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In the case of huge construction projects, proper use of the appropriate
equipment contributes to economy, quality, safety, speed and timely
completion of a project.
Equipment are use for highway projects, irrigation, buildings, power
projects etc.
15-30% of total project cost has been accounted towards equipment and
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Classification of Construction

1.Earth-moving equipment
2.Hauling equipment
3.Hoisting equipment
4.Conveying equipment
5.Aggregate and concrete production equipment
6.Pile-driving equipment
7.Tunneling and rock drilling equipment
8.Pumping and dewatering equipment

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Hauling equipment

The equipment used for transportation of material are
known as hauling equipment or simply haulers.
Haulers may operate on the roadways or railways
It involve
transportation of construction materials,
carriage and disposal of excavated earth and processed
haulage of heavy construction equipment.

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Classification of Trucks

1. The method of dumping the load- Rear-dump, Bottom- dump, Side-dump
2. The type of frame- Rigid-frame or articulated
Other types of Classification:
1. The size and type of engine- Gasoline, Diesel, Butane or Propane.
2. The kind of drive- Two-wheel, four-wheel or six-wheel
3. The number of wheels and axles and the arrangement of driving wheels
4. The class of material hauled- earth, rock, coal or ore
5. The capacity- Gravimetric(tons) or Volumetric(cubic yards)
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Durability Good with steel, less so with aluminum.
Stability Greater chance of tip-over, especially in
uneven dumping locations or off level.
Maneuverability Brilliant for unloading in tight spaces and
offers rapid unloading.
Capacity Can carry massive loads including large
demolition debris.
Construction (both road and building),
aggregate stockpiling, snow removal.

Payload Better yard capacity with typically higher

These are heavy duty trucks with strongly built
body which is hinged on the truck chassis at the
rear end and one side respectively, and can be
fitted to the rear in the case of rear dump,
through the action of hydraulic jacks.
Rear-Dump Trucks
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A side dump trailer has hydraulic rams that
tilt the body to dump material to the right
or left side of the trailer. This allows for
maximum payload, as well as rapid
unloading. The trailer also remains stable
during the dumping cycle.

Durability Good
Stability Safer for offloading
Maneuverability Unfavorable for confined load; 50 dump
angle ensures cleaner and faster work;
Dump off distance is far away leaving the
tyres undamaged; hydraulic rams allows
for rapid unloading
Capacity Carry more weight than other dump
Road, levee construction and
maintenance, excavation/pit mining
Payload Smaller cubic capacity, generally but
capable of running in multiple-trailer
construction equipment
Side-Dump Trucks
Bottom-Dump Trucks
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Durability Proven durable despite the lower weight
Stability Considerably safe in comparison to others
Maneuverability Ideal for tighter dumping areas that are
encountered in residential jobs.
Capacity Usually heavy duty and many are
equipped with 3 axles to accommodate
heavy loads.
Generally used to haul Sand, Road Base,
stock piling, material transport, re ground
asaphalt, Other loose material.
Payload These are great for gravel, and don't work
good with any kind of clay or big rocks,
cold mix asphalt or even frost.
Bottom dumps feature a clamshell dump
gate on the bottom of the trailer. When the
clamshell opens, it allows material to be
precisely laid in a windrow left and right, or
spread evenly across the rear of the trailer
when it opens front to rear.
Trucks as Hauling

High travel speeds of trucks result in
relatively low hauling costs.
They exhibit a high degree of flexibility.
Trucks, mostly can be operated over any
haul road be it firm and smooth surfaces,
and on grades which are not excessively

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Capacity of Trucks

Capacities of trucks and wagons are expressed
in three ways-
1. By the load which it will carry, expressed
gravimetrically in tons.
2. By its struck volume (cu yd).
3. By its heaped volume (cu yd).

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Capacity of Dump Trucks

The heaped capacity will vary with the height
and angle at which the material may extend
above the sides.
Wet earth or sandy clay may be hauled with
a slope of about 1:1
Dry sand or gravel may not permit a slope
greater than about 3:1

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Performance Capabilities
Of Trucks

Productive capacity of a truck depends on the following:
Size of its load
The number of trips- The number of trips per hour will
depend on the
Weight of the vehicle
The horsepower of the engine
The haul distance and the condition of haul road.
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Small Trucks

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Advantages Disadvantages
More flexible in maneuvering, which is a
benefit on short hauls
Difficult for the excavator while loading to a
small target
Have higher speeds More total spotting time lost in positioning
the target.
Less loss in production when one truck in a
fleet breaks down
More manual labor are required to haul the
Easier to balance the number of trucks with
the output of the excavator, which will
reduce the time lost by the trucks or the
Greater number of trucks increases the
investment and maintenance costs and also
increases the danger of units bunching at
the pit.
Large Trucks

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Advantages Disadvantages
Fewer trucks results in lesser investment
and maintenance costs and fewer manual
Cost of truck time at loading is greater,
especially with small excavators.
Reduces the bunching of trucks Heavier loads may increase the
maintenance costs of truck and the haul
Engines ordinarily use cheaper fuels i.e
gasoline versus diesel but it is also
location specific at times.
Largest sizes may not be permitted to
haul on highways at times and repair
parts may be difficult to obtain.
Dump Point Safety