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1.0 Introduction

1.1 Project Background

In many industries process such as petro chemical industries, paper

making industries and water treatment industries are using the tank system to

control the liquid level. The liquid level must be controlled by the proper

controller. The objective of the controller in the level control is to maintain a level

set point at a given value and be able to accept new set point. The conventional

proportional- integral- derivative (PID) is commonly utilized in controlling the

level. On the other hand, the fuzzy logic controller (FLC) is also popularly

implemented in many practical industries application.

The use of feedback control strategies is one of the most common ways to

control a process, but it is important to consider that feedback control is an error-

driven strategy; correction to any upset in the process we want to control depends

on the error or difference between the desired value of the “controlled” variable

and its current value. By the other hand, the feed forward control strategies use

the knowledge of the process behavior to take action before a perturbation to the

process has any effect on the controlled variable. Several methods has been

discussed to implement a feed forward control strategy, one of them is steady-

state models, which is the process to determinate the value that the manipulated

variable should has to compensate the effect of perturbations on the controlled

variable.

2

1.2 Problem Statement

The control of liquid level in tanks and flow between tanks is a basic

problem in the process industries. The process industries require liquids to be

pumped, stored in tanks, then pump to another tank, as an example the water

closet (WC) toilet in our house is also a liquid level control system. The swinging

arm attached to the input valve of the WC water tank allows water to flow into

tank until the float rises to a point that closes the valve. Many times the liquids

will be processed by chemical or mixing treatment in the tanks, but always the

level of liquid in the tanks must be controlled, and the flow of the tank must be

regulated because of avoiding the water level at critically level due to

continuously operation. There are many alternative controller design theories that

can be used to control the level of liquid on tanks. Proportional integral derivative

control is one of a kind of control strategies that uses to control the level and flow

of liquid. Proportional control, PI control, PD control and PID control will be

investigate to determine which controller is the best for liquid level control.

3

1.3 Objectives

The objectives of the project are:

To analyze the current system

To improve the system response of pump using PID controller with

desired condition

i. Rise Time < 0.2s

ii. Overshoot = 20%

iii. Settling Time < 0.8s

iv. Damping in between 0.4<x <0.7

Design the PID based on the reference performance system.

1.4 Scope of Project

1.4.1 Study a mathematical modeling of the system

1.4.2 Analyze the current system in term of stability, performance specification

and response.

1.4.3 Design the system to fulfill the desired requirement related to objectives

1.4.4 Study the simulation tools MATLAB and SIMULINK for analysis and

design to express system stability, performance specification and response.

.

4

1.5 Schematic Diagram

Figure 1.5.1 - without PID

Reservoir

Pump

Tank

Figure 1.5.2 - with PID

Reservoir

Pump

Tank

Controller

Sensor

5

2.0 Mathematical Modeling

Tank :-

Mass In = Mass Out

Rate Mass In – Rate Mass Out = Accumulate fluid in tank

w (i) – w (o) = rho*

;

= A

=

()()

sH(s) =

()()

H(s) =

()()

W (i)

W (o)

Figure 2.0 - Tank

6

2.1 Block Diagram

()

()

Parameters:

A = (rho*area) = 2

a = 3

b = 1

()

()

**Figure 2.1.1 - Block Diagram
**

C P T

S

h

input

Controller Pump Tank

Sensor

7

b

U(s)

Y(s)

( )

b

Y(s)

U(s)

Y(s) U(s)

Figure 2.1.2

Figure 2.1.3

Figure 2.1.4

8

3.0 Design Using Simulink

Without PID Controller:-

Figure 3.0.1 – without PID

Figure 3.0.2 – Response without PID

9

With PID Controller:-

Figure 3.0.3 – with PID

Figure 3.0.4 – Response with PID

10

The Simulink without PID and with PID result shown as below:-

Without PID With PID

Overshoot high <20%

Rise Time high <1s

Settling Time high <1s

11

4.0 Design Using Matlab

4.0.1 Design Requirement:-

i. Rise Time < 0.2s

ii. Overshoot = 20%

iii. Settling Time < 0.8s

iv. Damping in between 0.4<x <0.7

4.0.2 Without PID:-

Figure 4.0.2 – Response without PID (Step Response, Bode Diagram,

Root Locus, Nyquist Diagram)

12

4.0.3 With PID:-

The comparison result between PID and without PID in Matlab:-

Without PID With PID

Overshoot No overshoot <20%

Rise Time 4s 5s

Settling Time 15s 20s

Figure 4.0.3 – Response with PID (Step Response, Bode Diagram,

Root Locus, Nyquist Diagram)

13

4.0.4 Choosing The Value of Gain, K

K = 0.3 K = 0.4 K =0 .5 K = 0.6 K = 0.7

Peak 1.05 1.09 1.11 1.14 1.16

Overshoot (%) 4.81 9.37 11.4 13.8 15.9

Rise Time, s 5.38 3.92 3.44 2.96 2.62

Settling Time, s 14.9 12.5 11.4 13.9 13.5

The gain was chosen is K = 0.5.

4.0.5 Compensator Equation

By using the gain selected, an estimation of equation can be made using

Sisotool.

Compensator, C = 0.5 x

()()

()

Figure 4.0.5 – Compensator Diagram

14

5.0 Optimization of PID

Optimization is done by apply the compensator formula to the equation in

the PID using the Sisotool. The result shown as below:-

Figure 5.0 – Root Locus, Bode Diagram

15

Figure 5.1 – Step Response, Bode Diagram, RootLocus,

Nyquist Diagram

16

The poles located in between 0.4 to 0.7 damping ratio which is 0.56

whereas in the range of stability.

Figure 5.2 – Root Locus,

17

PID before Optimize PID after Optimize

Overshoot <20% 20%

Rise Time 5s 0.135s

Settling Time 20s 0,752s

Figure 5.2 – Step Response

18

6.0 Conclusion

The objectives are achieved after optimization, and the system operates

with the desired condition:-

Overshoot at 20%

Rise time at 0.1s

Settling time at 0.7s

Damping ratio at 0.56

7.0 References

Textbook Control System Engineering

Lecturer Notes

http://www.alexmichinel.net/1/post/2013/07/considering-

feedforward-strategy-for-process-control.html

http://www.plctalk.net/qanda/uploads/Tank_simulation_answ.jpg

to improved the system using Matlab

to improved the system using Matlab

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- BA209CEN_Liquisys M Cxm 223

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