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Section 4C Bonding and Structure III (Intermediate Type of Bonding)

Section 4C Bonding and Structure III (Intermediate Type of Bonding)

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Modern College F.

6 Chemistry (2009 – 10)

Section 4C

Name: ______________________________ Class: _______________ Class No.: ____________
Prepared by Mr. Chau Chi Keung, Richard Page 1

Modern College F.6 Chemistry (2009 – 10)

Section 4C

Prepared by Mr. Chau Chi Keung, Richard

Page 2

Modern College F.6 Chemistry (2009 – 10)

Section 4C

4.13 Incomplete Electron Transfer in Ionic Compounds
4.13.1. Theoretical values of lattice enthalpy

Lattice enthalpy: The enthalpy change when one mole of an ionic crystal is formed from its constituent ions in the gaseous state under standard conditions (在 標準 條件 下, 由 相 互分離的氣態陽離子和氣態陰離子生成一摩爾離子晶體時所釋放的能量。 ) mAn+(g) + nBm–(g) → AmBn(s) ΔH = ∆ Hlattice (in kJmol–1) It is a measure of the strength of ionic bonds in an ionic compound.

Based on the principles of electrostatics, we have,
Z+ Z− E∝ + r + r−

 N A Z + Z −e 2  E = k   4 π εr  o  

Z+ and Z–: Charge of cation and anion r+ and r–: Internuclear distance = sum of radii of cation and anion (r = r+ + r–)  Such calculation is actually based on two assumptions:

The ionic crystal is made up of perfectly spherical ions with uniform distribution of charge (離子是完全球體,電荷均勻分佈). The ions are just touching with each other with electrostatic interactions in between (i.e. no sharing of electrons) (陽離子和陰離子剛剛互相接觸).

Basically, we assumed that the compound is purely ionic.

4.13.2. Comparison of experimental and theoretical values of lattice enthalpies

However, the reality is always not that simple. The following table shows the comparison of experimental and theoretical values of lattice enthalpies of some ionic compounds: Compound Theoretical value / kJmol–1 (From Experimental value / kJmol–1 the pure ionic model) (From Born-Haber cycle) NaCl –770 –781 NaBr –735 –742 NaI –687 –705 KCl –702 –711 KBr –674 –679 KI –636 –643 AgCl –770 –905 AgBr –758 –891 AgI –736 –876 ZnS –3427 –3615 There is good agreement between the theoretical and experimental values of L.E. for the alkali metal halides. Page 3

Prepared by Mr. Chau Chi Keung, Richard

Modern College F.6 Chemistry (2009 – 10)

Section 4C

This close agreement provides evidence that the simple model of an ionic lattice composed of discrete spherical ions with evenly distributed charges would be a satisfactory one in the case of alkali metal halides.

However, there are great discrepancies between the theoretical values and the experimental values of silver halides and zinc sulphide.

For examples, the theoretical values for silver halides are approximately 130 kJ mol -1 (i.e. about 15%) less negative than the experimental values. This suggests that the bonding in silver halides is stronger than the prediction based on the ionic model. Besides, the differences also imply that these compounds seem unlikely to be made up of separate, individual ions. Instead, a significant amount of covalent character might be present in these compounds. In other words, the bonding in silver halides is not pure ionic but is an intermediate between ionic and covalent.

Therefore, we should not make hard and fast generalization about the nature of bonding in compounds such as silver halides.

Take silver iodide (AgI) as an example, it has a high melting point (558 °C) and it conducts electricity when molten. Both are consistent with the common properties of ionic compound. However, the values in L.E. show that AgI has a considerable covalent character.


The partly covalent nature of the ionic bonds in zinc sulphide and silver halides can be interpreted by the idea that electrons are incompletely transferred in forming the ionic compounds and such phenomenon is called polarization of ions (離子的極化).

4.13.3. Polarization of ions

The polarization of ion represents the emergence of covalent character in ionic compounds due to incomplete transfer of electrons.
 

