$$* -i* ,ran'*on to acco.nt# re/roac-in, -im for -i* $a&i*-
e=/en'it.re. +-at we re,ar' a* an ob6ection to t-e 'ream on acco.nt of o.r better
know$e',e t-at t-e man i* a$rea'y 'ea'# i* in rea$ity t-e con*o$in, t-o.,-t t-at t-e 'ea'
man 'oe* not nee' to $earn t-e tr.t-# or *ati*faction o&er t-e fact t-at -e can no $on,er
-a&e a *ay in t-e matter.
Anot-er form of ab*.r'ity fo.n' in 'ream* of 'ecea*e' re$ati&e* 'oe* not e=/re** *corn
an' 'eri*ion< it *er&e* to e=/re** t-e e=treme*t re/.'iation# t-e re/re*entation of a
*.//re**e' t-o.,-t w-ic- one wo.$' $ike to be$ie&e t-e &ery $a*t t-in, one wo.$' t-ink
of. Dream* of t-i* kin' a//ear to be ca/ab$e of *o$.tion on$y if we remember t-at a
'ream make* no 'i*tinction between 'e*ire an' rea$ity. For e=am/$e# a man w-o n.r*e'
-i* fat-er '.rin, -i* $a*t i$$ne**# an' w-o fe$t -i* 'eat- &ery keen$y# 'reame' *ome time
afterwar'* t-e fo$$owin, *en*e$e** 'ream: Bis father "as a'ain livin', and conversin'
"ith him as usual, %ut 3an' t-i* wa* t-e remarkab$e t-in,4 he had nevertheless died,
thou'h he did not (no" it. T-i* 'ream i* inte$$i,ib$e if# after @-e -a' ne&ert-e$e** 'ie'1#
we in*ert in conse0uence of the dreamer+s "ish# an' if after @b.t -e 'i' not know it#1 we
a'' that the dreamer had entertained this "ish. +-i$e n.r*in, -im# t-e *on -a' often
wi*-e' t-at -i* fat-er wa* 'ea'< t-at i*# -e -a' -a' t-e rea$$y com/a**ionate t-o.,-t t-at
it wo.$' be a ,oo' t-in, if 'eat- wo.$' at $a*t /.t an en' to -i* *.fferin,*. +-i$e -e wa*
mo.rnin, -i* fat-er1* 'eat-# e&en t-i* com/a**ionate wi*- became an .ncon*cio.*
re/roac-# a* t-o.,- it -a' rea$$y contrib.te' to *-orten t-e *ick man1* $ife. 0y t-e
awakenin, of t-e ear$ie*t infanti$e fee$in,* a,ain*t -i* fat-er# it became /o**ib$e to
e=/re** t-i* re/roac- a* a 'ream< an' it wa* /reci*e$y beca.*e of t-e e=treme antit-e*i*
between t-e 'ream5in*ti,ator an' t-e 'ay5t-o.,-t* t-at t-i* 'ream -a' to a**.me *o
ab*.r' a form.
A* a ,enera$ t-in,# t-e 'ream* of a 'ecea*e' /er*on of w-om t-e 'reamer -a* been fon'
confront t-e inter/reter wit- 'iffic.$t /rob$em*# t-e *o$.tion of w-ic- i* not a$way*
*ati*fyin,. T-e rea*on for t-i* may be *o.,-t in t-e e*/ecia$$y /rono.nce' ambi&a$ence
of fee$in, w-ic- contro$* t-e re$ation of t-e 'reamer to t-e 'ea' /er*on. In *.c- 'ream* it
i* ;.ite .*.a$ for t-e 'ecea*e' /er*on to be treate' at fir*t a* $i&in,< t-en it *.''en$y
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"D
a//ear* t-at -e i* 'ea'< an' in t-e contin.ation of t-e 'ream -e i* once more $i&in,. T-i*
-a* a conf.*in, effect. I at $a*t 'i&ine' t-at t-i* a$ternation of 'eat- an' $ife i* inten'e' to
re/re*ent t-e indifference of t-e 'reamer. 3@It i* a$$ one to me w-et-er -e i* a$i&e or
'ea'14. T-i* in'ifference# of co.r*e# i* not rea$# b.t wi*-e'< it* /.r/o*e i* to -e$/ t-e
'reamer to 'eny -i* &ery inten*e an' often contra'ictory emotiona$ attit.'e*# an' *o it
become* t-e 'ream5re/re*entation of -i* am%ivalence. For ot-er 'ream* in w-ic- one
meet* wit- 'ecea*e' /er*on* t-e fo$$owin, r.$e wi$$ often be a ,.i'e: If in t-e 'ream t-e
'reamer i* not remin'e' t-at t-e 'ea' /er*on i* 'ea'# -e *et* -im*e$f on a /ar wit- t-e
'ea'< -e 'ream* of -i* own 'eat-. T-e *.''en rea$i*ation or a*toni*-ment in t-e 'ream
3@b.t -e -a* $on, been 'ea'A14 i* a /rote*t a,ain*t t-i* i'entification# an' re6ect* t-e
meanin, t-at t-e 'reamer i* 'ea'. 0.t I wi$$ a'mit t-at I fee$ t-at 'ream5inter/retation i*
far from -a&in, e$icite' a$$ t-e *ecret* of 'ream* -a&in, t-i* content.
Dream 2. In t-e e=am/$e w-ic- I *-a$$ now cite# I can 'etect t-e 'ream5work in t-e act of
/.r/o*e$y man.fact.rin, an ab*.r'ity for w-ic- t-ere i* no occa*ion w-ate&er in t-e
'ream5materia$. It i* taken from t-e 'ream w-ic- I -a' a* a re*.$t of meetin, (o.nt T-.n
6.*t before ,oin, away on a -o$i'ay. @I am drivin' in a ca%, and I tell the driver to drive
to a rail"a$ station5 ))8f course, I can+t drive "ith $ou on the rail"a$ trac( itself,++ I sa$,
after the driver has reproached me, as thou'h I had "orn him out6 at the same time, it
seems as thou'h I had alread$ made "ith him a /ourne$ that one usuall$ ma(es %$ train.1
Of t-i* conf.*e' an' *en*e$e** *tory ana$y*i* ,i&e* t-e fo$$owin, e=/$anation: D.rin, t-e
'ay I -a' -ire' a cab to take me to a remote *treet in Dornbac-. T-e 'ri&er# -owe&er# 'i'
not know t-e way# an' *im/$y ke/t on 'ri&in,# in t-e manner of *.c- wort-y /eo/$e# .nti$
I became aware of t-e fact an' *-owe' -im t-e way# in'.$,in, in a few 'eri*i&e remark*.
From t-i* 'ri&er a train of t-o.,-t $e' to t-e ari*tocratic /er*ona,e w-om I wa* to meet
$ater on. For t-e /re*ent# I wi$$ on$y remark t-at one t-in, t-at *trike* .* mi''$e5c$a**
/$ebeian* abo.t t-e ari*tocracy i* t-at t-ey $ike to /.t t-em*e$&e* in t-e 'ri&er1* *eat.
Doe* not (o.nt T-.n ,.i'e t-e A.*trian @car of State1I T-e ne=t *entence in t-e 'ream#
-owe&er# refer* to my brot-er# w-om I t-.* a$*o i'entify wit- t-e cab5'ri&er. I -a'
ref.*e' to ,o to Ita$y wit- -im t-i* year 3@Of co.r*e# I can1t 'ri&e wit- yo. on t-e rai$way
track it*e$f14# an' t-i* ref.*a$ wa* a *ort of /.ni*-ment for -i* acc.*tome' com/$aint t-at
I .*.a$$y "ear him out on t-i* to.r 3t-i* fin'* it* way into t-e 'ream .nc-an,e'4 by
r.*-in, -im too ;.ick$y from /$ace to /$ace# an' makin, -im *ee too many bea.tif.$
t-in,* in a *in,$e 'ay. T-at e&enin, my brot-er -a' accom/anie' me to t-e rai$way
*tation# b.t *-ort$y before t-e carria,e -a' reac-e' t-e +e*tern *tation of t-e
Metro/o$itan Rai$way -e -a' 6.m/e' o.t in or'er to take t-e train to P.rker*'orf. I
*.,,e*te' to -im t-at -e mi,-t remain wit- me a $itt$e $on,er# a* -e 'i' not tra&e$ to
P.rker*'orf by t-e Metro/o$itan b.t by t-e +e*tern Rai$way. T-i* i* w-y# in my 'ream# I
ma'e in t-e cab a 6o.rney w-ic- one .*.a$$y make* by train. In rea$ity# -owe&er# it wa*
t-e ot-er way abo.t: w-at I to$' my brot-er wa*: @T-e 'i*tance w-ic- yo. tra&e$ on t-e
Metro/o$itan Rai$way yo. co.$' tra&e$ in my com/any on t-e +e*tern Rai$way.1 T-e
w-o$e conf.*ion of t-e 'ream i* t-erefore '.e to t-e fact t-at in my 'ream I re/$ace
@Metro/o$itan Rai$way1 by @cab1# w-ic-# to be *.re# 'oe* ,oo' *er&ice in brin,in, t-e
'ri&er an' my brot-er into con6.nction. I t-en e$icit from t-e 'ream *ome non*en*e w-ic-
i* -ar'$y 'i*entan,$e' by e$.ci'ation# an' w-ic- a$mo*t con*tit.te* a contra'iction of my
ear$ier */eec- 3@Of co.r*e# I cannot 'ri&e wit- yo. on t-e rai$way track it*e$f14. 0.t a* I
INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS
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-a&e no e=c.*e w-ate&er for confrontin, t-e Metro/o$itan Rai$way wit- t-e cab# I m.*t
intentiona$$y -a&e ,i&en t-e w-o$e eni,matica$ *tory t-i* /ec.$iar form in my 'ream.
0.t wit- w-at intentionI +e *-a$$ now $earn w-at t-e ab*.r'ity in t-e 'ream *i,nifie*#
an' t-e moti&e* w-ic- a'mitte' it or create' it. In t-i* ca*e t-e *o$.tion of t-e my*tery i*
a* fo$$ow*: In t-e 'ream I nee' an ab*.r'ity# an' *omet-in, incom/re-en*ib$e# in
connection wit- @'ri&in,1 3Fahren M ri'in,# 'ri&in,4 beca.*e in t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* I -a&e
a certain o/inion t-at 'eman'* re/re*entation. One e&enin,# at t-e -o.*e of t-e witty an'
-o*/itab$e $a'y w-o a//ear*# in anot-er *cene of t-e *ame 'ream# a* t-e @-o.*ekee/er1# I
-ear' two ri''$e* w-ic- I co.$' not *o$&e. A* t-ey were known to t-e ot-er member* of
t-e /arty. I /re*ente' a *omew-at $.'icro.* fi,.re in my .n*.cce**f.$ attem/t* to fin' t-e
*o$.tion*. T-ey were two /.n* t.rnin, on t-e wor'* 7ach(ommen 3to obey or'er*55
off*/rin,4 an' Vorfahren 3to 'ri&e55forefat-er*# ance*try4. T-ey ran# I be$ie&e# a* fo$$ow*:
@T-e coac-man 'oe* it
At t-e ma*ter1* be-e*t*<
E&eryone -a* it<
In t-e ,ra&e it re*t*.1
3Vorfahren4
A conf.*in, 'etai$ wa* t-at t-e fir*t -a$&e* of t-e two ri''$e* were i'entica$:
@T-e coac-man 'oe* it
At t-e ma*ter1* be-e*t*<
Not e&eryone -a* it<
In t-e ,ra&e it re*t*.1
37ach(ommen4
+-en I *aw (o.nt T-.n 'ri&e ./ 3vorfahren4 in *tate# an' fe$$ into t-e Fi,aro5$ike moo'#
in w-ic- one fin'* t-at t-e *o$e merit of *.c- ari*tocratic ,ent$emen i* t-at t-ey -a&e
taken t-e tro.b$e to be born 3to become 7ach(ommen4# t-e*e two ri''$e* became
interme'iary t-o.,-t* for t-e 'ream5work. A* ari*tocrat* may rea'i$y be re/$ace' by
coac-men# an' *ince it wa* once t-e c.*tom to ca$$ a coac-man @%err Sc-wO,er1
3brot-erin5
$aw4# t-e work of con'en*ation co.$' in&o$&e my brot-er in t-e *ame re/re*entation.
0.t t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t at work in t-e back,ro.n' i* a* fo$$ow*: It i* non*en*e to be /ro.'
of one1* ance*tor* 3Vorfahren4. I wo.$' rat-er be an ance*tor 3Vorfahr4 my*e$f. On
acco.nt of t-i* o/inion# @it i* non*en*e1# we -a&e t-e non*en*e in t-e 'ream. An' now t-e
$a*t ri''$e in t-i* ob*c.re /a**a,e of t-e 'ream i* *o$&e' 55 name$y t-at I -a&e 'ri&en
before 3vorher 'efahren, vor'efahren4 wit- t-i* 'ri&er.
T-.*# a 'ream i* ma'e ab*.r' if t-ere occ.r* in t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*# a* one of t-e
e$ement* of t-e content*# t-e o/inion: @T-at i* non*en*e1< an'# in ,enera$# if critici*m an'
'eri*ion are t-e moti&e* of one of t-e 'reamer1* .ncon*cio.* train* of t-o.,-t. %ence
ab*.r'ity i* one of t-e mean* by w-ic- t-e 'ream5work re/re*ent* contra'iction< anot-er
INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS
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mean* i* t-e in&er*ion of materia$ re$ation between t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* an' t-e
'reamcontent<
anot-er i* t-e em/$oyment of t-e fee$in, of motor in-ibition. 0.t t-e ab*.r'ity
of a 'ream i* not to be tran*$ate' by a *im/$e @no1< it i* inten'e' to re/ro'.ce t-e
ten'ency of t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* to e=/re** $a.,-ter or 'eri*ion *im.$taneo.*$y wit- t-e
contra'iction. On$y wit- t-i* intention 'oe* t-e 'ream5work /ro'.ce anyt-in, ri'ic.$o.*.
%ere a,ain it tran*form* a /art of t-e $atent content into a manife*t form.2
A* a matter of fact# we -a&e a$rea'y cite' a con&incin, e=am/$e of t-i* *i,nificance of an
ab*.r' 'ream. T-e 'ream 3inter/rete' wit-o.t ana$y*i*4 of t-e +a,nerian /erformance
w-ic- $a*te' .nti$ :.78 a.m.# an' in w-ic- t-e orc-e*tra i* con'.cte' from a tower# etc.
3*ee /. 24 i* ob&io.*$y *ayin,: It i* a craCy wor$' an' an in*ane *ociety. %e w-o
'e*er&e* a t-in, 'oe*n1t ,et it# an' -e w-o 'oe*n1t care for it 'oe* ,et it. In t-i* way t-e
'reamer com/are* -er fate wit- t-at of -er co.*in. T-e fact t-at 'ream* of a 'ea' fat-er
were t-e fir*t to f.rni*- .* wit- e=am/$e* of ab*.r'ity in 'ream* i* by no mean*
acci'enta$. T-e con'ition* for t-e creation of ab*.r' 'ream* are -ere ,ro./e' to,et-er in
a ty/ica$ fa*-ion. T-e a.t-ority /ro/er to t-e fat-er -a* at an ear$y a,e e&oke' t-e
critici*m of t-e c-i$'# an' t-e *trict 'eman'* w-ic- -e -a* ma'e -a&e ca.*e' t-e c-i$'# in
*e$f5'efence# to /ay /artic.$ar$y c$o*e attention to e&ery weakne** of -i* fat-er1*< b.t t-e
/iety wit- w-ic- t-e fat-er1* /er*ona$ity i* *.rro.n'e' in o.r t-o.,-t*# e*/ecia$$y after
-i* 'eat-# inten*ifie* t-e cen*or*-i/ w-ic- /re&ent* t-e e=/re**ion of -i* critici*m from
becomin, con*cio.*.
Dream 7. %ere i* anot-er ab*.r' 'ream of a 'ecea*e' fat-er:
I receive a communication from the to"n council of m$ native cit$ concernin' the cost of
accommodation in the hospital in the $ear 1S515 This "as necessitated %$ a sei?ure from
"hich I "as sufferin'5 I ma(e fun of the matter for, in the first place, I "as not $et %orn in
1S51, and in the *econ' /$ace# my fat-er# to w-om t-e comm.nication mi,-t refer# i*
a$rea'y 'ea'. I 'o to him in the ad/oinin' room, "here he is l$in' in %ed, and tell him
a%out it5 To m$ surprise he remem%ers that in the $ear 1S51 he "as once drun( and had
to %e loc(ed up or confined5 It "as "hen he "as "or(in' for the firm of T5 )Then $ou, too,
used to drin(A+ I as(5 )Oou married soon afterA+ I rec(on that I "as %orn in 1S5R, "hich
seems to me to %e immediatel$ after"ards.
In t-e $i,-t of t-e fore,oin, e=/o*ition# we *-a$$ tran*$ate t-e in*i*tence wit- w-ic- t-i*
'ream e=-ibit* it* ab*.r'itie* a* a *.re *i,n of a /artic.$ar$y embittere' an' /a**ionate
/o$emic in t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*. A$$ t-e ,reater# t-en# i* o.r a*toni*-ment w-en we
/ercei&e t-at in t-i* 'ream t-e /o$emic i* wa,e' o/en$y# an' t-at my fat-er i* 'enote' a*
t-e /er*on w-o i* ma'e a $a.,-in,5*tock. S.c- frankne** *eem* to contra'ict o.r
a**.m/tion of a cen*or*-i/ contro$$in, t-e 'ream5work. T-e e=/$anation i* t-at -ere t-e
fat-er i* on$y an inter/o*e' fi,.re# w-i$e t-e ;.arre$ i* rea$$y wit- anot-er /er*on# w-o
a//ear* in t-e 'ream on$y in a *in,$e a$$.*ion. +-erea* a 'ream .*.a$$y treat* of re&o$t
a,ain*t ot-er /er*on*# be-in' w-om t-e fat-er i* concea$e'# -ere it i* t-e ot-er way
abo.t: t-e fat-er *er&e* a* t-e man of *traw to re/re*ent anot-er# an' -ence t-e 'ream
'are* to concern it*e$f o/en$y wit- a /er*on w-o i* .*.a$$y -a$$owe'# beca.*e t-ere i*
/re*ent t-e certain know$e',e t-at -e i* not in rea$ity inten'e'. +e $earn of t-i* con'ition
INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS
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of affair* by con*i'erin, t-e occa*ion of t-e 'ream. It wa* 'reame' after I -a' -ear' t-at
an o$'er co$$ea,.e# w-o*e 6.',ment wa* con*i'ere' infa$$ib$e# -a' e=/re**e' 'i*a//ro&a$
an' a*toni*-ment on -earin, t-at one of my /atient* -a' a$rea'y been .n'er,oin,
/*yc-oana$ytic treatment at my -an'* for fi&e year*. T-e intro'.ctory *entence* of t-e
'ream a$$.'e in a tran*/arent$y 'i*,.i*e' manner to t-e fact t-at t-i* co$$ea,.e -a' for a
time taken o&er t-e '.tie* w-ic- my fat-er co.$' no $on,er /erform 3*tatement of
e=/en*e*# accommo'ation in t-e -o*/ita$4< an' w-en o.r frien'$y re$ation* be,an to a$ter
for t-e wor*e I wa* t-rown into t-e *ame emotiona$ conf$ict a* t-at w-ic- ari*e* in t-e
ca*e of a mi*.n'er*tan'in, between fat-er an' *on 3by rea*on of t-e /art /$aye' by t-e
fat-er# an' -i* ear$ier f.nction*4. T-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* now bitter$y re*ent t-e re/roac-
t-at I am not makin, better /ro,re**# w-ic- e=ten'* it*e$f from t-e treatment of t-i*
/atient to ot-er t-in,*. Doe* my co$$ea,.e know anyone w-o can ,et on any fa*terI Doe*
-e not know t-at con'ition* of t-i* *ort are .*.a$$y inc.rab$e an' $a*t for $ifeI +-at are
fo.r or fi&e year* in com/ari*on to a w-o$e $ifetime# e*/ecia$$y w-en $ife -a* been ma'e
*o m.c- ea*ier for t-e /atient '.rin, t-e treatmentI
T-e im/re**ion of ab*.r'ity in t-i* 'ream i* bro.,-t abo.t $ar,e$y by t-e fact t-at
*entence* from 'ifferent 'i&i*ion* of t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* are *tr.n, to,et-er wit-o.t any
reconci$in, tran*ition. T-.*# t-e *entence# I 'o to him in the ad/oinin' room# etc.# $ea&e*
t-e *.b6ect from w-ic- t-e /rece'in, *entence* are taken# an' fait-f.$$y re/ro'.ce* t-e
circ.m*tance* .n'er w-ic- I to$' my fat-er t-at I wa* en,a,e' to be marrie'. T-.* t-e
'ream i* tryin, to remin' me of t-e nob$e 'i*intere*te'ne** w-ic- t-e o$' man *-owe' at
t-at time# an' to contra*t t-i* wit- t-e con'.ct of anot-er new$y5intro'.ce' /er*on. I now
/ercei&e t-at t-e 'ream i* a$$owe' to make f.n of my fat-er beca.*e in t-e
'reamt-o.,-t*#
in t-e f.$$ reco,nition of -i* merit*# -e i* -e$' ./ a* an e=am/$e to ot-er*. It i*
in t-e nat.re of e&ery cen*or*-i/ t-at one i* /ermitte' to te$$ .ntr.t-* abo.t forbi''en
t-in,* rat-er t-an t-e tr.t-. T-e ne=t *entence# to t-e effect t-at my fat-er remember* t-at
-e wa* once drun(# an' wa* loc(ed up in con*e;.ence# contain* not-in, t-at rea$$y re$ate*
to my fat-er any more. T-e /er*on w-o i* *creene' by -im i* -ere a no $e** im/ortant
/er*ona,e t-an t-e ,reat Meynert# in w-o*e foot*te/* I fo$$owe' wit- *.c- &eneration#
an' w-o*e attit.'e towar'* me# after a *-ort /erio' of fa&o.riti*m# c-an,e' into one of
.n'i*,.i*e' -o*ti$ity. T-e 'ream reca$$* to me -i* own *tatement t-at in -i* yo.t- -e -a'
at one time forme' t-e -abit of intoicatin' himself "ith chloroform# wit- t-e re*.$t t-at
-e -a' to enter a sanatorium< an' a$*o my *econ' e=/erience wit- -im# *-ort$y before -i*
'eat-. I -a' an embittere' $iterary contro&er*y wit- -im in reference to ma*c.$ine
-y*teria# t-e e=i*tence of w-ic- -e 'enie'# an' w-en I &i*ite' -im '.rin, -i* $a*t i$$ne**#
an' a*ke' -im -ow -e fe$t# -e 'e*cribe' -i* con'ition at *ome $en,t-# an' conc$.'e' wit-
t-e wor'*: @Ho. know# I -a&e a$way* been one of t-e /rettie*t ca*e* of ma*c.$ine
-y*teria.1 T-.*# to my *ati*faction# an' to my a*toni*-ment# -e a'mitte' w-at -e *o $on,
an' *o *t.bborn$y 'enie'. 0.t t-e fact t-at in t-i* *cene of my 'ream I can .*e my fat-er
to *creen Meynert i* e=/$aine' not by any 'i*co&ere' ana$o,y between t-e two /er*on*#
b.t by t-e fact t-at it i* t-e brief yet /erfect$y a'e;.ate re/re*entation of a con'itiona$
*entence in t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* w-ic-# if f.$$y e=/an'e'# wo.$' rea' a* fo$$ow*: @Of
co.r*e# if I be$on,e' to t-e *econ' ,eneration# if I were t-e *on of a /rofe**or or a /ri&y
co.nci$$or# I *-o.$' -a&e /ro,re**e' more ra/i'$y.1 In my 'ream I make my fat-er a
/rofe**or an' a /ri&y co.nci$$or. T-e mo*t ob&io.* an' mo*t annoyin, ab*.r'ity of t-e
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'ream $ie* in t-e treatment of t-e 'ate 1D81# w-ic- *eem* to me to be in'i*tin,.i*-ab$e
from 1D89# as thou'h a difference of five $ears meant nothin' "hatever. 0.t it i* 6.*t t-i*
one of t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* t-at re;.ire* e=/re**ion. Fo.r or fi&e year* 55 t-at i* /reci*e$y
t-e $en,t- of time '.rin, w-ic- I en6oye' t-e *.//ort of t-e co$$ea,.e mentione' at t-e
o.t*et< b.t it i* a$*o t-e '.ration of time I ke/t my fiancee waitin, before I marrie' -er<
an' by a coinci'ence t-at i* ea,er$y e=/$oite' by t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*# it i* a$*o t-e time I
-a&e ke/t my o$'e*t /atient waitin, for a com/$ete c.re. @+-at are fi&e year*I1 a*k t-e
'ream5t-o.,-t*. @That is no time at all to me, that isn+t "orth consideration. I -a&e time
eno.,- a-ea' of me# an' 6.*t a* w-at yo. wo.$'n1t be$ie&e came tr.e at $a*t# *o I *-a$$
accom/$i*- t-i* a$*o.1 Moreo&er# t-e n.mber 81# w-en con*i'ere' a/art from t-e n.mber
of t-e cent.ry# i* 'etermine' in yet anot-er manner an' in an o//o*ite *en*e< for w-ic-
rea*on it occ.r* *e&era$ time* o&er in t-e 'ream. It i* t-e a,e at w-ic- man *eem*
/artic.$ar$y e=/o*e' to 'an,er< t-e a,e at w-ic- I -a&e *een co$$ea,.e* 'ie *.''en$y#
amon, t-em one w-o -a' been a//ointe' a few 'ay* ear$ier to a /rofe**or*-i/ for w-ic-
-e -a' $on, been waitin,.
Dream 8. Anot-er ab*.r' 'ream w-ic- /$ay* wit- fi,.re*:
!n ac0uaintance of mine, Berr M5, has %een attac(ed in an essa$ %$ no less a person
than Goethe and, as "e all thin(, "ith un/ustifia%le vehemence5 Berr M5 is, of course,
crushed %$ this attac(5 Be complains of it %itterl$ at a dinner4part$6 %ut his veneration
for Goethe has not suffered as a result of this personal eperience5 I tr$ to elucidate the
temporal relations a little, as the$ seem impro%a%le to me5 Goethe died in 1S3J6 since his
attac( upon M5 must, of course, have ta(en place earlier, M5 "as at the time 0uite a
$oun' man5 It seems plausi%le to me that he "as 1S $ears old5 <ut I do not (no" eactl$
"hat the date of the present $ear is, and so the "hole calculation lapses into o%scurit$5
The attac(, %$ the "a$, is contained in Goethe+s "ell4(no"n essa$ on )7ature+.
+e *-a$$ *oon fin' t-e mean* of 6.*tifyin, t-e non*en*e of t-i* 'ream. %err M.# wit-
w-om I became ac;.ainte' at a dinnerpart$# -a' recent$y a*ke' me to e=amine -i*
brot-er# w-o *-owe' *i,n* of 'eneral paral$sis. T-e con6ect.re wa* ri,-t< t-e /ainf.$
t-in, abo.t t-i* &i*it wa* t-at t-e /atient ,a&e -i* brot-er away by a$$.'in, to -i*
$outhful
pran(s# t-o.,- o.r con&er*ation ,a&e -im no occa*ion to 'o *o. I -a' a*ke' t-e /atient to
te$$ me t-e year of -i* birt-# an' -a' re/eate'$y ,ot -im to make trif$in, ca$c.$ation* in
or'er to *-ow t-e weakne** of -i* memory 55 w-ic- te*t*# by t-e way# -e /a**e' ;.ite
we$$. Now I can *ee t-at I be-a&e $ike a /ara$ytic in t-e 'ream 3I do not (no" eactl$
"hat the date of the present $ear is4. Ot-er materia$ of t-e 'ream i* 'rawn from anot-er
recent *o.rce. T-e e'itor of a me'ica$ /erio'ica$# a frien' of mine# -a' acce/te' for -i*
/a/er a &ery .nfa&o.rab$e @crushin'1 re&iew of t-e $a*t book of my 0er$in frien'# F$.# t-e
critic bein, a &ery $outhful revie"er# w-o wa* not &ery com/etent to /a** 6.',ment. I
t-o.,-t I -a' a ri,-t to interfere# an' ca$$e' t-e e'itor to acco.nt< -e ,reat$y re,rette' -i*
acce/tance of t-e re&iew# b.t -e wo.$' not /romi*e any re're**. I t-ere./on broke off my
re$ation* wit- t-e /erio'ica$# an' in my $etter of re*i,nation I e=/re**e' t-e -o/e t-at our
personal relations "ould not suffer a* a re*.$t of t-e inci'ent. T-e t-ir' *o.rce of t-i*
'ream i* an acco.nt ,i&en by a fema$e /atient 55 it wa* fre*- in my memory at t-e time 55
of t-e /*yc-o*i* of -er brot-er w-o -a' fa$$en into a frenCy cryin, @7ature, 7ature.1 T-e
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/-y*ician* in atten'ance t-o.,-t t-at t-e cry wa* 'eri&e' from a rea'in, of Goet-e1*
bea.tif.$ essa$# an' t-at it /ointe' to t-e /atient1* o&erwork in t-e *t.'y of nat.ra$
/-i$o*o/-y. I t-o.,-t# rat-er# of t-e *e=.a$ meanin, in w-ic- e&en o.r $e** c.$t.re'
/eo/$e .*e t-e wor' @Nat.re1# an' t-e fact t-at t-e .nfort.nate man afterwar'* m.ti$ate'
-i* ,enita$* *eem* to *-ow t-at I wa* not far wron,. Ei,-teen year* wa* t-e a,e of t-i*
/atient at t-e time of t-i* acce** of frenCy.
If I a''# f.rt-er# t-at t-e book of my *o *e&ere$y critici*e' frien' 3@One a*k* one*e$f
w-et-er t-e a.t-or or one*e$f i* craCy1 -a' been t-e o/inion of anot-er critic4 treat* of t-e
temporal conditions of $ife# an' refer* t-e '.ration of Goet-e1* $ife to t-e m.$ti/$e of a
n.mber *i,nificant from t-e bio$o,ica$ /oint of &iew# it wi$$ rea'i$y be a'mitte' t-at in
my 'ream I am /.ttin, my*e$f in my frien'1* /$ace. 3I tr$ to elucidate the temporal
relations a little.4 0.t I be-a&e $ike a /aretic# an' t-e 'ream re&e$* in ab*.r'ity. T-i*
mean* t-at t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* *ay# ironica$$y: @Nat.ra$$y# -e i* t-e foo$# t-e $.natic# an'
yo. are t-e c$e&er /eo/$e w-o know better. Per-a/*# -owe&er# it i* t-e ot-er way abo.tI1
Now# @the other "a$ a%out1 i* ab.n'ant$y re/re*ente' in my 'ream# ina*m.c- a* Goet-e
-a* attacke' t-e yo.n, man# w-ic- i* ab*.r'# w-i$e it i* /erfect$y /o**ib$e e&en to'ay for
a yo.n, fe$$ow to attack t-e immorta$ Goet-e an' ina*m.c- a* I reckon from t-e $ear of
Goethe+s death# w-i$e I ma'e t-e /aretic reckon from t-e $ear of his %irth.
0.t I -a&e f.rt-er /romi*e' to *-ow t-at no 'ream i* in*/ire' by ot-er t-an e,oi*tica$
moti&e*. Accor'in,$y# I m.*t acco.nt for t-e fact t-at in t-i* 'ream I make my frien'1*
ca.*e my own# an' /.t my*e$f in -i* /$ace. My critica$ con&iction in wakin, $ife wo.$'
not 6.*tify my 'oin, *o. Now# t-e *tory of t-e ei,-teen5year5o$' /atient# an' t-e 'i&er,ent
inter/retation* of -i* cry# @7ature1# a$$.'e to t-e fact t-at I -a&e /.t my*e$f into
o//o*ition to t-e ma6ority of /-y*ician* by c$aimin, a *e=.a$ etio$o,y for t-e
/*yc-one.ro*e*. I may *ay to my*e$f: @Ho. wi$$ meet wit- t-e *ame kin' of critici*m a*
yo.r frien'< in'ee' yo. -a&e a$rea'y 'one *o to *ome e=tent1< *o t-at I may now re/$ace
t-e @-e1 in t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* by @we1. @He*# yo. are ri,-t< we two are t-e foo$*.1 T-at
mea res a'itur i* c$ear$y *-own by t-e mention of t-e *-ort# incom/arab$y bea.tif.$ e**ay
of Goet-e1* for it wa* a /o/.$ar $ect.re on t-i* e**ay w-ic- in'.ce' me to *t.'y t-e
nat.ra$ *cience* w-en I $eft t-e ,ymna*i.m# an' wa* *ti$$ .n'eci'e' a* to my f.t.re.
Dream 9. I -a&e to *-ow t-at yet anot-er 'ream in w-ic- my e,o 'oe* not a//ear i* none
t-e $e** e,oi*tic. On /. 192 I referre' to a *-ort 'ream in w-ic- Profe**or M. *ay*: @My
*on# t-e myo/ic . . .1< an' I *tate' t-at t-i* wa* on$y a /re$iminary 'ream# /rece'in,
anot-er in w-ic- I /$ay a /art. %ere i* t-e main 'ream# /re&io.*$y omitte'# w-ic-
c-a$$en,e* .* to e=/$ain it* ab*.r' an' .ninte$$i,ib$e wor'5formation.
8n account of somethin' or other that is happenin' in Gome it is necessar$ for the
children to flee, and this the$ do5 The scene is then laid %efore a 'ate, a dou%le 'ate in
the ancient st$le 9the 2orta Gomana in 3iena, as I realise "hile I am dreamin':5 I am
sittin' on the ed'e of a "ell, and I am 'reatl$ depressed6 I am almost "eepin'5 ! "oman
44 a nurse, a nun 44 %rin's out the t"o %o$s and hands them over to their father, "ho is
not m$self5 The elder is distinctl$ m$ eldest son, %ut I do not see the face of the other %o$5
The "oman as(s the eldest %o$ for a partin' (iss5 3he is remar(a%le for a red nose5 The
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%o$ refuses her the (iss, %ut sa$s to her, etendin' her his hand in partin'# @A.f Ge*ere*1#
and to %oth of us 9or to one of us: @A.f )n,e*ere*.1 I have the idea that this indicates a
preference.
T-i* 'ream i* b.i$t ./on a tan,$e of t-o.,-t* in'.ce' by a /$ay I *aw at t-e t-eatre# ca$$e'
Das neue Ghetto 3@T-e New G-etto14. T-e >ewi*- ;.e*tion# an=iety a* to t-e f.t.re of my
c-i$'ren# w-o cannot be ,i&en a fat-er$an'# an=iety a* to e'.catin, t-em *o t-at t-ey may
en6oy t-e /ri&i$e,e* of citiCen* 55 a$$ t-e*e feat.re* may ea*i$y be reco,ni*e' in t-e
accom/anyin, 'ream5t-o.,-t*.
@0y t-e water* of 0aby$on we *at 'own an' we/t.1 Siena# $ike Rome# i* famo.* for it*
bea.tif.$ fo.ntain*. In t-e 'ream I -a&e to fin' *ome *ort of *.b*tit.te for Rome 3cf. /.
!74 from amon, $oca$itie* w-ic- are known to me. Near t-e Porta Romana of Siena we
*aw a $ar,e# bri,-t$y5$it b.i$'in,# w-ic- we $earne' wa* t-e Manicomio# t-e in*ane
a*y$.m. S-ort$y before t-e 'ream I -a' -ear' t-at a co5re$i,ioni*t -a' been force' to
re*i,n a /o*ition# w-ic- -e -a' *ec.re' wit- ,reat effort# in a *tate a*y$.m.
O.r intere*t i* aro.*e' by t-e */eec-: )!uf Geseres+# w-ere one mi,-t e=/ect# from t-e
*it.ation contin.e' t-ro.,-o.t t-e 'ream# )!uf ;iedersehen+ 9!u revoir:# an' by it* ;.ite
meanin,$e** antit-e*i*: )!uf *n'eseres5+ 9)*n+ i* a /refi= meanin, @not1.4
Accor'in, to information recei&e' from %ebrew *c-o$ar*# Geseres i* a ,en.ine %ebrew
wor'# 'eri&e' from t-e &erb 'oiser# an' may be*t be ren'ere' by @or'aine' *.fferin,*#
fate' 'i*a*ter1. From it* em/$oyment in t-e >ewi*- 6ar,on one wo.$' take it to mean
@wai$in, an' $amentation1. *n'eseres i* a coina,e of my own# an' i* t-e fir*t to attract my
attention# b.t for t-e /re*ent it baff$e* me. T-e $itt$e ob*er&ation at t-e en' of t-e 'ream 55
t-at *n'eseres in'icate* an a'&anta,e o&er Geseres 55 o/en* t-e way to t-e a**ociation*#
an' t-erewit- to .n'er*tan'in,. T-i* re$ation -o$'* ,oo' in t-e ca*e of ca&iare< t-e
unsalted (ind7 i* more -i,-$y /riCe' t-an t-e *a$te'. @(a&iare to t-e ,enera$1 55 @nob$e
/a**ion*1. %erein $ie* concea$e' a 6e*tin, a$$.*ion to a member of my -o.*e-o$'# of
w-om I -o/e 55 for *-e i* yo.n,er t-an I 55 t-at *-e wi$$ watc- o&er t-e f.t.re of my
c-i$'ren< t-i*# too# a,ree* wit- t-e fact t-at anot-er member of my -o.*e-o$'# o.r wort-y
n.r*e# i* c$ear$y in'icate' by t-e n.r*e 3or n.n4 of t-e 'ream. 0.t a connectin,5$ink i*
wantin, between t-e /air# salted4unsalted an' Geseres4*n'eseres. T-i* i* to be fo.n' in
'esauert an' un'esauert 3$ea&ene' an' .n$ea&ene'4. In t-eir f$i,-t or e=o'.* from E,y/t
t-e c-i$'ren of I*rae$ -a' not time to a$$ow t-eir 'o.,- to become $ea&ene'# an' in
commemoration of t-i* e&ent t-ey eat .n$ea&ene' brea' at Pa**o&er to t-i* 'ay. %ere#
too# I can fin' room for t-e *.''en a**ociation w-ic- occ.rre' to me in t-i* /art of t-e
ana$y*i*. I remembere' -ow we# my frien' from 0er$in an' my*e$f# -a' *tro$$e' abo.t t-e
*treet* of 0re*$a.# a city w-ic- wa* *tran,e to .*# '.rin, t-e $a*t 'ay* of Ea*ter. A $itt$e
,ir$ a*ke' me t-e way to a certain *treet< I -a' to te$$ -er t-at I 'i' not know it< I t-en
remarke' to my frien'# @I -o/e t-at $ater on in $ife t-e c-i$' wi$$ *-ow more /er*/icacity
in *e$ectin, t-e /er*on* w-om *-e a$$ow* to 'irect -er.1 S-ort$y afterwar'* a *i,n ca.,-t
my eye: @Dr Berod# con*.$tin, -o.r* . . .1 I *ai' to my*e$f: @I -o/e t-i* co$$ea,.e 'oe* not
-a//en to be a c-i$'ren1* */ecia$i*t.1 Meanw-i$e# my frien' -a' been 'e&e$o/in, -i* &iew*
on t-e bio$o,ica$ *i,nificance of %ilateral s$mmetr$# an' -a' be,.n a *entence wit- t-e
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wor'*: @If we -a' on$y one eye in t-e mi''$e of t-e fore-ea'# $ike (yc$o/* . . .1 T-i* $ea'*
.* to t-e */eec- of t-e /rofe**or in t-e /re$iminary 'ream: )M$ son, the m$opic.1 An'
now I -a&e been $e' to t-e c-ief *o.rce for Geseres. Many year* a,o# w-en t-i* *on of
Profe**or M.1*# w-o i* to'ay an in'e/en'ent t-inker# wa* *ti$$ *ittin, on -i* *c-oo$5benc-#
-e contracte' an affection of t-e eye w-ic-# accor'in, to t-e 'octor# ,a&e *ome ca.*e for
an=iety. %e e=/re**e' t-e o/inion t-at *o $on, a* it wa* confine' to one e$e it wa* of no
,reat *i,nificance# b.t t-at if it *-o.$' e=ten' to t-e ot-er eye it wo.$' be *erio.*. T-e
affection *.b*i'e' in t-e one eye wit-o.t $ea&in, any i$$ effect*< *-ort$y afterwar'*#
-owe&er# t-e *ame *ym/tom* 'i' act.a$$y a//ear in t-e ot-er eye. T-e boy1* terrifie'
mot-er imme'iate$y *.mmone' t-e /-y*ician to -er 'i*tant -ome in t-e co.ntry. 0.t t-e
'octor wa* now of a 'ifferent o/inion 3took the other side:5 );hat sort of ))Geseres++ is
this $ou are ma(in'A+ -e a*ke' t-e mot-er# im/atient$y. )If one side 'ot "ell, the other
"ill, too5+ An' *o it t.rne' o.t.
