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\title{Spivak's Calculus}
\author{Nate Vojtik}
\date{2014-2015}
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\maketitle
\tableofcontents
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\section{Basic Properties of Numbers}
\noindent\textbf{\emph{P1)}} Associative law for addition: If $a$, $b$, and $c$
are any numbers then
\[a+(b+c)=(a+b)+c\]
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\noindent\textbf{\emph{(P2)}} Existence of an additive identity: If $a$ is any n
umber, then
\[a+0=0+a=a\]
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\noindent\textbf{\emph{(P3)}} Existence of additive inverses: For every number $
a$, there is a number $-a$ such that
\[a+(-a)=(-a)+a=0\]
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\noindent\textbf{\emph{(P4)}} Commutative law for addition: If $a$ and $b$ are a
ny numbers, then
\[a+b=b+a\]
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\noindent\textbf{\emph{(P5)}} Associative law for multiplication: If $a$, $b$, a
nd $c$ are any numbers, then
\[a\dot(b\dot c)=(a\dot b)\dot c
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\noindent\textbf{\emph{(P6)}} Existence of a multiplicative identity: If $a$ is
any number, then
\[a\dot1=1\dot a=a\]
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\noindent\textbf{\emph{(P7:)}} Existence of multiplicative inverses: For every n
umber $a \neq 0$ there is a number $a^{-1}$ such that
\[a\dot a^{-1}=a^{-1}\dot a=1\]
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\noindent\textbf{\emph{(P8:)}} Commutative law for multiplication: If $a$ and $b
$ are any numbers, then
\[a\dot b=b\dot a\]
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\noindent\textbf{\emph{(P9:)}} Distributive law: If $a$, $b$, and $c$ are any nu
mbers, then
\[a\dot(b+c)=a\dot b+a\dot c\]
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\noindent\textbf{$P$} is the set of all positive numbers
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\noindent\textbf{\emph{(P10)}} Trichotomy law: For every number $a$, one and onl
y one of the following holds:
\beginlist
\item $a=0$
\item $a$ is in the collection of $P$
\item $-a$ is in the collection of $P$
\endlist
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\noindent\textbf{\emph{(P11)}} Closure under addition: If $a$ and $b$ are in $P$
, then $a+b$ is in $P$
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\noindent\textbf{\emph{(P12)}} Closure under multiplication: If $a$ and $b$ are
in P, then $a\dot b$ is in $P$
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