It is assumed that the transfer of electron in an ionic compound is complete. However, in reality, when an ionic bond is formed between the cation X+ and anion Y–, owing to its charge, the X+ ion would tend to attract the outer electrons in the charge cloud of Y–. This causes a displacement of the outer electrons of Y– back to X+. The electronic clouds of the ions are distorted. For this reason, the outer electron of X is not completely transferred to Y. The electrons in one ion are not only confined to the charge cloud of that ion, but shared with the neighboring ions. The ionic bond formed is said to have some covalent character. Page 4

Prepared by Mr. Chau Chi Keung, Richard

Modern College F.6 Chemistry (2009 – 10)

Section 4C

This effect can be represented diagrammatically as in the following figure:

 

The degree of polarization is a measure of covalent character of an ionic compound. In the polarization of ions, the cations take the active role (∵ they attract electrons):

The tendency for a cation to attract electrons and distort an anion (i.e. polarize an anion) is called polarizing power (極化能力). Polarizing power of a cation increases as its charge density ( 電 荷 密 度 ) (charge/volume ratio) increases. The ease with which an electron cloud of the anion is distorted by adjacent cation is called polarizability (極化性 / 被極化能力). Polarizability of an anion increases as its size increases. If the electrons are far from the nucleus, they will experience less nuclear control ⇒ Easier to be attracted towards the cation ⇒ More polarizable Take AgI as an example, the iodide ion is the largest among the halides ions. It is said to be highly polarizable as its outer electrons are far away from the nuclear control. Thus, a silver ion might attract the electron cloud around the iodide ion, thus producing a certain amount of covalent character.

For anions, they are considered as “being polarized”:


There are some general rules concerning the polarization of ionic bonds to be considered (called Fajan’s rules):

The polarizing power of a cation is increased as the ionic size is reduced.

Example: Polarizing power of ions of Group II metals: Be2+ > Mg2+ > Ca2+ > Sr2+ > Ba2+ In this series, beryllium ion is the smallest cation with the greatest polarizing power. Therefore, when comparing the chlorides of these five elements, BeCl2 has the greatest covalent character. This can be indicated by their melting points: BeCl2 (405°C), MgCl2 (714°C), CaCl2 (772°C), SrCl2 (872°C), BaCl2 (960°C)

The polarizing power of a cation is increased as the ionic charge is increased.

Example: Polarizing power of ions of period 3 elements: Page 5

Prepared by Mr. Chau Chi Keung, Richard

Modern College F.6 Chemistry (2009 – 10) Al3+ > Mg2+ > Na+

Section 4C

In this series, aluminium ion is the cation with the highest charge so its polarizing power will be the highest. Therefore, when comparing the chlorides of these elements, NaCl is predominantly (mainly) ionic while AlCl3 is predominantly covalent.

An ionic compound will have appreciable covalent character if the anion is large (polarizability of anion increases as the ionic size increases).

Polarizability of halide ions: I– > Br– > Cl– > F– Similarly, for ions of Group VI elements S2– > O2–

Transition metal ions such as Zn2+ and Ag+ appear to have higher polarizing power
♦ ♦

This is because the d electrons do not effectively shield the nuclear charge. As a result, ions of transition metal are usually much smaller than the ions of main group metals and hence these cations have higher charge density ( ⇒ higher polarizing power).

There exist other evidences which show that some ionic compounds contain some covalent characters. For example:

Ionic compounds with large degree of polarization may be soluble in organic solvent (have low solubility in water).

LiCl (quite covalent) is very soluble in ethanol and diethyl ether, but NaCl (nearly purely ionic) is insoluble. For the silver halides, the higher the covalent character, the less soluble in water. AgF > AgCl > AgBr > AgI

The melting points and boiling points of ionic compounds with high degree of polarization are usually quite low because these compounds are very similar to simple molecular substances. In contrast, compounds which are predominantly ionic usually have high melting and boiling points.

Example 1
Arrange and explain the following compounds in increasing order of boiling points AlF3, AlCl3, AlBr3 and AlI3 AlI3 < AlBr3 < AlCl3 < AlF3. Going down the Group VII from F– to I–, the size of anion increases and the electron cloud becomes easier to be distorted. It results in more polarization and the compound will have more covalent characters. The greater the covalent character of the compound and the lower the b.p. Thus AlI 3 would have the highest degree of covalent character and hence the lowest b.p. Prepared by Mr. Chau Chi Keung, Richard Page 6

Modern College F.6 Chemistry (2009 – 10)

Section 4C

4.14 Polarity of Covalent Bonds
4.14.1. Electronegativity (電負性 /電負度 ) revisited

Electronegativity is a measure of tendency of an atom in a stable molecule to attract electrons within a bond (原子在分子中吸引鍵合電子的相對能力). One commonly used method to measure the electronegativity is the Pauling scale of electronegativity (鮑林電負性標度).

