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MODERN OPERATING SYSTEMS RIYAZ P A 16, S2 MTECH CSE MACE

MODERN OPERATING

SYSTEMS

RIYAZ P A

16, S2 MTECH CSE

MACE

CONTENTS

  • Introduction

  • Microkernel Architecture

  • Multithreading

  • Symmetric Multiprocessing

  • Distributed Operating Systems

  • Object-oriented design

  • Conclusion

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CONTENTS  Introduction  Microkernel Architecture  Multithreading  Symmetric Multiprocessing  Distributed Operating Systems 

INTRODUCTION

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INTRODUCTION 3  New design elements were introduced recently  In response to new hardware development
  • New design elements were introduced recently

  • In response to new hardware development

    • multiprocessor machines

    • high-speed networks

    • faster processors and larger memory

  • In response to new software needs

    • multimedia applications

    • Internet and Web access

    • Client/Server applications

  • MICROKERNEL ARCHITECTURE

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    MICROKERNEL ARCHITECTURE 4  Most OS featured large monolithic kernel  OS functionalities provided by the
    • Most OS featured large monolithic kernel

    • OS functionalities provided by the large kernels

      • Scheduling, file system, memory management and more

    • A monolithic kernel is implemented as a single process with all elements sharing the same address space.

    • A microkernel architecture assigns only a few functions to the kernel , including address spaces, interprocess communications (IPC) and basic scheduling.

    MICROKERNEL ARCHITECTURE…

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    MICROKERNEL ARCHITECTURE… 5  Other services are provided by processes called servers  Servers run in
    • Other services are provided by processes called servers

    • Servers run in user mode

    • This approach decouples kernel and server development.

    • Advantages

      • Simplifies implementation

      • Provides flexibility

      • Suitable to the distributed environment

    MULTITHREADING

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    MULTITHREADING 6  Multithreading is a technique in which a process executing an application is divided
    • Multithreading is a technique in which

    a process executing an

    application is divided into threads that can run concurrently

    • Threads

      • A dispatchable unit of work.

      • It includes a processor context and its own data area for stack.

      • A thread executes sequentially and is interruptable.

  • Process

    • A collection of one or more threads and associated system resources.

    • Program in execution

    • By breaking a single application to multiple threads, it will give modularity of application and timing of application-related events.

  • MULTITHREADING…

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    MULTITHREADING… 7  It is useful for applications that perform a number of essentially independent tasks
    • It is useful for applications that perform a number of essentially independent tasks that do not need to be serialized.

      • Example is a database server that listens for and processes numerous client requests

      • Less overhead for switching threads

  • Threads are useful for structuring processes that are part OS Kernel.

  • SYMMETRIC MULTIPROCESSING

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    SYMMETRIC MULTIPROCESSING 8  Characteristics  There are multiple processors  These processors share the main
    • Characteristics

      • There are multiple processors

      • These processors share the main memory and I/O facilities, interconnected by a communication bus or other internal connection scheme.

      • All processors can perform the same functions.

  • The OS of an SMP schedules processes or threads across all of the processors.

  • ADVANTAGES OF SMP OVER UNIPROCESSOR ARCHITECTURE

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     Performance : Multiprogramming and multiprocessing Figure 1: Multiprogramming and Multiprocessing
    Performance : Multiprogramming and multiprocessing
    Figure 1: Multiprogramming and Multiprocessing

    ADVANTAGES OF SMP OVER

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    UNIPROCESSOR ARCHITECTURE…

    ADVANTAGES OF SMP OVER 10 UNIPROCESSOR ARCHITECTURE…  Availability  Failure of single processor does not
    • Availability

      • Failure of single processor does not halt the machine

    • Incremental growth

      • Enhance Performance by adding a processor

    • Scaling

      • Vendors can offer a range of products with different prices and different performance characteristics.

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    SYMMETRIC MULTIPROCESSING…

    11 SYMMETRIC MULTIPROCESSING…  SMP is useful for non-threaded processes, because several process can run in
    • SMP is useful for non-threaded processes, because several process can run in parallel.

    • Existence of multiple processors is transparent to the user.

    • OS take care of scheduling of threads or processes on individual processors and of synchronization among processors.

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    DISTRIBUTED OPERATING SYSTEMS

    12 DISTRIBUTED OPERATING SYSTEMS  It provides the illusion of a single main memory space and
    • It provides the illusion of a single main memory space and a secondary memory space plus other unified access facilities such as DFS.

    • Advanatges

      • Responsiveness

      • Availability

      • Resource sharing

      • Incremental growth

      • End user productivity.

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    OBJECT ORIENTED DESIGN

    13 OBJECT ORIENTED DESIGN  Most recent innovation  It lends discipline to the process of
    • Most recent innovation

    • It lends discipline to the process of adding modular extensions to a small kernel

    • At OS level, an object-based structure enables programmers to customize the OS without disrupting system integrity

    • Object orientation also eases the development of distributed tools and full-blown distributed OS.

    CONCLUSION

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    CONCLUSION 14  Over the years , there has been a gradual evolution of OS structure
    • Over the years , there has been a gradual evolution of OS structure and capabilities.

    • In recent years a number of design elements have introduced in both new OS and new release of existing OS that create a major change in the nature of Operating Systems

    REFERENCES

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    REFERENCES 15  Operating System : Internals and Design : Seventh Edition by William Stallings Dept
    • Operating System : Internals and Design : Seventh Edition by William Stallings

    Dept of CSE, Mar Athanasius College of Engineering, Kothamangalam

    6-Aug-14

    THANK YOU

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    THANK YOU 16 Dept of CSE, Mar Athanasius College of Engineering, Kothamangalam 6-Aug-14