An' now a* to t-e connection between t-i* an' my*e$f an' my fami$y. T-e school4%ench
./on w-ic- Profe**or M.1* *on $earne' -i* fir*t $e**on* -a* become t-e /ro/erty of my
e$'e*t *on< it wa* ,i&en to -im by t-e boy1* mot-er# an' it i* into -i* mo.t- t-at I /.t t-e
wor'* of farewe$$ in t-e 'ream. One of t-e wi*-e* t-at may be connecte' wit- t-i*
tran*ference may now be rea'i$y ,.e**e'. T-i* *c-oo$5benc- i* inten'e' by it*
con*tr.ction to ,.ar' t-e c-i$' from becomin, shortsi'hted an' one4sided. %ence m$opia
3an' be-in' it t-e (yc$o/*4# an' t-e 'i*c.**ion abo.t %ilateralism. T-e fear of
one*i'e'ne**
-a* a twofo$' *i,nificance< it mi,-t mean not on$y /-y*ica$ one5*i'e'ne*# b.t
inte$$ect.a$ one5*i'e'ne** a$*o. Doe* it not *eem a* t-o.,- t-e *cene in t-e 'ream# wit-
a$$ it* craCine**# were contra'ictin, /reci*e$y t-i* an=ietyI +-en on the one hand t-e boy
-a* */oken -i* wor'* of farewe$$# on the other hand -e ca$$* o.t t-e &ery o//o*ite# a*
t-o.,- to e*tab$i*- an e;.i$ibri.m. %e i* actin,# a* it were# in obe'ience to bi$atera$
*ymmetryA
T-.*# a 'ream fre;.ent$y -a* t-e /rofo.n'e*t meanin, in t-e /$ace* w-ere it *eem* mo*t
ab*.r'. In a$$ a,e* t-o*e w-o -a&e -a' *omet-in, to *ay an' -a&e been .nab$e to *ay it
wit-o.t 'an,er to t-em*e$&e* -a&e ,$a'$y 'onne' t-e ca/ an' be$$*. %e for w-om t-e
forbi''en *ayin, wa* inten'e' wa* more $ike$y to to$erate it if -e wa* ab$e to $a.,- at it#
an' to f$atter -im*e$f wit- t-e comment t-at w-at -e 'i*$ike' wa* ob&io.*$y ab*.r'.
Dream* be-a&e in rea$ $ife a* 'oe* t-e /rince in t-e /$ay w-o i* ob$i,e' to /reten' to be a
ma'man# an' -ence we may *ay of 'ream* w-at %am$et *ai' of -im*e$f# *.b*tit.tin, an
.ninte$$i,ib$e 6e*t for t-e act.a$ tr.t-: @I am b.t ma' nort-5nort-we*t< w-en t-e win' i*
*o.t-er$y I know a -awk from a -an'*aw1 3Act II# *c. ii4.8
T-.*# my *o$.tion of t-e /rob$em of ab*.r'ity in 'ream* i* t-at t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* are
ne&er ab*.r' 55 at $ea*t# not t-o*e of t-e 'ream* of *ane /er*on* 55 an' t-at t-e 'reamwork
/ro'.ce* ab*.r' 'ream*# an' 'ream* wit- in'i&i'.a$$y ab*.r' e$ement*# w-en t-e
'ream5t-o.,-t* contain critici*m# ri'ic.$e# an' 'eri*ion# w-ic- -a&e to be ,i&en
e=/re**ion. My ne=t concern i* to *-ow t-at t-e 'ream5work i* e=-a.*te' by t-e
coo/eration
of t-e t-ree factor* en.merate' 55 an' of a fo.rt- w-ic- -a* *ti$$ to be
mentione' 55 t-at it 'oe* no more t-an tran*$ate t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*# ob*er&in, t-e fo.r
con'ition* /re*cribe'# an' t-at t-e ;.e*tion w-et-er t-e min' ,oe* to work in 'ream*
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wit- a$$ it* inte$$ect.a$ fac.$tie*# or wit- on$y /art of t-em# i* wron,$y *tate'# an' 'oe* not
meet t-e act.a$ *tate of affair*. 0.t *ince t-ere are /$enty of 'ream* in w-ic- 6.',ment*
are /a**e'# critici*m* ma'e# an' fact* reco,ni*e' in w-ic- a*toni*-ment at *ome
in'i&i'.a$ e$ement of t-e 'ream a//ear*# an' e=/$anation* are attem/te'# an' ar,.ment*
a''.ce'# I m.*t meet t-e ob6ection* 'eri&in, from t-e*e occ.rrence* by t-e citation of
*e$ecte' e=am/$e*.
My an*wer i* a* fo$$ow*: &ver$thin' in dreams "hich occurs as the apparent functionin'
of the critical facult$ is to %e re'arded, not as the intellectual performance of the
dream"or(,
%ut as %elon'in' to the su%stance of the dream4thou'hts, and it has found its "a$
from these, as a completed structure, into the manifest dream4content. I may ,o e&en
fart-er t-an t-i*A I may e&en *ay t-at t-e 6.',ment* w-ic- are /a**e' ./on t-e 'ream a*
it i* remembere' after "a(in'# an' t-e fee$in,* w-ic- are aro.*e' by t-e re/ro'.ction of
t-e 'ream# be$on, $ar,e$y to t-e $atent 'ream5content# an' m.*t be fitte' into /$ace in t-e
inter/retation of t-e 'ream.
1. One *trikin, e=am/$e of t-i* -a* a$rea'y been ,i&en. A fema$e /atient 'oe* not wi*- to
re$ate -er 'ream %ecause it "as too va'ue. S-e *aw a /er*on in t-e 'ream# an' 'oe* not
know "hether it "as her hus%and or her father. T-en fo$$ow* a *econ' 'ream5fra,ment#
in w-ic- t-ere occ.r* a @man.re5/ai$1# wit- w-ic- t-e fo$$owin, remini*cence i*
a**ociate'. A* a yo.n, -o.*ewife *-e once 'ec$are' 6e*tin,$y# in t-e /re*ence of a yo.n,
ma$e re$ati&e w-o fre;.ente' t-e -o.*e# t-at -er ne=t b.*ine** wo.$' be to /roc.re a new
man.re5/ai$. Ne=t mornin, one wa* *ent to -er# b.t it wa* fi$$e' wit- $i$ie* of t-e &a$$ey.
T-i* /art of t-e 'ream *er&e' to re/re*ent t-e /-ra*e# @Not ,rown on my own man.re1.9 If
we com/$ete t-e ana$y*i*# we fin' in t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* t-e after5effect of a *tory -ear'
in yo.t-< name$y# t-at a ,ir$ -a' ,i&en birt- to a c-i$'# an' t-at it "as not clear "ho "as
the father. T-e 'ream5re/re*entation -ere o&er$a/* into t-e wakin, t-o.,-t# an' a$$ow*
one of t-e e$ement* of t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* to be re/re*ente' by a 6.',ment# forme' in t-e
wakin, *tate# of t-e w-o$e 'ream.
. A *imi$ar ca*e: One of my /atient* -a* a 'ream w-ic- *trike* -im a* bein, an
intere*tin, one# for -e *ay* to -im*e$f# imme'iate$y after wakin,: @I must tell that to the
doctor.1 T-e 'ream i* ana$y*e'# an' *-ow* t-e mo*t 'i*tinct a$$.*ion to an affair in w-ic-
-e -a' become in&o$&e' '.rin, t-e treatment# an' of w-ic- -e -a' 'eci'e' to tell me
nothin'.:
2. %ere i* a t-ir' e=am/$e from my own e=/erience:
I 'o to the hospital "ith 25, throu'h a nei'h%ourhood in "hich there are houses and
'ardens5 Thereupon I have an idea that I have alread$ seen this localit$ several times in
m$ dreams5 I do not (no" m$ "a$ ver$ "ell6 25 sho"s me a "a$ "hich leads round a
corner to a restaurant 9indoor:6 here I as( for Frau Doni, and I hear that she is livin' at
the %ac( of the house, in a small room, "ith three children5 I 'o there, and on the "a$ I
meet an undefined person "ith m$ t"o little 'irls5 !fter I have %een "ith them for a "hile,
I ta(e them "ith me5 ! sort of reproach a'ainst m$ "ife for havin' left them there.
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On wakin, I am con*cio.* of a ,reat satisfaction# w-o*e moti&e *eem* to be t-e fact t-at
I *-a$$ now $earn from t-e ana$y*i* w-at i* meant by @I have alread$ dreamed of this.1D
0.t t-e ana$y*i* of t-e 'ream te$$* me not-in, abo.t t-i*< it *-ow* me on$y t-at t-e
*ati*faction be$on,* to t-e $atent 'ream5content# an' not to a 6.',ment of t-e 'ream. It i*
satisfaction concernin' the fact that I have had children %$ m$ marria'e. P.1* /at-
t-ro.,- $ife an' my own ran /ara$$e$ for a time< now -e -a* o.t*tri//e' me bot- *ocia$$y
an' financia$$y# b.t -i* marria,e -a* remaine' c-i$'$e**. Of t-i* t-e two occa*ion* of t-e
'ream ,i&e /roof on com/$ete ana$y*i*. On t-e /re&io.* 'ay I -a' rea' in t-e new*/a/er
t-e obit.ary notice of a certain Fra. Dona A55y 3w-ic- I t.rn into Doni4# w-o -a' 'ie' in
c-i$'birt-< I wa* to$' by my wife t-at t-e 'ea' woman -a' been n.r*e' by t-e *ame
mi'wife w-om *-e -er*e$f -a' em/$oye' at t-e birt- of o.r two yo.n,e*t boy*. T-e name
Dona -a' ca.,-t my attention# for I -a' recent$y met wit- it for t-e fir*t time in an
En,$i*- no&e$. T-e ot-er occa*ion for t-e 'ream may be fo.n' in t-e 'ate on w-ic- it wa*
'reame'< t-i* wa* t-e ni,-t before t-e birt-'ay of my e$'e*t boy# w-o# it *eem*# i*
/oetica$$y ,ifte'.
7. T-e *ame *ati*faction remaine' wit- me after wakin, from t-e ab*.r' 'ream t-at my
fat-er# after -i* 'eat-# -a' /$aye' a /o$itica$ ro$e amon, t-e Ma,yar*. It i* moti&ate' by
t-e /er*i*tence of t-e fee$in, w-ic- accom/anie' t-e $a*t *entence of t-e 'ream: @I
remem%er that on his death%ed he loo(ed so li(e Gari%aldi, and I am 'lad that it has
reall$ come true . . .1 3Fo$$owe' by a for,otten contin.ation.4 I can now *.//$y from t-e
ana$y*i* w-at *-o.$' fi$$ t-i* ,a/. It i* t-e mention of my *econ' boy# to w-om I -a&e
,i&en t-e ba/ti*ma$ name of an eminent -i*torica$ /er*ona,e w-o attracte' me ,reat$y
'.rin, my boy-oo'# e*/ecia$$y '.rin, my *tay in En,$an'. I -a' to wait for a year before
I co.$' f.$fi$ my intention of .*in, t-i* name if t-e ne=t c-i$' *-o.$' be a *on# an' wit-
,reat satisfaction I ,reete' -im by t-i* name a* *oon a* -e wa* born. It i* ea*y to *ee -ow
t-e fat-er1* *.//re**e' 'e*ire for ,reatne** i*# in -i* t-o.,-t*# tran*ferre' to -i* c-i$'ren<
one i* inc$ine' to be$ie&e t-at t-i* i* one of t-e way* by w-ic- t-e *.//re**ion of t-i*
'e*ire 3w-ic- become* nece**ary in t-e co.r*e of $ife4 i* effecte'. T-e $itt$e fe$$ow won
-i* ri,-t to inc$.*ion in t-e te=t of t-i* 'ream by &irt.e of t-e fact t-at t-e *ame acci'ent 5
5 t-at of *oi$in, -i* c$ot-e* 3;.ite /ar'onab$e in eit-er a c-i$' or in a 'yin, /er*on4 55 -a'
occ.rre' to -im. (om/are wit- t-i* t-e a$$.*ion 3tuhlrichter 3/re*i'in, 6.',e4 an' t-e
wi*- of t-e 'ream: to *tan' before one1* c-i$'ren 'reat an' undefiled.
8. If I *-o.$' now -a&e to $ook for e=am/$e* of 6.',ment* or e=/re**ion* of o/inion
w-ic- remain in t-e 'ream it*e$f# an' are not contin.e' in# or tran*ferre' to# o.r wakin,
t-o.,-t*# my ta*k wo.$' be ,reat$y faci$itate' were I to take my e=am/$e* from 'ream*
w-ic- -a&e a$rea'y been cite' for ot-er /.r/o*e*. T-e 'ream of Goet-e1* attack on %err
M. a//ear* to contain ;.ite a n.mber of act* of 6.',ment. I tr$ to elucidate the temporal
relations a little, as the$ seem impro%a%le to me. Doe* not t-i* $ook $ike a critica$ im/.$*e
'irecte' a,ain*t t-e non*en*ica$ i'ea t-at Goet-e *-o.$' -a&e ma'e a $iterary attack ./on
a yo.n, man of my ac;.aintanceI @It seems plausi%le to me that he "as 1S $ears old.1
T-at *o.n'* ;.ite $ike t-e re*.$t of a ca$c.$ation# t-o.,- a *i$$y one< an' t-e @I do not
(no" eactl$ "hat is the date of the present $ear1 wo.$' be an e=am/$e of .ncertainty or
'o.bt in 'ream*.
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0.t I know from ana$y*i* t-at t-e*e act* of 6.',ment# w-ic- *eem to -a&e been
/erforme' in t-e 'ream for t-e fir*t time# a'mit of a 'ifferent con*tr.ction# in t-e $i,-t of
w-ic- t-ey become in'i*/en*ab$e for inter/retin, t-e 'ream# w-i$e at t-e *ame time a$$
ab*.r'ity i* a&oi'e'. +it- t-e *entence @I tr$ to elucidate the temporal relations a little#1 I
/.t my*e$f in t-e /$ace of my frien'# w-o i* act.a$$y tryin, to e$.ci'ate t-e tem/ora$
re$ation* of $ife. T-e *entence t-en $o*e* it* *i,nificance a* a 6.',ment w-ic- ob6ect* to
t-e non*en*e of t-e /re&io.* *entence*. T-e inter/o*ition# @;hich seems impro%a%le to
me#1 be$on,* to t-e fo$$owin,: @It seems plausi%le to me.1 +it- a$mo*t t-e*e i'entica$
wor'* I re/$ie' to t-e $a'y w-o to$' me of -er brot-er1* i$$ne**: @It *eem* im/robab$e to
me1 t-at t-e cry of @Nat.re# Nat.re1# wa* in any way connecte' wit- Goet-e< it *eem*
m.c- more /$a.*ib$e to me t-at it -a* t-e *e=.a$ *i,nificance w-ic- i* known to yo.. In
t-i* ca*e# it i* tr.e# a 6.',ment wa* e=/re**e'# b.t in rea$ity# not in a 'ream# an' on an
occa*ion w-ic- i* remembere' an' .ti$i*e' by t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*. T-e 'ream5content
a//ro/riate* t-i* 6.',ment $ike any ot-er fra,ment of t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*.
T-e n.mber 1D wit- w-ic- t-e 6.',ment in t-e 'ream i* meanin,$e**$y connecte' *ti$$
retain* a trace of t-e conte=t from w-ic- t-e rea$ 6.',ment wa* taken. ?a*t$y# t-e @I do
not (no" eactl$ "hat is the date of the present $ear1 i* inten'e' for no ot-er /.r/o*e
t-an t-at of my i'entification wit- t-e /ara$ytic# in e=aminin, w-om t-i* /artic.$ar fact
wa* e*tab$i*-e'.
In t-e *o$.tion of t-e*e a//arent act* of 6.',ment in 'ream*# it wi$$ be we$$ to kee/ in
min' t-e abo&e5mentione' r.$e of inter/retation# w-ic- te$$* .* t-at we m.*t 'i*re,ar'
t-e co-erence w-ic- i* e*tab$i*-e' in t-e 'ream between it* con*tit.ent /art* a* an
.ne**entia$ /-enomenon# an' t-at e&ery 'ream5e$ement m.*t be taken *e/arate$y an'
trace' back to it* *o.rce. T-e 'ream i* a com/o.n'# w-ic- for t-e /.r/o*e* of
in&e*ti,ation m.*t be broken ./ into it* e$ement*. On t-e ot-er -an'# we become a$i&e to
t-e fact t-at t-ere i* a /*yc-ic force w-ic- e=/re**e* it*e$f in o.r 'ream* an' e*tab$i*-e*
t-i* a//arent co-erence< t-at i*# t-e materia$ obtaine' by t-e 'ream5work .n'er,oe* a
*econ'ary e$aboration. %ere we -a&e t-e manife*tation* of t-at /*yc-ic force w-ic- we
*-a$$ /re*ent$y take into con*i'eration a* t-e fo.rt- of t-e factor* w-ic- co5o/erate in
'ream5formation.
9. ?et .* now $ook for ot-er e=am/$e* of act* of 6.',ment in t-e 'ream* w-ic- -a&e
a$rea'y been cite'. In t-e ab*.r' 'ream abo.t t-e comm.nication from t-e town co.nci$#
I a*k t-e ;.e*tion# @Oou married soon afterA+ I rec(on that I "as %orn in 1S5R, "hich
seems to me to %e directl$ after"ards. T-i* certain$y take* t-e form of an inference. My
fat-er marrie' *-ort$y after -i* attack# in t-e year 1D81. I am t-e e$'e*t *on# born in 1D89#
*o t-i* i* correct. +e know t-at t-i* inference -a* in fact been fa$*ifie' by t-e
wi*-f.$fi$ment# an' t-at t-e *entence w-ic- 'ominate* t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* i* a* fo$$ow*:
Four or five $ears 44 that is no time at all 44 that need not %e counted. 0.t e&ery /art of
t-i* c-ain of rea*onin, may be *een to be ot-erwi*e 'etermine' from t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*#
a* re,ar'* bot- it* content an' it* form. It i* t-e /atient of w-o*e /atience my co$$ea,.e
com/$ain* w-o inten'* to marry imme'iate$y t-e treatment i* en'e'. T-e manner in
w-ic- I con&er*e wit- my fat-er in t-i* 'ream remin'* me of an eamination or
crosseamination#
an' t-.* of a .ni&er*ity /rofe**or w-o wa* in t-e -abit of com/i$in, a
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com/$ete 'ocket of /er*ona$ 'ata w-en enterin, -i* /./i$*1 name*: Ho. were born w-enI
55 1D89. 55 2atreA 55 T-en t-e a//$icant ,a&e t-e ?atin form of t-e ba/ti*ma$ name of t-e
fat-er an' we *t.'ent* a**.me' t-at t-e %ofrat 'rew inference* from t-e fat-er1* name
w-ic- t-e ba/ti*ma$ name of t-e can'i'ate wo.$' not a$way* -a&e 6.*tifie'. %ence# t-e
dra"in' of inferences in t-e 'ream wo.$' be mere$y t-e re/etition of t-e dra"in' of
inferences w-ic- a//ear* a* a *cra/ of materia$ in t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*. From t-i* we $earn
*omet-in, new. If an inference occ.r* in t-e 'ream5content# it a**.re'$y come* from t-e
'ream5t-o.,-t*< b.t it may be containe' in t-e*e a* a fra,ment of remembere' materia$#
or it may *er&e a* t-e $o,ica$ connecti&e of a *erie* of 'ream5t-o.,-t*. In any ca*e# an
inference in t-e 'ream re/re*ent* an inference taken from t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*.!
It wi$$ be we$$ to contin.e t-e ana$y*i* of t-i* 'ream at t-i* /oint. +it- t-e in;.i*ition of
t-e /rofe**or i* a**ociate' t-e reco$$ection of an in'e= 3in my time /.b$i*-e' in ?atin4 of
t-e .ni&er*ity *t.'ent*< an' f.rt-er# t-e reco$$ection of my own co.r*e of *t.'y. T-e five
$ears a$$owe' for t-e *t.'y of me'icine were# a* .*.a$# too $itt$e for me. I worke'
.nconcerne'$y for *ome year* $on,er< my ac;.aintance* re,ar'e' me a* a $oafer# an'
'o.bte' w-et-er I *-o.$' @,et t-ro.,-1. T-en# *.''en$y# I 'eci'e' to take my
e=amination*# an' I @,ot t-ro.,-1 in spite of the postponement. A fre*- confirmation of
t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* wit- w-ic- I 'efiant$y meet my critic*: @E&en t-o.,- yo. won1t
be$ie&e it# beca.*e I am takin, my time# I *-a$$ reac- t-e conclusion 3German# 3chluss M
en'. conc$.*ion# inference4. It -a* often -a//ene' $ike t-at.1
In it* intro'.ctory /ortion t-i* 'ream contain* *e&era$ *entence* w-ic-# we can -ar'$y
'eny# are of t-e nat.re of an ar,.ment. An' t-i* ar,.ment i* not at a$$ ab*.r'< it mi,-t
6.*t a* we$$ occ.r in my wakin, t-o.,-t*. In m$ dream I ma(e fun of the communication
from the to"n council, for in the first place I "as not $et %orn in 1S51, and in the second
place m$ father, to "hom it mi'ht refer, is alread$ dead. Not on$y i* eac- of t-e*e
*tatement* /erfect$y correct in it*e$f# b.t t-ey are t-e &ery ar,.ment* t-at I *-o.$' em/$oy
if I recei&e' *.c- a comm.nication. +e know from t-e fore,oin, ana$y*i* 3/. D!4 t-at
t-i* 'ream -a* */r.n, from t-e *oi$ of 'ee/$y embittere' an' *cornf.$ 'ream5t-o.,-t*<
an' if we may a$*o a**.me t-at t-e moti&e of t-e cen*or*-i/ i* a &ery /owerf.$ one# we
*-a$$ .n'er*tan' t-at t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t -a* e&ery occa*ion to create a fla"less refutation
of an unreasona%le demand# in accor'ance wit- t-e /attern containe' in t-e
'reamt-o.,-t*.
0.t t-e ana$y*i* *-ow* t-at in t-i* ca*e t-e 'ream5work -a* not been re;.ire' to
make a free imitation# b.t t-at materia$ taken from t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* -a' to be
em/$oye' for t-e /.r/o*e. It i* a* t-o.,- in an a$,ebraic e;.ation t-ere *-o.$' occ.r#
be*i'e* t-e fi,.re*# /$.* an' min.* *i,n*# an' *ymbo$* of /ower* an' of root*# an' a*
t-o.,- *omeone# in co/yin, t-i* e;.ation# wit-o.t .n'er*tan'in, it# *-o.$' co/y bot- t-e
*ymbo$* an' t-e fi,.re*# an' mi= t-em a$$ ./ to,et-er. T-e two ar,.ment* may be trace'
to t-e fo$$owin, materia$: It i* /ainf.$ to me to t-ink t-at many of t-e -y/ot-e*e* ./on
w-ic- I ba*e my /*yc-o$o,ica$ *o$.tion of t-e /*yc-one.ro*e* wi$$ aro.*e *ce/tici*m an'
ri'ic.$e w-en t-ey fir*t became known. For in*tance# I *-a$$ -a&e to a**ert t-at
im/re**ion* of t-e *econ' year of $ife# an' e&en t-e fir*t# $ea&e an en'.rin, trace ./on t-e
emotiona$ $ife of *.b*e;.ent ne.ro/at-*# an' t-at t-e*e im/re**ion* 55 a$t-o.,- ,reat$y
'i*torte' an' e=a,,erate' by t-e memory 55 may f.rni*- t-e ear$ie*t an' /rofo.n'e*t
ba*i* of a -y*terica$ *ym/tom. Patient* to w-om I e=/$ain t-i* at a *.itab$e moment are
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wont to /aro'y my e=/$anation by offerin, to *earc- for remini*cene* of t-e /erio' "hen
the$ "ere not $et %orn. My 'i*c$o*.re of t-e .n*.*/ecte' /art /$aye' by t-e fat-er in t-e
ear$ie*t *e=.a$ im/.$*e* of fema$e /atient* may we$$ -a&e a *imi$ar rece/tion. 3(f. t-e
'i*c.**ion on //. 18" ff.4 Ne&ert-e$e**# it i* my we$$5fo.n'e' con&iction t-at bot-
'octrine* are tr.e. In confirmation of t-i* I reca$$ certain e=am/$e* in w-ic- t-e 'eat- of
t-e fat-er occ.rre' w-en t-e c-i$' wa* &ery yo.n,# an' *.b*e;.ent inci'ent*# ot-erwi*e
ine=/$icab$e# /ro&e' t-at t-e c-i$' -a' .ncon*cio.*$y /re*er&e' reco$$ection* of t-e
/er*on w-o -a' *o ear$y ,one o.t of it* $ife. I know t-at bot- my a**ertion* are ba*e'
./on inferences w-o*e &a$i'ity wi$$ be attacke'. It i* t-e 'oin, of t-e wi*-5f.$fi$ment t-at
/reci*e$y t-e materia$ of t-o*e inference*# w-ic- I fear wi$$ be conte*te'# *-o.$' be
.ti$i*e' by t-e 'ream5work for e*tab$i*-in, incontesta%le conclusions.
:. In one 'ream# w-ic- I -a&e -it-erto on$y to.c-e' ./on# a*toni*-ment at t-e *.b6ect
emer,in, i* 'i*tinct$y e=/re**e' at t-e o.t*et.
@The elder <rDc(e must have set me some tas( or other6 stran'el$ enou'h, it relates to
the
preparation of the lo"er part of m$ o"n %od$, the pelvis and le's, "hich I see %efore me
as thou'h in the dissectin'4room, %ut "ithout feelin' the a%sence of part of m$ %od$, and
"ithout a trace of horror5 Louise 75 is standin' %eside me, and helps me in the "or(5 The
pelvis is eviscerated6 no" the upper, no" the lo"er aspect is visi%le, and the t"o aspects
are commin'led5 Lar'e flesh$ red tu%ercles are visi%le 9"hich, even in the dream, ma(e
me thin( of haemorrhoids:5 !lso somethin' l$in' over them had to %e carefull$ pic(ed off,
it loo(ed li(e crumpled tinfoil51K Then I "as once more in possession of m$ le's, and I
made a /ourne$ throu'h the cit$, %ut I too( a ca% 9as I "as tired:5 To m$ astonishment,
the ca% drove into the front door of a house, "hich opened and allo"ed it to pass into a
corridor, "hich "as %ro(en off at the end, and eventuall$ led on into the open511 Finall$ I
"andered throu'h chan'in' landscapes, "ith an !lpine 'uide, "ho carried m$ thin's5 Be
carried me for some distance, out of consideration for m$ tired le's5 The 'round "as
s"amp$6 "e "ent alon' the ed'e6 people "ere sittin' on the 'round, li(e Ged Indians or
'$psies6 amon' them a 'irl5 *ntil then I had made m$ "a$ alon' on the slipper$ 'round,
in constant astonishment that I "as so "ell a%le to do so after ma(in' the preparation5 !t
last "e came to a small "ooden house "ith an open "indo" at one end5 Bere the 'uide
set me do"n, and laid t"o plan(s, "hich stood in readiness, on the "indo"4sill so as to
%rid'e the chasm "hich had to %e crossed from the "indo"5 7o" I 're" reall$ alarmed
a%out m$ le's5 Instead of the epected crossin', I sa" t"o 'ro"n4up men l$in' upon
"ooden %enches "hich "ere fied on the "alls of the hut, and somethin' li(e t"o
sleepin' children net to them6 as thou'h not the plan(s %ut the children "ere intended to
ma(e the crossin' possi%le5 I a"o(e "ith terrified thou'hts.
Anyone w-o -a* been '.$y im/re**e' by t-e e=ten*i&e nat.re of 'ream5con'en*ation wi$$
rea'i$y ima,e w-at a n.mber of /a,e* t-e e=-a.*ti&e ana$y*i* of t-i* 'ream wo.$' fi$$.
Fort.nate$y for t-e conte=t# I *-a$$ make t-i* 'ream on$y t-e one e=am/$e of a*toni*-ment
in 'ream*# w-ic- make* it* a//earance in t-e /arent-etica$ remark# @stran'el$ enou'h1.
?et .* con*i'er t-e occa*ion of t-e 'ream. It i* a &i*it of t-i* $a'y# ?o.i*e N.# w-o -e$/*
me wit- my work in t-e 'ream. S-e *ay*: @?en' me *omet-in, to rea'.1 I offer -er 3he#
by Ri'er %a,,ar'. @A stran'e book# b.t f.$$ of -i''en meanin,#1 I try to e=/$ain< @t-e
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eterna$ feminine# t-e immorta$ity of o.r emotion* 551 %ere *-e interr./t* me: @I know t-at
book a$rea'y. %a&en1t yo. *omet-in, of yo.r ownI1 @No# my own immorta$ work* are
*ti$$ .nwritten.1 @+e$$# w-en are yo. ,oin, to /.b$i*- yo.r *o5ca$$e' @@$ate*t re&e$ation*11#
w-ic-# yo. /romi*e' .*# e&en we *-o.$' be ab$e to rea'I1 *-e a*k*# rat-er *arca*tica$$y. I
now /ercei&e t-at *-e i* a mo.t-/iece for *omeone e$*e# an' I am *i$ent. I t-ink of t-e
effort it co*t me to make /.b$ic e&en my work on 'ream*# in w-ic- I -a' to *.rren'er *o
m.c- of my own intimate nat.re. 3@T-e be*t t-at yo. know yo. can1t te$$ t-e boy*.14 T-e
/re/aration of my o"n %od$ w-ic- I am or'ere' to make in my 'ream i* t-.* t-e
selfanal$sis
in&o$&e' in t-e comm.nication of my 'ream*. T-e e$'er 0rBcke &ery /ro/er$y
fin'* a /$ace -ere< in t-e fir*t year* of my *cientific work it *o -a//ene' t-at I ne,$ecte'
t-e /.b$ication of a certain 'i*co&ery .nti$ -i* in*i*tence force' me to /.b$i*- it. 0.t t-e
f.rt-er train* of t-o.,-t# /rocee'in, from my con&er*ation wit- ?o.i*e N.# ,o too 'ee/
to become con*cio.*< t-ey are *i'e5tracke' by way of t-e materia$ w-ic- -a* been
inci'enta$$y awakene' in me by t-e mention of Ri'er %a,,ar'1* 3he. T-e comment
@stran'el$ enou'h1 a//$ie* to t-i* book# an' to anot-er by t-e *ame a.t-or# The Beart of
the ;orld1 an' n.mero.* e$ement* of t-e 'ream are taken from t-e*e two fanta*tic
romance*. T-e *wam/y ,ro.n' o&er w-ic- t-e 'reamer i* carrie'# t-e c-a*m w-ic- -a*
to be cro**e' by mean* of /$ank*# come from 3he< t-e Re' In'ian*# t-e ,ir$# an' t-e
woo'en -o.*e# from The Beart of the ;orld. In bot- no&e$* a woman i* t-e $ea'er# an'
bot- treat of /eri$o.* wan'erin,< 3he -a* to 'o wit- an a'&ent.ro.* 6o.rney to an
.n'i*co&ere' co.ntry# a /$ace a$mo*t .ntro''en by t-e foot of man. Accor'in, to a note
w-ic- I fin' in my recor' of t-e 'ream# t-e fati,.e in my $e,* wa* a rea$ *en*ation from
t-o*e 'ay*. Probab$y a weary moo' corre*/on'e' wit- t-i* fati,.e# an' t-e 'o.btin,
;.e*tion: @%ow m.c- fart-er wi$$ my $e,* carry meI1 In 3he t-e en' of t-e a'&ent.re i*
t-at t-e -eroine meet* -er 'eat- in t-e my*terio.* centra$ fire# in*tea' of winnin,
immorta$ity for -er*e$f an' for ot-er*. Some re$ate' an=iety -a* mi*takab$y ari*en in t-e
'ream5t-o.,-t*. T-e @woo'en -o.*e1 i* a**.re'$y a$*o a coffin 55 t-at i*# t-e ,ra&e. 0.t in
re/re*entin, t-i* mo*t .nwi*-e'5for of a$$ t-o.,-t* by mean* of a wi*-5f.$fi$ment# t-e
'ream5work -a* ac-ie&e' it* ma*ter/iece. I wa* once in a ,ra&e# b.t it wa* an em/ty
Etr.*can ,ra&e near Or&ieto 55 a narrow c-amber wit- two *tone benc-e* on t-e wa$$*#
./on w-ic- were $yin, t-e *ke$eton* of two a'.$t*. T-e interior of t-e woo'en -o.*e in
t-e 'ream $ook* e=act$y $ike t-i* ,ra&e# e=ce/t t-at *tone -a* been re/$ace' by woo'. T-e
'ream *eem* to *ay: @If yo. m.*t a$rea'y *o6o.rn in yo.r ,ra&e# $et it be t-i* Etr.*can
,ra&e1# an' by mean* of t-i* inter/o$ation it tran*form* t-e mo*t mo.rnf.$ e=/ectation
into one t-at i* rea$$y to be 'e*ire'. )nfort.nate$y# a* we *-a$$ $earn# t-e 'ream i* ab$e to
c-an,e into it* o//o*ite on$y t-e i'ea accom/anyin, an affect# b.t not a$way* t-e affect
it*e$f. %ence# I awake wit- @t-o.,-t* of terror1# e&en after t-e i'ea t-at /er-a/* my
c-i$'ren wi$$ ac-ie&e w-at -a* been 'enie' to t-eir fat-er -a* force' it* way to
re/re*entation: a fre*- a$$.*ion to t-e *tran,e romance in w-ic- t-e i'entity of a c-aracter
i* /re*er&e' t-ro.,- a *erie* of ,eneration* co&erin, two t-o.*an' year*.
D. In t-e conte=t of anot-er 'ream t-ere i* a *imi$ar e=/re**ion of a*toni*-ment at w-at i*
e=/erience' in t-e 'ream. T-i*# -owe&er# i* connecte' wit- *.c- a *trikin,# far5fetc-e'#
an' a$mo*t inte$$ect.a$ attem/t at e=/$anation t-at if on$y on t-i* acco.nt I *-o.$' -a&e to
*.b6ect t-e w-o$e 'ream to ana$y*i*# e&en if it 'i' not /o**e** two ot-er intere*tin,
feat.re*. On t-e ni,-t of t-e ei,-teent- of >.$y 1 wa* tra&e$$in, on t-e So.t-ern Rai$way#
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an' in my *$ee/ I -ear' *omeone ca$$ o.t: @Bollthum, 1K minutes5+ I immediatel$ thin( of
Bolothuria 44 of a natural histor$ museum 44 that here is a place "here valiant men have
vainl$ resisted the domination of their overlord5 44 Oes, the counter4reformation in
!ustriaT 44 !s thou'h it "ere a place in 3t$ria or the T$rol5 7o" I see indistinctl$ a small
museum, in "hich the relics or the ac0uisitions of these men are preserved5 I should li(e
to leave the train, %ut I hesitate to do so5 There are "omen "ith fruit on the platform6
the$ s0uat on the 'round, and in that position invitin'l$ hold up their %as(ets5 44 I
hesitated, in dou%t as to "hether "e have time, %ut here "e are still stationar$5 44 I am
suddenl$ in another compartment, in "hich the leather and the seats are so narro" that
one+s spine directl$ touches the %ac(51J I am surprised at this, %ut I ma$ have chan'ed
carria'es "hile asleep5 3everal people, amon' them an &n'lish %rother and sister6 a ro"
of %oo(s plainl$ on a shelf on the "all5 44 I see )The ;ealth of 7ations+, and )Matter and
Motion+ 9%$ Ma"ell:, thic( %oo(s %ound in %ro"n linen5 The man as(s his sister a%out a
%oo( of 3chiller+s, "hether she has for'otten it5 These %oo(s seem to %elon' no" to me,
no" to them5 !t this point I "ish to /oin in the conversation in order to confirm or
support "hat is %ein' said . . . I wake *weatin, a$$ o&er# beca.*e a$$ t-e win'ow* are *-.t.
T-e train *to/* at Mar%ur'.
+-i$e writin, 'own t-e 'ream# a /art of it occ.r* to me w-ic- my memory wi*-e' to
/a** o&er. I tell the %rother and sister 9in &n'lish:, referrin' to a certain %oo(: )It is from
5 5 5+ %ut I correct m$self: )It is %$ 5 5 5+ The man remar(s to his sister: )Be said it
correctl$.1
T-e 'ream be,in* wit- t-e name of a *tation# w-ic- *eem* to -a&e a$mo*t wake' me. For
t-i* name# w-ic- wa* Mar%ur'# I *.b*tit.te Bollthurn. T-e fact t-at I -ear' Marb.r, t-e
fir*t# or /er-a/* t-e *econ' time it wa* ca$$e' o.t# i* /ro&e' by t-e mention of Sc-i$$er in
t-e 'ream< -e wa* born in Marb.r,# t-o.,- not t-e Styrian Marb.r,.12 Now on t-i*
occa*ion# a$t-o.,- I wa* tra&e$$in, fir*t c$a**# I wa* 'oin, *o .n'er &ery 'i*a,reeab$e
circ.m*tance*. T-e train wa* o&ercrow'e'< in my com/artment I -a' come ./on a $a'y
an' ,ent$eman w-o *eeme' &ery fine /eo/$e# an' -a' not t-e ,oo' bree'in,# or 'i' not
t-ink it wort- w-i$e# to concea$ t-eir 'i*/$ea*.re at my intr.*ion. My /o$ite ,reetin, wa*
not ret.rne'# an' a$t-o.,- t-ey were *ittin, *i'e by *i'e 3wit- t-eir back* to t-e en,ine4#
t-e woman before my eye* -a*tene' to /re5em/t t-e *eat o//o*ite -er# an' ne=t to t-e
win'ow# wit- -er .mbre$$a< t-e 'oor wa* imme'iate$y c$o*e'# an' /ointe' remark* abo.t
t-e o/enin, of win'ow* were e=c-an,e'. Probab$y I wa* ;.ick$y reco,ni*e' a* a /er*on
-.n,ry for fre*- air. It wa* a -ot ni,-t# an' t-e atmo*/-ere of t-e com/artment# c$o*e' on
bot- *i'e*# wa* a$mo*t *.ffocatin,. My e=/erience a* a tra&e$$er $ea'* me to be$ie&e t-at
*.c- incon*i'erate an' o&erbearin, con'.ct mark* /eo/$e w-o -a&e /ai' for t-eir ticket*
on$y /art$y# or not at a$$. +-en t-e con'.ctor came ro.n'# an' I /re*ente' my 'ear$y
bo.,-t ticket# t-e $a'y e=c$aime' -a.,-ti$y an' a$mo*t t-reatenin,$y: @My -.*ban' -a* a
/a**.1 S-e wa* an im/o*in,5$ookin, /er*on# wit- a 'i*contente' e=/re**ion# in a,e not far
remo&e' from t-e a.t.mn of feminine bea.ty< t-e man -a' no c-ance to *ay anyt-in,< -e
*at t-ere motion$e**. I trie' to *$ee/. In my 'ream I take a terrib$e re&en,e on my
'i*a,reeab$e tra&e$$in, com/anion*< no one wo.$' *.*/ect w-at in*.$t* an' -.mi$iation*
are concea$e' be-in' t-e 'i*6ointe' fra,ment* of t-e fir*t -a$f of t-e 'ream. After t-i*
nee' -a* been *ati*fie'# t-e *econ' wi*-# to e=c-an,e my com/artment for anot-er#
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make* it*e$f fe$t. T-e 'ream c-an,e* it* *cene *o often# an' wit-o.t makin, t-e *$i,-te*t
ob6ection to *.c- c-an,e*# t-at it wo.$' not -a&e *eeme' at a$$ remarkab$e -a' I at once#
from my memorie*# re/$ace' my tra&e$$in, com/anion* by more a,reeab$e /er*on*. 0.t
-ere wa* a ca*e w-ere *omet-in, or ot-er o//o*e* t-e c-an,e of *cene# an' fin'* it
nece**ary to e=/$ain it. %ow 'i' I *.''en$y ,et into anot-er com/artmentI I co.$' not
/o*iti&e$y remember -a&in, c-an,e' carria,e*. So t-ere wa* on$y one e=/$anation: I
must
have left the carria'e "hile asleep 55 an .n.*.a$ occ.rrence# e=am/$e* of w-ic-#
-owe&er# are known to ne.ro/at-o$o,i*t*. +e know of /er*on* w-o .n'ertake rai$way
6o.rney* in a cre/.*c.$ar *tate# wit-o.t betrayin, t-eir abnorma$ con'ition by any *i,n
w-ate&er# .nti$ at *ome *ta,e of t-eir 6o.rney t-ey come to t-em*e$&e*# an' are *.r/ri*e'
by t-e ,a/ in t-eir memory. T-.*# w-i$e I am *ti$$ 'reamin,# I 'ec$are my own ca*e to be
*.c- a ca*e of automatisme am%ulatoire.