Pauling defined the electronegativity of an atom as the power of that atom in a molecule to attract electrons. In contrast with electron affinity, it is a measure of the power of a single gaseous atom to attract electrons. The scale is from 0 to 4, electronegativity of monoatomic molecules (i.e. noble gases) is set as 0, while 4 (maximum) is assigned to the most electronegative atom, fluorine. This can be explained in term of the increase in effective nuclear charge across a period. Although an extra electron is also added for each element, this does not fully shield the effect of the increase nuclear charge. An increase in effective nuclear charge makes the attraction for the bonded electrons increase. This occurs because, in moving down a group, the screening of the atoms increases and the attractive force of the shielded nucleus is therefore reduced.

In general, electronegativity values increase from left to right across each period

Electronegativity decreases when going down each group

Prepared by Mr. Chau Chi Keung, Richard

Page 7

Modern College F.6 Chemistry (2009 – 10)

Section 4C

4.14.2. Polarization of covalent bonds

A covalent bond is said to be “pure” if there is an equal electron sharing between the bonded atoms. Examples include diatomic molecules like H2 and Cl2.

In some covalent bonds, there may be unequal sharing of the bonded electron pairs. Take HCl molecule as an example.

This leads to distortion of electron cloud. Such phenomenon is called polarization of covalent bond (or simply “bond polarization”) (鍵極化). It is caused by a difference in electronegativity between the bonded atoms. For example, in HCl molecule, since chlorine is more electronegative than hydrogen, the bonding electrons will be drawn closer to the chlorine atom as shown above. The resulting covalent bond is called a polar covalent bond (極性共價鍵). This type of bonding has a partial positive charge (δ+) ( 部 份 正 電 荷 ) on the less electronegative atom and a partial negative charge (δ–) ( 部 份 負 電 荷 ) on the more electronegative atom due to unequal sharing of electron. The Greek letter δ (Delta) is used to indicate that the charges are small. It can be generalized that polarity of a chemical bond is related to the difference in electronegativity between the two bonded atoms. The larger the difference in electronegativity, the more polar a bond would be (more ionic character). The following table shows the relationship between bond nature and difference in electronegativity between the two bonded atoms. Molecule H2 CCl4 HCl NH3 H2O BeF2 LiF Bond H–H C–Cl H–Cl N–H O–H Be–F Li–F Difference in electronegativity 2.1 – 2.1 = 0 3.0 – 2.5 = 0.5 3.0 – 2.1 = 0.9 3.0 – 2.1 = 0.9 3.5 – 2.1 = 1.4 4.0 – 1.5 = 2.5 4.0 – 1.0 = 3.0 Bond nature Purely covalent (Equal electron sharing) Polar covalent (Unequal electron sharing) Predominantly ionic (Almost complete electron transfer) Page 8

 

 

Prepared by Mr. Chau Chi Keung, Richard

Modern College F.6 Chemistry (2009 – 10)

Section 4C

The plot showing the relationship between nature of bonding and difference in electronegativity

It should be noted that pure ionic or covalent bonds are extreme cases. Actually there are many compounds having intermediate types of bonding. In general, the bond can be regarded as predominantly ionic when the difference in electronegativity is greater than 1.7.

Prepared by Mr. Chau Chi Keung, Richard

Page 9

Modern College F.6 Chemistry (2009 – 10)

Section 4C

4.15 Polarity of Molecules
4.15.1. Measuring bond polarization – Dipole moments (偶極矩 )

Bond polarization results in the formation of a dipole ( 偶 極 ) with two equal opposite charges (+q and –q) (i.e. δ+ and δ– mentioned in the previous part) separated by a distance d.