Ana$y*i* /ermit* of anot-er *o$.tion. T-e attem/t at e=/$anation# w-ic- *o *.r/ri*e* me if
I am to attrib.te it to t-e 'ream5work# i* not ori,ina$# b.t i* co/ie' from t-e ne.ro*i* of
one of my /atient*. I -a&e a$rea'y */oken in anot-er c-a/ter of a -i,-$y c.$t.re' an'
kin'$y man w-o be,an# *-ort$y after t-e 'eat- of -i* /arent*# to acc.*e -im*e$f of
m.r'ero.* ten'encie*# an' w-o wa* 'i*tre**e' by t-e /reca.tionary mea*.re* w-ic- -e
-a' to take to *ec.re -im*e$f a,ain*t t-e*e ten'encie*. %i* wa* a ca*e of *e&ere
ob*e**iona$ i'ea wit- f.$$ in*i,-t. To be,in wit-# it wa* /ainf.$ to -im to wa$k t-ro.,-
t-e *treet*# a* -e wa* ob*e**e' by t-e nece**ity of acco.ntin, for a$$ t-e /er*on* -e met<
-e -a' to know w-it-er t-ey -a' 'i*a//eare'< if one of t-em *.''en$y e$.'e' -i*
/.r*.in, ,$ance# -e wa* $eft wit- a fee$in, of 'i*tre** an' t-e i'ea t-at -e mi,-t /o**ib$y
-a&e ma'e away wit- t-e man. 0e-in' t-i* ob*e**i&e i'ea wa* concea$e'# amon, ot-er
t-in,*# a (ain5fanta*y# for @a$$ men are brot-er*1. Owin, to t-e im/o**ibi$ity of
accom/$i*-in, t-i* ta*k# -e ,a&e ./ ,oin, for wa$k*# an' */ent -i* $ife im/ri*one' wit-in
-i* fo.r wa$$*. 0.t re/ort* of m.r'er* w-ic- -a' been committe' in t-e wor$' o.t*i'e
were con*tant$y reac-in, -i* room by way of t-e new*/a/er*# an' -i* con*cience
tormente' -im wit- t-e 'o.bt t-at -e mi,-t be t-e m.r'erer for w-om t-e /o$ice were
$ookin,. T-e certainty t-at -e -a' not $eft t-e -o.*e for week* /rotecte' -im for a time
a,ain*t t-e*e acc.*ation*# .nti$ one 'ay t-ere 'awne' ./on -im t-e /o**ibi$ity t-at he
mi'ht have left his house "hile in an unconscious state# an' mi,-t t-.* -a&e committe'
m.r'er wit-o.t knowin, anyt-in, abo.t it. From t-at time onwar'* -e $ocke' -i* front
'oor# an' ,a&e t-e key to -i* o$' -o.*ekee/er# *trict$y forbi''in, -er to ,i&e it into -i*
-an'*# e&en if -e 'eman'e' it.
T-i*# t-en# i* t-e ori,in of t-e attem/te' e=/$anation t-at I may -a&e c-an,e' carria,e*
w-i$e in an .ncon*cio.* *tate< it -a* been taken into t-e 'ream rea'y5ma'e# from t-e
materia$ of t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*# an' i* e&i'ent$y inten'e' to i'entify me wit- t-e /er*on
of my /atient. My memory of t-i* /atient wa* awakene' by nat.ra$ a**ociation. My $a*t
ni,-t 6o.rney -a' been ma'e a few week* ear$ier in -i* com/any. %e wa* c.re'# an' we
were ,oin, into t-e co.ntry to,et-er to -i* re$ati&e*# w-o -a' *ent for me< a* we -a' a
com/artment to o.r*e$&e*# we $eft a$$ t-e win'ow* o/en t-ro.,-o.t t-e ni,-t# an' for a*
$on, a* I remaine' awake we -a' a mo*t intere*tin, con&er*ation. I knew t-at -o*ti$e
im/.$*e* towar'* -i* fat-er in c-i$'-oo'# in a *e=.a$ connection# -a' been at t-e root of
-i* i$$ne**. 0y i'entifyin, my*e$f wit- -im I wante' to make an ana$o,o.* confe**ion to
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my*e$f. T-e *econ' *cene of t-e 'ream rea$$y re*o$&e* it*e$f into a wanton fanta*y to t-e
effect t-at my two e$'er$y tra&e$$in, com/anion* -a' acte' *o .nci&i$$y towar'* me
beca.*e my arri&a$ on t-e *cene -a' /re&ente' t-em from e=c-an,in, ki**e* an'
embrace* '.rin, t-e ni,-t# a* t-ey -a' inten'e'. T-i* fanta*y# -owe&er# ,oe* back to an
ear$y inci'ent of my c-i$'-oo' w-en# /robab$y im/e$$e' by *e=.a$ c.rio*ity# I -a'
intr.'e' into my /arent*1 be'room# an' wa* 'ri&en t-ence by my fat-er1* em/-atic
comman'.
I t-ink it wo.$' be *./erf$.o.* to m.$ti/$y *.c- e=am/$e*. T-ey wo.$' a$$ confirm w-at
we -a&e $earne' from t-o*e a$rea'y cite': name$y# t-at an act of 6.',ment in a 'ream i*
mere$y t-e re/etition of an ori,ina$ act of 6.',ment in t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*. In mo*t ca*e*
it i* an .n*.itab$e re/etition# fitte' into an ina//ro/riate conte=t< occa*iona$$y# -owe&er#
a* in o.r $a*t e=am/$e# it i* *o artf.$$y a//$ie' t-at it may a$mo*t ,i&e one t-e im/re**ion
of in'e/en'ent inte$$ect.a$ acti&ity in t-e 'ream. At t-i* /oint we mi,-t t.rn o.r attention
to t-at /*yc-ic acti&ity w-ic-# t-o.,- it 'oe* not a//ear to co5o/erate con*tant$y in t-e
formation of 'ream*# yet en'ea&o.r* to f.*e t-e 'ream5e$ement* of 'ifferent ori,in into a
f$aw$e** an' *i,nificant w-o$e. +e con*i'er it nece**ary# -owe&er# fir*t of a$$ to con*i'er
t-e e=/re**ion* of affect w-ic- a//ear in 'ream*# an' to com/are t-e*e wit- t-e affect*
w-ic- ana$y*i* 'i*co&er* in t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*.
1 I -a&e for,otten in w-at a.t-or I fo.n' a reference to a 'ream w-ic- wa* o&err.n wit-
.n.*.a$$y *ma$$ fi,.re*# t-e *o.rce of w-ic- /ro&e' to be one of t-e en,ra&in,* of
>ac;.e* (a$$ot# w-ic- t-e 'reamer -a' e=amine' '.rin, t-e 'ay. T-e*e en,ra&in,*
contain an enormo.* n.mber of &ery *ma$$ fi,.re*< a w-o$e *erie* of t-em 'ea$* wit- t-e
-orror* of t-e T-irty Hear* +ar.
cf. Formulierun'en D%er die ?"ei 2rin?ipien des seelischen Geschehens# in >ahr%uch f5
2s5!5# iii# 1# 1!11 3Ges5 3chriften# 0'. &4.
2 %ere t-e 'ream5work /aro'ie* t-e t-o.,-t w-ic- it ;.a$ifie* a* ri'ic.$o.*# in t-at it
create* *omet-in, ri'ic.$o.* in re$ation to it. %eine 'oe* t-e *ame t-in, w-en -e wi*-e*
to 'eri'e t-e ba' r-yme* of t-e Fin, of 0a&aria. %e 'oe* it by .*in, e&en wor*e r-yme*:
Berr Lud"i' ist ein 'rosser 2oet
*nd sin't er, so stDr?t !pollo
Vor ihm auf die Enie und %ittet und fleht#
Balt ein, ich "erde sonst toll, ohA
7 JNote t-e re*emb$ance of Geseres an' *n'eseres to t-e German wor'* for *a$te' an'
.n*a$te' 55 'esal?en an' un'esal?en< a$*o to t-e wor'* 'esauert an' un'esauert# $ea&ene'
an' .n$ea&ene'. 55 TRANS.L
8 T-i* 'ream f.rni*-e* a ,oo' e=am/$e in *.//ort of t-e .ni&er*a$$y &a$i' 'octrine t-at
'ream* of t-e *ame ni,-t# e&en t-o.,- t-ey are *e/arate' in t-e memory# */rin, from t-e
*ame t-o.,-t5materia$. T-e 'ream5*it.ation in w-ic- I am re*c.in, my c-i$'ren from t-e
city of Rome# moreo&er# i* 'i*torte' by a reference back to an e/i*o'e of my c-i$'-oo'.
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T-e meanin, i* t-at I en&y certain re$ati&e* w-o year* a,o -a' occa*ion to tran*/$ant
t-eir c-i$'ren to t-e *oi$ of anot-er co.ntry.
9 JT-i* German e=/re**ion i* e;.i&a$ent to o.r *ayin,: @I am not re*/on*ib$e for t-at1#
@T-at1* not my f.nera$1# or @T-at1* not '.e to my own effort*1. 55 TRANS.L
: T-e in6.nction or re*o$&e a$rea'y containe' in t-e 'ream: @I must tell that to the doctor1#
w-en it occ.r* in 'ream* '.rin, /*yc-oana$ytic treatment# i* con*tant$y accom/anie' by
a ,reat re*i*tance to confe**in, t-e 'ream# an' i* not infre;.ent$y fo$$owe' by t-e
for,ettin, of t-e 'ream.
D A *.b6ect w-ic- -a* been e=ten*i&e$y 'i*c.**e' in recent &o$.me* of t-e Gevue
2hilosophi0ue 3/aramne*ia in 'ream*4.
! T-e*e re*.$t* correct at *e&era$ /oint* my ear$ier *tatement* concernin, t-e
re/re*entation of $o,ica$ re$ation* 3//. 1!7 ff.4. T-e*e 'e*cribe' t-e ,enera$ /roce'.re of
t-e 'ream5work# b.t o&er$ooke' it* mo*t 'e$icate an' mo*t caref.$ o/eration*.
1" Stannio$# a$$.*ion to 3tannius< t-e ner&o.* *y*tem of fi*-e*< cf. /. :1.
11 T-e /$ace in t-e corri'or of my a/artment5-o.*e w-ere t-e /eramb.$ator* of t-e ot-er
tenant* *tan'< it i* a$*o ot-erwi*e -y/er5'etermine' *e&era$ time* o&er.
1 T-i* 'e*cri/tion i* not inte$$i,ib$e e&en to my*e$f# b.t I fo$$ow t-e /rinci/$e of
re/ro'.cin, t-e 'ream in t-o*e wor'* w-ic- occ.r to me w-i$e I am writin, it 'own. T-e
wor'in, it*e$f i* a /art of t-e 'ream5re/re*entation.
12 Sc-i$$er wa* not born in one of t-e Mar%ur's# b.t in Mar%ach# a* e&ery German
*c-oo$boy know*# an' a* I my*e$f knew. T-i* a,ain i* one of t-o*e error* w-ic- cree/ in
a* *.b*tit.te* for an intentiona$ fa$*ification in anot-er /$ace an' w-ic- I -a&e
en'ea&o.re' to e=/$ain in The 2s$chopatholo'$ of &ver$da$ Life.
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H! THE AFFE+TS IN DREAMS
A *-rew' remark of Stricker1* ca$$e' o.r attention to t-e fact t-at t-e e=/re**ion* of
affect* in 'ream* cannot be 'i*/o*e' of in t-e contem/t.o.* fa*-ion in w-ic- we are
wont to *-ake off t-e 'ream5content after we -a&e wake'. @If I am afrai' of robber* in my
'ream*# t-e robber*# to be *.re# are ima,inary# b.t t-e fear of t-em i* rea$1< an' t-e *ame
t-in, i* tr.e if I re6oice in my 'ream. Accor'in, to t-e te*timony of o.r fee$in,*# an affect
e=/erience' in a 'ream i* in no way inferior to one of $ike inten*ity e=/erience' in
wakin, $ife# an' t-e 'ream /re**e* it* c$aim to be acce/te' a* /art of o.r rea$ /*yc-ic
e=/erience*# by &irt.e of it* affecti&e rat-er t-an it* i'eationa$ content. In t-e wakin,
*tate we 'o not /.t t-e one before t-e ot-er# *ince we 'o not know -ow to e&a$.ate an
affect /*yc-ica$$y e=ce/t in connection wit- an i'eationa$ content. If an affect an' an i'ea
are i$$5matc-e' a* re,ar'* t-eir nat.re or t-eir inten*ity# o.r wakin, 6.',ment become*
conf.*e'.
T-e fact t-at in 'ream* t-e i'eationa$ content 'oe* not a$way* /ro'.ce t-e affecti&e re*.$t
w-ic- in o.r wakin, t-o.,-t* we *-o.$' e=/ect a* it* nece**ary con*e;.ence -a* a$way*
been a ca.*e of a*toni*-ment. StrBm/e$$ 'ec$are' t-at i'ea* in 'ream* are *tri//e' of
t-eir /*yc-ic &a$.e*. 0.t t-ere i* no $ack of in*tance* in w-ic- t-e re&er*e i* tr.e< w-en
an inten*i&e manife*tation of affect a//ear* in a content w-ic- *eem* to offer no occa*ion
for it. In my 'ream I may be in a -orrib$e# 'an,ero.*# or 'i*,.*tin, *it.ation# an' yet I
may fee$ no fear or a&er*ion< on t-e ot-er -an'# I am *ometime* terrifie' by -arm$e**
t-in,*# an' *ometime* 'e$i,-te' by c-i$'i*- t-in,*.
T-i* eni,ma 'i*a//ear* more *.''en$y an' more com/$ete$y t-an /er-a/* any ot-er
'ream5/rob$em if we /a** from t-e manife*t to t-e $atent content. +e *-a$$ t-en no $on,er
-a&e to e=/$ain it# for it wi$$ no $on,er e=i*t. Ana$y*i* te$$* .* t-at the ideational contents
have under'one displacements and su%stitutions, "hile the affects have remained
unchan'ed. No won'er# t-en# t-at t-e i'eationa$ content w-ic- -a* been a$tere' by
'ream5'i*tortion no $on,er fit* t-e affect w-ic- -a* remaine' intact< an' no ca.*e for
won'er w-en ana$y*i* -a* /.t t-e correct content into it* ori,ina$ /$ace.1
In a /*yc-ic com/$e= w-ic- -a* been *.b6ecte' to t-e inf$.ence of t-e re*i*tin,
cen*or*-i/# t-e affect* are t-e .nyie$'in, con*tit.ent# w-ic- a$one can ,.i'e .* to t-e
correct com/$etion. T-i* *tate of affair* i* re&ea$e' in t-e /*yc-one.ro*e* e&en more
'i*tinct$y t-an in 'ream*. %ere t-e affect i* a$way* in t-e ri,-t# at $ea*t a* re,ar'* it*
;.a$ity< it* inten*ity may# of co.r*e# be increa*e' by 'i*/$acement of t-e ne.rotic
attention. +-en t-e -y*terica$ /atient won'er* t-at -e *-o.$' be *o afrai' of a trif$e# or
w-en t-e *.fferer from ob*e**ion* i* a*toni*-e' t-at -e *-o.$' re/roac- -im*e$f *o
bitter$y for a mere not-in,# t-ey are bot- in error# ina*m.c- a* t-ey re,ar' t-e conce/t.a$
content 55 t-e trif$e# t-e mere not-in, 55 a* t-e e**entia$ t-in,# an' t-ey 'efen' t-em*e$&e*
in &ain# beca.*e t-ey make t-i* conce/t.a$ content t-e *tartin,5/oint of t-eir
t-o.,-twork.
P*yc-oana$y*i*# -owe&er# /.t* t-em on t-e ri,-t /at-# ina*m.c- a* it reco,ni*e*
t-at# on t-e contrary# it i* t-e affect t-at i* 6.*tifie'# an' $ook* for t-e conce/t w-ic-
/ertain* to it# an' w-ic- -a* been re/re**e' by a *.b*tit.tion. A$$ t-at we nee' a**.me i*
t-at t-e $iberation of affect an' t-e conce/t.a$ content 'o not con*tit.te t-e in'i**o$.b$e
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or,anic .nity a* w-ic- we are wont to re,ar' t-em# b.t t-at t-e two /art* may be we$'e'
to,et-er# *o t-at ana$y*i* wi$$ *e/arate t-em. Dream5inter/retation *-ow* t-at t-i* i*
act.a$$y t-e ca*e.
I wi$$ fir*t of a$$ ,i&e an e=am/$e in w-ic- ana$y*i* e=/$ain* t-e a//arent ab*ence of
affect in a conce/t.a$ content w-ic- o.,-t to com/e$ a $iberation of affect.
Dream 1. The dreamer sees three lions in a desert, one of "hich is lau'hin', %ut she is
not afraid of them5 Then, ho"ever, she must have fled from them, for she is tr$in' to
clim% a tree5 <ut she finds that her cousin, the French teacher, is alread$ up in the tree,
etc.
T-e ana$y*i* yie$'* t-e fo$$owin, materia$: T-e in'ifferent occa*ion of 'ream wa* a
*entence in t-e 'reamer1* En,$i*- e=erci*e: @T-e lion+s ,reate*t a'ornment i* -i* mane.1
%er fat-er .*e' to wear a bear' w-ic- encirc$e' -i* face $ike a mane. T-e name of -er
En,$i*- teac-er i* Mi** L$ons. An ac;.aintance of -er* -a' *ent -er t-e ba$$a'* of Loe"e
9Loe"e M $ion4. T-e*e# t-en# are t-e t-ree $ion*< w-y *-o.$' *-e be afrai' of t-emI S-e
-a* rea' a *tory in w-ic- a ne,ro w-o -a* incite' -i* fe$$ow* to re&o$t i* -.nte' wit-
b$oo'-o.n'*# an' c$imb* a tree to *a&e -im*e$f. T-en fo$$ow fra,mentary reco$$ection* in
t-e merrie*t moo'# *.c- a* t-e fo$$owin, 'irection* for catc-in, $ion* 3from Die
Flie'ende <l=tter4: @Take a 'e*ert an' /.t it t-ro.,- a *ie&e< t-e $ion* wi$$ be $eft be-in'.1
A$*o a &ery am.*in,# b.t not &ery /ro/er anec'ote abo.t an officia$ w-o i* a*ke' w-y -e
'oe* not take ,reater /ain* to win t-e fa&o.r of -i* c-ief# an' w-o re/$ie* t-at -e -a*
been tryin, to cree/ into fa&o.r# b.t t-at -i* imme'iate *./erior wa* alread$ up there.
T-e w-o$e matter become* inte$$i,ib$e a* *oon a* one $earn* t-at on t-e 'ream5'ay t-e
$a'y -a' recei&e' a &i*it from -er -.*ban'1* *./erior. %e wa* &ery /o$ite to -er# an'
ki**e' -er -an'# an' she "as not at all afraid of him# a$t-o.,- -e i* a @bi, b.,1 3Grosses
Tier M bi, anima$4 an' /$ay* t-e /art of a @social lion1 in t-e ca/ita$ of -er co.ntry. T-i*
$ion i*# t-erefore# $ike t-e $ion in ! Midsummer 7i'ht+s Dream# w-o i* .nma*ke' a* Sn.,
t-e 6oiner< an' of *.c- *t.ff are a$$ t-e 'ream5$ion* of w-ic- one i* not afrai'.
Dream . A* my *econ' e=am/$e# I wi$$ cite t-e 'ream of t-e ,ir$ w-o *aw -er *i*ter1*
$itt$e *on $yin, a* a cor/*e in -i* coffin# b.t w-o# it may be a''e'# wa* con*cio.* of no
/ain or *orrow. +-y *-e wa* .nmo&e' we know from t-e ana$y*i*. T-e 'ream on$y
'i*,.i*e' -er wi*- to *ee once more t-e man *-e $o&e'< t-e affect -a' to be att.ne' to t-e
wi*-# an' not to it* 'i*,.i*ement. T-ere wa* t-.* no occa*ion for *orrow.
In a n.mber of 'ream* t-e affect 'oe* at $ea*t remain connecte' wit- t-e conce/t.a$
content w-ic- -a* re/$ace' t-e content rea$$y be$on,in, to it. In ot-er*# t-e 'i**o$.tion of
t-e com/$e= i* carrie' fart-er. T-e affect i* entire$y *e/arate' from t-e i'ea be$on,in, to
it# an' fin'* it*e$f accommo'ate' e$*ew-ere in t-e 'ream# w-ere it fit* into t-e new
arran,ement of t-e 'ream5e$ement*. +e -a&e *een t-at t-e *ame t-in, -a//en* to act* of
6.',ment in 'ream*. If an im/ortant inference occ.r* in t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*# t-ere i* one
in t-e 'ream a$*o< b.t t-e inference in t-e 'ream may be 'i*/$ace' to entire$y 'ifferent
materia$. Not infre;.ent$y t-i* 'i*/$acement i* effecte' in accor'ance wit- t-e /rinci/a$
of antit-e*i*.
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I wi$$ i$$.*trate t-e $atter /o**ibi$ity by t-e fo$$owin, 'ream# w-ic- I -a&e *.b6ecte' to t-e
mo*t e=-a.*ti&e ana$y*i*.
Dream 2. ! castle %$ the sea6 after"ards it lies not directl$ on the coast, %ut on a narro"
canal leadin' to the sea5 ! certain Berr 25 is the 'overnor of the castle5 I stand "ith him
in a lar'e salon "ith three "indo"s, in front of "hich rise the pro/ections of a "all, li(e
%attlements of a fortress5 I %elon' to the 'arrison, perhaps as a volunteer naval officer5
;e fear the arrival of enem$ "arships, for "e are in a state of "ar5 Berr 25 intends to
leave the castle6 he 'ives me instructions as to "hat must %e done if "hat "e fear should
come to pass5 Bis sic( "ife and his children are in the threatened castle5 !s soon as the
%om%ardment %e'ins, the lar'e hall is to %e cleared5 Be %reathes heavil$, and tries to 'et
a"a$6 I detain him, and as( him ho" I am to send him ne"s in case of need5 Be sa$s
somethin' further, and immediatel$ after"ards he sin(s to the floor dead5 I have
pro%a%l$ taed him unnecessaril$ "ith m$ 0uestions5 !fter his death, "hich ma(es no
further impression upon me, I consider "hether the "ido" is to remain in the castle,
"hether I should 'ive notice of the death to the hi'her command, "hether I should ta(e
over the control of the castle as the net in command5 I no" stand at the "indo", and
scrutinise the ships as the$ pass %$6 the$ are car'o steamers, and the$ rush %$ over the
dar( "ater6 several "ith more than one funnel, others "ith %ul'in' dec(s 3t-e*e are &ery
$ike t-e rai$way *tation* in t-e /re$iminary 'ream# w-ic- -a* not been re$ate'4. Then m$
%rother is standin' %eside me, and "e %oth loo( out of the "indo" on to the canal5 !t the
si'ht of one ship "e are alarmed, and call out: )Bere comes the "arshipT+ It turns out,
ho"ever, that the$ are onl$ the ships "hich I have alread$ seen, returnin'5 7o" comes a
small ship, comicall$ truncated, so that it ends amidships6 on the dec( one sees curious
thin's li(e cups or little %oes5 ;e call out as "ith one voice: )That is the %rea(fast ship.1
T-e ra/i' motion of t-e *-i/*# t-e 'ee/ b$.e of t-e water# t-e brown *moke of t-e f.nne$*
55 a$$ t-e*e to,et-er /ro'.ce an inten*e an' ,$oomy im/re**ion.
T-e $oca$itie* in t-i* 'ream are com/i$e' from *e&era$ 6o.rney* to t-e A'riatic
3Miramare# D.ino# Kenice# A;.i$eia4. A *-ort b.t en6oyab$e Ea*ter tri/ to A;.i$eia wit-
my brot-er# a few week* before t-e 'ream# wa* *ti$$ fre*- in my memory< a$*o t-e naval
"ar between America an' S/ain# an' a**ociate' wit- t-i* my an=iety a* to t-e fate of my
re$ati&e* in America# /$ay a /art in t-e 'ream. Manife*tation* of affect a//ear at two
/$ace* in t-i* 'ream. In one /$ace an affect t-at wo.$' be e=/ecte' i* $ackin,: it i*
e=/re**$y em/-a*i*e' t-at t-e 'eat- of t-e ,o&ernor make* no im/re**ion ./on me< at
anot-er /oint# w-en I *ee t-e war*-i/*# I am fri'htened# an' e=/erience a$$ t-e *en*ation*
of fri,-t in my *$ee/. T-e 'i*trib.tion of affect* in t-i* we$$5con*tr.cte' 'ream -a* been
effecte' in *.c- a way t-at any ob&io.* contra'iction i* a&oi'e'. For t-ere i* no rea*on
w-y I *-o.$' be fri,-tene' at t-e ,o&ernor1* 'eat-# an' it i* fittin, t-at# a* t-e comman'er
of t-e ca*t$e# I *-o.$' be a$arme' by t-e *i,-t of t-e war*-i/. Now ana$y*i* *-ow* t-at
%err P. i* not-in, b.t a *.b*tit.te for my own e,o 3in t-e 'ream I am -i* *.b*tit.te4. I am
t-e ,o&ernor w-o *.''en$y 'ie*. T-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* 'ea$ wit- t-e f.t.re of my fami$y
after my /remat.re 'eat-. No ot-er 'i*a,reeab$e t-o.,-t i* to be fo.n' amon, t-e 'ream
t-o.,-t*. T-e a$arm w-ic- ,oe* wit- t-e *i,-t of t-e war*-i/ m.*t be tran*ferre' from it
to t-i* 'i*a,reeab$e t-o.,-t. In&er*e$y# t-e ana$y*i* *-ow* t-at t-e re,ion of t-e 'ream5
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t-o.,-t* from w-ic- t-e war*-i/ come* i* $a'en wit- mo*t c-eerf.$ remini*cence*. In
Kenice# a year before t-e 'ream# one ma,ica$$y bea.tif.$ 'ay# we *too' at t-e win'ow* of
o.r room on t-e Ri&a Sc-ia&oni an' $ooke' o.t o&er t-e b$.e $a,oon# on w-ic- t-ere wa*
more traffic to be *een t-an .*.a$. Some En,$i*- *-i/* were e=/ecte'< t-ey were to be
,i&en a fe*ti&e rece/tion< an' *.''en$y my wife crie'# -a//y a* a c-i$': @Bere comes the
&n'lish "arshipT1 In t-e 'ream I am fri,-tene' by t-e &ery *ame wor'*< once more we
*ee t-at */eec-e* in 'ream* -a&e t-eir ori,in in */eec-e* in rea$ $ife. I *-a$$ /re*ent$y
*-ow t-at e&en t-e e$ement @En,$i*-1 in t-i* */eec- -a* not been $o*t for t-e 'ream5work.
%ere# t-en# between t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* an' t-e 'ream5content# I t.rn 6oy into fri,-t# an'
I nee' on$y /oint to t-e fact t-at by mean* of t-i* tran*formation I ,i&e e=/re**ion to /art
of t-e $atent 'ream5content. T-e e=am/$e *-ow*# -owe&er# t-at t-e 'ream5work i* at
$iberty to 'etac- t-e occa*ion of an affect from it* connection* in t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*# an'
to in*ert it at any ot-er /$ace it c-oo*e* in t-e 'ream5content.
I wi$$ take t-e o//ort.nity w-ic- i* -ere inci'enta$$y offere' of *.b6ectin, to a c$o*er
ana$y*i* t-e @breakfa*t *-i/1# w-o*e a//earance in t-e 'ream *o ab*.r'$y conc$.'e* a
*it.ation t-at -a* been rationa$$y a'-ere' to. If I $ook more c$o*e$y at t-i* 'ream5ob6ect# I
am im/re**e' after t-e e&ent by t-e fact t-at it wa* b$ack# an' t-at by rea*on of it*
tr.ncation at it* wi'e*t beam it ac-ie&e'# at t-e tr.ncate' en'# a con*i'erab$e re*emb$ance
to an ob6ect w-ic- -a' aro.*e' o.r intere*t in t-e m.*e.m* of t-e Etr.*can citie*. T-i*
ob6ect wa* a rectan,.$ar c./ of b$ack c$ay# wit- two -an'$e*# ./on w-ic- *too' t-in,*
$ike coffee5c./* or tea5c./*# &ery *imi$ar to o.r mo'ern *er&ice for t-e %rea(fast ta%le.
)/on in;.iry we $earne' t-at t-i* wa* t-e toi$et *et of an Etr.*can $a'y# wit- $itt$e bo=e*
for ro.,e an' /ow'er< an' we to$' one anot-er 6e*tin,$y t-at it wo.$' not be a ba' i'ea to
take a t-in, $ike t-at -ome to t-e $a'y of t-e -o.*e. T-e 'ream5ob6ect# t-erefore# *i,nifie*
a @%lac( toilet1 3toilette M 're**4# or mo.rnin,# an' refer* 'irect$y to a 'eat-. T-e ot-er en'
of t-e 'ream5ob6ect remin'* .* of t-e @boat1 3German# 7achen# from t-e Greek root#
veus# a* a /-i$o$o,ica$ frien' inform* me4# ./on w-ic- cor/*e* were $ai' in /re-i*toric
time*# an' were $eft to be b.rie' by t-e *ea. T-i* i* a**ociate' wit- t-e ret.rn of t-e *-i/*
in t-e 'ream.
@Si$ent$y on -i* re*c.e' boat t-e o$' man 'rift* into -arbo.r.1
It i* t-e ret.rn &oya,e after t-e ship"rec( 3German: 3chiff4%ruc( P ship4%rea(in'4< t-e
breakfa*t *-i/ $ook* a* t-o.,- it were %ro(en off ami'*-i/*. 0.t w-ence come* t-e name
@breakfa*t1 *-i/I T-i* i* w-ere @En,$i*-1 come* in# w-ic- we -a&e $eft o&er from t-e
war*-i/*. <rea(fast# a %rea(in' of the fast5 <rea(in' a,ain be$on,* to *-i/wreck
33chiff%ruch4#
an' fastin' i* a**ociate' wit- t-e b$ack 3mo.rnin,4.
0.t t-e on$y t-in, abo.t t-i* breakfa*t *-i/ w-ic- -a* been new$y create' by t-e 'ream i*
it* name. T-e t-in, e=i*te' in rea$ity# an' reca$$* to me one of t-e merrie*t moment* of
my $a*t 6o.rney. A* we 'i*tr.*te' t-e fare in A;.i$eia# we took *ome foo' wit- .* from
GoerC# an' bo.,-t a bott$e of t-e e=ce$$ent I*trian wine in A;.i$eia< an' w-i$e t-e $itt$e
mai$5*teamer *$ow$y tra&e$$e' t-ro.,- t-e canale delle Mee an' into t-e $one$y e=/an*e
of $a,oon in t-e 'irection of Gra'o# we -a' breakfa*t on 'eck in t-e -i,-e*t */irit* 55 we
were t-e on$y /a**en,er* 55 an' it ta*te' to .* a* few breakfa*t* -a&e e&er ta*te'. T-i*#
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t-en# wa* t-e @%rea(fast ship1# an' it i* be-in' t-i* &ery reco$$ection of t-e ,aye*t /oie de
vivre t-at t-e 'ream -i'e* t-e *a''e*t t-o.,-t* of an .nknown an' my*terio.* f.t.re.
T-e 'etac-ment of affect* from t-e ,ro./* of i'ea* w-ic- -a&e occa*ione' t-eir
$iberation i* t-e mo*t *trikin, t-in, t-at -a//en* to t-em in 'ream5formation# b.t it i*
neit-er t-e on$y nor e&en t-e mo*t e**entia$ c-an,e w-ic- t-ey .n'er,o on t-e way from
t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* to t-e manife*t 'ream. If t-e affect* in t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* are
com/are' wit- t-o*e in t-e 'ream# one t-in, at once become* c$ear. +-ere&er t-ere i* an
affect in t-e 'ream# it i* to be fo.n' a$*o in t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*< t-e con&er*e# -owe&er# i*
not tr.e. In ,enera$# a 'ream i* $e** ric- in affect* t-an t-e /*yc-ic materia$ from w-ic- it
i* e$aborate'. +-en I -a&e recon*tr.cte' t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*# I *ee t-at t-e mo*t inten*e
/*yc-ic im/.$*e* are con*tant$y *tri&in, in t-em for *e$f5a**ertion# .*.a$$y in conf$ict
wit- ot-er* w-ic- are *-ar/$y o//o*e' to t-em. Now# if I t.rn back to t-e 'ream# I often
fin' it co$o.r$e** an' 'e&oi' of any &ery inten*i&e affecti&e tone. Not on$y t-e content#
b.t a$*o t-e affecti&e tone of my t-o.,-t* i* often re'.ce' by t-e 'ream5work to t-e $e&e$
of t-e in'ifferent. I mi,-t *ay t-at a suppression of the affects -a* been accom/$i*-e' by
t-e 'ream5work. Take# for e=am/$e# t-e 'ream of t-e botanica$ mono,ra/-. It
corre*/on'* to a /a**ionate /$ea for my free'om to act a* I am actin,# to arran,e my $ife
a* *eem* ri,-t to me# an' to me a$one. T-e 'ream w-ic- re*.$t* from t-i* *o.n'*
in'ifferent< I -a&e written a mono,ra/-< it i* $yin, before me< it i* /ro&i'e' wit- co$o.re'
/$ate*# an' 'rie' /$ant* are to be fo.n' in eac- co/y. It i* $ike t-e /eace of a 'e*erte'
batt$efie$'< no trace i* $eft of t-e t.m.$t of batt$e.
0.t t-in,* may t.rn o.t ;.ite 'ifferent$y< &i&i' e=/re**ion* of affect may enter into t-e
'ream it*e$f< b.t we wi$$ fir*t of a$$ con*i'er t-e .n;.e*tione' fact t-at *o many 'ream*
a//ear in'ifferent# w-erea* it i* ne&er /o**ib$e to ,o 'ee/$y into t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*
wit-o.t 'ee/ emotion.
T-e com/$ete t-eoretica$ e=/$anation of t-i* *.//re**ion of affect* '.rin, t-e 'reamwork
cannot be ,i&en -ere< it wo.$' re;.ire a mo*t caref.$ in&e*ti,ation of t-e t-eory of
t-e affect* an' of t-e mec-ani*m of re/re**ion. %ere I can /.t forwar' on$y two
*.,,e*tion*. I am force' 55 for ot-er rea*on* 55 to concei&e t-e $iberation of affect* a* a
centrif.,a$ /roce** 'irecte' towar'* t-e interior of t-e bo'y# ana$o,o.* to t-e /roce**e*
of motor an' *ecretory inner&ation. >.*t a* in t-e *$ee/in, *tate t-e emi**ion of motor
im/.$*e* towar'* t-e o.ter wor$' *eem* to be *.*/en'e'# *o t-e centrif.,a$ awakenin, of
affect* by .ncon*cio.* t-inkin, '.rin, *$ee/ may be ren'ere' more 'iffic.$t. T-e
affecti&e im/.$*e* w-ic- occ.r '.rin, t-e co.r*e of t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* may t-.* in
t-em*e$&e* be feeb$e# *o t-at t-o*e t-at fin' t-eir way into t-e 'ream are no *tron,er.
Accor'in, to t-i* $ine of t-o.,-t# t-e @*.//re**ion of t-e affect*1 wo.$' not be a
con*e;.ence of t-e 'ream5work at a$$# b.t a con*e;.ence of t-e *tate of *$ee/. T-i* may
be *o# b.t it cannot /o**ib$y be a$$ t-e tr.t-. +e m.*t remember t-at a$$ t-e more
com/$e= 'ream* -a&e re&ea$e' t-em*e$&e* a* t-e re*.$t of a com/romi*e between
conf$ictin, /*yc-ic force*. On t-e one -an'# t-e wi*-5formin, t-o.,-t* -a&e to o//o*e
t-e contra'iction of a cen*or*-i/< on t-e ot-er -an'# a* we -a&e often *een# e&en in
.ncon*cio.* t-inkin,# e&ery train of t-o.,-t i* -arne**e' to it* contra'ictory co.nter/art.
Since a$$ t-e*e train* of t-o.,-t are ca/ab$e of aro.*in, affect*# we *-a$$# broa'$y
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*/eakin,# -ar'$y ,o a*tray if we concei&e t-e *.//re**ion of affect* a* t-e re*.$t of t-e
in-ibition w-ic- t-e contra*t* im/o*e ./on one anot-er# an' t-e cen*or*-i/ ./on t-e
.r,e* w-ic- it -a* *.//re**e'. The inhi%ition of affects "ould accordin'l$ %e the second
conse0uence of the dream4censorship, /ust as dream4distortion "as the first conse0uence.
I wi$$ -ere in*ert an e=am/$e of a 'ream in w-ic- t-e in'ifferent emotiona$ tone of t-e
'ream5content may be e=/$aine' by t-e anta,oni*m of t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*. I m.*t re$ate
t-e fo$$owin, *-ort 'ream# w-ic- e&ery rea'er wi$$ rea' wit- 'i*,.*t.
Dream 7. Gisin' 'round, and on it somethin' li(e an open4air latrine6 a ver$ lon' %ench,
at the end of "hich is a "ide aperture5 The "hole of the %ac( ed'e is thic(l$ covered "ith
little heaps of ecrement of all si?es and de'rees of freshness5 ! thic(et %ehind the %ench5
I urinate upon the %ench, a lon' stream of urine rinses ever$thin' clean, the patches of
ecrement come off easil$ and fall into the openin'5 7evertheless, it seems as thou'h
somethin' remained at the end.