The product between the charge (q) and the distance between the two charges gives a quantity called dipole moment (μ). That is, µ = q × d (Mathematical treatments are not required in AL)

Dipole moments are usually expressed in Debye unit (D). For example, the dipole moment of HCl molecule is 1.1 D. Dipole moment can be used as a measure of the extent of bond polarization. In other words, it reflects the polarity of a molecule (偶極矩是分子極性大小的指標). The arrow points from +q towards –q. For a molecule with more than one polar bond, the dipole moment is given by the vector sum of the dipole moments of various polar bonds. If the vector sum is zero, the dipole moment of the molecule is zero, and the molecule will be described as non-polar. The greater the resultant dipole moment, the more polar the molecule is. The difference in electronegativity between the bonded atoms and thus the degree of ionic character of individual bonds. Take the hydrogen halides as examples: Molecule μ (D) HF 1.91 HCl 1.05 HBr 0.80 HI 0.42

It should be noted that dipole moment is a vector quantity (偶極矩是一向量).
 

 

The magnitude of dipole moment of a molecule is determined by three factors:

Shape of molecules. Bond angle Bond length (this affects value of d). For example:CH3Cl (1.87 D) and CH3F (1.81 D)


4.15.2. Polar and non-polar molecules (Important)
Prepared by Mr. Chau Chi Keung, Richard Page 10

Modern College F.6 Chemistry (2009 – 10)
 

Section 4C

Dipole moment is a key factor for determining whether a molecule is polar or non-polar. Based on the fact dipole moment is a vector quantity, the shape of the molecule will determine whether a molecule has a net dipole moment or not.
 

Sometimes the dipoles may cancel out each other, giving a zero dipole moment. For example, for molecules in form of ABx (x≧2), the following shapes will give a zero dipole moment. Shape Linear Trigonal planar Molecule CO2, BeCl2 SO3, BF3 Cancelling out of the dipole moments

Tetrahedral

CH4, CCl4

Trigonal bipyramidal

PCl5

Octahedral

SF6

On the other hand, there are some shapes which the dipole will not be cancelled out. The molecules will have net dipole moments. For example: Shape V-shaped H2O Molecule Dipole moment of individual polar bond Net dipole moment

Trigonal pyramidal

NH3

Tetrahedral

CHCl3


Dipole moments can provide important structural information about a molecule. For example, the zero dipole moment of CO2 shows that the molecule must be linear such that the dipole of each C = O bond cancels out each other. Page 11

Prepared by Mr. Chau Chi Keung, Richard

Modern College F.6 Chemistry (2009 – 10)

Section 4C

On the other hand, existence of a net dipole moment for SO2 molecule indicates that the molecule contains polar bonds which are not linearly arranged. Dipole moments also affect the strength of intermolecular forces.

The interactions between polar molecules (called dipole-dipole interactions) will be stronger than that between non-polar molecules (to be discussed later). For this reason, polar molecules often have higher melting and boiling points than non-polar molecules with similar sizes.

4.15.3. Experimental evidence showing polarity of molecules

The phenomenon of polarization of covalent bonds may be readily demonstrated with the apparatus shown below.

  

The glass rod acquires positive charges by rubbing it with polythene sheet. A jet of polar liquid can be deflected by an electric field. The results obtained with a series of liquids are given below: Molecules with marked deflection Trichloromethane (CHCl3) Ethanol (CH3CH2OH) Propanone Water (H2O) Molecules showing no (or slight) deflection Tetrachloromethane (CCl4) Benzene (C6H6) Hexane (slight deflection)

The effect of E-field can be explained by the following diagrams:

Slight deflection of liquid benzene can be explained by the polarization of π electron clouds by the electric field. Dipole moments are induced in benzene molecules by the electric field. 

Example 2
Prepared by Mr. Chau Chi Keung, Richard Page 12

Modern College F.6 Chemistry (2009 – 10)

Section 4C

Example 3

Prepared by Mr. Chau Chi Keung, Richard

Page 13

Modern College F.6 Chemistry (2009 – 10)

Section 4C

Example 4

Prepared by Mr. Chau Chi Keung, Richard

Page 14

Modern College F.6 Chemistry (2009 – 10)

Section 4C

Prepared by Mr. Chau Chi Keung, Richard

Page 15

Modern College F.6 Chemistry (2009 – 10)

Section 4C

Prepared by Mr. Chau Chi Keung, Richard

Page 16

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