+-y 'i' I e=/erience no 'i*,.*t in t-i* 'reamI
0eca.*e# a* t-e ana$y*i* *-ow*# t-e mo*t /$ea*ant an' ,ratifyin, t-o.,-t* -a&e
coo/erate'
in t-e formation of t-i* 'ream. )/on ana$y*in, it# I imme'iate$y t-ink of t-e
!u'ean sta%les w-ic- were c$ean*e' by %erc.$e*. I am t-i* %erc.$e*. T-e ri*in, ,ro.n'
an' t-e t-icket be$on, to A.**ee# w-ere my c-i$'ren are now *tayin, I -a&e 'i*co&ere'
t-e infanti$e etio$o,y of t-e ne.ro*e*# an' -a&e t-.* ,.ar'e' my own c-i$'ren from
fa$$in, i$$. T-e benc- 3omittin, t-e a/ert.re# of co.r*e4 i* t-e fait-f.$ co/y of a /iece of
f.rnit.re of w-ic- an affectionate fema$e /atient -a* ma'e me a /re*ent. T-i* remin'* me
-ow my /atient* -ono.r me. E&en t-e m.*e.m of -.man e=crement i* *.*ce/tib$e of a
,ratifyin, inter/retation. %owe&er m.c- it 'i*,.*t* me# it i* a *o.&enir of t-e bea.tif.$
$an' of Ita$y# w-ere in t-e *ma$$ citie*# a* e&eryone know*# t-e /ri&ie* are not e;.i//e' in
any ot-er way. T-e *tream of .rine t-at wa*-e* e&eryt-in, c$ean i* an .nmi*takab$e
a$$.*ion to ,reatne**. It i* in t-i* manner t-at Gulliver e=tin,.i*-e* t-e ,reat fire in
?i$$i/.t< to be *.re# -e t-ereby inc.r* t-e 'i*/$ea*.re of t-e tinie*t of ;.een*. In t-i* way#
too# Gar,ant.a. t-e *./erman of Ma*ter Rabe$ai*# take* &en,eance ./on t-e Pari*ian*#
*tra''$in, Notre5Dame an' trainin, -i* *tream of .rine ./on t-e city. On$y ye*ter'ay I
wa* t.rnin, o&er t-e $ea&e* of Garnier1* i$$.*tration* to Rabe$ai* before I went to be'.
An'# *tran,e$y eno.,-# -ere i* anot-er /roof t-at I am t-e *./ermanA T-e /$atform of
Notre5Dame wa* my fa&o.rite nook in Pari*< e&ery free afternoon I .*e' to ,o ./ into t-e
tower* of t-e cat-e'ra$ an' t-ere c$amber abo.t between t-e mon*ter* an' ,ar,oy$e*. T-e
circ.m*tance t-at a$$ t-e e=crement &ani*-e* *o ra/i'$y before t-e *tream of .rine
corre*/on'* to t-e motto: !fflavit et dissipati sunt# w-ic- I *-a$$ *ome 'ay make t-e tit$e
of a c-a/ter on t-e t-era/e.tic* of -y*teria.
An' now a* to t-e affecti&e occa*ion of t-e 'ream. It -a' been a -ot *.mmer afternoon<
in t-e e&enin,# I -a' ,i&en my $ect.re on t-e connection between -y*teria an' t-e
/er&er*ion*# an' e&eryt-in, w-ic- I -a' to *ay 'i*/$ea*e' me t-oro.,-$y# an' *eeme'
.tter$y &a$.e$e**. I wa* tire'< I took not t-e $ea*t /$ea*.re in my 'iffic.$t work# an'
$on,e' to ,et away from t-i* r.mma,in, in -.man fi$t-< fir*t to *ee my c-i$'ren# an' t-en
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to re&i*it t-e bea.tie* of Ita$y. In t-i* moo' I went from t-e $ect.re5-a$$ to a cafN to ,et
*ome $itt$e refre*-ment in t-e o/en air# for my a//etite -a' for*aken me. 0.t a member of
my a.'ience went wit- me< -e be,,e' for /ermi**ion to *it wit- me w-i$e I 'rank my
coffee an' ,.$/e' 'own my ro$$# an' be,an to *ay f$atterin, t-in,* to me. %e to$' me
-ow m.c- -e -a' $earne' from me# t-at -e now *aw e&eryt-in, t-ro.,- 'ifferent eye*#
t-at I -a' c$ean*e' t-e !u'ean sta%les of error an' /re6.'ice# w-ic- enc.mbere' t-e
t-eory of t-e ne.ro*e* 55 in *-ort# t-at I wa* a &ery ,reat man. My moo' wa* i$$5*.ite' to
-i* -ymn of /rai*e< I *tr.,,$e' wit- my 'i*,.*t# an' went -ome ear$ier in or'er to ,et ri'
of -im< an' before I went to *$ee/ I t.rne' o&er t-e $ea&e* of Ga%elais# an' rea' a *-ort
*tory by (. F. Meyer entit$e' Die Leiden eines Ena%en 3T-e Sorrow* of a 0oy4.
T-e 'ream -a' ori,inate' from t-i* materia$# an' Meyer1* no&e$ -a' *.//$ie' t-e
reco$$ection* of *cene* of c-i$'-oo'.
T-e 'ay1* moo' of annoyance an' 'i*,.*t i* contin.e' in t-e 'ream# ina*m.c- a* it i*
/ermitte' to f.rni*- near$y a$$ t-e materia$ for t-e 'ream5content. 0.t '.rin, t-e ni,-t t-e
o//o*ite moo' of &i,oro.*# e&en immo'erate *e$f5a**ertion awakene' an' 'i**i/ate' t-e
ear$ier moo'. T-e 'ream -a' to a**.me *.c- a form a* wo.$' accommo'ate bot- t-e
e=/re**ion* of *e$f5'e/reciation an' e=a,,erate' *e$f5,$orification in t-e *ame materia$.
T-i* com/romi*e5formation re*.$te' in an ambi,.o.* 'ream5content# b.t# owin, to t-e
m.t.a$ in-ibition of t-e o//o*ite*# in an in'ifferent emotiona$ tone.
Accor'in, to t-e t-eory of wi*-5f.$fi$ment# t-i* 'ream wo.$' not -a&e been /o**ib$e -a'
not t-e o//o*e'# an' in'ee' *.//re**e'# yet /$ea*.re5em/-a*i*e' me,a$omaniac train of
t-o.,-t been a''e' to t-e t-o.,-t* of 'i*,.*t. For not-in, /ainf.$ i* inten'e' to be
re/re*ente' in 'ream*< t-e /ainf.$ e$ement* of o.r 'ai$y t-o.,-t* are ab$e to force t-eir
way into o.r 'ream* on$y if at t-e *ame time t-ey are ab$e to 'i*,.i*e a wi*-5f.$fi$ment.
T-e 'ream5work i* ab$e to 'i*/o*e of t-e affect* of t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* in yet anot-er
way t-an by a'mittin, t-em or re'.cin, t-em to Cero. It can transform them into their
opposites. +e are ac;.ainte' wit- t-e r.$e t-at for t-e /.r/o*e* of inter/retation e&ery
e$ement of t-e 'ream may re/re*ent it* o//o*ite# a* we$$ a* it*e$f. One can ne&er te$$
before-an' w-ic- i* to be /o*ite'< on$y t-e conte=t can 'eci'e t-i* /oint. A *.*/icion of
t-i* *tate of affair* -a* e&i'ent$y fo.n' it* way into t-e /o/.$ar con*cio.*ne**< t-e
'reambook*#
in t-eir inter/retation*# often /rocee' accor'in, to t-e /rinci/$e of contrarie*. T-i*
tran*formation into t-e contrary i* ma'e /o**ib$e by t-e intimate a**ociati&e tie* w-ic- in
o.r t-o.,-t* connect t-e i'ea of a t-in, wit- t-at of it* o//o*ite. ?ike e&ery ot-er
'i*/$acement# t-i* *er&e* t-e /.r/o*e* of t-e cen*or*-i/# b.t it i* often t-e work of
wi*-f.$fi$ment#
for wi*-5f.$fi$ment con*i*t* in not-in, more t-an t-e *.b*tit.tion of an
.nwe$come t-in, by it* o//o*ite. >.*t a* concrete ima,e* may be tran*forme' into t-eir
contrarie* in o.r 'ream*# *o a$*o may t-e affect* of t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*# an' it i* /robab$e
t-at t-i* in&er*ion of affect* i* .*.a$$y bro.,-t abo.t by t-e 'ream5cen*or*-i/. T-e
suppression and inversion of affects i* .*ef.$ e&en in *ocia$ $ife# a* i* *-own by t-e
fami$iar ana$o,y of t-e 'ream5cen*or*-i/ an'# abo&e a$$# -y/ocri*y. If I am con&er*in,
wit- a /er*on to w-om I m.*t *-ow con*i'eration w-i$e I *-o.$' $ike to a''re** -im a*
an enemy# it i* a$mo*t more im/ortant t-at I *-o.$' concea$ t-e e=/re**ion of my affect
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from -im t-an t-at I *-o.$' mo'ify t-e &erba$ e=/re**ion of my t-o.,-t*. If I a''re** -im
in co.rteo.* term*# b.t accom/any t-em by $ook* or ,e*t.re* of -atre' an' 'i*'ain# t-e
effect w-ic- I /ro'.ce ./on -im i* not &ery 'ifferent from w-at it wo.$' -a&e been -a' I
ca*t my .nmiti,ate' contem/t into -i* face. Abo&e a$$# t-en# t-e cen*or*-i/ bi'* me
*.//re** my affect*# an' if I am a ma*ter of t-e art of 'i**im.$ation I can -y/ocritica$$y
'i*/$ay t-e o//o*ite affect 55 *mi$in, w-ere I *-o.$' $ike to be an,ry# an' /reten'in,
affection w-ere I *-o.$' $ike to 'e*troy.
+e -a&e a$rea'y -a' an e=ce$$ent e=am/$e of *.c- an in&er*ion of affect in t-e *er&ice of
t-e 'ream5cen*or*-i/. In t-e 'ream @of my .nc$e1* bear'1 I fee$ ,reat affection for my
frien' R. w-i$e 3an' beca.*e4 t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* berate -im a* a *im/$eton. From t-i*
e=am/$e of t-e in&er*ion of affect* we 'eri&e' o.r fir*t /roof of t-e e=i*tence of t-e
cen*or*-i/. E&en -ere it i* not nece**ary to a**.me t-at t-e 'ream5work create* a
co.nter5affect of t-i* kin' t-at i* a$to,et-er new< it .*.a$$y fin'* it $yin, rea'y in t-e
materia$ of t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*# an' mere$y inten*ifie* it wit- t-e /*yc-ic force of t-e
'efence5moti&e* .nti$ it i* ab$e to /re'ominate in t-e 'ream5formation. In t-e 'ream of
my .nc$e# t-e affectionate co.nter5affect /robab$y -a* it* ori,in in an infanti$e *o.rce 3a*
t-e contin.ation of t-e 'ream wo.$' *.,,e*t4# for owin, to t-e /ec.$iar nat.re of my
ear$ie*t c-i$'-oo' e=/erience* t-e re$ation of .nc$e an' ne/-ew -a* become t-e *o.rce of
a$$ my frien'*-i/* an' -atre' 3cf. ana$y*i* on /. :!4.
An e=ce$$ent e=am/$e of *.c- a re&er*a$ of affect i* fo.n' in a 'ream recor'e' by
FerencCi.2
An e$'er$y ,ent$eman wa* awakene' at ni,-t by -i* wife# w-o wa* fri,-tene' beca.*e -e
$a.,-e' *o $o.'$y an' .ncontro$$ab$y in -i* *$ee/. T-e man afterwar'* re$ate' t-at -e -a'
-a' t-e fo$$owin, 'ream: I la$ in m$ %ed, a 'entleman (no"n to me came in, I "anted to
turn on the li'ht, %ut I could not6 I attempted to do so repeatedl$, %ut in vain5 Thereupon
m$ "ife 'ot out of %ed, in order to help me, %ut she, too, "as una%le to mana'e it6 %ein'
ashamed of her n,li', in the presence of the 'entleman, she finall$ 'ave it up and "ent
%ac( to her %ed6 all this "as so comical that I had to lau'h terri%l$5 M$ "ife said: );hat
are $ou lau'hin' at, "hat are $ou lau'hin' atA+ %ut I continued to lau'h until I "o(e.
T-e fo$$owin, 'ay t-e man wa* e=treme$y 'e/re**e'# an' *.ffere' from -ea'ac-e: @From
too m.c- $a.,-ter# w-ic- *-ook me ./#1 -e t-o.,-t.
Ana$ytica$$y con*i'ere'# t-e 'ream $ook* $e** comica$. In t-e $atent 'ream5t-o.,-t* t-e
@,ent$eman known1 to -im w-o came into t-e room i* t-e ima,e of 'eat- a* t-e @,reat
.nknown1# w-ic- wa* awakene' in -i* min' on t-e /re&io.* 'ay. T-e o$' ,ent$eman# w-o
*.ffer* from arterio*c$ero*i*# -a' ,oo' rea*on to t-ink of 'eat- on t-e 'ay before t-e
'ream. T-e .ncontro$$ab$e $a.,-ter take* t-e /$ace of wee/in, an' *obbin, at t-e i'ea
t-at -e -a* to 'ie. It i* t-e $i,-t of $ife t-at -e i* no $on,er ab$e to t.rn on. T-i* mo.rnf.$
t-o.,-t may -a&e a**ociate' it*e$f wit- a fai$.re to effect *e=.a$ interco.r*e# w-ic- -e
-a' attem/te' *-ort$y before t-i*# an' in w-ic- t-e a**i*tance of -i* wife en n,'li', wa*
of no a&ai$< -e rea$i*e' t-at -e wa* a$rea'y on t-e 'ec$ine. T-e 'ream5work knew -ow to
tran*form t-e *a' i'ea of im/otence an' 'eat- into a comic *cene# an' t-e *obbin, into
$a.,-ter.
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T-ere i* one c$a** of 'ream* w-ic- -a* a */ecia$ c$aim to be ca$$e' @-y/ocritica$1# an'
w-ic- *e&ere$y te*t* t-e t-eory of wi*-f.$fi$ment. My attention wa* ca$$e' to t-em w-en
Fra. Dr M. %i$fer'in, /ro/o*e' for 'i*c.**ion by t-e P*yc-oana$ytic Society of Kienna a
'ream recor'e' by Ro*e,,er# w-ic- i* -ere re/rinte':
In ;aldheimat# &o$. =i# Ro*e,,er write* a* fo$$ow* in -i* *tory# Fremd 'emacht 3/. 2"24:
I .*.a$$y en6oy -ea$t-f.$ *$ee/# yet I -a&e ,one wit-o.t re/o*e on many a ni,-t< in
a''ition to my mo'e*t e=i*tence a* a *t.'ent an' $iterary man# I -a&e for $on, year*
'ra,,e' o.t t-e *-a'ow of a &eritab$e tai$or1* $ife 55 $ike a ,-o*t from w-ic- I co.$' not
become 'i&orce'.
It i* not tr.e t-at I -a&e occ./ie' my*e$f &ery often or &ery inten*e$y wit- t-o.,-t* of my
/a*t '.rin, t-e 'ay. A *tormer of -ea&en an' eart- w-o -a* e*ca/e' from t-e -i'e of t-e
P-i$i*tine -a* ot-er t-in,* to t-ink abo.t. An' a* a ,ay yo.n, fe$$ow# I -ar'$y ,a&e a
t-o.,-t to my noct.rna$ 'ream*< on$y $ater# w-en I -a' forme' t-e -abit of t-inkin,
abo.t e&eryt-in,# or w-en t-e P-i$i*tine wit-in me be,an to a**ert it*e$f a $itt$e# 'i' it
*trike me t-at 55 w-en I 'reame' at a$$ 55 I wa* a$way* a 6o.rneyman tai$or# an' t-at in
t-at ca/acity I -a' a$rea'y worke' in my ma*ter1* *-o/ for a $on, time wit-o.t any /ay.
A* I *at t-ere be*i'e -im# an' *ewe' an' /re**e'# I wa* /erfect$y we$$ aware t-at I no
$on,er be$on,e' t-ere# an' t-at a* a b.r,e** of t-e town I -a' ot-er t-in,* to atten' to<
b.t I wa* a$way* on a -o$i'ay# or away in t-e co.ntry# an' *o I *at be*i'e my ma*ter an'
-e$/e' -im. I often fe$t far from comfortab$e abo.t it# an' re,rette' t-e wa*te of time
w-ic- I mi,-t -a&e em/$oye' for better an' more .*ef.$ /.r/o*e*. If anyt-in, wa* not
;.ite correct in mea*.re an' c.t I -a' to /.t ./ wit- a *co$'in, from my ma*ter. Of
wa,e* t-ere wa* ne&er a ;.e*tion. Often# a* I *at wit- bent back in t-e 'ark work*-o/# I
'eci'e' to ,i&e notice an' make my*e$f *carce. Once I act.a$$y 'i' *o# b.t t-e ma*ter
took no notice of me# an' ne=t time I wa* *ittin, be*i'e -im a,ain an' *ewin,.
%ow -a//y I wa* w-en I woke ./ after *.c- weary -o.r*A An' I t-en re*o$&e' t-at# if
t-i* intr.*i&e 'ream *-o.$' e&er occ.r a,ain# I wo.$' ener,etica$$y t-row it off# an'
wo.$' cry a$o.': @It i* on$y a 'e$.*ion# I am $yin, in be'# an' I want to *$ee/1 . . . An' t-e
ne=t ni,-t I wo.$' be *ittin, in t-e tai$or1* *-o/ a,ain.
So it went on for year*# wit- 'i*ma$ re,.$arity. Once# w-en t-e ma*ter an' I were
workin, at A$/e$-ofer1*# at t-e -o.*e of t-e /ea*ant wit- w-om I be,an my
a//rentice*-i/# it -a//ene' t-at my ma*ter wa* /artic.$ar$y 'i**ati*fie' wit- my work. @I
*-o.$' $ike to know w-ere in t-e wor$' yo.r t-o.,-t* areI1 -e crie'# an' $ooke' at me
*.$$en$y. I t-o.,-t t-e mo*t *en*ib$e t-in, to 'o wo.$' be to ,et ./ an' e=/$ain to t-e
ma*ter t-at I wa* workin, wit- -im on$y a* a fa&o.r# an' t-en take my $ea&e. 0.t I 'i'
not 'o t-i*. I e&en *.bmitte' w-en t-e ma*ter en,a,e' an a//rentice# an' or'ere' me to
make room for -im on t-e benc-. I mo&e' into t-e corner# an' ke/t on *ewin,. On t-e
*ame 'ay anot-er 6o.rneyman wa* en,a,e'< a bi,ote' fe$$ow< -e wa* t-e 0o-emian w-o
-a' worke' for .* nineteen year* ear$ier# an' t-en -a' fa$$en into t-e $ake on -i* way
-ome from t-e /.b$ic5-o.*e. +-en -e trie' to *it 'own t-ere wa* no room for -im. I
$ooke' at t-e ma*ter in;.irin,$y# an' -e *ai' to me: @Ho. -a&e no ta$ent for tai$orin,< $ou
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ma$ 'o6 $ou+re a stran'er henceforth5+ M$ fri,-t on t-at occa*ion wa* *o o&er/owerin,
t-at I woke.
T-e ,rey of mornin, ,$immere' t-ro.,- t-e c$ear win'ow* of my fami$iar -ome. 8%/ects
d+art *.rro.n'e' me< in t-e ta*tef.$ bookca*e *too' t-e eterna$ %omer# t-e ,i,antic
Dante# t-e incom/arab$e S-ake*/eare# t-e ,$orio.* Goet-e 55 a$$ ra'iant an' immorta$.
From t-e a'6oinin, room re*o.n'e' t-e c$ear $itt$e &oice* of t-e c-i$'ren# w-o were
wakin, ./ /ratt$in, to t-eir mot-er. I fe$t a* t-o.,- I -a' re'i*co&ere' t-at i'y$$ica$$y
*weet# /eacef.$# /oetica$ an' */irit.a$i*e' $ife in w-ic- I -a&e *o often an' *o 'ee/$y
been con*cio.* of contem/$ati&e -.man -a//ine**. An' yet I wa* &e=e' t-at I -a' not
,i&en my ma*ter notice fir*t# b.t -a' been 'i*mi**e' by -im.
An' -ow remarkab$e t-i* *eem* to me: *ince t-at ni,-t# w-en my ma*ter @ma'e a
*tran,er1 of me# I -a&e en6oye' re*tf.$ *$ee/< I no $on,er 'ream of my tai$orin, 'ay*#
w-ic- now $ie in t-e remote /a*t< w-ic- in t-eir .n/retentio.* *im/$icity were rea$$y *o
c-eerf.$# b.t w-ic-# none t-e $e**# -a&e ca*t a $on, *-a'ow o&er t-e $ater year* of my $ife.
In t-i* *erie* of 'ream* of a /oet w-o# in -i* yo.n,er year*# -a' been a 6o.rneyman tai$or#
it i* -ar' to reco,ni*e t-e 'omination of t-e wi*-5f.$fi$ment. A$$ t-e 'e$i,-tf.$ t-in,*
occ.rre' in -i* wakin, $ife# w-i$e t-e 'ream *eeme' to 'ra, a$on, wit- it t-e ,-o*t5$ike
*-a'ow of an .n-a//y e=i*tence w-ic- -a' $on, been for,otten. Dream* of my own of a
*imi$ar c-aracter enab$e me to ,i&e *ome e=/$anation of *.c- 'ream*. A* a yo.n, 'octor#
I worke' for a $on, time in t-e (-emica$ In*tit.te wit-o.t bein, ab$e to accom/$i*-
anyt-in, in t-at e=actin, *cience# *o t-at in t-e wakin, *tate I ne&er t-ink abo.t t-i*
.nfr.itf.$ an' act.a$$y *omew-at -.mi$iatin, /erio' of my *t.'ent 'ay*. On t-e ot-er
-an'# I -a&e a rec.rrin, 'ream to t-e effect t-at I am workin, in t-e $aboratory# makin,
ana$y*e*# an' e=/eriment*# an' *o fort-: t-e*e 'ream*# $ike t-e e=amination5'ream*# are
'i*a,reeab$e# an' t-ey are ne&er &ery 'i*tinct. D.rin, t-e ana$y*i* of one of t-e*e 'ream*
my attention wa* 'irecte' to t-e wor' @anal$sis1 w-ic- ,a&e me t-e key to an
.n'er*tan'in, of t-em. *ince t-en I -a&e become an @ana$y*t1. I make ana$y*e* w-ic- are
,reat$y /rai*e' 55 /*yc-oana$y*e*# of co.r*e. Now I .n'er*tan': w-en I fee$ /ro.' of
t-e*e ana$y*e* in my wakin, $ife# an' fee$ inc$ine' to boa*t of my ac-ie&ement*# my
'ream* -o$' ./ to me at ni,-t t-o*e ot-er# .n*.cce**f.$ ana$y*e*# of w-ic- I -a&e no
rea*on to be /ro.'< t-ey are t-e /.niti&e 'ream* of t-e ./*tart# $ike t-o*e of t-e
6o.rneyman tai$or w-o became a ce$ebrate' /oet. 0.t -ow i* it /o**ib$e for a 'ream to
/$ace it*e$f at t-e *er&ice of *e$f5critici*m in it* conf$ict wit- /ar&en. /ri'e# an' to take a*
it* content a rationa$ warnin, in*tea' of a /ro-ibite' wi*-5f.$fi$mentI I -a&e a$rea'y
-inte' t-at t-e an*wer to t-i* ;.e*tion /re*ent* many 'iffic.$tie*. +e may conc$.'e t-at
t-e fo.n'ation of t-e 'ream con*i*te' at fir*t of an arro,ant fanta*y of ambition< b.t t-at
in it* *tea' on$y it* *.//re**ion an' aba*ement -a* reac-e' t-e 'ream5content. One m.*t
remember t-at t-ere are ma*oc-i*tic ten'encie* in menta$ $ife to w-ic- *.c- an in&er*ion
mi,-t be attrib.te'. I *ee no ob6ection to re,ar'in, *.c- 'ream* a* punishment4dreams#
a* 'i*tin,.i*-e' from wi*-5f.$fi$$in, 'ream*. I *-o.$' not *ee in t-i* any $imitation of t-e
t-eory of 'ream* -it-erto a* /re*ente'# b.t mere$y a &erba$ conce**ion to t-e /oint of
&iew to w-ic- t-e con&er,ence of contrarie* *eem* *tran,e. 0.t a more t-oro.,-
in&e*ti,ation of in'i&i'.a$ 'ream* of t-i* c$a** a$$ow* .* to reco,ni*e yet anot-er
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e$ement. In an in'i*tinct# *.bor'inate /ortion of one of my $aboratory 'ream*# I wa* 6.*t
at t-e a,e w-ic- /$ace' me in t-e mo*t ,$oomy an' mo*t .n*.cce**f.$ year of my
/rofe**iona$1 career< I *ti$$ -a' no /o*ition# an' no i'ea -ow I wa* ,oin, to *.//ort
my*e$f# w-en I *.''en$y fo.n' t-at I -a' t-e c-oice of *e&era$ women w-om I mi,-t
marryA I wa*# t-erefore# yo.n, a,ain an'# w-at i* more# *-e wa* yo.n, a,ain 55 t-e
woman w-o -a* *-are' wit- me a$$ t-e*e 'iffic.$t year*. In t-i* way# one of t-e wi*-e*
w-ic- con*tant$y ,naw* at t-e -eart of t-e a,ein, man wa* re&ea$e' a* t-e .ncon*cio.*
'ream5in*ti,ator. T-e conf$ict ra,in, in ot-er /*yc-ic *trata between &anity an'
*e$fcritici*m
-a' certain$y 'etermine' t-e 'ream5content# b.t t-e more 'ee/$y5roote' wi*-
for yo.t- -a' a$one ma'e it /o**ib$e a* a 'ream. One often *ay* to one*e$f e&en in t-e
wakin, *tate: @To be *.re# t-in,* are ,oin, we$$ wit- yo. to'ay# an' once yo. fo.n' $ife
&ery -ar'< b.t# after a$$# $ife wa* *weet in t-o*e 'ay*# w-en yo. were *ti$$ *o yo.n,.17
Anot-er ,ro./ of 'ream*# w-ic- I -a&e often my*e$f e=/erience'# an' w-ic- I -a&e
reco,ni*e' to be -y/ocritica$# -a&e a* t-eir content a reconci$iation wit- /er*on* wit-
w-om one -a* $on, cea*e' to -a&e frien'$y re$ation*. T-e ana$y*i* con*tant$y 'i*co&er*
an occa*ion w-ic- mi,-t we$$ in'.ce me to ca*t a*i'e t-e $a*t remnant* of con*i'eration
for t-e*e former frien'*# an' to treat t-em a* *tran,er* or enemie*. 0.t t-e 'ream c-oo*e*
to 'e/ict t-e contrary re$ation.
In con*i'erin, 'ream* recor'e' by a no&e$i*t or /oet# we may often eno.,- a**.me t-at
-e -a* e=c$.'e' from t-e recor' t-o*e 'etai$* w-ic- -e fe$t to be 'i*t.rbin, an' re,ar'e'
a* .ne**entia$. %i* 'ream* t-.* *et .* a /rob$em w-ic- co.$' be rea'i$y *o$&e' if we -a'
an e=act re/ro'.ction of t-e 'ream5content.
O. Rank -a* ca$$e' my attention to t-e fact t-at in Grimm1* fairy5ta$e of t-e &a$iant $itt$e
tai$or# or 3even at one 3tro(e# t-ere i* re$ate' a &ery *imi$ar 'ream of an ./*tart. T-e
tai$or# w-o -a* become a -ero# an' -a* marrie' t-e kin,1* 'a.,-ter# 'ream* one ni,-t
w-i$e $yin, be*i'e t-e /rince**# -i* wife# abo.t -i* tra'e< -a&in, become *.*/icio.*# on
t-e fo$$owin, ni,-t *-e /$ace* arme' ,.ar'* w-ere t-ey can $i*ten to w-at i* *ai' by t-e
'reamer# an' arre*t -im. 0.t t-e $itt$e tai$or i* warne'# an' i* ab$e to correct -i* 'ream.
T-e com/$icate' /roce**e* of remo&a$# 'imin.tion# an' in&er*ion by w-ic- t-e affect* of
t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* fina$$y become t-e affect* of t-e 'ream may be &ery we$$ *.r&eye' in
*.itab$e *ynt-e*e* of com/$ete$y ana$y*e' 'ream*. I *-a$$ -ere 'i*c.** a few e=am/$e* of
affecti&e manife*tation* in 'ream* w-ic- wi$$# I t-ink# /ro&e t-i* conc$.*i&e$y in *ome of
t-e ca*e* cite'.
Dream 8. In t-e 'ream abo.t t-e o'' ta*k w-ic- t-e e$'er 0rBcke *et* me 55 t-at of
/re/arin, my own /e$&i* 55 I am aware in t-e 'ream it*e$f of not fee$in, appropriate
horror. Now t-i* i* a wi*-5f.$fi$ment in more *en*e* t-an one. T-e /re/aration *i,nifie*
t-e *e$f5ana$y*e* w-ic- I /erform# a* it were# by /.b$i*-in, my book on 'ream*# w-ic- I
act.a$$y fo.n' *o /ainf.$ t-at I /o*t/one' t-e /rintin, of t-e com/$ete' man.*cri/t for
more t-an a year. T-e wi*- now ari*e* t-at I may 'i*re,ar' t-i* fee$in, of a&er*ion# an'
for t-at rea*on I fee$ no -orror 3Grauen# w-ic- a$*o mean* @to ,row ,rey14 in t-e 'ream. I
*-o.$' m.c- $ike to e*ca/e @Gra.en1 in t-e ot-er *en*e too# for I am a$rea'y ,rowin,
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;.ite ,rey# an' t-e ,rey in my -air warn* me to 'e$ay no $on,er For we know t-at at t-e
en' of t-e 'ream t-i* t-o.,-t *ec.re* re/re*entation: @I *-a$$ -a&e to $ea&e my c-i$'ren to
reac- t-e ,oa$ of t-eir 'iffic.$t 6o.rney wit-o.t my -e$/.1
In t-e two 'ream* t-at tran*fer t-e e=/re**ion of *ati*faction to t-e moment* imme'iate$y
after wakin,# t-i* *ati*faction i* in t-e one ca*e moti&ate' by t-e e=/ectation t-at I am
now ,oin, to $earn w-at i* meant by @I -a&e a$rea'y 'reame' of t-i*1# an' refer* in rea$ity
to t-e birt- of my fir*t c-i$'# an' in t-e ot-er ca*e it i* moti&ate' by t-e con&iction t-at
@t-at w-ic- -a* been anno.nce' by a /remonitory *i,n1 i* now ,oin, to -a//en# an' t-e
*ati*faction i* t-at w-ic- I fe$t on t-e arri&a$ of my *econ' *on. %ere t-e *ame affect* t-at
'ominate' in t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* -a&e remaine' in t-e 'ream# b.t t-e /roce** i* /robab$y
not ;.ite *o *im/$e a* t-i* in any 'ream. If t-e two ana$y*e* are e=amine' a $itt$e more
c$o*e$y it wi$$ be *een t-at t-i* *ati*faction# w-ic- 'oe* not *.cc.mb to t-e cen*or*-i/#
recei&e* reinforcement from a *o.rce w-ic- m.*t fear t-e cen*or*-i/ an' w-o*e affect
wo.$' certain$y -a&e aro.*e' o//o*ition if it -a' not *creene' it*e$f by a *imi$ar an'
rea'i$y a'mitte' affect of *ati*faction from t-e /ermitte' *o.rce# an' -a'# *o to */eak#
*neake' in be-in' it. I am .nfort.nate$y .nab$e to *-ow t-i* in t-e ca*e of t-e act.a$
'ream# b.t an e=am/$e from anot-er *it.ation wi$$ make my meanin, inte$$i,ib$e. I wi$$
/.t t-e fo$$owin, ca*e: ?et t-ere be a /er*on near me w-om I -ate *o *tron,$y t-at I -a&e
a $i&e$y im/.$*e to re6oice *-o.$' anyt-in, -a//en to -im. 0.t t-e mora$ *i'e of my
nat.re 'oe* not ,i&e way to t-i* im/.$*e< I 'o not 'are to e=/re** t-i* *ini*ter wi*-# an'
w-en *omet-in, 'oe* -a//en to -im w-ic- -e 'oe* not 'e*er&e I *.//re** my
*ati*faction# an' force my*e$f to t-o.,-t* an' e=/re**ion* of re,ret. E&eryone wi$$ at
*ome time -a&e fo.n' -im*e$f in *.c- a /o*ition. 0.t now $et it -a//en t-at t-e -ate'
/er*on# t-ro.,- *ome tran*,re**ion of -i* own# 'raw* ./on -im*e$f a we$$5'e*er&e'
ca$amity< I *-a$$ now be a$$owe' to ,i&e free rein to my *ati*faction at -i* bein, &i*ite'
by a 6.*t /.ni*-ment# an' I *-a$$ be e=/re**in, an o/inion w-ic- coinci'e* wit- t-at of
ot-er im/artia$ /er*on*. 0.t I ob*er&e t-at my *ati*faction /ro&e* to be more inten*e t-an
t-at of ot-er*# for it -a* recei&e' reinforcement from anot-er *o.rce 55 from my -atre'#
w-ic- wa* -it-erto /re&ente' by t-e inner cen*or*-i/ from f.rni*-in, t-e affect# b.t
w-ic-# .n'er t-e a$tere' circ.m*tance*# i* no $on,er /re&ente' from 'oin, *o. T-i* ca*e
,enera$$y occ.r* in *ocia$ $ife w-en anti/at-etic /er*on* or t-e a'-erent* of an .n/o/.$ar
minority -a&e been ,.i$ty of *ome offence. T-eir /.ni*-ment i* t-en .*.a$$y
commen*.rate not wit- t-e ,.i$t# b.t wit- t-eir ,.i$t /$.* t-e i$$5wi$$ a,ain*t t-em t-at -a*
-it-erto not been /.t into effect. T-o*e w-o /.ni*- t-em 'o.bt$e** commit an in6.*tice#
b.t t-ey are /re&ente' from becomin, aware of it by t-e *ati*faction ari*in, from t-e
re$ea*e wit-in t-em*e$&e* of a *.//re**ion of $on, *tan'in,. In *.c- ca*e* t-e ;.a$ity of
t-e affect i* 6.*tifie'# b.t not it* 'e,ree< an' t-e *e$fcritici*m t-at -a* been a//ea*e' in
re*/ect of t-e fir*t /oint i* on$y too rea'y to ne,$ect to *cr.tini*e t-e *econ' /oint. Once
yo. -a&e o/ene' t-e 'oor* more /eo/$e enter t-an it wa* yo.r ori,ina$ intention to a'mit.
A *trikin, feat.re of t-e ne.rotic c-aracter# name$y# t-at in it ca.*e* ca/ab$e of e&okin,
affect /ro'.ce re*.$t* w-ic- are ;.a$itati&e$y 6.*tifie' b.t ;.antitati&e$y e=ce**i&e# i* to
be e=/$aine' on t-e*e $ine*# in *o far a* it a'mit* of a /*yc-o$o,ica$ e=/$anation at a$$.
0.t t-e e=ce** of affect /rocee'* from .ncon*cio.* an' -it-erto *.//re**e' affecti&e
*o.rce* w-ic- are ab$e to e*tab$i*- an a**ociati&e connection wit- t-e act.a$ occa*ion#
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2D
an' for w-o*e $iberation of affect t-e .n/rote*te' an' /ermitte' *o.rce of affect* o/en*
./ t-e 'e*ire' /at-. O.r attention i* t-.* ca$$e' to t-e fact t-at t-e re$ation of m.t.a$
in-ibition m.*t not be re,ar'e' a* t-e on$y re$ation obtainin, between t-e *.//re**e' an'
t-e *.//re**in, /*yc-ic in*tit.tion. T-e ca*e* in w-ic- t-e two in*tit.tion brin, abo.t a
/at-o$o,ica$ re*.$t by co5o/eration an' m.t.a$ reinforcement 'e*er&e 6.*t a* m.c-
attention. T-e*e -int* re,ar'in, t-e /*yc-ic mec-ani*m wi$$ contrib.te to o.r
.n'er*tan'in, of t-e e=/re**ion* of affect* in 'ream*. A ,ratification w-ic- make* it*
a//earance in a 'ream# an' w-ic-# of co.r*e# may rea'i$y be fo.n' in it* /ro/er /$ace in
t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*# may not a$way* be f.$$y e=/$aine' by mean* of t-i* reference. A* a
r.$e# it i* nece**ary to *earc- for a *econ' *o.rce in t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*# ./on w-ic- t-e
/re**.re of t-e cen*or*-i/ re*t*# an' w-ic-# .n'er t-i* /re**.re# wo.$' -a&e yie$'e' not
,ratification b.t t-e contrary affect# -a' it not been enab$e' by t-e /re*ence of t-e fir*t
'ream5*o.rce to free it* ,ratification5affect from re/re**ion# an' reinforce t-e
,ratification */rin,in, from t-e ot-er *o.rce. %ence affect* w-ic- a//ear in 'ream*
a//ear to be forme' by t-e conf$.ence of *e&era$ trib.tarie*# an' are o&er5'etermine' in
re*/ect of t-e materia$ of t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*. 3ources of affect "hich are a%le to furnish
the same affect com%ine in the dream4"or( in order to produce it.8
Some in*i,-t into t-e*e in&o$&e' re$ation* i* ,aine' from t-e ana$y*i* of t-e a'mirab$e
'ream in w-ic- @non viit1 con*tit.te* t-e centra$ /oint 3cf. /. ::4. In t-i* 'ream
e=/re**ion* of affect of 'ifferent ;.a$itie* are concentrate' at two /oint* in t-e manife*t
content. %o*ti$e an' /ainf.$ im/.$*e* 3in t-e 'ream it*e$f we -a&e t-e /-ra*e @o&ercome
by *tran,e emotion*14 o&er$a/ one anot-er at t-e /oint w-ere I 'e*troy my anta,oni*tic
frien' wit- a co./$e of wor'*. At t-e en' of t-e 'ream I am ,reat$y /$ea*e'# an' am ;.ite
rea'y to be$ie&e in a /o**ibi$ity w-ic- I reco,ni*e a* ab*.r' w-en I am awake# name$y#
t-at t-ere are revenants w-o can be *we/t away by a mere wi*-.
I -a&e not yet mentione' t-e occa*ion of t-i* 'ream. It i* an im/ortant one# an' $ea'* .*
far 'own into t-e meanin, of t-e 'ream. From my frien' in 0er$in 3w-om I -a&e
'e*i,ne' a* F$.4 I -a' recei&e' t-e new* t-at -e wa* abo.t to .n'er,o an o/eration# an'
t-at re$ati&e* of -i* $i&in, in Kienna wo.$' inform me a* to -i* con'ition. T-e fir*t few
me**a,e* after t-e o/eration were not &ery rea**.rin,# an' ca.*e' me ,reat an=iety. I
*-o.$' -a&e $ike' to ,o to -im my*e$f# b.t at t-at time I wa* aff$icte' wit- a /ainf.$
com/$aint w-ic- ma'e e&ery mo&ement a torment. I now $earn from t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*
t-at I feare' for t-i* 'ear frien'1* $ife. I knew t-at -i* on$y *i*ter# wit- w-om I -a' ne&er
been ac;.ainte'# -a' 'ie' yo.n,# after a &ery brief i$$ne**. 3In the dream Fl5 tells me
a%out his sister, and sa$s: )In three40uarters of an hour she "as dead5+: I m.*t -a&e
ima,ine' t-at -i* own con*tit.tion wa* not m.c- *tron,er# an' t-at I *-o.$' *oon be
tra&e$$in,# in */ite of my -ea$t-# in re*/on*e to far wor*e new* 55 an' t-at I *-o.$' arri&e
too $ate# for w-ic- I *-o.$' eterna$$y re/roac- my*e$f.9 T-i* re/roac-# t-at I *-o.$' arri&e
too $ate# -a* become t-e centra$ /oint of t-e 'ream# b.t it -a* been re/re*ente' in a *cene
in w-ic- t-e re&ere' teac-er of my *t.'ent year* 55 0rBcke 55 re/roac-e* me for t-e *ame
t-in, wit- a terrib$e $ook from -i* b$.e eye*. +-at bro.,-t abo.t t-i* a$teration of t-e
*cene wi$$ *oon become a//arent: t-e 'ream cannot re/ro'.ce t-e *cene it*e$f a* I
e=/erience' it. To be *.re# it $ea&e* t-e b$.e eye* to t-e ot-er man# b.t it ,i&e* me t-e
/art of t-e anni-i$ator# an in&er*ion w-ic- i* ob&io.*$y t-e work of t-e wi*-5f.$fi$ment.
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My concern for t-e $ife of my frien'# my *e$f5re/roac- for not -a&in, ,one to -im# my
*-ame 3he had come to me in Vienna uno%trusivel$4# my 'e*ire to con*i'er my*e$f
e=c.*e' on acco.nt of my i$$ne** 55 a$$ t-i* b.i$'* ./ an emotiona$ tem/e*t w-ic- i*
'i*tinct$y fe$t in my *$ee/# an' w-ic- ra,e* in t-at re,ion of t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*.
0.t t-ere wa* anot-er t-in, in t-e occa*ion of t-e 'ream w-ic- -a' ;.ite t-e o//o*ite
effect. +it- t-e .nfa&o.rab$e new* '.rin, t-e fir*t 'ay* of t-e o/eration I recei&e' a$*o
an in6.nction to */eak to no one abo.t t-e w-o$e affair# w-ic- -.rt my fee$in,*# for it
betraye' an .nnece**ary 'i*tr.*t of my 'i*cretion. I know# of co.r*e# t-at t-i* re;.e*t 'i'
not /rocee' from my frien'# b.t t-at it wa* '.e to c$.m*ine** or e=ce**i&e timi'ity on t-e
/art of t-e me**en,er< yet t-e concea$e' re/roac- affecte' me &ery 'i*a,reeab$y# beca.*e
it wa* not a$to,et-er .n6.*tifie'. A* we know# on$y re/roac-e* w-ic- @-a&e *omet-in, in
t-em1 -a&e t-e /ower to -.rt. Hear* a,o# w-en I wa* yo.n,er t-an I am now# I knew two
men w-o were frien'*# an' w-o -ono.re' me wit- t-eir frien'*-i/< an' I ;.ite
*./erf$.o.*$y to$' one of t-em w-at t-e ot-er -a' *ai' of -im. T-i* inci'ent# of co.r*e#
-a' not-in, to 'o wit- t-e affair* of my frien' F$.# b.t I -a&e ne&er for,otten t-e
re/roac-e* to w-ic- I -a' to $i*ten on t-at occa*ion. One of t-e two frien'* between
w-om I ma'e tro.b$e wa* Profe**or F$ei*c-$< t-e ot-er one I wi$$ ca$$ by -i* ba/ti*ma$
name# >o*ef# a name w-ic- wa* borne a$*o by my frien' an' anta,oni*t P.# w-o a//ear*
in t-i* 'ream.
In t-e 'ream t-e e$ement .nobtr.*i&e$y /oint* to t-e re/roac- t-at I cannot kee/ anyt-in,
to my*e$f# an' *o 'oe* t-e ;.e*tion of F$. a* to ho" much of his affairs I have told 2. 0.t
it i* t-e inter&ention of t-at o$' memory w-ic- tran*/o*e* t-e re/roac- for arri&in, too
$ate from t-e /re*ent to t-e time w-en I wa* workin, in 0rBcke1* $aboratory< an' by
re/$acin, t-e *econ' /er*on in t-e anni-i$ation *cene of t-e 'ream by a >o*ef# I enab$e
t-i* *cene to re/re*ent not on$y t-e fir*t re/roac- 55 t-at I -a&e arri&e' too $ate 55 b.t a$*o
t-at ot-er re/roac-# more *tron,$y affecte' by t-e re/re**ion# to t-e effect t-at I 'o not
kee/ *ecret*. T-e work of con'en*ation an' 'i*/$acement in t-i* 'ream# a* we$$ a* t-e
moti&e* for it# are now ob&io.*.
My /re*ent tri&ia$ annoyance at t-e in6.nction not to 'i&.$,e *ecret* 'raw* reinforcement
from */rin,* t-at f$ow far beneat- t-e *.rface# an' *o *we$$* to a *tream of -o*ti$e
im/.$*e* towar'* /er*on* w-o are in rea$ity 'ear to me. T-e *o.rce w-ic- f.rni*-e* t-e
reinforcement i* to be fo.n' in my c-i$'-oo'. I -a&e a$rea'y *ai' t-at my warm
frien'*-i/* a* we$$ a* my enmitie* wit- /er*on* of my own a,e ,o back to my c-i$'i*-
re$ation* to my ne/-ew# w-o wa* a year o$'er t-an I. In t-e*e -e -a' t-e .//er -an'# an'
I ear$y $earne' -ow to 'efen' my*e$f< we $i&e' to,et-er# were in*e/arab$e# an' $o&e' one
anot-er# b.t at time*# a* t-e *tatement* of o$'er /er*on* te*tify# we .*e' to *;.abb$e an'
accuse one anot-er. In a certain *en*e# a$$ my frien'* are incarnation* of t-i* fir*t fi,.re<
t-ey are a$$ revenants. My ne/-ew -im*e$f ret.rne' w-en a yo.n, man# an' t-en we
were $ike (ae*ar an' 0r.t.*. An intimate frien' an' a -ate' enemy -a&e a$way* been
in'i*/en*ab$e to my emotiona$ $ife< I -a&e a$way* been ab$e to create t-em anew# an' not
infre;.ent$y my c-i$'i*- i'ea$ -a* been *o c$o*e$y a//roac-e' t-at frien' an' enemy -a&e
coinci'e' in t-e *ame /er*on< b.t not *im.$taneo.*$y# of co.r*e# nor in con*tant
a$ternation# a* wa* t-e ca*e in my ear$y c-i$'-oo'.
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%ow# w-en *.c- a**ociation* e=i*t# a recent occa*ion of emotion may ca*t back to t-e
infanti$e occa*ion an' *.b*tit.te t-i* a* a ca.*e of affect# I *-a$$ not con*i'er now. S.c-
an in&e*ti,ation wo.$' /ro/er$y be$on, to t-e /*yc-o$o,y of .ncon*cio.* t-o.,-t# or a
/*yc-o$o,ica$ e=/$anation of t-e ne.ro*e*. ?et .* a**.me# for t-e /.r/o*e* of
'reaminter/retation#
t-at a c-i$'i*- reco$$ection /re*ent* it*e$f# or i* create' by t-e fanta*y wit-#
more or $e**# t-e fo$$owin, content: +e two c-i$'ren ;.arre$ on acco.nt of *ome ob6ect 55
6.*t w-at we *-a$$ $ea&e .n'eci'e'# a$t-o.,- t-e memory# or i$$.*ion of memory# -a* a
&ery 'efinite ob6ect in &iew 55 an' eac- c$aim* t-at he 'ot there first# an' t-erefore -a*
t-e fir*t ri,-t to it. +e come to b$ow*< Mi,-t come* before Ri,-t< an'# accor'in, to t-e
in'ication* of t-e 'ream# I m.*t -a&e known t-at I wa* in t-e wron, 3noticin' the error
m$self4< b.t t-i* time I am t-e *tron,er# an' take /o**e**ion of t-e batt$efie$'< t-e
'efeate' combatant -.rrie* to my fat-er# -i* ,ran'fat-er# an' acc.*e* me# an' I 'efen'
my*e$f wit- t-e wor'*# w-ic- I -a&e -ear' from my fat-er: @I hit him %ecause he hit me.1
T-.*# t-i* reco$$ection# or more /robab$y fanta*y# w-ic- force* it*e$f ./on my attention in
t-e co.r*e of t-e ana$y*i* 55 wit-o.t f.rt-er e&i'ence I my*e$f 'o not know -ow 55
become* a centra$ item of t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*# w-ic- co$$ect* t-e affecti&e im/.$*e*
/re&ai$in, in t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*# a* t-e bow$ of a fo.ntain co$$ect* t-e water t-at f$ow*
into it. From t-i* /oint t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* f$ow a$on, t-e fo$$owin, c-anne$*: @It *er&e*
yo. ri,-t t-at yo. -a&e -a' to make way for me< w-y 'i' yo. try to /.*- me offI I 'on1t
nee' yo.< I1$$ *oon fin' *omeone e$*e to /$ay wit-#1 etc. T-en t-e c-anne$* are o/ene'
t-ro.,- w-ic- t-e*e t-o.,-t* f$ow back a,ain into t-e 'ream5re/re*entation. For *.c- an
@ote4toi 0ue /e m+$ mette1 I once -a' to re/roac- my 'ecea*e' frien' >o*ef. %e wa* ne=t to
me in t-e $ine of /romotion in 0rBcke1* $aboratory# b.t a'&ancement t-ere wa* &ery *$ow.
Neit-er of t-e two a**i*tant* b.',e' from -i* /$ace# an' yo.t- became im/atient. My
frien'# w-o knew t-at -i* 'ay* were n.mbere'# an' wa* bo.n' by no intimate re$ation to
-i* *./erior# *ometime* ,a&e free e=/re**ion to -i* im/atience. A* t-i* *./erior wa* a
man *erio.*$y i$$# t-e wi*- to *ee -im remo&e' by /romotion wa* *.*ce/tib$e of an
obno=io.* *econ'ary inter/retation. Se&era$ year* ear$ier# to be *.re# I my*e$f -a'
c-eri*-e'# e&en more inten*e$y# t-e *ame wi*- 55 to obtain a /o*t w-ic- -a' fa$$en &acant<
w-ere&er t-ere are ,ra'ation* of rank an' /romotion t-e way i* o/ene' for t-e
*.//re**ion of co&eto.* wi*-e*. S-ake*/eare1* Prince %a$ cannot ri' -im*e$f of t-e
tem/tation to *ee -ow t-e crown fit*# e&en at t-e be'*i'e of -i* *ick fat-er. 0.t# a* may
rea'i$y be .n'er*too'# t-e 'ream inf$ict* t-i* incon*i'erate wi*- not ./on me# b.t ./on
my frien'.:
@A* -e wa* ambitio.*# I *$ew -im.1 A* -e co.$' not e=/ect t-at t-e ot-er man wo.$' make
way for -im# t-e man -im*e$f -a* been /.t o.t of t-e way. I -arbo.r t-e*e t-o.,-t*
imme'iate$y after atten'in, t-e .n&ei$in, of t-e memoria$ to t-e ot-er man at t-e
)ni&er*ity. Part of t-e *ati*faction w-ic- I fee$ in t-e 'ream may t-erefore be inter/rete':
A 6.*t /.ni*-ment< it *er&e* yo. ri,-t.
At t-e f.nera$ of t-i* frien' a yo.n, man ma'e t-e fo$$owin, remark# w-ic- *eeme'
rat-er o.t of /$ace: @T-e /reac-er ta$ke' a* t-o.,- t-e wor$' co.$' no $on,er e=i*t
wit-o.t t-i* one -.man bein,.1 %ere wa* a *tirrin, of re&o$t in t-e -eart of a *incere man#
w-o*e ,rief -a' been 'i*t.rbe' by e=a,,eration. 0.t wit- t-i* */eec- are connecte' t-e
'ream5t-o.,-t*: @No one i* rea$$y irre/$aceab$e< -ow many men -a&e I a$rea'y e*corte'
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to t-e ,ra&eA 0.t I am *ti$$ a$i&e< I -a&e *.r&i&e' t-em a$$< I c$aim t-e fie$'.1 S.c- a
t-o.,-t# at t-e moment w-en I fear t-at if I make a 6o.rney to *ee -im I *-a$$ fin' my
frien' no $on,er amon, t-e $i&in,# /ermit* on$y of t-e f.rt-er 'e&e$o/ment t-at I am ,$a'
once more to -a&e *.r&i&e' *omeone< t-at it i* not I w-o -a&e 'ie' b.t -e< t-at I am
ma*ter of t-e fie$'# a* once I wa* in t-e ima,ine' *cene of my c-i$'-oo'. T-i*
*ati*faction# infanti$e in ori,in# at t-e fact t-at I am ma*ter of t-e fie$'# co&er* t-e ,reater
/art of t-e affect w-ic- a//ear* in t-e 'ream. I am ,$a' t-at I am t-e *.r&i&or< I e=/re**
t-i* *entiment wit- t-e nai&e e,oi*m of t-e -.*ban' w-o *ay* to -i* wife: @If one of .*
'ie*# I *-a$$ mo&e to Pari*.1 My e=/ectation take* it a* a matter of co.r*e t-at I am not t-e
one to 'ie.
It cannot be 'enie' t-at ,reat *e$f5contro$ i* nee'e' to inter/ret one1* 'ream* an' to re/ort
t-em. One -a* to re&ea$ one*e$f a* t-e *o$e &i$$ain amon, a$$ t-e nob$e *o.$* wit- w-om
one *-are* t-e breat- of $ife. T-.*# I fin' it ;.ite com/re-en*ib$e t-at revenants *-o.$'
e=i*t on$y a* $on, a* one want* t-em# an' t-at t-ey can be ob$iterate' by a wi*-. It wa*
for t-i* rea*on t-at my frien' >o*ef wa* /.ni*-e'. 0.t t-e revenants are t-e *.cce**i&e
incarnation* of t-e frien' of my c-i$'-oo'< I am a$*o ,ratifie' at -a&in, re/$ace' t-i*
/er*on for my*e$f o&er an' o&er a,ain# an' a *.b*tit.te wi$$ 'o.bt$e** *oon be fo.n' e&en
for t-e frien' w-om I am now on t-e /oint of $o*in,. No one i* irre/$aceab$e.
0.t w-at -a* t-e 'ream5cen*or*-i/ been 'oin, in t-e meantimeI +-y 'oe* it not rai*e
t-e mo*t em/-atic ob6ection to a train of t-o.,-t* c-aracteri*e' by *.c- br.ta$
*e$fi*-ne**# an' tran*form t-e *ati*faction in-erent t-erein into e=treme 'i*comfortI I
t-ink it i* beca.*e ot-er .nob6ectionab$e train* of t-o.,-t referrin, to t-e *ame /er*on*
re*.$t a$*o in *ati*faction# an' wit- t-eir affect co&er t-at /rocee'in, from t-e forbi''en
infanti$e *o.rce*. In anot-er *trat.m of t-o.,-t I *ai' to my*e$f# at t-e ceremony of
.n&ei$in, t-e memoria$: @I -a&e $o*t *o many 'ear frien'*# *ome t-ro.,- 'eat-# *ome
t-ro.,- t-e 'i**o$.tion of frien'*-i/< i* it not ,oo' t-at *.b*tit.te* -a&e /re*ente'
t-em*e$&e*# t-at I -a&e ,aine' a frien' w-o mean* more to me t-an t-e ot-er* co.$'# an'
w-om I *-a$$ now a$way* retain# at an a,e w-en it i* not ea*y to form new frien'*-i/*I1
T-e ,ratification of -a&in, fo.n' t-i* *.b*tit.te for my $o*t frien' can be taken o&er into
t-e 'ream wit-o.t interference# b.t be-in' it t-ere *neak* in t-e -o*ti$e fee$in, of
ma$icio.* ,ratification from t-e infanti$e *o.rce. (-i$'i*- affection .n'o.bte'$y -e$/* to
reinforce t-e rationa$ affection of to'ay< b.t c-i$'i*- -atre' a$*o -a* fo.n' it* way into
t-e re/re*entation.
0.t be*i'e* t-i*# t-ere i* in t-e 'ream a 'i*tinct reference to anot-er train of t-o.,-t*
w-ic- may re*.$t in ,ratification. Some time before t-i*# after $on, waitin,# a $itt$e
'a.,-ter wa* born to my frien'. I knew -ow -e -a' ,rie&e' for t-e *i*ter w-om -e -a'
$o*t at an ear$y a,e# an' I wrote to -im t-at I fe$t t-at -e wo.$' tran*fer to t-i* c-i$' t-e
$o&e -e -a' fe$t for -er# t-at t-i* $itt$e ,ir$ wo.$' at $a*t make -im for,et -i* irre/arab$e
$o**.
T-.* t-i* train a$*o connect* ./ wit- t-e interme'iary t-o.,-t* of t-e $atent
'reamcontent#
from w-ic- /at-* ra'iate in t-e mo*t contrary 'irection*: @No one i*
irre/$aceab$e. See# -ere are on$y revenants< a$$ t-o*e w-om one -a* $o*t ret.rn.1 An' now
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t-e bon'* of a**ociation between t-e contra'ictory com/onent* of t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* are
more ti,-t$y 'rawn by t-e acci'enta$ circ.m*tance t-at my frien'1* $itt$e 'a.,-ter bear*
t-e *ame name a* t-e ,ir$ /$aymate of my own yo.t-# w-o wa* 6.*t my own a,e# an' t-e
*i*ter of my o$'e*t frien' an' anta,oni*t. I -ear' t-e name @Pa.$ine1 wit- satisfaction# an'
in or'er to a$$.'e to t-i* coinci'ence I re/$ace' one >o*ef in t-e 'ream by anot-er >o*ef#
an' fo.n' it im/o**ib$e to *.//re** t-e i'entica$ initia$* in t-e name F$ei*c-$ an' F$.
From t-i* /oint a train of t-o.,-t r.n* to t-e namin, of my own c-i$'ren. I in*i*te' t-at
t-e name* *-o.$' not be c-o*en accor'in, to t-e fa*-ion of t-e 'ay# b.t *-o.$' be
'etermine' by re,ar' for t-e memory of t-o*e 'ear to .*. T-e c-i$'ren1* name* make
t-em @revenants1. An'# fina$$y# i* not t-e /rocreation of c-i$'ren for a$$ men t-e on$y way
of acce** to immorta$ityI
I *-a$$ a'' on$y a few ob*er&ation* a* to t-e affect* of 'ream* con*i'ere' from anot-er
/oint of &iew. In t-e /*yc-e of t-e *$ee/er an affecti&e ten'ency 55 w-at we ca$$ a moo' 55
may be containe' a* it* 'ominatin, e$ement# an' may in'.ce a corre*/on'in, moo' in
t-e 'ream. T-i* moo' may be t-e re*.$t of t-e e=/erience* an' t-o.,-t* of t-e 'ay# or it
may be of *omatic ori,in< in eit-er ca*e it wi$$ be accom/anie' by t-e corre*/on'in,
train* of t-o.,-t. T-at t-i* i'eationa$ content of t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* *-o.$' at one time
'etermine t-e affecti&e ten'ency /rimari$y# w-i$e at anot-er time it i* awakene' in a
*econ'ary manner by t-e *omatica$$y 'etermine' emotiona$ 'i*/o*ition# i* in'ifferent for
t-e /.r/o*e* of 'ream5formation. T-i* i* a$way* *.b6ect to t-e re*triction t-at it can
re/re*ent on$y a wi*-5f.$fi$ment# an' t-at it may $en' it* /*yc-ic ener,y to t-e wi*-
a$one. T-e moo' act.a$$y /re*ent wi$$ recei&e t-e *ame treatment a* t-e *en*ation w-ic-
act.a$$y emer,e* '.rin, *$ee/ 3cf. /. 1224# w-ic- i* eit-er ne,$ecte' or reinter/rete' in
t-e *en*e of a wi*-5f.$fi$ment. Painf.$ moo'* '.rin, *$ee/ become t-e moti&e force of
t-e 'ream# ina*m.c- a* t-ey awake ener,etic wi*-e* w-ic- t-e 'ream -a* to f.$fi$. T-e
materia$ in w-ic- t-ey in-ere i* e$aborate' .nti$ it i* *er&iceab$e for t-e e=/re**ion of t-e
wi*-5f.$fi$ment. T-e more inten*e an' t-e more 'ominatin, t-e e$ement of t-e /ainf.$
moo' in t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*# t-e more *.re$y wi$$ t-e mo*t *tron,$y *.//re**e'
wi*-im/.$*e*
take a'&anta,e of t-e o//ort.nity to *ec.re re/re*entation< for t-ank* to t-e
act.a$ e=i*tence of 'i*comfort# w-ic- ot-erwi*e t-ey wo.$' -a&e to create */ontaneo.*$y#
t-ey fin' t-at t-e more 'iffic.$t /art of t-e work nece**ary to en*.re re/re*entation -a*
a$rea'y been accom/$i*-e'< an' wit- t-e*e ob*er&ation* we to.c- once more ./on t-e
/rob$em of an=iety5'ream*# w-ic- wi$$ /ro&e to be t-e bo.n'ary5ca*e of 'ream5acti&ity.
1 If I am not ,reat$y mi*taken# t-e fir*t 'ream w-ic- I wa* ab$e to e$icit from my ,ran'*on
3a,e' " mont-*4 /oint* to t-e fact t-at t-e 'ream5work -a' *.ccee'e' in tran*formin, it*
materia$ into a wi*-5f.$fi$ment# w-i$e t-e affect w-ic- be$on,e' to it remaine' .nc-an,e'
e&en in t-e *$ee/in, *tate T-e ni,-t before it* fat-er wa* to ret.rn to t-e front t-e c-i$'
crie' o.t# *obbin, &io$ent$y: @Pa/a# Pa/a 55 0aby.1 T-at may mean: ?et Pa/a an' 0aby
*ti$$ be to,et-er< w-i$e t-e wee/in, take* co,ni*ance of t-e imminent 'e/art.re. T-e
c-i$' wa* at t-e time &ery we$$ ab$e to e=/re** t-e conce/t of *e/aration. @Fort1 3M away#
re/$ace' by a /ec.$iar$y accente'# $on,5'rawn o.t ooooh4 -a' been -i* fir*t wor'# an' for
many mont-* before t-i* fir*t 'ream -e -a' /$aye' at @away1 wit- a$$ -i* toy*< w-ic- went
back to -i* ear$y *e$f5con;.e*t in a$$owin, -i* mot-er to ,o away.
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cf. t-e 'ream abo.t (o.nt T-.n# $a*t *cene.
2 Internat5 Ieitschr5 f5 2s$choanal$se# i&# 1!19.
7 E&er *ince /*yc-oana$y*i* -a* 'i**ecte' t-e /er*ona$ity into an e,o an' a *./er5e,o
3Group 2s$cholo'$ and the !nal$sis of the &'o# tran*. by >ame* Strac-ey# Intern.
P*yc-oana$ytic Pre**# ?on'on4 it -a* been ea*y to reco,ni*e in t-e*e /.ni*-ment5'ream*
wi*-5f.$fi$ment* of t-e *./er5e,o.
8 I -a&e *ince e=/$aine' t-e e=traor'inary effect of /$ea*.re /ro'.ce' by ten'ency wit on
ana$o,o.* $ine*.
9 It i* t-i* fancy from t-e .ncon*cio.* 'ream5t-o.,-t* w-ic- /re5em/tori$y 'eman'* non
vivit in*tea' of non viit. @Ho. -a&e come too $ate# -e i* no $on,er a$i&e.1 T-e fact t-at t-e
manife*t *it.ation of t-e 'ream aim* at t-e non vivit -a* been mentione' on /. ::.
: It wi$$ -a&e been ob&io.* t-at t-e name >osef /$ay* a ,reat /art in my 'ream* 3*ee t-e
'ream abo.t my .nc$e4. It i* /artic.$ar$y ea*y for me to -i'e my e,o in my 'ream* be-in'
/er*on* of t-i* name# *ince >o*e/- wa* t-e name of t-e 'ream5inter/reter in t-e 0ib$e.
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I! THE SE+ONDAR- E,A1ORATION
+e wi$$ at $a*t t.rn o.r attention to t-e fo.rt- of t-e factor* /artici/atin, in
'reamformation.
If we contin.e o.r in&e*ti,ation of t-e 'ream5content on t-e $ine* a$rea'y $ai' 'own 55
t-at i*# by e=aminin, t-e ori,in in t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* of con*/ic.o.* occ.rrence* 55 we
come ./on e$ement* t-at can be e=/$aine' on$y by makin, an entire$y new a**.m/tion. I
-a&e in min' ca*e* w-ere one manife*t* a*toni*-ment# an,er# or re*i*tance in a 'ream#
an' t-at# too# in re*/ect of /art of t-e 'ream5content it*e$f. Mo*t of t-e*e im/.$*e* of
critici*m in 'ream* are not 'irecte' a,ain*t t-e 'ream5content# b.t /ro&e to be /art of t-e
'ream5materia$# taken o&er an' fittin,$y a//$ie'# a* I -a&e a$rea'y *-own by *.itab$e
e=am/$e*. T-ere are# -owe&er# critici*m* of t-i* *ort w-ic- are not *o 'eri&e': t-eir
corre$ati&e* cannot be fo.n' in t-e 'ream5materia$. +-at# for in*tance# i* meant by t-e
critici*m not infre;.ent in 'ream*: @After a$$# it1* on$y a 'ream1I T-i* i* a ,en.ine
critici*m of t-e 'ream# *.c- a* I mi,-t make if I were awake. Not infre;.ent$y it i* on$y
t-e /re$.'e to wakin,< e&en oftener it i* /rece'e' by a /ainf.$ fee$in,# w-ic- *.b*i'e*
w-en t-e act.a$ity of t-e 'ream5*tate -a* been affirme'. T-e t-o.,-t: @After a$$# it1* on$y
a 'ream1 in t-e 'ream it*e$f -a* t-e *ame intention a* it -a* on t-e *ta,e on t-e $i/* of
Offenbac-1* <elle B,l1ne< it *eek* to minimi*e w-at -a* 6.*t been e=/erience'# an' to
*ec.re in'.$,ence for w-at i* to fo$$ow. It *er&e* to $.$$ to *$ee/ a certain menta$ a,ency
w-ic- at t-e ,i&en moment -a* e&ery occa*ion to ro.*e it*e$f an' forbi' t-e contin.ation
of t-e 'ream# or t-e *cene. 0.t it i* more con&enient to ,o on *$ee/in, an' to to$erate t-e
'ream# @beca.*e# after a$$# it1* on$y a 'ream1. I ima,ine t-at t-e 'i*/ara,in, critici*m:
@After a$$# it1* on$y a 'ream#1 a//ear* in t-e 'ream at t-e moment w-en t-e cen*or*-i/#
w-ic- i* ne&er ;.ite a*$ee/# fee$* t-at it -a* been *.r/ri*e' by t-e a$rea'y a'mitte'
'ream. It i* too $ate to *.//re** t-e 'ream# an' t-e a,ency t-erefore meet* wit- t-i*
remark t-e an=iety or /ainf.$ emotion w-ic- ri*e* into t-e 'ream. It i* an e=/re**ion of
t-e esprit d+escalier on t-e /art of t-e /*yc-ic cen*or*-i/.
In t-i* e=am/$e we -a&e inconte*tab$e /roof t-at e&eryt-in, w-ic- t-e 'ream contain*
'oe* not come from t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*# b.t t-at a /*yc-ic f.nction# w-ic- cannot be
'ifferentiate' from o.r wakin, t-o.,-t*# may make contrib.tion* to t-e 'ream5content.
T-e ;.e*tion ari*e*# 'oe* t-i* occ.r on$y in e=ce/tiona$ ca*e*# or 'oe* t-e /*yc-ic a,ency
w-ic- i* ot-erwi*e acti&e on$y a* t-e cen*or*-i/ /$ay a con*tant /art in 'ream5formationI
One m.*t 'eci'e .n-e*itatin,$y for t-e $atter &iew. It i* in'i*/.tab$e t-at t-e cen*orin,
a,ency# w-o*e inf$.ence we -a&e *o far reco,ni*e' on$y in t-e re*triction* of an'
omi**ion* in t-e 'ream5content# i* $ikewi*e re*/on*ib$e for inter/o$ation* in an'
am/$ification* of t-i* content. Often t-e*e inter/o$ation* are rea'i$y reco,ni*e'< t-ey are
intro'.ce' wit- -e*itation# /reface' by an @a* if1< t-ey -a&e no */ecia$ &ita$ity# of t-eir
own# an' are con*tant$y in*erte' at /oint* w-ere t-ey may *er&e to connect two /ortion*
of t-e 'ream5content or create a contin.ity between two *ection* of t-e 'ream. T-ey
manife*t $e** abi$ity to a'-ere in t-e memory t-an 'o t-e ,en.ine /ro'.ct* of t-e
'reammateria$<
if t-e 'ream i* for,otten# t-ey are for,otten fir*t# an' I *tron,$y *.*/ect t-at o.r
fre;.ent com/$aint t-at a$t-o.,- we -a&e 'reame' *o m.c- we -a&e for,otten mo*t of
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t-e 'ream# an' -a&e remembere' on$y fra,ment*# i* e=/$aine' by t-e imme'iate fa$$in,
away of 6.*t t-e*e cementin, t-o.,-t*. In a com/$ete ana$y*i* t-e*e inter/o$ation* are
often betraye' by t-e fact t-at no materia$ i* to be fo.n' for t-em in t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*.
0.t after caref.$ e=amination I m.*t 'e*cribe t-i* ca*e a* t-e $e** .*.a$ one< in mo*t ca*e*
t-e inter/o$ate' t-o.,-t* can be trace' to materia$ in t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* w-ic- can c$aim
a /$ace in t-e 'ream neit-er by it* own merit* nor by way of o&er5'etermination. On$y in
t-e mo*t e=treme ca*e* 'oe* t-e /*yc-ic f.nction in 'ream5formation w-ic- we are now
con*i'erin, ri*e to ori,ina$ creation< w-ene&er /o**ib$e it make* .*e of anyt-in,
a//ro/riate t-at it can fin' in t-e 'ream5materia$.
+-at 'i*tin,.i*-e* t-i* /art of t-e 'ream5work# an' a$*o betray* it# i* it* ten'ency. T-i*
f.nction /rocee'* in a manner w-ic- t-e /oet ma$icio.*$y attrib.te* to t-e /-i$o*o/-er:
wit- it* ra,* an' tatter* it *to/* ./ t-e breac-e* in t-e *tr.ct.re of t-e 'ream. T-e re*.$t
of it* effort* i* t-at t-e 'ream $o*e* t-e a//earance of ab*.r'ity an' inco-erence# an'
a//roac-e* t-e /attern of an inte$$i,ib$e e=/erience. 0.t t-e effort i* not a$way* crowne'
wit- com/$ete *.cce**. T-.*# 'ream* occ.r w-ic- may# ./on *./erficia$ e=amination#
*eem fa.$t$e**$y $o,ica$ an' correct< t-ey *tart from a /o**ib$e *it.ation# contin.e it by
mean* of con*i*tent c-an,e*# an' brin, it 55 a$t-o.,- t-i* i* rare 55 to a not .nnat.ra$
conc$.*ion. T-e*e 'ream* -a&e been *.b6ecte' to t-e mo*t *earc-in, e$aboration by a
/*yc-ic f.nction *imi$ar to o.r wakin, t-o.,-t< t-ey *eem to -a&e a meanin,# b.t t-i*
meanin, i* &ery far remo&e' from t-e rea$ meanin, of t-e 'ream. If we ana$y*e t-em# we
are con&ince' t-at t-e *econ'ary e$aboration -a* -an'$e' t-e materia$ wit- t-e ,reate*t
free'om# an' -a* retaine' a* $itt$e a* /o**ib$e of it* /ro/er re$ation*. T-e*e are t-e 'ream*
w-ic- -a&e# *o to */eak# a$rea'y been once inter/rete' before we *.b6ect t-em to wakin,
inter/retation. In ot-er 'ream* t-i* ten'entio.* e$aboration -a* *.ccee'e' on$y ./ to a
/oint< ./ to t-i* /oint con*i*tency *eem* to /re&ai$# b.t t-en t-e 'ream become*
non*en*ica$ or conf.*e'< b.t /er-a/* before it conc$.'e* it may once more ri*e to a
*emb$ance of rationa$ity. In yet ot-er 'ream* t-e e$aboration -a* fai$e' com/$ete$y< we
fin' o.r*e$&e* -e$/$e**# confronte' wit- a *en*e$e** ma** of fra,mentary content*.
I 'o not wi*- to 'eny to t-i* fo.rt- 'ream5formin, /ower# w-ic- wi$$ *oon become
fami$iar to .* 55 it i* in rea$ity t-e on$y one of t-e fo.r 'ream5creatin, factor* w-ic- i*
fami$iar to .* in ot-er connection* 55 I 'o not wi*- to 'eny to t-i* fo.rt- factor t-e fac.$ty
of creati&e$y makin, new contrib.tion* to o.r 'ream*. 0.t it* inf$.ence i* certain$y
e=erte'# $ike t-at of t-e ot-er factor*# main$y in t-e /reference an' *e$ection of /*yc-ic
materia$ a$rea'y forme' in t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*. Now t-ere i* a ca*e w-ere it i* to a ,reat
e=tent */are' t-e work of b.i$'in,# a* it were# a faca'e to t-e 'ream by t-e fact t-at *.c-
a *tr.ct.re# on$y waitin, to be .*e'# a$rea'y e=i*t* in t-e materia$ of t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*. I
am acc.*tome' to 'e*cribe t-e e$ement of t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* w-ic- I -a&e in min' a*
@fanta*y1< I *-a$$ /er-a/* a&oi' mi*.n'er*tan'in, if I at once /oint to t-e da$dream a* an
ana$o,y in wakin, $ife.1 T-e /art /$aye' by t-i* e$ement in o.r /*yc-ic $ife -a* not yet
been f.$$y reco,ni*e' an' re&ea$e' by /*yc-iatri*t*< t-o.,- M. 0ene'ikt -a*# it *eem* to
me# ma'e a -i,-$y /romi*in, be,innin,. Het t-e *i,nificance of t-e 'ay'ream -a* not
e*ca/e' t-e .nerrin, in*i,-t of t-e /oet*< we are a$$ fami$iar wit- t-e 'e*cri/tion of t-e
'ay'ream* of one of -i* *.bor'inate c-aracter* w-ic- A$/-on*e Da.'et -a* ,i&en .* in
-i* 7a%a%. T-e *t.'y of t-e /*yc-one.ro*e* 'i*c$o*e* t-e a*toni*-in, fact t-at t-e*e
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fanta*ie* or 'ay'ream* are t-e imme'iate /re'ece**or* of *ym/tom* of -y*teria 55 at
$ea*t# of a ,reat many of t-em< for -y*terica$ *ym/tom* are 'e/en'ent not ./on act.a$
memorie*# b.t ./on t-e fanta*ie* b.i$t ./ on a ba*i* of memorie*. T-e fre;.ent
occ.rrence of con*cio.* 'ay5fanta*ie* brin,* t-e*e formation* to o.r ken< b.t w-i$e *ome
of t-e*e fanta*ie* are con*cio.*# t-ere i* a *./erab.n'ance of .ncon*cio.* fanta*ie*#
w-ic- m.*t /erforce remain .ncon*cio.* on acco.nt of t-eir content an' t-eir ori,in in
re/re**e' materia$. A more t-oro.,- e=amination of t-e c-aracter of t-e*e 'ay5fanta*ie*
*-ow* wit- w-at ,oo' rea*on t-e *ame name -a* been ,i&en to t-e*e formation* a* to t-e
/ro'.ct* of noct.rna$ t-o.,-t 55 dreams. T-ey -a&e e**entia$ feat.re* in common wit-
noct.rna$ 'ream*< in'ee'# t-e in&e*ti,ation of 'ay'ream* mi,-t rea$$y -a&e affor'e' t-e
*-orte*t an' be*t a//roac- to t-e .n'er*tan'in, of noct.rna$ 'ream*.
?ike 'ream*# t-ey are wi*-5f.$fi$ment*< $ike 'ream*# t-ey are $ar,e$y ba*e' ./on t-e
im/re**ion* of c-i$'i*- e=/erience*< $ike 'ream*# t-ey obtain a certain in'.$,ence from
t-e cen*or*-i/ in re*/ect of t-eir creation*. If we trace t-eir formation# we become* aware
-ow t-e wi*-5moti&e w-ic- -a* been o/erati&e in t-eir /ro'.ction -a* taken t-e materia$
of w-ic- t-ey are b.i$t# mi=e' it to,et-er# rearran,e' it# an' fitte' it to,et-er into a new
w-o$e. T-ey bear &ery m.c- t-e *ame re$ation to t-e c-i$'i*- memorie* to w-ic- t-ey
refer a* many of t-e baro;.e /a$ace* of Rome bear to t-e ancient r.in*# w-o*e -ewn
*tone* an' co$.mn* -a&e f.rni*-e' t-e materia$ for t-e *tr.ct.re* b.i$t in t-e mo'ern
*ty$e.
In t-e @*econ'ary e$aboration1 of t-e 'ream5content w-ic- we -a&e a*cribe' to o.r fo.rt-
'ream5formin, factor# we fin' once more t-e &ery *ame acti&ity w-ic- i* a$$owe' to
manife*t it*e$f# .nin-ibite' by ot-er inf$.ence*# in t-e creation of 'ay'ream*. +e may
*ay# wit-o.t f.rt-er /re$iminarie*# t-at t-i* fo.rt- factor of o.r* *eek* to con*tr.ct
somethin' $ike a 'ay'ream from t-e materia$ w-ic- offer* it*e$f. 0.t w-ere *.c- a
'ay'ream -a* a$rea'y been con*tr.cte' in t-e conte=t of t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*# t-i* factor
of t-e 'ream5work wi$$ /refer to take /o**e**ion of it# an' contri&e t-at it ,et* into t-e
'ream5content. T-ere are 'ream* t-at con*i*t mere$y of t-e re/etition of a 'ay5fanta*y#
w-ic- -a* /er-a/* remaine' .ncon*cio.* 55 a*# for in*tance# t-e boy1* 'ream t-at -e i*
ri'in, in a war5c-ariot wit- t-e -eroe* of t-e Tro6an war. In my @!utodidas(er1 'ream t-e
*econ' /art of t-e 'ream at $ea*t i* t-e fait-f.$ re/etition of a 'ay5fanta*y 55 -arm$e** in
it*e$f 55 of my 'ea$in,* wit- Profe**or N. T-e fact t-at t-e e=citin, fanta*y form* on$y a
/art of t-e 'ream# or t-at on$y a /art of it fin'* it* way into t-e 'ream5content# i* '.e to
t-e com/$e=ity of t-e con'ition* w-ic- t-e 'ream m.*t *ati*fy at it* ,ene*i*. On t-e
w-o$e# t-e fanta*y i* treate' $ike any ot-er com/onent of t-e $atent materia$: b.t it i*
often *ti$$ reco,ni*ab$e a* a w-o$e in t-e 'ream. In my 'ream* t-ere are often /art* w-ic-
are bro.,-t into /rominence by t-eir /ro'.cin, a 'ifferent im/re**ion from t-at /ro'.ce'
by t-e ot-er /art*. T-ey *eem to me to be in a *tate of f$.=# to be more co-erent an' at t-e
*ame time more tran*ient t-an ot-er /ortion* of t-e *ame 'ream. I know t-at t-e*e are
.ncon*cio.* fanta*ie* w-ic- fin' t-eir way into t-e conte=t of t-e 'ream# b.t I -a&e ne&er
yet *.ccee'e' in re,i*terin, *.c- a fanta*y. For t-e re*t# t-e*e fanta*ie*# $ike a$$ t-e ot-er
com/onent /art* of t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*# are 6.mb$e' to,et-er# con'en*e'# *./erim/o*e'#
an' *o on< b.t we fin' a$$ t-e tran*itiona$ *ta,e*# from t-e ca*e in w-ic- t-ey may
con*tit.te t-e 'ream5contrary or at $ea*t t-e 'ream5faca'e# .na$tere'# to t-e mo*t contrary
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ca*e# in w-ic- t-ey are re/re*ente' in t-e 'ream5content by on$y one of t-eir e$ement*# or
by a remote a$$.*ion to *.c- an e$ement. T-e fate of t-e fanta*ie* in t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* i*
ob&io.*$y 'etermine' by t-e a'&anta,e* t-ey can offer a* a,ain*t t-e c$aim* of t-e
cen*or*-i/ an' t-e /re**.re of con'en*ation.
In my c-oice of e=am/$e* for 'ream5inter/retation I -a&e# a* far a* /o**ib$e# a&oi'e'
t-o*e 'ream* in w-ic- .ncon*cio.* fanta*ie* /$ay a con*i'erab$e /art# beca.*e t-e
intro'.ction of t-i* /*yc-ic e$ement wo.$' -a&e nece**itate' an e=ten*i&e 'i*c.**ion of
t-e /*yc-o$o,y of .ncon*cio.* t-o.,-t. 0.t e&en in t-i* connection I cannot entire$y
a&oi' t-e @fanta*y1# beca.*e it often fin'* it* way into t-e 'ream com/$ete# an' *ti$$ more
often /erce/tib$y ,$immer* t-ro.,- it. I mi,-t mention yet one more 'ream# w-ic- *eem*
to be com/o*e' of two 'i*tinct an' o//o*e' fanta*ie*# o&er$a//in, -ere an' t-ere# of
w-ic- t-e fir*t i* *./erficia$# w-i$e t-e *econ' become*# a* it were# t-e inter/retation of
t-e fir*t.
T-e 'ream 55 it i* t-e on$y one of w-ic- I /o**e** no caref.$ note* 55 i* ro.,-$y to t-i*
effect: The dreamer 44 a $oun' unmarried man 44 is sittin' in his favourite inn, "hich is
seen correctl$6 several persons come to fetch him, amon' them someone "ho "ants to
arrest him5 Be sa$s to his ta%le companions, )I "ill pa$ later, I am comin' %ac(5+ <ut the$
cr$, smilin' scornfull$: );e (no" all a%out that6 that+s "hat ever$%od$ sa$s5+ 8ne 'uest
calls after him: )There 'oes another one5+ Be is then led to a small place "here he finds a
"oman "ith a child in her arms5 8ne of his escorts sa$s: )This is Berr MDller5+ !
commissioner or some other official is runnin' throu'h a %undle of tic(ets or papers,
repeatin' MDller, MDller, MDller5 !t last the commissioner as(s him a 0uestion, "hich he
ans"ers "ith a )Oes5+ Be then ta(es a loo( at the "oman, and notices that she has 'ro"n
a lar'e %eard.
T-e two com/onent /art* are -ere ea*i$y *e/arab$e. +-at i* *./erficia$ i* t-e fantas$ of
%ein' arrested< t-i* *eem* to be new$y create' by t-e 'ream5work. 0.t be-in' it t-e
fantas$ of marria'e i* &i*ib$e# an' t-i* materia$# on t-e ot-er -an'# -a* been *$i,-t$y
mo'ifie' by t-e 'ream5work# an' t-e feat.re* w-ic- may be common to t-e two fanta*ie*
a//ear wit- */ecia$ 'i*tinctne**# a* in Ga$ton1* com/o*ite /-oto,ra/-*. T-e /romi*e of
t-e yo.n, man# w-o i* at /re*ent a bac-e$or# to ret.rn to -i* /$ace at -i* acc.*tome' tab$e
55 t-e *ce/tici*m of -i* 'rinkin, com/anion*# ma'e wi*e by t-eir many e=/erience* 55
t-eir ca$$in, after -im: @T-ere ,oe* 3marrie*4 anot-er one1 55 are a$$ feat.re* ea*i$y
*.*ce/tib$e of t-e ot-er inter/retation# a* i* t-e affirmati&e an*wer ,i&en to t-e officia$.
R.nnin, t-ro.,- a b.n'$e of /a/er* an' re/eatin, t-e *ame name corre*/on'* to a
*.bor'inate b.t ea*i$y reco,ni*e' feat.re of t-e marria,e ceremony 55 t-e rea'in, a$o.'
of t-e con,rat.$atory te$e,ram* w-ic- -a&e arri&e' at irre,.$ar inter&a$*# an' w-ic-# of
co.r*e# are a$$ a''re**e' to t-e *ame name. In t-e /er*ona$ a//earance of t-e bri'e in t-i*
'ream t-e marria,e fanta*y -a* e&en ,ot t-e better of t-e arre*t fanta*y w-ic- *creen* it.
T-e fact t-at t-i* bri'e fina$$y wear* a bear' I can e=/$ain from information recei&e' 55 I
-a' no o//ort.nity of makin, an ana$y*i*. T-e 'reamer -a'# on t-e /re&io.* 'ay# been
cro**in, t-e *treet wit- a frien' w-o wa* 6.*t a* -o*ti$e to marria,e a* -im*e$f# an' -a'
ca$$e' -i* frien'1* attention to a bea.tif.$ br.nette w-o wa* comin, towar'* t-em. T-e
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frien' -a' remarke': @He*# if on$y t-e*e women wo.$'n1t ,et bear'* a* t-ey ,row o$'er#
$ike t-eir fat-er*.1
Of co.r*e# e&en in t-i* 'ream t-ere i* no $ack of e$ement* wit- w-ic- t-e 'ream'i*tortion
-a* 'one 'ee/ work. T-.*# t-e */eec-# @I wi$$ /ay $ater1# may -a&e reference to
t-e be-a&io.r feare' on t-e /art of t-e fat-er5in5$aw in t-e matter of a 'owry. Ob&io.*$y
a$$ *ort* of mi*,i&in,* are /re&entin, t-e 'reamer from *.rren'erin, -im*e$f wit-
/$ea*.re to t-e fanta*y of marria,e. One of t-e*e mi*,i&in,* 55 t-at wit- marria,e -e
mi,-t $o*e -i* free'om 55 -a* embo'ie' it*e$f in t-e tran*formation of a *cene of arre*t.
If we once more ret.rn to t-e t-e*i* t-at t-e 'ream5work /refer* to make .*e of a
rea'yma'e
fanta*y# in*tea' of fir*t creatin, one from t-e materia$ of t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*# we
*-a$$ /er-a/* be ab$e to *o$&e one of t-e mo*t intere*tin, /rob$em* of t-e 'ream. I -a&e
re$ate' t-e 'ream of Ma.ry# w-o i* *tr.ck on t-e back of t-e neck by a *ma$$ boar'# an'
wake* after a $on, 'ream 55 a com/$ete romance of t-e /erio' of t-e Frenc- Re&o$.tion.
Since t-e 'ream i* /ro'.ce' in a co-erent form# an' com/$ete$y fit* t-e e=/$anation of
t-e wakin, *tim.$.*# of w-o*e occ.rrence t-e *$ee/er co.$' -a&e -a' no forebo'in,# on$y
one a**.m/tion *eem* /o**ib$e# name$y# t-at t-e w-o$e ric-$y e$aborate' 'ream m.*t
-a&e been com/o*e' an' 'reame' in t-e *-ort inter&a$ of time between t-e fa$$in, of t-e
boar' on Ma.ry1* cer&ica$ &ertebrae an' t-e wakin, in'.ce' by t-e b$ow. +e *-o.$' not
&ent.re to a*cribe *.c- ra/i'ity to t-e menta$ o/eration* of t-e wakin, *tate# *o t-at we
-a&e to a'mit t-at t-e 'ream5work -a* t-e /ri&i$e,e of a remarkab$e acce$eration of it*
i**.e.
To t-i* conc$.*ion# w-ic- ra/i'$y became /o/.$ar# more recent a.t-or* 3?e ?orrain#
E,,er# an' ot-er*4 -a&e o//o*e' em/-atic ob6ection*< *ome of t-em 'o.bt t-e
correctne** of Ma.ry1* recor' of t-e 'ream# *ome *eek to *-ow t-at t-e ra/i'ity of o.r
menta$ o/eration* in wakin, $ife i* by no mean* inferior to t-at w-ic- we can# wit-o.t
re*er&ation# a*cribe to t-e menta$ o/eration* in 'ream*. T-e 'i*c.**ion rai*e*
f.n'amenta$ ;.e*tion*# w-ic- I 'o not t-ink are at a$$ near *o$.tion. 0.t I m.*t confe**
t-at E,,er1* ob6ection*# for e=am/$e# to Ma.ry1* 'ream of t-e ,.i$$otine# 'o not im/re**
me a* con&incin,. I wo.$' *.,,e*t t-e fo$$owin, e=/$anation of t-i* 'ream: I* it *o &ery
im/robab$e t-at Ma.ry1* 'ream may -a&e re/re*ente' a fanta*y w-ic- -a' been /re*er&e'
for year* in -i* memory# in a com/$ete' *tate# an' w-ic- wa* awakene' 55 I *-o.$' $ike to
*ay# a$$.'e' to 55 at t-e moment w-en -e became aware of t-e wakin, *tim.$.*I T-e
w-o$e 'iffic.$ty of com/o*in, *o $on, a *tory# wit- a$$ it* 'etai$*# in t-e e=cee'in,$y *-ort
*/ace of time w-ic- i* -ere at t-e 'reamer1* 'i*/o*a$ t-en 'i*a//ear*< t-e *tory wa*
a$rea'y com/o*e'. If t-e boar' -a' *tr.ck Ma.ry1* neck w-en -e wa* awake# t-ere wo.$'
/er-a/* -a&e been time for t-e t-o.,-t: @+-y# t-at1* 6.*t $ike bein, ,.i$$otine'.1 0.t a* -e
i* *tr.ck by t-e boar' w-i$e a*$ee/# t-e 'ream5work ;.ick$y .ti$i*e* t-e incomin,
*tim.$.* for t-e con*tr.ction of a wi*-5f.$fi$ment# as if it t-o.,-t 3t-i* i* to be taken ;.ite
fi,.rati&e$y4: @%ere i* a ,oo' o//ort.nity to rea$i*e t-e wi*-5fanta*y w-ic- I forme' at
*.c- an' *.c- a time w-i$e I wa* rea'in,.1 It *eem* to me .n'eniab$e t-at t-i*
'reamromance
i* 6.*t *.c- a one a* a yo.n, man i* wont to con*tr.ct .n'er t-e inf$.ence of
e=citin, im/re**ion*. +-o -a* not been fa*cinate' 55 abo&e a$$# a Frenc-man an' a
*t.'ent of t-e -i*tory of ci&i$i*ation 55 by 'e*cri/tion* of t-e Rei,n of Terror# in w-ic-
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t-e ari*tocracy# men an' women# t-e f$ower of t-e nation# *-owe' t-at it wa* /o**ib$e to
'ie wit- a $i,-t -eart# an' /re*er&e' t-eir rea'y wit an' t-e refinement of t-eir manner*
./ to t-e moment of t-e $a*t fatef.$ *.mmon*I %ow tem/tin, to fancy one*e$f in t-e
mi'*t of a$$ t-i*# a* one of t-e*e yo.n, men w-o take $ea&e of t-eir $a'ie* wit- a ki** of
t-e -an'# an' fear$e**$y a*cen' t-e *caffo$'A Or /er-a/* ambition wa* t-e r.$in, moti&e
of t-e fanta*y 55 t-e ambition to /.t one*e$f in t-e /$ace of one of t-o*e /owerf.$
/er*ona$itie* w-o# by t-eir *-eer force of inte$$ect an' t-eir fiery e$o;.ence# r.$e' t-e city
in w-ic- t-e -eart of mankin' wa* t-en beatin, *o con&.$*i&e$y< w-o were im/e$$e' by
t-eir con&iction* to *en' t-o.*an'* of -.man bein,* to t-eir 'eat-# an' were /a&in, t-e
way for t-e tran*formation of E.ro/e< w-o# in t-e meantime# were not *.re of t-eir own
-ea'*# an' mi,-t one 'ay $ay t-em .n'er t-e knife of t-e ,.i$$otine# /er-a/* in t-e ro$e of
a Giron'i*t or t-e -ero DantonI T-e 'etai$ /re*er&e' in t-e memory of t-e 'ream#
@accom/anie' by an enormo.* crow'1# *eem* to *-ow t-at Ma.ry1* fanta*y wa* an
ambitio.* one of 6.*t t-i* c-aracter.
0.t t-e fanta*y /re/are' *o $on, a,o nee' not be e=/erience' a,ain in *$ee/< it i* eno.,-
t-at it *-o.$' be# *o to */eak# @to.c-e' off1. +-at I mean i* t-i*: If a few note* are *tr.ck#
an' *omeone *ay*# a* in Don >uan: @T-at i* from Fi'aro+s ;eddin' by MoCart1# memorie*
*.''en$y *.r,e ./ wit-in me# none of w-ic- I can reca$$ to con*cio.*ne** a moment $ater.
T-e /-ra*e *er&e* a* a /oint of irr./tion from w-ic- a com/$ete w-o$e i* *im.$taneo.*$y
/.t into a con'ition of *tim.$ation. It may we$$ be t-e *ame in .ncon*cio.* t-inkin,.
T-ro.,- t-e wakin, *tim.$.* t-e /*yc-ic *tation i* e=cite' w-ic- ,i&e* acce** to t-e
w-o$e ,.i$$otine fanta*y. T-i* fanta*y# -owe&er# i* not r.n t-ro.,- in *$ee/# b.t on$y in
t-e memory of t-e awakene' *$ee/er. )/on wakin,# t-e *$ee/er remember* in 'etai$ t-e
fanta*y w-ic- wa* tran*ferre' a* a w-o$e into t-e 'ream. At t-e *ame time# -e -a* no
mean* of a**.rin, -im*e$f t-at -e i* rea$$y rememberin, *omet-in, w-ic- wa* 'reame'.
T-e *ame e=/$anation 55 name$y# t-at one i* 'ea$in, wit- fini*-e' fanta*ie* w-ic- -a&e
been e&oke' a* w-o$e* by t-e wakin, *tim.$.* 55 may be a//$ie' to ot-er 'ream* w-ic-
are a'a/te' to t-e wakin, *tim.$.* 55 for e=am/$e# to Na/o$eon1* 'ream of a batt$e before
t-e e=/$o*ion of a bomb. Amon, t-e 'ream* co$$ecte' by >.*tine Tobowo$*ka in -er
'i**ertation on t-e a//arent '.ration of time in 'ream*#2 I t-ink t-e mo*t corroborati&e i*
t-at re$ate' by Macario 31D8:4 a* -a&in, been 'reame' by a /$aywri,-t# (a*imir
0on6o.r. 0on6o.r inten'e' one e&enin, to witne** t-e fir*t /erformance of one of -i*
own /$ay*# b.t -e wa* *o tire' t-at -e 'oCe' off in -i* c-air be-in' t-e *cene* 6.*t a* t-e
c.rtain wa* ri*in,. In -i* *$ee/ -e went t-ro.,- a$$ t-e fi&e act* of -i* /$ay# an' ob*er&e'
a$$ t-e &ario.* *i,n* of emotion w-ic- were manife*te' by t-e a.'ience '.rin, eac-
in'i&i'.a$ *cene. At t-e c$o*e of t-e /erformance# to -i* ,reat *ati*faction# -e -ear' -i*
name ca$$e' o.t ami'*t t-e mo*t $i&e$y manife*tation* of a//$a.*e. S.''en$y -e woke. %e
co.$' -ar'$y be$ie&e eit-er -i* eye* or -i* ear*< t-e /erformance -a' not ,one beyon' t-e
fir*t $ine* of t-e fir*t *cene< -e co.$' not -a&e been a*$ee/ for more t-an two min.te*. A*
for t-e 'ream# t-e r.nnin, t-ro.,- t-e fi&e act* of t-e /$ay an' t-e ob*er&in, t-e attit.'e
of t-e /.b$ic towar'* eac- in'i&i'.a$ *cene nee' not# we may &ent.re to a**ert# -a&e been
*omet-in, new# /ro'.ce' w-i$e t-e 'reamer wa* a*$ee/< it may -a&e been a re/etition of
an a$rea'y com/$ete' work of t-e fanta*y. Tobowo$*ka an' ot-er a.t-or* -a&e
em/-a*i*e' a common c-aracteri*tic of 'ream* t-at *-ow an acce$erate' f$ow of i'ea*:
name$y# t-at t-ey *eem to be e*/ecia$$y co-erent# an' not at a$$ $ike ot-er 'ream*# an' t-at
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t-e 'reamer1* memory of t-em i* *.mmary rat-er t-an 'etai$e'. 0.t t-e*e are /reci*e$y
t-e c-aracteri*tic* w-ic- wo.$' nece**ari$y be e=-ibite' by rea'y5ma'e fanta*ie* to.c-e'
off by t-e 'ream5work 55 a conc$.*ion w-ic- i* not# of co.r*e# 'rawn by t-e*e a.t-or*. I
'o not mean to a**ert t-at a$$ 'ream* '.e to a wakin, *tim.$.* a'mit of t-i* e=/$anation#
or t-at t-e /rob$em of t-e acce$erate' f$.= of i'ea* in 'ream* i* entire$y 'i*/o*e' of in
t-i* manner.
An' -ere we are force' to con*i'er t-e re$ation of t-i* *econ'ary e$aboration of t-e
'ream5content to t-e ot-er factor* of t-e 'ream5work. May not t-e /roce'.re /er-a/* be
a* fo$$ow*I T-e 'ream5formin, factor*# t-e effort* at con'en*ation# t-e nece**ity of
e&a'in, t-e cen*or*-i/# an' t-e re,ar' for re/re*entabi$ity by t-e /*yc-ic mean* of t-e
'ream fir*t of a$$ create from t-e 'ream5materia$ a /ro&i*iona$ 'ream5content# w-ic- i*
*.b*e;.ent$y mo'ifie' .nti$ it *ati*fie* a* far a* /o**ib$e t-e e=action* of a *econ'ary
a,ency. 55 No# t-i* i* -ar'$y /robab$e. +e m.*t rat-er a**.me t-at t-e re;.irement* of
t-i* a,ency con*tit.te from t-e &ery fir*t one of t-e con'ition* w-ic- t-e 'ream m.*t
*ati*fy# an' t-at t-i* con'ition# a* we$$ a* t-e con'ition* of con'en*ation# t-e o//o*in,
cen*or*-i/# an' re/re*entabi$ity# *im.$taneo.*$y inf$.ence# in an in'.cti&e an' *e$ecti&e
manner# t-e w-o$e ma** of materia$ in t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*. 0.t of t-e fo.r con'ition*
nece**ary for 'ream5formation# t-e $a*t reco,ni*e' i* t-at w-o*e e=action* a//ear to be
$ea*t bin'in, ./on t-e 'ream. T-e fo$$owin, con*i'eration make* it *eem &ery /robab$e
t-at t-i* /*yc-ic f.nction# w-ic- .n'ertake* t-e *o5ca$$e' *econ'ary e$aboration of t-e
'ream5content# i* i'entica$ wit- t-e work of o.r wakin, t-o.,-t: O.r wakin,
3/recon*cio.*4 t-o.,-t be-a&e* towar'* any ,i&en /erce/t.a$ materia$ /reci*e$y a* t-e
f.nction in ;.e*tion be-a&e* towar'* t-e 'ream5content. It i* nat.ra$ to o.r wakin,
t-o.,-t to create or'er in *.c- materia$# to con*tr.ct re$ation*# an' to *.b6ect it to t-e
re;.irement* of an inte$$i,ib$e co-erence. In'ee'# we ,o rat-er too far in t-i* re*/ect< t-e
trick* of con6.rer* befoo$ .* by takin, a'&anta,e of t-i* inte$$ect.a$ -abit of o.r*. In t-e
effort to combine in an inte$$i,ib$e manner t-e *en*ory im/re**ion* w-ic- /re*ent
t-em*e$&e* we often commit t-e mo*t c.rio.* mi*take*# an' e&en 'i*tort t-e tr.t- of t-e
materia$ before .*. T-e /roof* of t-i* fact are *o fami$iar t-at we nee' not ,i&e t-em
f.rt-er con*i'eration -ere. +e o&er$ook error* w-ic- make non*en*e of a /rinte' /a,e
beca.*e we ima,ine t-e /ro/er wor'*. T-e e'itor of a wi'e$y rea' Frenc- 6o.rna$ i* *ai'
to -a&e ma'e a bet t-at -e co.$' /rint t-e wor'* @from in front1 or @from be-in'1 in e&ery
*entence of a $on, artic$e wit-o.t any of -i* rea'er* noticin, it. %e won -i* bet. Hear*
a,o I came acro** a comica$ e=am/$e of fa$*e a**ociation in a new*/a/er. After t-e
*e**ion of t-e Frenc- (-amber in w-ic- D./.y ;.e$$e' t-e /anic# ca.*e' by t-e
e=/$o*ion of a bomb t-rown by an anarc-i*t# wit- t-e co.ra,eo.* wor'*# @La s,ance
continue1# t-e &i*itor* in t-e ,a$$ery were a*ke' to te*tify a* to t-eir im/re**ion* of t-e
o.tra,e. Amon, t-em were two /ro&incia$*. One of t-e*e *ai' t-at imme'iate$y after t-e
en' of a */eec- -e -a' -ear' a 'etonation# b.t t-at -e -a' t-o.,-t t-at it wa* t-e
/ar$iamentary c.*tom to fire a *-ot w-ene&er a */eaker -a' fini*-e'. T-e ot-er# w-o -a'
a//arent$y a$rea'y $i*tene' to *e&era$ */eaker*# -a' ,ot -o$' of t-e *ame i'ea# b.t wit-
t-i* &ariation# t-at -e *.//o*e' t-e *-ootin, to be a *i,n of a//reciation fo$$owin, a
*/ecia$$y *.cce**f.$ */eec-.
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T-.*# t-e /*yc-ic a,ency w-ic- a//roac-e* t-e 'ream5content wit- t-e 'eman' t-at it
m.*t be inte$$i,ib$e# w-ic- *.b6ect* it to a fir*t inter/retation# an' in 'oin, *o $ea'* to t-e
com/$ete mi*.n'er*tan'in, of it# i* none ot-er t-an o.r norma$ t-o.,-t. In o.r
inter/retation t-e r.$e wi$$ be# in e&ery ca*e# to 'i*re,ar' t-e a//arent co-erence of t-e
'ream a* bein, of *.*/icio.* ori,in an'# w-et-er t-e e$ement* are conf.*e' or c$ear# to
fo$$ow t-e *ame re,re**i&e /at- to t-e 'ream5materia$.
At t-e *ame time# we note t-o*e factor* ./on w-ic- t-e abo&e5mentione' 3/. 114 *ca$e
of ;.a$ity in 'ream* 55 from conf.*ion to c$earne** 55 i* e**entia$$y 'e/en'ent. T-o*e
/art* of t-e 'ream *eem to .* c$ear in w-ic- t-e *econ'ary e$aboration -a* been ab$e to
accom/$i*- *omet-in,< t-o*e *eem conf.*e' w-ere t-e /ower* of t-i* /erformance -a&e
fai$e'. Since t-e conf.*e' /art* of t-e 'ream are often $ikewi*e t-o*e w-ic- are $e**
&i&i'$y /re*ente'# we may conc$.'e t-at t-e *econ'ary 'ream5work i* re*/on*ib$e a$*o
for a contrib.tion to t-e /$a*tic inten*ity of t-e in'i&i'.a$ 'ream5*tr.ct.re*.
If I *eek an ob6ect of com/ari*on for t-e 'efiniti&e formation of t-e 'ream# a* it manife*t*
it*e$f wit- t-e a**i*tance of norma$ t-inkin,# I can t-ink of none better t-an t-o*e
my*terio.* in*cri/tion* wit- w-ic- Die Flie'ende <l=tter -a* *o $on, am.*e' it* rea'er*.
In a certain *entence w-ic-# for t-e *ake of contra*t# i* in 'ia$ect# an' w-o*e *i,nificance
i* a* *c.rri$o.* a* /o**ib$e# t-e rea'er i* $e' to e=/ect a ?atin in*cri/tion. For t-i* /.r/o*e
t-e $etter* of t-e wor'* are taken o.t of t-eir *y$$abic ,ro./in,*# an' are rearran,e'. %ere
an' t-ere a ,en.ine ?atin wor' re*.$t*< at ot-er /oint*# on t-e a**.m/tion t-at $etter* -a&e
been ob$iterate' by weat-erin,# or omitte'# we a$$ow o.r*e$&e* to be 'e$.'e' abo.t t-e
*i,nificance of certain i*o$ate' an' meanin,$e** $etter*. If we 'o not wi*- to be foo$e' we
m.*t ,i&e ./ $ookin, for an in*cri/tion# m.*t take t-e $etter* a* t-ey *tan'# an' combine
t-em# 'i*re,ar'in, t-eir arran,ement# into wor'* of o.r mot-er ton,.e.
T-e *econ'ary e$aboration i* t-at factor of t-e 'ream5work w-ic- -a* been ob*er&e' by
mo*t of t-e writer* on 'ream*# an' w-o*e im/ortance -a* been '.$y a//reciate'.
%a&e$ock E$$i* ,i&e* an am.*in, a$$e,orica$ 'e*cri/tion of it* /erformance*: @A* a matter
of fact# we mi,-t e&en ima,ine t-e *$ee/in, con*cio.*ne** a* *ayin, to it*e$f: @@%ere
come* o.r ma*ter# +akin, (on*cio.*ne**# w-o attac-e* *.c- mi,-ty im/ortance to
rea*on an' $o,ic an' *o fort-. Q.ickA ,at-er t-in,* ./# /.t t-em in or'er 55 any or'er wi$$
'o 55 before -e enter* to take /o**e**ion.11 17
T-e i'entity of t-i* mo'e of o/eration wit- t-at of wakin, t-o.,-t i* &ery c$ear$y *tate'
by De$acroi= in -i* 3ur la structure lo'i0ue du r-ve 3/. 894: )Cette fonction
d+interpretation n+est pas particuliUre au r-ve6 c+est le m-me travail de coordination
lo'i0ue 0ue nous faisons sur nos sensations pendant la veille.1
>. S.$$y i* of t-e *ame o/inion< an' *o i* Tobowo$*ka: @3ur ces successions incoh1rentes
d+hallucinations, l+esprit s+efforce de faire le m-me travail de coordination lo'i0ue 0u+il
fait pendant la veille sur les sensations5 Il relie entre elles par un lien ima'inaire toutes
ces ima'es d1cousues et %ouche les 1carts trop 'rands 0ui se trouvaient entre elles1 3/.
!24.
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8
Some a.t-or* maintain t-at t-i* or'erin, an' inter/retin, acti&ity be,in* e&en in t-e
'ream an' i* contin.e' in t-e wakin, *tate. T-.* Pa.$-an 3/. 87:4: @Cependant /+ai
souvent pens1 0u+il pouvait $ avoir une certain d1formation, ou plutHt reformation du
r-ve dans le souvenir 5 5 5 La tendence s$st,matisante de l+ima'ination pourrait fort %ien
achever apr1s le r,veil ce 0u+elle a ,%auch, pendant le sommeil5 De la sorte, la rapidit,
r,elle de la pens,e serait au'ment,e en apparence par les perfectionnements dVs .
l+ima'ination ,veill,e.1
?eroy an' Tobowo$*ka 3/. 8!4: @Dans le r-ve, au contraire, I+interpr,tation et la
coordination se font non seulement . l+aide des donn,es du r-ve, mais encore . l+aide de
celles de la veille . . .1
It wa* t-erefore ine&itab$e t-at t-i* one reco,ni*e' factor of 'ream5formation *-o.$' be
o&er5e*timate'# *o t-at t-e w-o$e /roce** of creatin, t-e 'ream wa* attrib.te' to it. T-i*
creati&e work wa* *.//o*e' to be accom/$i*-e' at t-e moment of wakin,# a* wa*
a**.me' by Gob$ot# an' wit- 'ee/er con&iction by Fo.ca.$t# w-o attrib.te' to wakin,
t-o.,-t t-e fac.$ty of creatin, t-e 'ream o.t of t-e t-o.,-t* w-ic- emer,e' in *$ee/.
In re*/ect to t-i* conce/tion ?eroy an' Tobowo$*ka e=/re** t-em*e$&e* a* fo$$ow*: @8n a
cru pouvoir placer le r-ve au moment du reveil et ils ont attri%u, . la pens,e de la veille
la fonction de construire le r-ve avec les ima'es pr,sentes dans la pens,e du sommeil.1
To t-i* e*timate of t-e *econ'ary e$aboration I wi$$ a'' t-e one fre*- contrib.tion to t-e
'ream5work w-ic- -a* been in'icate' by t-e *en*iti&e ob*er&ation* of %. Si$berer.
Si$berer -a* ca.,-t t-e tran*formation of t-o.,-t* into ima,e* in fla'ranti# by forcin,
-im*e$f to accom/$i*- inte$$ect.a$ work w-i$e in a *tate of fati,.e an' *omno$ence. T-e
e$aborate' t-o.,-t &ani*-e'# an' in it* /$ace t-ere a//eare' a &i*ion w-ic- /ro&e' to be a
*.b*tit.te for 55 .*.a$$y ab*tract 55 t-o.,-t*. In t-e*e e=/eriment* it *o -a//ene' t-at t-e
emer,in, ima,e# w-ic- may be re,ar'e' a* a 'ream5e$ement# re/re*ente' *omet-in,
ot-er t-an t-e t-o.,-t* w-ic- were waitin, for e$aboration: name$y# t-e e=-a.*tion it*e$f#
t-e 'iffic.$ty or 'i*tre** in&o$&e' in t-i* work< t-at i*# t-e *.b6ecti&e *tate an' t-e manner
of f.nctionin, of t-e /er*on e=ertin, -im*e$f rat-er t-an t-e ob6ect of -i* e=ertion*.
Si$berer ca$$e' t-i* ca*e# w-ic- in -im occ.rre' ;.ite often# t-e @f.nctiona$ /-enomenon1#
in contra'i*tinction to t-e @materia$ /-enomenon1 w-ic- -e e=/ecte'.
For e=am/$e: one afternoon I am $yin,# e=treme$y *$ee/y# on my *ofa# b.t
I ne&ert-e$e** force my*e$f to con*i'er a /-i$o*o/-ica$ /rob$em. I
en'ea&o.r to com/are t-e &iew* of Fant an' Sc-o/en-a.er concernin,
time. Owin, to my *omno$ence I 'o not *.ccee' in -o$'in, on to bot-
train* of t-o.,-t# w-ic- wo.$' -a&e been nece**ary for t-e /.r/o*e* of
com/ari*on. After *e&era$ &ain effort*# I once more e=ert a$$ my wi$$/ower
to form.$ate for my*e$f t-e Fantian 'e'.ction in or'er to a//$y it to
Sc-o/en-a.er1* *tatement of t-e /rob$em. T-ere./on# I 'irecte' my
attention to t-e $atter# b.t w-en I trie' to ret.rn to Fant# I fo.n' t-at -e
-a' a,ain e*ca/e' me# an' I trie' in &ain to fetc- -im back. An' now t-i*
fr.it$e** en'ea&o.r to re'i*co&er t-e Fantian 'oc.ment* mi*$ai'
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*omew-ere in my -ea' *.''en$y /re*ente' it*e$f# my eye* bein, c$o*e'# a*
in a 'ream5ima,e# in t-e form of a &i*ib$e# /$a*tic *ymbo$: I demand
information of a 'rump$ secretar$, "ho, %ent over a des(, does not allo"
m$ ur'enc$ to distur% him6 half strai'htenin' himself, he 'ives me a loo(
of an'r$ refusal.8
Ot-er e=am/$e*# w-ic- re$ate to t-e f$.ct.ation between *$ee/ an' wakin,:
E=am/$e 55 (on'ition*: Mornin,# w-i$e awakin,. +-i$e to a certain
e=tent a*$ee/ 3cre/.*c.$ar *tate4# t-inkin, o&er a /re&io.* 'ream# in a way
re/eatin, an' fini*-in, it# I fee$ my*e$f 'rawin, nearer to t-e wakin, *tate#
yet I wi*- to remain in t-e cre/.*c.$ar *tate.
Scene: I am steppin' "ith one foot over a stream, %ut I at once pull it %ac(
a'ain and resolve to remain on this side.9
E=am/$e 9 55 (on'ition* t-e *ame a* in E=am/$e 7 3-e wi*-e* to remain in
be' a $itt$e $on,er wit-o.t o&er*$ee/in,4. I wi*- to in'.$,e in a $itt$e $on,er
*$ee/.
Scene: I am sa$in' 'ood%$e to some%od$, and I a'ree to meet him 9or her:
a'ain %efore lon'.
I wi$$ now /rocee' to *.mmari*e t-i* $on, 'i*;.i*ition on t-e 'ream5work. +e were
confronte' by t-e ;.e*tion w-et-er in 'ream5formation t-e /*yc-e e=ert* a$$ it* fac.$tie*
to t-eir f.$$ e=tent# wit-o.t in-ibition# or on$y a fraction of t-em# w-ic- are re*tricte' in
t-eir action. O.r in&e*ti,ation* $ea' .* to re6ect *.c- a *tatement of t-e /rob$em a*
w-o$$y ina'e;.ate in t-e circ.m*tance*. 0.t if# in o.r an*wer# we are to remain on t-e
,ro.n' ./on w-ic- t-e ;.e*tion force* .*# we m.*t a**ent to two conce/tion* w-ic- are
a//arent$y o//o*e' an' m.t.a$$y e=c$.*i&e. T-e /*yc-ic acti&ity in 'ream5formation
re*o$&e* it*e$f into two ac-ie&ement*: t-e /ro'.ction of t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* an' t-e
tran*formation of t-e*e into t-e 'ream5content. T-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* are /erfect$y
acc.rate# an' are forme' wit- a$$ t-e /*yc-ic /rof.*ion of w-ic- we are ca/ab$e< t-ey
be$on, to t-e t-o.,-t* w-ic- -a&e not become con*cio.*# from w-ic- o.r con*cio.*
t-o.,-t* a$*o re*.$t by mean* of a certain tran*/o*ition. T-ere i* 'o.bt$e** m.c- in t-em
t-at i* wort- knowin,# an' a$*o my*terio.*# b.t t-e*e /rob$em* -a&e no /artic.$ar
re$ation to o.r 'ream*# an' cannot c$aim to be treate' .n'er t-e -ea' of 'ream5/rob$em*.:
On t-e ot-er -an' we -a&e t-e /roce** w-ic- c-an,e* t-e .ncon*cio.* t-o.,-t* into t-e
'ream5content# w-ic- i* /ec.$iar to t-e 'ream5$ife an' c-aracteri*tic of it. Now# t-i*
/ec.$iar 'ream5work i* m.c- fart-er remo&e' from t-e /attern of wakin, t-o.,-t t-an
-a* been *.//o*e' by e&en t-e mo*t 'eci'e' 'e/reciator* of t-e /*yc-ic acti&ity in
'ream5formation. It i* not *o m.c- t-at it i* more ne,$i,ent# more incorrect# more
for,etf.$# more incom/$ete t-an wakin, t-o.,-t< it i* *omet-in, a$to,et-er 'ifferent#
;.a$itati&e$y# from wakin, t-o.,-t# an' cannot t-erefore be com/are' wit- it. It 'oe* not
t-ink# ca$c.$ate# or 6.',e at a$$# b.t $imit* it*e$f to t-e work of tran*formation. It may be
e=-a.*ti&e$y 'e*cribe' if we 'o not $o*e *i,-t of t-e con'ition* w-ic- it* /ro'.ct m.*t
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*ati*fy. T-i* /ro'.ct# t-e 'ream# -a* abo&e a$$ to be wit-'rawn from t-e cen*or*-i/# an'
to t-i* en' t-e 'ream5work make* .*e of t-e displacement of ps$chic intensities# e&en to
t-e tran*&a$.ation of a$$ /*yc-ic &a$.e*< t-o.,-t* m.*t be e=c$.*i&e$y or /re'ominant$y
re/ro'.ce' in t-e materia$ of &i*.a$ an' aco.*tic memory5trace*# an' from t-i*
re;.irement t-ere /rocee'* t-e re'ard of the dream4"or( for representa%ilit$# w-ic- it
*ati*fie* by fre*- 'i*/$acement*. Greater inten*itie* -a&e 3/robab$y4 to be /ro'.ce' t-an
are at t-e 'i*/o*a$ of t-e ni,-t 'ream5t-o.,-t*# an' t-i* /.r/o*e i* *er&e' by t-e
e=ten*i&e condensation to w-ic- t-e con*tit.ent* of t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* are *.b6ecte'.
?itt$e attention i* /ai' to t-e $o,ica$ re$ation* of t-e t-o.,-t5materia$< t-ey .$timate$y fin'
a &ei$e' re/re*entation in t-e formal /ec.$iaritie* of t-e 'ream. T-e affect* of t-e
'reamt-o.,-t*
.n'er,o *$i,-ter a$teration* t-an t-eir conce/t.a$ content. A* a r.$e# t-ey are
*.//re**e'< w-ere t-ey are /re*er&e'# t-ey are free' from t-e conce/t* an' combine' in
accor'ance wit- t-eir *imi$arity. On$y one /art of t-e 'ream5work 55 t-e re&i*ion# &ariab$e
in amo.nt# w-ic- i* effecte' by t-e /artia$$y awakene' con*cio.* t-o.,-t 55 i* at a$$
con*i*tent wit- t-e conce/tion w-ic- t-e writer* on t-e *.b6ect -a&e en'ea&o.re' to
e=ten' to t-e w-o$e /erformance of 'ream5formation.
1 G-ve, petit roman M 'ay'ream# *tory.
I -a&e ana$y*e' an e=ce$$ent e=am/$e of a 'ream of t-i* kin'# -a&in, it* ori,in in t-e
*tratification of *e&era$ fanta*ie*# in t-e Fra'ment of an !nal$sis of a Case of B$steria
3Collected 2apers# &o$. iii4. I .n'er&a$.e' t-e *i,nificance of *.c- fanta*ie* for
'reamformation
a* $on, a* I wa* workin, /rinci/a$$y on my own 'ream*# w-ic- were rare$y
ba*e' ./on 'ay'ream* b.t mo*t fre;.ent$y ./on 'i*c.**ion* an' menta$ conf$ict*. +it-
ot-er /er*on* it i* often m.c- ea*ier to /ro&e t-e complete analo'$ %et"een the
nocturnal
dream and the da$dream. In -y*terica$ /atient* an attack may often be re/$ace' by a
'ream< it i* t-en ob&io.* t-at t-e 'ay'ream fanta*y i* t-e fir*t *te/ for bot- t-e*e /*yc-ic
formation*.
2 &tude sur les illusions de temps dans les r-ves du sommeil normal# 1!""# /. 82.
7 The ;orld of Dream*tit.tin, for t-e manife*
8 'r am its meanin, a*
9 fo. d %$ inter/retat
: on# many of t-em are ,.i$ty of anot-er mi*take# to w-ic- t-ey a'-ere 6.*t a* *t.bb rn$y.
T-ey $ook for t-e e**ence of t-e 'ream in t-i* $atent content# an' t-ereby o&er$ook t-e
'i*tinction between $atent 'ream5t-o.,-t* an' t-e 'ream5work. T-e 'ream i*
f.n'amenta$$y not-in, more t-an a */ecia$ form of o.r t-inkin,# w-ic- i* ma'e /o**ib$e
by t-e con'ition* of t-e *$ee/in, *tate. It i* t-e 'ream5work w-ic- /ro*tit.tin, for t-e
manife*t 'ream it* meanin, a* fo.n' by inter/retation# many of t-em are ,.i$ty of
anot-er mi*take# to w-ic- t-ey a'-ere 6.*t a* *t.bborn$y. T-ey $ook for t-e e**ence of t-e
'ream in t-i* $atent content# an' t-ereby o&er$ook t-e 'i*tinction between $atent
'reamt-o.,-t*
an' t-e 'ream5work. T-e 'ream i* f.n'amenta$$y not-in, more t-an a */ecia$
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form of o.r t-inkin,# w-ic- i* ma'e /o**ib$e by t-e con'ition* of t-e *$ee/in, *tate. It i*
t-e 'ream5work w-ic- /ro'.ce* t-i* form# an' it a$one i* t-e e**ence of 'reamin, 55 t-e
on$y e=/$anation of it* *in,.$arity. I *ay t-i* in or'er to correct t-e rea'er1* 6.',ment of
t-e notorio.* @/ro*/ecti&e ten'ency1 of 'ream*. T-at t-e 'ream *-o.$' concern it*e$f wit-
effort* to /erform t-e ta*k* wit- w-ic- o.r /*yc-ic $ife i* confronte' i* no more
remarkab$e t-an t-at o.r con*cio.* wakin, $ife *-o.$' *o concern it*e$f# an' I wi$$ on$y
a'' t-at t-i* work may be 'one a$*o in t-e /recon*cio.*# a fact a$rea'y fami$iar to .*.
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+HAPTER SE/EN
The Ps#cholo$# of the Dream-Processes
Amon, t-e 'ream* w-ic- -a&e been comm.nicate' to me by ot-er* t-ere i* one w-ic- i*
at t-i* /oint e*/ecia$$y wort-y of o.r attention. It wa* to$' me by a fema$e /atient w-o
-a' -ear' it re$ate' in a $ect.re on 'ream*. It* ori,ina$ *o.rce i* .nknown to me. T-i*
'ream e&i'ent$y ma'e a 'ee/ im/re**ion ./on t-e $a'y# *ince *-e went *o far a* to
imitate it# i.e. to re/eat t-e e$ement* of t-i* 'ream in a 'ream of -er own< in or'er# by t-i*
tran*ference# to e=/re** -er a,reement wit- a certain /oint in t-e 'ream.
T-e /re$iminary con'ition* of t-i* ty/ica$ 'ream were a* fo$$ow*: A fat-er -a' been
watc-in, 'ay an' ni,-t be*i'e t-e *ick5be' of -i* c-i$'. After t-e c-i$' 'ie'# -e retire' to
re*t in an a'6oinin, room# b.t $eft t-e 'oor a6ar *o t-at -e co.$' $ook from -i* room into
t-e ne=t# w-ere t-e c-i$'1* bo'y $ay *.rro.n'e' by ta$$ can'$e*. An o$' man# w-o -a'
been in*ta$$e' a* a watc-er# *at be*i'e t-e bo'y# m.rm.rin, /rayer*. After *$ee/in, for a
few -o.r* t-e fat-er 'reame' t-at the child "as standin' %$ his %ed, claspin' his arm
and
cr$in' reproachfull$: )Father, don+t $ou see that I am %urnin'A1 T-e fat-er woke ./ an'
notice' a bri,-t $i,-t comin, from t-e a'6oinin, room. R.*-in, in# -e fo.n' t-at t-e o$'
man -a' fa$$en a*$ee/# an' t-e *-eet* an' one arm of t-e be$o&e' bo'y were b.rnt by a
fa$$en can'$e.
T-e meanin, of t-i* affectin, 'ream i* *im/$e eno.,-# an' t-e e=/$anation ,i&en by t-e
$ect.rer# a* my /atient re/orte' it# wa* correct. T-e bri,-t $i,-t *-inin, t-ro.,- t-e o/en
'oor on to t-e *$ee/er1* eye* ,a&e -im t-e im/re**ion w-ic- -e wo.$' -a&e recei&e' -a'
-e been awake: name$y# t-at a fire -a' been *tarte' near t-e cor/*e by a fa$$in, can'$e. It
i* ;.ite /o**ib$e t-at -e -a' taken into -i* *$ee/ -i* an=iety $e*t t-e a,e' watc-er *-o.$'
not be e;.a$ to -i* ta*k.
+e can fin' not-in, to c-an,e in t-i* inter/retation< we can on$y a'' t-at t-e content of
t-e 'ream m.*t be o&er5'etermine'# an' t-at t-e */eec- of t-e c-i$' m.*t -a&e con*i*te'
of /-ra*e* w-ic- it -a' .ttere' w-i$e *ti$$ a$i&e# an' w-ic- were a**ociate' wit-
im/ortant e&ent* for t-e fat-er. Per-a/* t-e com/$aint# @I am b.rnin,1# wa* a**ociate'
wit- t-e fe&er from w-ic- t-e c-i$' 'ie'# an' @Fat-er# 'on1t yo. *eeI1 to *ome ot-er
affecti&e occ.rrence .nknown to .*.
Now# w-en we -a&e come to reco,ni*e t-at t-e 'ream -a* meanin,# an' can be fitte' into
t-e conte=t of /*yc-ic e&ent*# it may be *.r/ri*in, t-at a 'ream *-o.$' -a&e occ.rre' in
circ.m*tance* w-ic- ca$$e' for *.c- an imme'iate wakin,. +e *-a$$ t-en note t-at e&en
t-i* 'ream i* not $ackin, in a wi*-5f.$fi$ment. T-e 'ea' c-i$' be-a&e* a* t-o.,- a$i&e< -e
warn* -i* fat-er -im*e$f< -e come* to -i* fat-er1* be' an' c$a*/* -i* arm# a* -e /robab$y
'i' in t-e reco$$ection from w-ic- t-e 'ream obtaine' t-e fir*t /art of t-e c-i$'1* */eec-.
It wa* for t-e *ake of t-i* wi*-5f.$fi$ment t-at t-e fat-er *$e/t a moment $on,er. T-e
'ream wa* ,i&en /rece'ence o&er wakin, ref$ection beca.*e it wa* ab$e to *-ow t-e c-i$'
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*ti$$ $i&in,. If t-e fat-er -a' wake' fir*t# an' -a' t-en 'rawn t-e conc$.*ion w-ic- $e'
-im into t-e a'6oinin, room# -e wo.$' -a&e *-ortene' t-e c-i$'1* $ife by t-i* one moment.
T-ere can be no 'o.bt abo.t t-e /ec.$iar feat.re* in t-i* brief 'ream w-ic- en,a,e o.r
/artic.$ar intere*t. So far# we -a&e en'ea&o.re' main$y to a*certain w-erein t-e *ecret
meanin, of t-e 'ream con*i*t*# -ow it i* to be 'i*co&ere'# an' w-at mean* t-e
'reamwork
.*e* to concea$ it. In ot-er wor'*# o.r ,reate*t intere*t -a* -it-erto been centre' on
t-e /rob$em* of inter/retation. Now# -owe&er# we enco.nter a 'ream w-ic- i* ea*i$y
e=/$aine'# an' t-e meanin, of w-ic- i* wit-o.t 'i*,.i*e< we note t-at ne&ert-e$e** t-i*
'ream /re*er&e* t-e e**entia$ c-aracteri*tic* w-ic- con*/ic.o.*$y 'ifferentiate a 'ream
from o.r wakin, t-o.,-t*# an' t-i* 'ifference 'eman'* an e=/$anation. It i* on$y w-en
we -a&e 'i*/o*e' of a$$ t-e /rob$em* of inter/retation t-at we fee$ -ow incom/$ete i* o.r
/*yc-o$o,y of 'ream*.
0.t before we t.rn o.r attention to t-i* new /at- of in&e*ti,ation# $et .* *to/ an' $ook
back# an' con*i'er w-et-er we -a&e not o&er$ooke' *omet-in, im/ortant on o.r way
-it-er. For we m.*t .n'er*tan' t-at t-e ea*y an' comfortab$e /art of o.r 6o.rney $ie*
be-in' .*. %it-erto# a$$ t-e /at-* t-at we -a&e fo$$owe' -a&e $e'# if I mi*take not# to $i,-t#
to e=/$anation# an' to f.$$ .n'er*tan'in,< b.t from t-e moment w-en we *eek to
/enetrate more 'ee/$y into t-e /*yc-ic /roce**e* in 'reamin,# a$$ /at-* $ea' into
'arkne**. It i* ;.ite im/o**ib$e to eplain t-e 'ream a* a /*yc-ic /roce**# for to e=/$ain
mean* to trace back to t-e known# an' a* yet we -a&e no /*yc-o$o,ica$ know$e',e to
w-ic- we can refer *.c- e=/$anatory f.n'amenta$* a* may be inferre' from t-e
/*yc-o$o,ica$ in&e*ti,ation of 'ream*. On t-e contrary# we *-a$$ be com/e$$e' to a'&ance
a n.mber of new a**.m/tion*# w-ic- 'o $itt$e more t-an con6ect.re t-e *tr.ct.re of t-e
/*yc-ic a//arat.* an' t-e /$ay of t-e ener,ie* acti&e in it< an' we *-a$$ -a&e to be caref.$
not to ,o too far beyon' t-e *im/$e*t $o,ica$ con*tr.ction# *ince ot-erwi*e it* &a$.e wi$$
be 'o.btf.$. An' e&en if we *-o.$' be .nerrin, in o.r inference*# an' take co,ni*ance of
a$$ t-e $o,ica$ /o**ibi$itie*# we *-o.$' *ti$$ be in 'an,er of arri&in, at a com/$ete$y
mi*taken re*.$t# owin, to t-e /robab$e incom/$etene** of t-e /re$iminary *tatement of o.r
e$ementary 'ata. +e *-a$$ not be ab$e to arri&e at any conc$.*ion* a* to t-e *tr.ct.re an'
f.nction of t-e /*yc-ic in*tr.ment from e&en t-e mo*t caref.$ in&e*ti,ation of 'ream*# or
of any ot-er isolated acti&ity< or# at a$$ e&ent*# we *-a$$ not be ab$e to confirm o.r
conc$.*ion*. To 'o t-i* we *-a$$ -a&e to co$$ate *.c- /-enomena a* t-e com/arati&e
*t.'y of a w-o$e *erie* of /*yc-ic acti&itie* /ro&e* to be re$iab$y con*tant. So t-at t-e
/*yc-o$o,ica$ a**.m/tion* w-ic- we ba*e on t-e ana$y*i* of t-e 'ream5/roce**e* wi$$
-a&e to mark time# a* it were# .nti$ t-ey can 6oin ./ wit- t-e re*.$t* of ot-er
in&e*ti,ation* w-ic-# /rocee'in, from anot-er *tartin,5/oint# wi$$ *eek to /enetrate to t-e
-eart of t-e *ame /rob$em.
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A! THE FORGETTING OF DREAMS
I /ro/o*e# t-en# t-at we *-a$$ fir*t of a$$ t.rn o.r attention to a *.b6ect w-ic- brin,* .* to
a -it-erto 'i*re,ar'e' ob6ection# w-ic- t-reaten* to .n'ermine t-e &ery fo.n'ation of o.r
effort* at 'ream5inter/retation. T-e ob6ection -a* been ma'e from more t-an one ;.arter
t-at t-e 'ream w-ic- we wi*- to inter/ret i* rea$$y .nknown to .*# or# to be more /reci*e#
t-at we -a&e no ,.arantee t-at we know it a* it rea$$y occ.rre'.
+-at we reco$$ect of t-e 'ream# an' w-at we *.b6ect to o.r met-o'* of inter/retation# i*#
in t-e fir*t /$ace# m.ti$ate' by t-e .nfait-f.$ne** of o.r memory# w-ic- *eem* ;.ite
/ec.$iar$y inca/ab$e of retainin, 'ream*# an' w-ic- may -a&e omitte' /reci*e$y t-e mo*t
*i,nificant /art* of t-eir content. For w-en we try to con*i'er o.r 'ream* attenti&e$y# we
often -a&e rea*on to com/$ain t-at we -a&e 'reame' m.c- more t-an we remember< t-at
.nfort.nate$y we know not-in, more t-an t-i* one fra,ment# an' t-at o.r reco$$ection of
e&en t-i* fra,ment *eem* to .* *tran,e$y .ncertain. Moreo&er# e&eryt-in, ,oe* to /ro&e
t-at o.r memory re/ro'.ce* t-e 'ream not on$y incom/$ete$y b.t a$*o .ntr.t-f.$$y# in a
fa$*ifyin, manner. A*# on t-e one -an'# we may 'o.bt w-et-er w-at we 'reame' wa*
rea$$y a* 'i*connecte' a* it i* in o.r reco$$ection*# *o on t-e ot-er -an' we may 'o.bt
w-et-er a 'ream wa* rea$$y a* co-erent a* o.r acco.nt of it< w-et-er in o.r attem/te'
re/ro'.ction we -a&e not fi$$e' in t-e ,a/* w-ic- rea$$y e=i*te'# or t-o*e w-ic- are '.e
to for,etf.$ne**# wit- new an' arbitrari$y c-o*en materia$< w-et-er we -a&e not
embe$$i*-e' t-e 'ream# ro.n'e' it off an' correcte' it# *o t-at any conc$.*ion a* to it* rea$
content become* im/o**ib$e. In'ee'# one writer 3S/itta41 *.rmi*e* t-at a$$ t-at i* or'er$y
an' co-erent i* rea$$y fir*t /.t into t-e 'ream '.rin, t-e attem/t to reca$$ it. T-.* we are
in 'an,er of bein, 'e/ri&e' of t-e &ery ob6ect w-o*e &a$.e we -a&e .n'ertaken to
'etermine.
In a$$ o.r 'ream5inter/retation* we -a&e -it-erto i,nore' t-e*e warnin,*. On t-e contrary#
in'ee'# we -a&e fo.n' t-at t-e *ma$$e*t# mo*t in*i,nificant# an' mo*t .ncertain
com/onent* of t-e 'ream5content in&ite' inter/retation* no $e** em/-atica$$y t-an t-o*e
w-ic- were 'i*tinct$y an' certain$y containe' in t-e 'ream. In t-e 'ream of Irma1*
in6ection we rea': @I 0uic(l$ ca$$e' in Dr M.#1 an' we a**.me' t-at e&en t-i* *ma$$
a''en'.m wo.$' not -a&e ,ot into t-e 'ream if it -a' not been *.*ce/tib$e of a */ecia$
'eri&ation. In t-i* way we arri&e' at t-e -i*tory of t-at .nfort.nate /atient to w-o*e
be'*i'e I @;.ick$y1 ca$$e' my o$'er co$$ea,.e. In t-e *eemin,$y ab*.r' 'ream w-ic-
treate' t-e 'ifference between fifty5one an' fifty5*i= a* a 0uantit, n,'li'ea%le t-e n.mber
fifty5one wa* mentione' re/eate'$y. In*tea' of re,ar'in, t-i* a* a matter of co.r*e# or a
'etai$ of in'ifferent &a$.e# we /rocee'e' from t-i* to a *econ' train of t-o.,-t in t-e
$atent 'ream5content# w-ic- $e' to t-e n.mber fifty5one# an' by fo$$owin, ./ t-i* c$.e we
arri&e' at t-e fear* w-ic- /ro/o*e' fifty5one year* a* t-e term of $ife in t-e *-ar/e*t
o//o*ition to a 'ominant train of t-o.,-t w-ic- wa* boa*tf.$$y $a&i*- of t-e year*. In t-e
'ream @7on viit1 I fo.n'# a* an in*i,nificant inter/o$ation# t-at I -a' at fir*t o&er$ooke'
t-e *entence: @!s 25 does not understand him, Fl5 as(s me#1 etc. T-e inter/retation t-en
comin, to a *tan'*ti$$# I went back to t-e*e wor'*# an' I fo.n' t-ro.,- t-em t-e way to
t-e infanti$e fanta*y w-ic- a//eare' in t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* a* an interme'iate /oint of
6.nction. T-i* came abo.t by mean* of t-e /oet1* &er*e*:
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3elten ha%it ihr mich &er*tan'en#
3elten auch verstand ich &uch#
7ur "enn "ir im Fot uns fanden
3o verstanden "ir uns 'leichA
3Se$'om -a&e yo. understood me#
Se$'om -a&e I .n'er*too' yo.#
0.t w-en we fo.n' o.r*e$&e* in t-e mire#
+e at once .n'er*too' eac- ot-erA4
E&ery ana$y*i* wi$$ affor' e&i'ence of t-e fact t-at t-e mo*t in*i,nificant feat.re* of t-e
'ream are in'i*/en*ab$e to inter/retation# an' wi$$ *-ow -ow t-e com/$etion of t-e ta*k i*
'e$aye' if we /o*t/one o.r e=amination of t-em. +e -a&e ,i&en e;.a$ attention# in t-e
inter/retation of 'ream*# to e&ery n.ance of &erba$ e=/re**ion fo.n' in t-em< in'ee'#
w-ene&er we were confronte' by a *en*e$e** or in*.fficient wor'in,# a* t-o.,- we -a'
fai$e' to tran*$ate t-e 'ream into t-e /ro/er &er*ion# we -a&e re*/ecte' e&en t-e*e 'efect*
of e=/re**ion. In brief# w-at ot-er writer* -a&e re,ar'e' a* arbitrary im/ro&i*ation*#
concocte' -a*ti$y to a&oi' conf.*ion# we -a&e treate' $ike a *acre' te=t. T-i*
contra'iction ca$$* for e=/$anation.
It wo.$' a//ear# wit-o.t 'oin, any in6.*tice to t-e writer* in ;.e*tion# t-at t-e
e=/$anation i* in o.r fa&o.r. From t-e *tan'/oint of o.r new$y5ac;.ire' in*i,-t into t-e
ori,in of 'ream*# a$$ contra'iction* are com/$ete$y reconci$e'. It i* tr.e t-at we 'i*tort t-e
'ream in o.r attem/t to re/ro'.ce it< we once more fin' t-erein w-at we -a&e ca$$e' t-e
*econ'ary an' often mi*.n'er*tan'in, e$aboration of t-e 'ream by t-e a,ency of norma$
t-inkin,. 0.t t-i* 'i*tortion i* it*e$f no more t-an a /art of t-e e$aboration to w-ic- t-e
'ream5t-o.,-t* are con*tant$y *.b6ecte' a* a re*.$t of t-e 'ream5cen*or*-i/. Ot-er
writer* -a&e -ere *.*/ecte' or ob*er&e' t-at /art of t-e 'ream5'i*tortion w-o*e work i*
manife*t< b.t for .* t-i* i* of $itt$e con*e;.ence# a* we know t-at a far more e=ten*i&e
work of 'i*tortion# not *o ea*i$y a//re-en'e'# -a* a$rea'y taken t-e 'ream for it* ob6ect
from amon, t-e -i''en 'ream5t-o.,-t*. T-e on$y mi*take of t-e*e writer* con*i*t* in
be$ie&in, t-e mo'ification effecte' in t-e 'ream by it* reco$$ection an' &erba$ e=/re**ion
to be arbitrary# inca/ab$e of f.rt-er *o$.tion# an' con*e;.ent$y $iab$e to $ea' .* a*tray in
o.r co,nition of t-e 'ream. T-ey .n'ere*timate t-e 'etermination of t-e 'ream in t-e
/*yc-e. %ere t-ere i* not-in, arbitrary. It can be *-own t-at in a$$ ca*e* a *econ' train of
t-o.,-t imme'iate$y take* o&er t-e 'etermination of t-e e$ement* w-ic- -a&e been $eft
.n'etermine' by t-e fir*t. For e=am/$e# I wi*- ;.ite arbitrari$y to t-ink of a n.mber< b.t
t-i* i* not /o**ib$e< t-e n.mber t-at occ.r* to me i* 'efinite$y an' nece**ari$y 'etermine'
by t-o.,-t* wit-in me w-ic- may be ;.ite forei,n to my momentary /.r/o*e. T-e
mo'ification* w-ic- t-e 'ream .n'er,oe* in it* re&i*ion by t-e wakin, min' are 6.*t a*
$itt$e arbitrary. T-ey /re*er&e an a**ociati&e connection wit- t-e content# w-o*e /$ace
t-ey take# an' *er&e to *-ow .* t-e way to t-i* content# w-ic- may it*e$f be a *.b*tit.te
for yet anot-er content.
In ana$y*in, t-e 'ream* of /atient* I im/o*e t-e fo$$owin, te*t of t-i* a**ertion# an' ne&er
wit-o.t *.cce**. If t-e fir*t re/ort of a 'ream *eem* not &ery com/re-en*ib$e# I re;.e*t
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t-e 'reamer to re/eat it. T-i* -e rare$y 'oe* in t-e *ame wor'*. 0.t t-e /a**a,e* in w-ic-
t-e e=/re**ion i* mo'ifie' are t-ereby ma'e known to me a* t-e weak /oint* of t-e
'ream1* 'i*,.i*e< t-ey are w-at t-e embroi'ere' emb$em on Sie,frie'1* raiment wa* to
%a,en. T-e*e are t-e /oint* from w-ic- t-e ana$y*i* may *tart. T-e narrator -a* been
a'moni*-e' by my anno.ncement t-at I inten' to take */ecia$ /ain* to *o$&e t-e 'ream#
an' imme'iate$y# obe'ient to t-e .r,e of re*i*tance# -e /rotect* t-e weak /oint* of t-e
'ream1* 'i*,.i*e# re/$acin, a treac-ero.* e=/re**ion by a $e** re$e&ant one. %e t-.* ca$$*
my attention to t-e e=/re**ion* w-ic- -e -a* 'i*car'e'. From t-e effort* ma'e to ,.ar'
a,ain*t t-e *o$.tion of t-e 'ream# I can a$*o 'raw conc$.*ion* abo.t t-e care wit- w-ic-
t-e raiment of t-e 'ream -a* been wo&en.
T-e writer* w-om I -a&e mentione' are# -owe&er# $e** 6.*tifie' w-en t-ey attrib.te *o
m.c- im/ortance to t-e 'o.bt wit- w-ic- o.r 6.',ment a//roac-e* t-e re$ation of t-e
'ream. For t-i* 'o.bt i* not inte$$ect.a$$y warrante'< o.r memory can ,i&e no ,.arantee*#
b.t ne&ert-e$e** we are com/e$$e' to cre'it it* *tatement* far more fre;.ent$y t-an i*
ob6ecti&e$y 6.*tifiab$e. Do.bt concernin, t-e acc.rate re/ro'.ction of t-e 'ream# or of
in'i&i'.a$ 'ata of t-e 'ream# i* on$y anot-er off*-oot of t-e 'ream5cen*or*-i/# t-at i*# of
re*i*tance to t-e emer,ence of t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* into con*cio.*ne**. T-i* re*i*tance -a*
not yet e=-a.*te' it*e$f by t-e 'i*/$acement* an' *.b*tit.tion* w-ic- it -a* effecte'# *o
t-at it *ti$$ c$in,*# in t-e form of 'o.bt# to w-at -a* been a$$owe' to emer,e. +e can
reco,ni*e t-i* 'o.bt a$$ t-e more rea'i$y in t-at it i* caref.$ ne&er to attack t-e inten*i&e
e$ement* of t-e 'ream# b.t on$y t-e weak an' in'i*tinct one*. 0.t we a$rea'y know t-at a
tran*&a$.ation of a$$ t-e /*yc-ic &a$.e* -a* taken /$ace between t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* an'
t-e 'ream. T-e 'i*tortion -a* been ma'e /o**ib$e on$y by 'e&a$.ation< it con*tant$y
manife*t* it*e$f in t-i* way an' *ometime* content* it*e$f t-erewit-. If 'o.bt i* a''e' to
t-e in'i*tinctne** of an e$ement of t-e 'ream5content# we may# fo$$owin, t-i* in'ication#
reco,ni*e in t-i* e$ement a 'irect off*-oot of one of t-e o.t$awe' 'ream5t-o.,-t*. T-e
*tate of affair* i* $ike t-at obtainin, after a ,reat re&o$.tion in one of t-e re/.b$ic* of
anti;.ity or t-e Renai**ance. T-e once /owerf.$# r.$in, fami$ie* of t-e nobi$ity are now
bani*-e'< a$$ -i,- /o*t* are fi$$e' by ./*tart*< in t-e city it*e$f on$y t-e /oorer an' mo*t
/ower$e** citiCen*# or t-e remoter fo$$ower* of t-e &an;.i*-e' /arty# are to$erate'. E&en
t-e $atter 'o not en6oy t-e f.$$ ri,-t* of citiCen*-i/. T-ey are watc-e' wit- *.*/icion. In
o.r ca*e# in*tea' of *.*/icion we -a&e 'o.bt. I m.*t in*i*t# t-erefore# t-at in t-e ana$y*i*
of a 'ream one m.*t emanci/ate one*e$f from t-e w-o$e *ca$e of *tan'ar'* of re$iabi$ity<
an' if t-ere i* t-e *$i,-te*t /o**ibi$ity t-at t-i* or t-at may -a&e occ.rre' in t-e 'ream# it
*-o.$' be treate' a* an ab*o$.te certainty. )nti$ one -a* 'eci'e' to re6ect a$$ re*/ect for
a//earance* in tracin, t-e 'ream5e$ement*# t-e ana$y*i* wi$$ remain at a *tan'*ti$$.
Di*re,ar' of t-e e$ement concerne' -a* t-e /*yc-ic effect# in t-e /er*on ana$y*e'# t-at
not-in, in connection wit- t-e .nwi*-e' i'ea* be-in' t-i* e$ement wi$$ occ.r to -im.
T-i* effect i* rea$$y not *e$f5e&i'ent< it wo.$' be ;.ite rea*onab$e to *ay# @+-et-er t-i* or
t-at wa* containe' in t-e 'ream I 'o not know for certain< b.t t-e fo$$owin, i'ea* -a//en
to occ.r to me.1 0.t no one e&er 'oe* *ay *o< it i* /reci*e$y t-e 'i*t.rbin, effect of 'o.bt
in t-e ana$y*i* t-at /ermit* it to be .nma*ke' a* an off*-oot an' in*tr.ment of t-e /*yc-ic
re*i*tance. P*yc-oana$y*i* i* 6.*tifiab$y *.*/icio.*. One of it* r.$e* r.n*: +-ate&er
'i*t.rb* t-e /ro,re** of t-e work i* a re*i*tance.2
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T-e for,ettin, of 'ream*# too# remain* ine=/$icab$e .nti$ we *eek to e=/$ain it by t-e
/ower of t-e /*yc-ic cen*or*-i/. T-e fee$in, t-at one -a* 'reame' a ,reat 'ea$ '.rin, t-e
ni,-t an' -a* retaine' on$y a $itt$e of it may -a&e yet anot-er meanin, in a n.mber of
ca*e*: it may /er-a/* mean t-at t-e 'ream5work -a* contin.e' in a /erce/tib$e manner
t-ro.,-o.t t-e ni,-t# b.t -a* $eft be-in' it on$y one brief 'ream. T-ere i*# -owe&er# no
/o**ib$e 'o.bt t-at a 'ream i* /ro,re**i&e$y for,otten on wakin,. One often for,et* it in
*/ite of a /ainf.$ effort to reco&er it. I be$ie&e# -owe&er# t-at 6.*t a* one ,enera$$y
o&ere*timate* t-e e=tent of t-i* for,ettin,# *o a$*o one o&ere*timate* t-e $ac.nae in o.r
know$e',e of t-e 'ream '.e to t-e ,a/* occ.rrin, in it. A$$ t-e 'ream5content t-at -a*
been $o*t by for,ettin, can often be reco&ere' by ana$y*i*< in a n.mber of ca*e*# at a$$
e&ent*# it i* /o**ib$e to 'i*co&er from a *in,$e remainin, fra,ment# not t-e 'ream# of
co.r*e 55 w-ic-# after a$$# i* of no im/ortance 55 b.t t-e w-o$e of t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*. It
re;.ire* a ,reater e=/en'it.re of attention an' *e$f5*.//re**ion in t-e ana$y*i*< t-at i* a$$<
b.t it *-ow* t-at t-e for,ettin, of t-e 'ream i* not innocent of -o*ti$e intention.7
A con&incin, /roof of t-e ten'entio.* nat.re of 'ream5for,ettin, 55 of t-e fact t-at it
*er&e* t-e re*i*tance 55 i* obtaine' on ana$y*i* by in&e*ti,atin, a /re$iminary *ta,e of
for,ettin,.8 It often -a//en* t-at in t-e mi'*t of an inter/retation an omitte' fra,ment of
t-e 'ream *.''en$y emer,e* w-ic- i* 'e*cribe' a* -a&in, been /re&io.*$y for,otten. T-i*
/art of t-e 'ream t-at -a* been wre*te' from for,etf.$ne** i* a$way* t-e mo*t im/ortant
/art. It $ie* on t-e *-orte*t /at- to t-e *o$.tion of t-e 'ream# an' for t-at &ery rea*on it
wa* mo*t e=/o*e' to t-e re*i*tance. Amon, t-e e=am/$e* of t-e 'ream* t-at I -a&e
inc$.'e' in t-e te=t of t-i* treati*e# it once -a//ene' t-at I -a' *.b*e;.ent$y to inter/o$ate
a fra,ment of 'ream5content. T-e 'ream i* a 'ream of tra&e$# w-ic- re&en,e* it*e$f on
two .namiab$e tra&e$$in, com/anion*< I -a&e $eft it a$mo*t entire$y .ninter/rete'# a* /art
of it* content i* cr.'e$y ob*cene. T-e /art omitte' rea'*: @I said, referrin' to a %oo( of
3chiller+s: ))It is from 5 5 5++ %ut corrected m$self, as I realised m$ mista(e: ))It is %$ 5 5 5++
;hereupon the man remar(ed to his sister, ))Oes, he said it correctl$.11 19
Se$f5correction in 'ream*# w-ic- to *ome writer* *eem* *o won'erf.$# 'oe* not rea$$y ca$$
for con*i'eration. 0.t I wi$$ 'raw from my own memory an in*tance ty/ica$ of &erba$
error* in 'ream*. I wa* nineteen year* of a,e w-en I &i*ite' En,$an' for t-e fir*t time#
an' I */ent a 'ay on t-e *-ore of t-e Iri*- Sea. Nat.ra$$y eno.,-# I am.*e' my*e$f by
/ickin, ./ t-e marine anima$* $eft on t-e beac- by t-e ti'e# an' I wa* 6.*t e=aminin, a
*tarfi*- 3t-e 'ream be,in* wit- Bollthurn44Bolothurian4 w-en a /retty $itt$e ,ir$ came ./
to me an' a*ke' me: @Is it starfishA Is it aliveA1 I re/$ie'# @Oes, he is alive#1 b.t t-en fe$t
a*-ame' of my mi*take# an' re/eate' t-e *entence correct$y. For t-e ,rammatica$ mi*take
w-ic- I t-en ma'e# t-e 'ream *.b*tit.te* anot-er w-ic- i* ;.ite common amon, German
/eo/$e. @Das <uch ist von 3chiller1 i* not to be tran*$ate' by @the %oo( is from#1 b.t by
@the
%oo( is %$1. T-at t-e 'ream5work accom/$i*-e* t-i* *.b*tit.tion# beca.*e t-e wor' from#
owin, to it* con*onance wit- t-e German a'6ecti&e fromm 3/io.*# 'e&o.t4 make* a
remarkab$e con'en*ation /o**ib$e# *-o.$' no $on,er *.r/ri*e .* after a$$ t-at we -a&e
-ear' of t-e intention* of t-e 'ream5work an' it* .n*cr./.$o.* *e$ection of mean*. 0.t
w-at re$ation -a* t-i* -arm$e** reco$$ection of t-e *ea*-ore to my 'reamI It e=/$ain*# by
mean* of a &ery innocent e=am/$e# t-at I -a&e .*e' t-e wor' 55 t-e wor' 'enotin, ,en'er#
or se or t-e seual 9he: 55 in t-e wron, /$ace. T-i* i* *.re$y one of t-e key* to t-e
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*o$.tion of t-e 'ream. T-o*e w-o -a&e -ear' of t-e 'eri&ation of t-e book5tit$e Matter
and Motion 9Moli1re in Le Malade Ima'inaire: La Mati1re est4elle lauda%leA 44 !
Motion of the %o"els: wi$$ rea'i$y be ab$e to *.//$y t-e mi**in, /art*.
Moreo&er# I can /ro&e conc$.*i&e$y# by a demonstratio ad oculos# t-at t-e for,ettin, of
t-e 'ream i* in a $ar,e mea*.re t-e work of t-e re*i*tance. A /atient te$$* me t-at -e -a*
'reame'# b.t t-at t-e 'ream -a* &ani*-e' wit-o.t $ea&in, a trace# a* if not-in, -a'
-a//ene'. +e *et to work# -owe&er< I come ./on a re*i*tance w-ic- I e=/$ain to t-e
/atient< enco.ra,in, an' .r,in, -im# I -e$/ -im to become reconci$e' to *ome
'i*a,reeab$e t-o.,-t< an' I -a&e -ar'$y *.ccee'e' in 'oin, *o w-en -e e=c$aim*: @Now I
can reca$$ w-at I 'reame'A1 T-e *ame re*i*tance w-ic- t-at 'ay 'i*t.rbe' -im in t-e work
of inter/retation ca.*e' -im a$*o to for,et t-e 'ream. 0y o&ercomin, t-i* re*i*tance I
-a&e bro.,-t back t-e 'ream to -i* memory.
In t-e *ame way t-e /atient# -a&in, reac-e' a certain /art of t-e work# may reca$$ a
'ream w-ic- occ.rre' t-ree# fo.r# or more 'ay* a,o# an' w-ic- -a* -it-erto remaine' in
ob$i&ion.:
P*yc-oana$ytica$ e=/erience -a* f.rni*-e' .* wit- yet anot-er /roof of t-e fact t-at t-e
for,ettin, of 'ream* 'e/en'* far more on t-e re*i*tance t-an on t-e m.t.a$$y a$ien
c-aracter of t-e wakin, an' *$ee/in, *tate*# a* *ome writer* -a&e be$ie&e' it to 'e/en'. It
often -a//en* to me# a* we$$ a* to ot-er ana$y*t*# an' to /atient* .n'er treatment# t-at we
are wake' from *$ee/ by a 'ream# a* we *ay# an' t-at imme'iate$y t-ereafter# w-i$e in
f.$$ /o**e**ion of o.r menta$ fac.$tie*# we be,in to inter/ret t-e 'ream. Often in *.c-
ca*e* I -a&e not re*te' .nti$ I -a&e ac-ie&e' a f.$$ .n'er*tan'in, of t-e 'ream# an' yet it
-a* -a//ene' t-at after wakin, I -a&e for,otten t-e inter/retation work a* com/$ete$y a* I
-a&e for,otten t-e 'ream5content it*e$f# t-o.,- I -a&e been aware t-at I -a&e 'reame'
an' t-at I -a' inter/rete' t-e 'ream. T-e 'ream -a* far more fre;.ent$y taken t-e re*.$t
of t-e inter/retation wit- it into for,etf.$ne** t-an t-e inte$$ect.a$ fac.$ty -a* *.ccee'e'
in retainin, t-e 'ream in t-e memory. 0.t between t-i* work of inter/retation an' t-e
wakin, t-o.,-t* t-ere i* not t-at /*yc-ic aby** by w-ic- ot-er writer* -a&e *o.,-t to
e=/$ain t-e for,ettin, of 'ream*. 55 +-en Morton Prince ob6ect* to my e=/$anation of t-e
for,ettin, of 'ream* on t-e ,ro.n' t-at it i* on$y a */ecia$ ca*e of t-e amne*ia of
'i**ociate' /*yc-ic *tate*# an' t-at t-e im/o**ibi$ity of a//$yin, my e=/$anation of t-i*
*/ecia$ amne*ia to ot-er ty/e* of amne*ia make* it &a$.e$e** e&en for it* imme'iate
/.r/o*e# -e remin'* t-e rea'er t-at in a$$ -i* 'e*cri/tion* of *.c- 'i**ociate' *tate* -e -a*
ne&er attem/te' to 'i*co&er t-e 'ynamic e=/$anation .n'er$yin, t-e*e /-enomena. For
-a' -e 'one *o# -e wo.$' *.re$y -a&e 'i*co&ere' t-at re/re**ion 3an' t-e re*i*tance
/ro'.ce' t-ereby4 i* t-e ca.*e not of t-e*e 'i**ociation* mere$y# b.t a$*o of t-e amne*ia
of t-eir /*yc-ic content.
T-at 'ream* are a* $itt$e for,otten a* ot-er /*yc-ic act*# t-at e&en in t-eir /ower of
im/re**in, t-em*e$&e* on t-e memory t-ey may fair$y be com/are' wit- t-e ot-er
/*yc-ic /erformance*# wa* /ro&e' to me by an e=/eriment w-ic- I wa* ab$e to make
w-i$e /re/arin, t-e man.*cri/t of t-i* book. I -a' /re*er&e' in my note* a ,reat many
'ream* of my own w-ic-# for one rea*on or anot-er# I co.$' not inter/ret# or# at t-e time
INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS
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of 'reamin, t-em# co.$' inter/ret on$y &ery im/erfect$y. In or'er to obtain materia$ to
i$$.*trate my a**ertion# I attem/te' to inter/ret *ome of t-em a year or two $ater. In t-i*
attem/t I wa* in&ariab$y *.cce**f.$< in'ee'# I may *ay t-at t-e inter/retation wa* effecte'
more ea*i$y after a$$ t-i* time t-an w-en t-e 'ream* were of recent occ.rrence. A* a
/o**ib$e e=/$anation of t-i* fact# I wo.$' *.,,e*t t-at I -a' o&ercome many of t-e
interna$ re*i*tance* w-ic- -a' 'i*t.rbe' me at t-e time of 'reamin,. In *.c- *.b*e;.ent
inter/retation* I -a&e com/are' t-e o$' yie$' of 'ream5t-o.,-t* wit- t-e /re*ent re*.$t#
w-ic- -a* .*.a$$y been more ab.n'ant# an' I -a&e in&ariab$y fo.n' t-e o$'
'reamt-o.,-t*
.na$tere' amon, t-e /re*ent one*. %owe&er# I *oon reco&ere' from my *.r/ri*e
w-en I ref$ecte' t-at I -a' $on, been acc.*tome' to inter/ret 'ream* of former year* t-at
-a' occa*iona$$y been re$ate' to me by my /atient* a* t-o.,- t-ey -a' been 'ream* of
t-e ni,-t before< by t-e *ame met-o'# an' wit- t-e *ame *.cce**. In t-e *ection on
an=iety5'ream* I *-a$$ inc$.'e two e=am/$e* of *.c- 'e$aye' 'ream5inter/retation*.
+-en I ma'e t-i* e=/eriment for t-e fir*t time I e=/ecte'# not .nrea*onab$y# t-at 'ream*
wo.$' be-a&e in t-i* connection mere$y $ike ne.rotic *ym/tom*. For w-en I treat a
/*yc-one.rotic# for in*tance# an -y*terica$ /atient# by /*yc-oana$y*i*# I am com/e$$e' to
fin' e=/$anation* for t-e fir*t *ym/tom* of t-e ma$a'y# w-ic- -a&e $on, *ince
'i*a//eare'# a* we$$ a* for t-o*e *ti$$ e=i*tin, *ym/tom* w-ic- -a&e bro.,-t t-e /atient
to me< an' I fin' t-e former /rob$em ea*ier to *o$&e t-an t-e more e=i,ent one of to'ay.
In t-e 3tudies in B$steria#D /.b$i*-e' a* ear$y a* 1D!8# I wa* ab$e to ,i&e t-e e=/$anation
of a fir*t -y*terica$ attack w-ic- t-e /atient# a woman o&er forty year* of a,e# -a'
e=/erience' in -er fifteent- year.!
I wi$$ now make a few rat-er .n*y*tematic remark* re$atin, to t-e inter/retation of
'ream*# w-ic- wi$$ /er-a/* *er&e a* a ,.i'e to t-e rea'er w-o wi*-e* to te*t my
a**ertion* by t-e ana$y*i* of -i* own 'ream*.
%e m.*t not e=/ect t-at it wi$$ be a *im/$e an' ea*y matter to inter/ret -i* own 'ream*.
E&en t-e ob*er&ation of en'o/tic /-enomena# an' ot-er *en*ation* w-ic- are common$y
imm.ne from attention# ca$$* for /ractice# a$t-o.,- t-i* ,ro./ of ob*er&ation* i* not
o//o*e' by any /*yc-ic moti&e. It i* &ery m.c- more 'iffic.$t to ,et -o$' of t-e
@.nwi*-e' i'ea*1. %e w-o *eek* to 'o *o m.*t f.$fi$ t-e re;.irement* $ai' 'own in t-i*
treati*e# an' w-i$e fo$$owin, t-e r.$e* -ere ,i&en# -e m.*t en'ea&o.r to re*train a$$
critici*m# a$$ /reconce/tion*# an' a$$ affecti&e or inte$$ect.a$ bia* in -im*e$f '.rin, t-e
work of ana$y*i*. %e m.*t be e&er min'f.$ of t-e /rece/t w-ic- ($a.'e 0ernar' -e$' ./
to t-e e=/erimenter in t-e /-y*io$o,ica$ $aboratory: @Travailler comme une %ete1 55 t-at i*#
-e m.*t be a* en'.rin, a* an anima$# an' a$*o a* 'i*intere*te' in t-e re*.$t* of -i* work.
%e w-o wi$$ fo$$ow t-i* a'&ice wi$$ no $on,er fin' t-e ta*k a 'iffic.$t one. T-e
inter/retation of a 'ream cannot a$way* be accom/$i*-e' in one *e**ion< after fo$$owin,
./ a c-ain of a**ociation* yo. wi$$ often fee$ t-at yo.r workin, ca/acity i* e=-a.*te'< t-e
'ream wi$$ not te$$ yo. anyt-in, more t-at 'ay< it i* t-en be*t to break off# an' to re*.me
t-e work t-e fo$$owin, 'ay. Anot-er /ortion of t-e 'ream5content t-en *o$icit* yo.r
attention# an' yo. t-.* obtain acce** to a fre*- *trat.m of t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*. One mi,-t
ca$$ t-i* t-e @fractiona$1 inter/retation of 'ream*.
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It i* mo*t 'iffic.$t to in'.ce t-e be,inner in 'ream5inter/retation to reco,ni*e t-e fact t-at
-i* ta*k i* not fini*-e' w-en -e i* in /o**e**ion of a com/$ete inter/retation of t-e 'ream
w-ic- i* bot- in,enio.* an' co-erent# an' w-ic- ,i&e* /artic.$ar* of a$$ t-e e$ement* of
t-e 'ream5content. 0e*i'e* t-i*# anot-er inter/retation# an o&er5inter/retation of t-e *ame
'ream# one w-ic- -a* e*ca/e' -im# may be /o**ib$e. It i* rea$$y not ea*y to form an i'ea
of t-e wea$t- of train* of .ncon*cio.* t-o.,-t *tri&in, for e=/re**ion in o.r min'*# or to
cre'it t-e a'roitne** 'i*/$aye' by t-e 'ream5work in ki$$in, 55 *o to */eak 55 *e&en f$ie* at
one *troke# $ike t-e 6o.rneyman tai$or in t-e fairy5ta$e# by mean* of it* ambi,.o.* mo'e*
of e=/re**ion. T-e rea'er wi$$ con*tant$y be inc$ine' to re/roac- t-e a.t-or for a
*./erf$.o.* 'i*/$ay of in,en.ity# b.t anyone w-o -a* -a' /er*ona$ e=/erience of
'reaminter/retation
wi$$ know better t-an to 'o *o.
On t-e ot-er -an'# I cannot acce/t t-e o/inion fir*t e=/re**e' by %. Si$berer# t-at e&ery
'ream 55 or e&en t-at many 'ream*# an' certain ,ro./* of 'ream* 55 ca$$* for two 'ifferent
inter/retation*# between w-ic- t-ere i* e&en *.//o*e' to be a fi=e' re$ation. One of t-e*e#
w-ic- Si$berer ca$$* t-e ps$choanal$tic inter/retation# attrib.te* to t-e 'ream any
meanin, yo. /$ea*e# b.t in t-e main an infanti$e *e=.a$ one. T-e ot-er# t-e more
im/ortant inter/retation# w-ic- -e ca$$* t-e ana'o'ic inter/retation# re&ea$* t-e more
*erio.* an' often /rofo.n' t-o.,-t* w-ic- t-e 'ream5work -a* .*e' a* it* materia$.
Si$berer 'oe* not /ro&e t-i* a**ertion by citin, a n.mber of 'ream* w-ic- -e -a*
ana$y*e' in t-e*e two 'irection*. I am ob$i,e' to ob6ect to t-i* o/inion on t-e ,ro.n' t-at
it i* contrary to fact*. T-e ma6ority of 'ream* re;.ire no o&er5inter/retation# an' are
e*/ecia$$y in*.*ce/tib$e of an ana,o,ic inter/retation. T-e inf$.ence of a ten'ency w-ic-
*eek* to &ei$ t-e f.n'amenta$ con'ition* of 'ream5formation an' 'i&ert o.r intere*t from
it* in*tinct.a$ root* i* a* e&i'ent in Si$berer1* t-eory a* in ot-er t-eoretica$ effort* of t-e
$a*t few year*. In a n.mber of ca*e* I can confirm Si$berer1* a**ertion*< b.t in t-e*e t-e
ana$y*i* *-ow* me t-at t-e 'ream5work wa* confronte' wit- t-e ta*k of tran*formin, a
*erie* of -i,-$y ab*tract t-o.,-t*# inca/ab$e of 'irect re/re*entation# from wakin, $ife
into a 'ream. T-e 'ream5work attem/te' to accom/$i*- t-i* ta*k by *eiCin, ./on anot-er
t-o.,-t5materia$ w-ic- *too' in $oo*e an' often alle'orical re$ation to t-e ab*tract
t-o.,-t*# an' t-ereby 'imini*-e' t-e 'iffic.$ty of re/re*entin, t-em. T-e ab*tract
inter/retation of a 'ream ori,inatin, in t-i* manner wi$$ be ,i&en by t-e 'reamer
imme'iate$y# b.t t-e correct inter/retation of t-e *.b*tit.te' materia$ can be obtaine'
on$y by mean* of t-e fami$iar tec-ni;.e.
T-e ;.e*tion w-et-er e&ery 'ream can be inter/rete' i* to be an*were' in t-e ne,ati&e.
One *-o.$' not for,et t-at in t-e work of inter/retation one i* o//o*e' by t-e /*yc-ic
force* t-at are re*/on*ib$e for t-e 'i*tortion of t-e 'ream. +-et-er one can ma*ter t-e
inner re*i*tance* by one1* inte$$ect.a$ intere*t# one1* ca/acity for *e$f5contro$# one1*
/*yc-o$o,ica$ know$e',e# an' one1* e=/erience in 'ream5inter/retation 'e/en'* on t-e
re$ati&e *tren,t- of t-e o//o*in, force*. It i* a$way* /o**ib$e to make *ome /ro,re**< one
can at a$$ e&ent* ,o far eno.,- to become con&ince' t-at a 'ream -a* meanin,# an'
,enera$$y far eno.,- to ,ain *ome i'ea of it* meanin,. It &ery often -a//en* t-at a *econ'
'ream enab$e* .* to confirm an' contin.e t-e inter/retation a**.me' for t-e fir*t. A
w-o$e *erie* of 'ream*# contin.in, for week* or mont-*# may -a&e a common ba*i*# an'
*-o.$' t-erefore be inter/rete' a* a contin.ity. In 'ream* t-at fo$$ow one anot-er we
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often ob*er&e t-at one 'ream take* a* it* centra$ /oint *omet-in, t-at i* on$y a$$.'e' to in
t-e /eri/-ery of t-e ne=t 'ream# an' con&er*e$y# *o t-at e&en in t-eir inter/retation* t-e
two *.//$ement eac- ot-er. T-at 'ifferent 'ream* of t-e *ame ni,-t are a$way* to be
treate'# in t-e work of inter/retation# a* a w-o$e# I -a&e a$rea'y *-own by e=am/$e*.
In t-e be*t inter/rete' 'ream* we often -a&e to $ea&e one /a**a,e in ob*c.rity beca.*e
we ob*er&e '.rin, t-e inter/retation t-at we -a&e -ere a tan,$e of 'ream5t-o.,-t* w-ic-
cannot be .nra&e$$e'# an' w-ic- f.rni*-e* no fre*- contrib.tion to t-e 'ream5content.
T-i*# t-en# i* t-e key*tone of t-e 'ream# t-e /oint at w-ic- it a*cen'* into t-e .nknown.
For t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* w-ic- we enco.nter '.rin, t-e inter/retation common$y -a&e no
termination# b.t r.n in a$$ 'irection* into t-e net5$ike entan,$ement of o.r inte$$ect.a$
wor$'. It i* from *ome 'en*er /art of t-i* fabric t-at t-e 'ream5wi*- t-en ari*e*# $ike t-e
m.*-room from it* myce$i.m.
?et .* now ret.rn to t-e fact* of 'ream5for,ettin,. So far# of co.r*e# we -a&e fai$e' to
'raw any im/ortant conc$.*ion from t-em. +-en o.r wakin, $ife *-ow* an .nmi*takab$e
intention to for,et t-e 'ream w-ic- -a* been forme' '.rin, t-e ni,-t# eit-er a* a w-o$e#
imme'iate$y after wakin,# or $itt$e by $itt$e in t-e co.r*e of t-e 'ay# an' w-en we
reco,ni*e a* t-e c-ief factor in t-i* /roce** of for,ettin, t-e /*yc-ic re*i*tance a,ain*t t-e
'ream w-ic- -a* a$rea'y 'one it* be*t to o//o*e t-e 'ream at ni,-t# t-e ;.e*tion t-en
ari*e*: +-at act.a$$y -a* ma'e t-e 'ream5formation /o**ib$e a,ain*t t-i* re*i*tanceI ?et
.* con*i'er t-e mo*t *trikin, ca*e# in w-ic- t-e wakin, $ife -a* t-r.*t t-e 'ream a*i'e a*
t-o.,- it -a' ne&er -a//ene'. If we take into con*i'eration t-e /$ay of t-e /*yc-ic
force*# we are com/e$$e' to a**ert t-at t-e 'ream wo.$' ne&er -a&e come into e=i*tence
-a' t-e re*i*tance /re&ai$e' at ni,-t a* it 'i' by 'ay. +e conc$.'e# t-en# t-at t-e
re*i*tance $o*e* *ome /art of it* force '.rin, t-e ni,-t< we know t-at it -a* not been
'i*contin.e'# a* we -a&e 'emon*trate' it* *-are in t-e formation of 'ream* 55 name$y# t-e
work of 'i*tortion. +e -a&e t-erefore to con*i'er t-e /o**ibi$ity t-at at ni,-t t-e
re*i*tance i* mere$y 'imini*-e'# an' t-at 'ream5formation become* /o**ib$e beca.*e of
t-i* *$ackenin, of t-e re*i*tance< an' we *-a$$ rea'i$y .n'er*tan' t-at a* it re,ain* it* f.$$
/ower on wakin, it imme'iate$y t-r.*t* a*i'e w-at it wa* force' to a'mit w-i$e it wa*
feeb$e. De*cri/ti&e /*yc-o$o,y teac-e* .* t-at t-e c-ief 'eterminant of 'ream5formation
i* t-e 'ormant *tate of t-e /*yc-e< an' we may now a'' t-e fo$$owin, e=/$anation: The
state of sleep ma(es dream4formation possi%le %$ reducin' the endops$chic censorship.
+e are certain$y tem/te' to $ook ./on t-i* a* t-e on$y /o**ib$e conc$.*ion to be 'rawn
from t-e fact* of 'ream5for,ettin,# an' to 'e&e$o/ from t-i* conc$.*ion f.rt-er
'e'.ction* a* to t-e com/arati&e ener,y o/erati&e in t-e *$ee/in, an' wakin, *tate*. 0.t
we *-a$$ *to/ -ere for t-e /re*ent. +-en we -a&e /enetrate' a $itt$e fart-er into t-e
/*yc-o$o,y of 'ream* we *-a$$ fin' t-at t-e ori,in of 'ream5formation may be 'ifferent$y
concei&e'. T-e re*i*tance w-ic- ten'* to /re&ent t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* from becomin,
con*cio.* may /er-a/* be e&a'e' wit-o.t *.fferin, re'.ction. It i* a$*o /$a.*ib$e t-at
bot- t-e factor* w-ic- fa&o.r 'ream5formation# t-e re'.ction a* we$$ a* t-e e&a*ion of
t-e re*i*tance# may be *im.$taneo.*$y ma'e /o**ib$e by t-e *$ee/in, *tate. 0.t we *-a$$
/a.*e -ere# an' re*.me t-e *.b6ect a $itt$e $ater.
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+e m.*t now con*i'er anot-er *erie* of ob6ection* a,ain*t o.r /roce'.re in
'reaminter/retation.
For we /rocee' by 'ro//in, a$$ t-e 'irectin, i'ea* w-ic- at ot-er time*
contro$ ref$ection# 'irectin, o.r attention to a *in,$e e$ement of t-e 'ream# notin, t-e
in&o$.ntary t-o.,-t* t-at a**ociate t-em*e$&e* wit- t-i* e$ement. +e t-en take ./ t-e
ne=t com/onent of t-e 'ream5content# an' re/eat t-e o/eration wit- t-i*< an'# re,ar'$e**
of t-e 'irection taken by t-e t-o.,-t*# we a$$ow o.r*e$&e* to be $e' onwar'* by t-em#
ramb$in, from one *.b6ect to anot-er. At t-e *ame time# we -arbo.r t-e confi'ent -o/e
t-at we may in t-e en'# an' wit-o.t inter&ention on o.r /art# come ./on t-e
'reamt-o.,-t*
from w-ic- t-e 'ream ori,inate'. To t-i* t-e critic may make t-e fo$$owin,
ob6ection: T-at we arri&e *omew-ere if we *tart from a *in,$e e$ement of t-e 'ream i* not
remarkab$e. Somet-in, can be a**ociati&e$y connecte' wit- e&ery i'ea. T-e on$y t-in,
t-at i* remarkab$e i* t-at one *-o.$' *.ccee' in -ittin, ./on t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t* in t-i*
arbitrary an' aim$e** e=c.r*ion. It i* /robab$y a *e$f5'ece/tion< t-e in&e*ti,ator fo$$ow*
t-e c-ain of a**ociation* from t-e one e$ement w-ic- i* taken ./ .nti$ -e fin'* t-e c-ain
breakin, off# w-ere./on -e take* ./ a *econ' e$ement< it i* t-.* on$y nat.ra$ t-at t-e
ori,ina$$y .nconfine' a**ociation* *-o.$' now become narrowe' 'own. %e -a* t-e
former c-ain of a**ociation* *ti$$ in min'# an' wi$$ t-erefore in t-e ana$y*i* of t-e *econ'
'ream5i'ea -it a$$ t-e more rea'i$y ./on *in,$e a**ociation* w-ic- -a&e *omet-in, in
common wit- t-e a**ociation* of t-e fir*t c-ain. %e t-en ima,ine* t-at -e -a* fo.n' a
t-o.,-t w-ic- re/re*ent* a /oint of 6.nction between two of t-e 'ream5e$ement*. A* -e
a$$ow* -im*e$f a$$ /o**ib$e free'om of t-o.,-t5connection# e=ce/tin, on$y t-e tran*ition*
from one i'ea to anot-er w-ic- occ.r in norma$ t-inkin,# it i* not 'iffic.$t for -im fina$$y
to concoct o.t of a *erie* of @interme'iary t-o.,-t*1# *omet-in, w-ic- -e ca$$* t-e
'reamt-o.,-t*<
an' wit-o.t any ,.arantee# *ince t-ey are ot-erwi*e .nknown# -e /a$m* t-e*e
off a* t-e /*yc-ic e;.i&a$ent of t-e 'ream. 0.t a$$ t-i* i* a /.re$y arbitrary /roce'.re# an
in,enio.*5$ookin, e=/$oitation of c-ance# an' anyone w-o wi$$ ,o to t-i* .*e$e** tro.b$e
can in t-i* way work o.t any 'e*ire' inter/retation for any 'ream w-ate&er.
If *.c- ob6ection* are rea$$y a'&ance' a,ain*t .*# we may in 'efence refer to t-e
im/re**ion /ro'.ce' by o.r 'ream5inter/retation*# t-e *.r/ri*in, connection* wit- ot-er
'ream5e$ement* w-ic- a//ear w-i$e we are fo$$owin, ./ t-e in'i&i'.a$ i'ea*# an' t-e
im/robabi$ity t-at anyt-in, w-ic- *o /erfect$y co&er* an' e=/$ain* t-e 'ream a* 'o o.r
'ream5inter/retation* co.$' be ac-ie&e' ot-erwi*e t-an by fo$$owin, /re&io.*$y
e*tab$i*-e' /*yc-ic connection*. +e mi,-t a$*o /oint to t-e fact t-at t-e /roce'.re in
'ream5inter/retation i* i'entica$ wit- t-e /roce'.re fo$$owe' in t-e re*o$.tion of
-y*terica$ *ym/tom*# w-ere t-e correctne** of t-e met-o' i* atte*te' by t-e emer,ence
an' 'i*a//earance of t-e *ym/tom* 55 t-at i*# w-ere t-e inter/retation of t-e te=t i*
confirme' by t-e inter/o$ate' i$$.*tration*. 0.t we -a&e no rea*on to a&oi' t-i* /rob$em 5
5 name$y# -ow one can arri&e at a /re5e=i*tent aim by fo$$owin, an arbitrari$y an'
aim$e**$y mean'erin, c-ain of t-o.,-t* 55 *ince we *-a$$ be ab$e not to *o$&e t-e
/rob$em# it i* tr.e# b.t to ,et ri' of it entire$y.
For it i* 'emon*trab$y incorrect to *tate t-at we aban'on o.r*e$&e* to an aim$e**
e=c.r*ion of t-o.,-t w-en# a* in t-e inter/retation of 'ream*# we reno.nce ref$ection an'
a$$ow t-e in&o$.ntary i'ea* to come to t-e *.rface. It can be *-own t-at we are ab$e to
re6ect on$y t-o*e 'irectin, i'ea* w-ic- are known to .*# an' t-at wit- t-e ce**ation of
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t-e*e t-e .nknown 55 or# a* we ine=act$y *ay# .ncon*cio.* 55 'irectin, i'ea* imme'iate$y
e=ert t-eir inf$.ence# an' -encefort- 'etermine t-e f$ow of t-e in&o$.ntary i'ea*.
T-inkin, wit-o.t 'irectin, i'ea* cannot be en*.re' by any inf$.ence we o.r*e$&e* e=ert
on o.r own /*yc-ic $ife< neit-er 'o I know of any *tate of /*yc-ic 'eran,ement in w-ic-
*.c- a mo'e of t-o.,-t e*tab$i*-e* it*e$f.1" T-e /*yc-iatri*t* -a&e -ere far too
/remat.re$y re$in;.i*-e' t-e i'ea of t-e *o$i'ity of t-e /*yc-ic *tr.ct.re. I know t-at an
.nre,.$ate' *tream of t-o.,-t*# 'e&oi' of 'irectin, i'ea*# can occ.r a* $itt$e in t-e rea$m
of -y*teria an' /aranoia a* in t-e formation or *o$.tion of 'ream*. Per-a/* it 'oe* not
occ.r at a$$ in t-e en'o,eno.* /*yc-ic affection*# an'# accor'in, to t-e in,enio.*
-y/ot-e*i* of ?a.ret# e&en t-e 'e$iria ob*er&e' in conf.*e' /*yc-ic *tate* -a&e meanin,
an' are incom/re-en*ib$e to .* on$y beca.*e of ommi**ion*. I -a&e -a' t-e *ame
con&iction w-ene&er I -a&e -a' an o//ort.nity of ob*er&in, *.c- *tate*. T-e 'e$iria are
t-e work of a cen*or*-i/ w-ic- no $on,er make* any effort to concea$ it* *way# w-ic-#
in*tea' of $en'in, it* *.//ort to a re&i*ion t-at i* no $on,er obno=io.* to it# cance$*
re,ar'$e**$y anyt-in, to w-ic- it ob6ect*# t-.* ca.*in, t-e remnant to a//ear
'i*connecte'# T-i* cen*or*-i/ /rocee'* $ike t-e R.**ian cen*or*-i/ of t-e frontier# w-ic-
a$$ow* on$y t-o*e forei,n 6o.rna$* w-ic- -a&e -a' certain /a**a,e* b$acke' o.t to fa$$
into t-e -an'* of t-e rea'er* to be /rotecte'.
T-e free /$ay of i'ea* fo$$owin, any c-ain of a**ociation* may /er-a/* occ.r in ca*e* of
'e*tr.cti&e or,anic affection* of t-e brain. +-at# -owe&er# i* taken to be *.c- in t-e
/*yc-one.ro*e* may a$way* be e=/$aine' a* t-e inf$.ence of t-e cen*or*-i/ on a *erie* of
t-o.,-t* w-ic- -a&e been /.*-e' into t-e fore,ro.n' by t-e concea$e' 'irectin, i'ea*.11
It -a* been con*i'ere' an .nmi*takab$e *i,n of free a**ociation .nenc.mbere' by
'irectin, i'ea* if t-e emer,in, i'ea* 3or ima,e*4 a//ear to be connecte' by mean* of t-e
*o5ca$$e' *./erficia$ a**ociation* 55 t-at i*# by a**onance# &erba$ ambi,.ity# an' tem/ora$
coinci'ence# wit-o.t inner re$ation*-i/ of meanin,< in ot-er wor'*# if t-ey are connecte'
by a$$ t-o*e a**ociation* w-ic- we a$$ow o.r*e$&e* to e=/$oit in wit an' in /$ayin, ./on
wor'*. T-i* 'i*tin,.i*-in, mark -o$'* ,oo' wit- a**ociation* w-ic- $ea' .* from t-e
e$ement* of t-e 'ream5content to t-e interme'iary t-o.,-t*# an' from t-e*e to t-e
'reamt-o.,-t*
/ro/er< in many ana$y*e* of 'ream* we -a&e fo.n' *.r/ri*in, e=am/$e* of t-i*.
In t-e*e no connection wa* too $oo*e an' no wittici*m too ob6ectionab$e to *er&e a* a
bri',e from one t-o.,-t to anot-er. 0.t t-e correct .n'er*tan'in, of *.c- *.r/ri*in,
to$erance i* not far to *eek. ;henever one ps$chic element is connected "ith another %$
an o%noious and superficial association, there eists also a correct and more profound
connection %et"een the t"o, "hich succum%s to the resistance of the censorship.
T-e correct e=/$anation for t-e /re'ominance of t-e *./erficia$ a**ociation* i* t-e
/re**.re of t-e cen*or*-i/# an' not t-e *.//re**ion of t-e 'irectin, i'ea*. +-ene&er t-e
cen*or*-i/ ren'er* t-e norma$ connecti&e /at-* im/a**ab$e# t-e *./erficia$ a**ociation*
wi$$ re/$ace t-e 'ee/er one* in t-e re/re*entation. It i* a* t-o.,- in a mo.ntaino.* re,ion
a ,enera$ interr./tion of traffic# for e=am/$e an in.n'ation# *-o.$' ren'er t-e broa'
-i,-way* im/a**ab$e: traffic wo.$' t-en -a&e to be maintaine' by *tee/ an' incon&enient
track* .*e' at ot-er time* on$y by t-e -.nter.
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+e can -ere 'i*tin,.i*- two ca*e* w-ic-# -owe&er# are e**entia$$y one. In t-e fir*t ca*e#
t-e cen*or*-i/ i* 'irecte' on$y a,ain*t t-e connection of two t-o.,-t* w-ic-# bein,
'etac-e' from one anot-er# e*ca/e it* o//o*ition. T-e two t-o.,-t* t-en enter
*.cce**i&e$y into con*cio.*ne**< t-eir connection remain* concea$e'< b.t in it* /$ace
t-ere occ.r* to .* a *./erficia$ connection between t-e two w-ic- wo.$' not ot-erwi*e
-a&e occ.rre' to .*# an' w-ic- a* a r.$e connect* wit- anot-er an,$e of t-e conce/t.a$
com/$e= in*tea' of t-at from w-ic- t-e *.//re**e' b.t e**entia$ connection /rocee'*. Or#
in t-e *econ' ca*e# bot- t-o.,-t*# owin, to t-eir content# *.cc.mb to t-e cen*or*-i/< bot-
t-en a//ear not in t-eir correct form b.t in a mo'ifie'# *.b*tit.te' form< an' bot-
*.b*tit.te' t-o.,-t* are *o *e$ecte' a* to re/re*ent# by a *./erficia$ a**ociation# t-e
e**entia$ re$ation w-ic- e=i*te' between t-o*e t-at t-ey -a&e re/$ace'. *nder the
pressure of the censorship, the displacement of a normal and vital association %$ one
superficial and apparentl$ a%surd has thus occurred in %oth cases.
0eca.*e we know of t-e*e 'i*/$acement*# we .n-e*itatin,$y re$y ./on e&en t-e
*./erficia$ a**ociation* w-ic- occ.r in t-e co.r*e of 'ream5inter/retation.1
T-e /*yc-oana$y*i* of ne.rotic* make* ab.n'ant .*e of t-e two /rinci/$e*: t-at wit- t-e
aban'onment of t-e con*cio.* 'irectin, i'ea* t-e contro$ o&er t-e f$ow of i'ea* i*
tran*ferre' to t-e concea$e' 'irectin, i'ea*< an' t-at *./erficia$ a**ociation* are on$y a
'i*/$acement5*.b*tit.te for *.//re**e' an' more /rofo.n' one*. In'ee'# /*yc-oana$y*i*
make* t-e*e two /rinci/$e* t-e fo.n'ation *tone* of it* tec-ni;.e. +-en I re;.e*t a
/atient to 'i*mi** a$$ ref$ection# an' to re/ort to me w-ate&er come* into -i* min'# I
firm$y c$in, to t-e a**.m/tion t-at -e wi$$ not be ab$e to 'ro/ t-e 'irectin, i'ea of t-e
treatment# an' I fee$ 6.*tifie' in conc$.'in, t-at w-at -e re/ort*# e&en t-o.,- it may *eem
to be ;.ite in,en.o.* an' arbitrary# -a* *ome connection wit- -i* morbi' *tate. Anot-er
'irectin, i'ea of w-ic- t-e /atient -a* no *.*/icion i* my own /er*ona$ity. T-e f.$$
a//reciation# a* we$$ a* t-e 'etai$e' /roof of bot- t-e*e e=/$anation*# be$on,* to t-e
'e*cri/tion of t-e /*yc-oana$ytic tec-ni;.e a* a t-era/e.tic met-o'. +e -a&e -ere
reac-e' one of t-e 6.nction*# *o to */eak# at w-ic- we /.r/o*e$y 'ro/ t-e *.b6ect of
'ream5inter/retation.12
Of a$$ t-e ob6ection* rai*e'# on$y one i* 6.*tifie' an' *ti$$ remain* to be met: name$y# t-at
we o.,-t not to a*cribe a$$ t-e a**ociation* of t-e inter/retation5work to t-e noct.rna$
'ream5work. 0y inter/retation in t-e wakin, *tate we are act.a$$y o/enin, a /at- r.nnin,
back from t-e 'ream5e$ement* to t-e 'ream5t-o.,-t*. T-e 'ream5work -a* fo$$owe' t-e
contrary 'irection# an' it i* not at a$$ /robab$e t-at t-e*e /at-* are e;.a$$y /a**ab$e in
o//o*ite 'irection*. On t-e contrary# it a//ear* t-at '.rin, t-e 'ay# by mean* of new
t-o.,-t5connection*# we *ink *-aft* t-at *trike t-e interme'iary t-o.,-t* an' t-e
'reamt-o.,-t*
now in t-i* /$ace# now in t-at. +e can *ee -ow t-e recent t-o.,-t5materia$ of
t-e 'ay force* it* way into t-e inter/retation5*erie*# an' -ow t-e a''itiona$ re*i*tance
w-ic- -a* a//eare' *ince t-e ni,-t /robab$y com/e$* it to make new an' f.rt-er 'eto.r*.
0.t t-e n.mber an' form of t-e co$$atera$* w-ic- we t-.* contri&e '.rin, t-e 'ay are#
/*yc-o$o,ica$$y */eakin,# in'ifferent# *o $on, a* t-ey /oint t-e way to t-e 'reamt-o.,-t*
w-ic- we are *eekin,.
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1 Simi$ar &iew* are e=/re**e' by Fo.ca.$t an' Tannery.
cf5 The 2s$chopatholo'$ of &ver$da$ Life.
2 T-i* /erem/tory *tatement: @+-ate&er 'i*t.rb* t-e /ro,re** of t-e work i* a re*i*tance1
mi,-t ea*i$y be mi*.n'er*too'. It -a*# of co.r*e# t-e *i,nificance mere$y of a tec-nica$
r.$e# a warnin, for t-e ana$y*t. It i* not 'enie' t-at '.rin, an ana$y*i* e&ent* may occ.r
w-ic- cannot be a*cribe' to t-e intention of t-e /er*on ana$y*e'. T-e /atient1* fat-er may
'ie in ot-er way* t-an by bein, m.r'ere' by t-e /atient# or a war may break o.t an'
interr./t t-e ana$y*i*. 0.t 'e*/ite t-e ob&io.* e=a,,eration of t-e abo&e *tatement t-ere
i* *ti$$ *omet-in, new an' .*ef.$ in it. E&en if t-e 'i*t.rbin, e&ent i* rea$ an'
in'e/en'ent of t-e /atient# t-e e=tent of t-e 'i*t.rbin, inf$.ence 'oe* often 'e/en' on$y
on -im# an' t-e re*i*tance re&ea$* it*e$f .nmi*takab$y in t-e rea'y an' immo'erate
e=/$oitation of *.c- an o//ort.nity.
7 A* an e=am/$e of t-e *i,nificance of 'o.bt an' .ncertainty in a 'ream wit- a
*im.$taneo.* *-rinkin, of t-e 'ream5content to a *in,$e e$ement I wi$$ cite from my
Introductor$ Lectures on 2s$choanal$sis t-e fo$$owin, 'ream# t-e ana$y*i* of w-ic- wa*
*.cce**f.$# 'e*/ite a *-ort /o*t/onement:
! sceptical lad$ patient has a rather lon' dream, in "hich it happens that certain persons
tell her of m$ %oo( on ;it, and praise it hi'hl$5 Then somethin' is said a%out a )channel+,
perhaps another %oo( in "hich )channel+ occurs, or somethin' else to do "ith )channel+, 5
5 5 she doesn+t (no"6 it is 0uite va'ue.
Ho. wi$$# of co.r*e# be inc$ine' to t-ink t-at t-e e$ement @c-anne$1 wi$$ re*i*t ana$y*i*#
beca.*e it i* *o in'eterminate. Ho. are ri,-t in a**.min, t-i* 'iffic.$ty# b.t it i* not
'iffic.$t beca.*e it i* &a,.e< it i* &a,.e for t-e rea*on t-at make* t-e inter/retation
'iffic.$t. T-e 'reamer co.$' a**ociate not-in, wit- @c-anne$1< an' of co.r*e I co.$' not
*.,,e*t anyt-in,. A $itt$e w-i$e $ater 55 t-e fo$$owin, 'ay# to be /reci*e 55 *-e *tate' t-at
*omet-in, 'i' occ.r to -er w-ic- perhaps referre' to @c-anne$1. It wa*# a* a matter of
fact# a wittici*m w-ic- *-e -a' -ear' *omeone re/eat. On a *teamer r.nnin, between
Do&er an' (a$ai* a we$$5known writer wa* ta$kin, to an En,$i*-man# w-o in a certain
connection ;.ote' t-e a/-ori*m: Du su%lime au ridicule il n+$ a 0u+un pas. T-e writer
retorte': 8ui, le pas de Calais# w-ereby -e wi*-e' to im/$y t-at -e t-o.,-t France
*.b$ime an' En,$an' ri'ic.$o.*. 0.t t-e 2as de Calais i* a c-anne$# t-e Canal la Manche
3t-e *$ee&e c-anne$4. Do I t-ink t-at t-i* a**ociation -a* anyt-in, to 'o wit- t-e 'reamI I
certain$y 'o< it rea$$y f.rni*-e* t-e *o$.tion of t-i* eni,matica$ 'ream5e$ement. (an yo.
'o.bt t-at t-i* wittici*m a$rea'y e=i*te'# before t-e 'ream# a* t-e .ncon*cio.* of t-e
e$ement @c-anne$1< can yo. a**.me t-at it wa* *.b*e;.ent$y in&ente' a* an a**ociationI
T-e a**ociation te*tifie* to t-e *ce/tici*m concea$e' be-in' -er obtr.*i&e a'miration# an'
t-e re*i*tance i*# of co.r*e# t-e common rea*on for bot- -er -e*itation in fin'in, an
a**ociation an' t-e in'efinite c-aracter of t-e corre*/on'in, 'ream5e$ement. Note t-e
re$ation of t-e 'ream5e$ement to t-e .ncon*cio.* in t-i* ca*e. It i* $ike a fra,ment of t-i*
.ncon*cio.*# $ike an a$$.*ion to it< by it* i*o$ation it -a* become ;.ite .ninte$$i,ib$e.
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8 (oncernin, t-e intention of for,ettin, in ,enera$# *ee my The 2s$chopatholo'$ of
&ver$da$ Life.
9 S.c- correction* in t-e .*e of forei,n $an,.a,e* are not rare in 'ream*# b.t t-ey are
.*.a$$y attrib.te' to forei,ner*. Ma.ry# w-i$e -e wa* *t.'yin, En,$i*-# once 'reame'
t-at -e informe' *omeone t-at -e -a' ca$$e' on -im t-e 'ay before in t-e fo$$owin,
wor'*: @I ca$$e' for yo. ye*ter'ay.1 T-e ot-er an*were'# correct$y: @Ho. mean: I ca$$e' on
yo. ye*ter'ay.1
: Erne*t >one* 'e*cribe* an ana$o,o.* ca*e of fre;.ent occ.rrence< '.rin, t-e ana$y*i* of
one 'ream anot-er 'ream of t-e *ame ni,-t i* often reca$$e' w-ic- .nti$ t-en wa* not
mere$y for,otten# b.t wa* not e&en *.*/ecte'.
D Tran*$ate' by A. A. 0ri$$# >o.rna$ of Ner&o.* an' Menta$ Di*ea*e* P.b$i*-in, (o.# New
Hork.
! Dream* w-ic- -a&e occ.rre' '.rin, t-e fir*t year* of c-i$'-oo'# an' w-ic- -a&e
*ometime* been retaine' in t-e memory for 'eca'e* wit- /erfect *en*oria$ fre*-ne**# are
a$mo*t a$way* of ,reat im/ortance for t-e .n'er*tan'in, of t-e 'e&e$o/ment an' t-e
ne.ro*i* of t-e 'reamer. T-e ana$y*i* of t-em /rotect* t-e /-y*ician from error* an'
.ncertaintie* w-ic- mi,-t conf.*e -im e&en t-eoretica$$y.
1" On$y recent$y -a* my attention been ca$$e' to t-e fact t-at E'. &on %artmann took t-e
*ame &iew wit- re,ar' to t-i* /*yc-o$o,ica$$y im/ortant /oint: Inci'enta$ to t-e
'i*c.**ion of t-e ro$e of t-e .ncon*cio.* in arti*tic creation 32hilos5 d5 *n%e".# 0'. 1#
Ab*c-n. 0.# Fa/. K4 E'.ar' &on %artmann c$ear$y en.nciate' t-e $aw of a**ociation of
i'ea* w-ic- i* 'irecte' by .ncon*cio.* 'irectin, i'ea*# wit-o.t -owe&er rea$i*in, t-e
*co/e of t-i* $aw. +it- -im it wa* a ;.e*tion of 'emon*tratin, t-at @e&ery combination of
a *en*.o.* i'ea w-en it i* not $eft entire$y to c-ance# b.t i* 'irecte' to a 'efinite en'# i* in
nee' of -e$/ from t-e .ncon*cio.*1# an' t-at t-e con*cio.* intere*t in any /artic.$ar
t-o.,-t5a**ociation i* a *tim.$.* for t-e .ncon*cio.* to 'i*co&er from amon, t-e
n.mber$e** /o**ib$e i'ea* t-e one w-ic- corre*/on'* to t-e 'irectin, i'ea. @It i* t-e
.ncon*cio.* t-at *e$ect*# an' a//ro/riate$y# in accor'ance wit- t-e aim* of t-e intere*t:
an' t-i* -o$'* tr.e for t-e associations in a%stract thin(in' 9as sensi%le representations
and artistic com%inations as "ell as for flashes of "it4.1 %ence# a $imitin, of t-e
a**ociation of i'ea* to i'ea* t-at e&oke an' are e&oke' in t-e *en*e of /.re
a**ociation/*yc-o$o,y
i* .ntenab$e. S.c- a re*triction @wo.$' be 6.*tifie' on$y if t-ere were *tate* in
-.man $ife in w-ic- man wa* free not on$y from any con*cio.* /.r/o*e# b.t a$*o from t-e
'omination or co5o/eration of any .ncon*cio.* intere*t# any /a**in, moo'. 0.t *.c- a
*tate -ar'$y e&er come* to /a**# for even if one leaves one+s train of thou'ht seemin'l$
alto'ether to chance, or if one surrenders oneself entirel$ to the involuntar$ dreams of
fantas$, $et al"a$s other leadin' interests, dominant feelin's and moods prevail at one
time rather than another, and these "ill al"a$s eert an influence on the association of
ideas.1 32hilos5 d5 *n%e".# 11e A.f$. i# 794. In *emi5con*cio.* 'ream* t-ere a$way*
a//ear on$y *.c- i'ea* a* corre*/on' to t-e 3.ncon*cio.*4 momentary main intere*t. 0y
ren'erin, /rominent t-e fee$in,* an' moo'* o&er t-e free t-o.,-t5*erie*# t-e met-o'ica$
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/roce'.re of /*yc-oana$y*i* i* t-oro.,-$y 6.*tifie' e&en from t-e *tan'/oint of
%artmann1* P*yc-o$o,y 3N. E. Po-ori$$e*# Internat5 Ieitschrift5 f5 2s5!.# 1# 1!12# /. 9"84. 5
5 D. Pre$ conc$.'e* from t-e fact t-at a name w-ic- we &ain$y try to reca$$ *.''en$y
occ.r* to t-e min' t-at t-ere i* an .ncon*cio.* b.t none t-e $e** /.r/o*ef.$ t-inkin,#
w-o*e re*.$t t-en a//ear* in con*cio.*ne** 32hilos5 d5 M$sti(# /. 1":4.
11 >.n, -a* bri$$iant$y corroborate' t-i* *tatement by ana$y*e* of 'ementia /raeco=. 3cf.
The 2s$cholo'$ of Dementia 2raeco# tran*$ate' by A. A. 0ri$$. Mono,ra/- Serie*#
>o.rna$ of Ner&o.* an' Menta$ Di*ea*e* P.b$i*-in, (o.# New Hork.4
1 T-e *ame con*i'eration* nat.ra$$y -o$' ,oo' of t-e ca*e in w-ic- *./erficia$
a**ociation* are e=/o*e' in t-e 'ream5content# a*# for e=am/$e# in bot- t-e 'ream*
re/orte' by Ma.ry 3/. 8"# p,lerina'e4pelletier4pelle, (ilometre4(ilo'rams4'ilolo,
Lo%elia4
Lope?4Lotto4. I know from my work wit- ne.rotic* w-at kin' of remini*cence i* /rone to
re/re*ent it*e$f in t-i* manner. It i* t-e con*.$tation of encyc$o/e'ia* by w-ic- mo*t
/eo/$e -a&e *ati*fie' t-eir nee' of an e=/$anation of t-e *e=.a$ my*tery w-en ob*e**e'
by t-e c.rio*ity of /.berty.
12 T-e abo&e *tatement*# w-ic- w-en written *o.n'e' &ery im/robab$e# -a&e *ince been
corroborate' an' a//$ie' e=/erimenta$$y by >.n, an' -i* /./i$* in t-e Dia'nostiche
!sso?iationsstudien.
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:
1! REGRESSION
Now t-at we -a&e 'efen'e' o.r*e$&e* a,ain*t t-e ob6ection* rai*e'# or -a&e at $ea*t
in'icate' o.r wea/on* of 'efence# we m.*t no $on,er 'e$ay enterin, ./on t-e
/*yc-o$o,ica$ in&e*ti,ation* for w-ic- we -a&e *o $on, been /re/arin,. ?et .* *.mmari*e
t-e main re*.$t* of o.r recent in&e*ti,ation*: T-e 'ream i* a /*yc-ic act f.$$ of im/ort< it*
moti&e /ower i* in&aria