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solubility and solubility product
By : tessa eka yuniar
For senior high school grade xi science
PURIFICATION OF SALT
Indonesia is a country that most of the territory is ocean. However, this potential can
not be optimized yet. Only a few commodities are used as transport, fisheries, tourism and so
on but why not many people touch the water potential of the sea itself. But actually the case
is an abundance of mineral resources in the sea as salt, there are many kinds of salt over
Production of salt in Indonesia are still dirty, the price of the dike is quite expensive at
around Rp 500/kg, likewise iodized salt Rp 1000/kg which is in general the product is still
dirty. Let us prove it, take a glass of water add salt + stir until dissolved, please observe
whether there is dirt on the glass inside?
Can the quality of salt produced? Due to the fact that the industry which needs salt
(NaCl) as Industri Soda Indonesia Waru does not use salt of domestic product for reasons
prices also its quality. They even imported from Australia, why? Whereas sea water is so
abundant in our country. How should we build this country? At least we have to build
yourself up to get opportunities in the global competition. How do we reduce the dependence
on other countries?
The opportunity of small Industries to develop business salt
NaCl salt trade in our country is actually very promising, the material is consumed by
almost all people in the form of iodized salt, from young children to adults, How to seize the
opportunities in the competition? We do not need to replicate what has been done by the
farmers of salt! We should be able to improve the quality and management, so it's worth of
business (Indonesia still imports iodized salt). And issues that must be dealt with immediately
1. Why salt production is dirty?
• Sea we are already dirty
• The production of salt in part still field / farm
• there is a touch less technology and more impressed potluck
2. Why our products expensive?
• The need comparatively very wide area
• It depends on the climate / weather
3. Why are products from other countries can be cheaper?
4. Then how can achieve the opportunity to develop business in the salt industry?
From salt purification technology, try to implicate the this technology with SETS
elements (Science, Environment, Technology and Society), both in terms of advantages
ADDITION OF FLUORIDE IN TOOTHPASTE
Brushing teeth is a habit that is absolutely necessary for health. The habit has even
been taught since we were kids in order to keep us healthy teeth. From the first, the product
toothpaste closely with fluoride content that can not be denied is one of the substances that
the body needs for growth and health of teeth. However, actually what about health effects of
fluoride? In Indonesia, a toothpaste containing fluoride began to appear around the 70's.
Fluoride is widely used types Monofluoro Sodium Phosphate or Sodium Fluoride, with levels
of 250 to 800 ppm. In detail, fluoride is one of the ingredients of toothpaste serves detergent
effect as one of three main ingredients as well as the cleaning materials mechanical abrasion
of the tooth surface and its fresh taste in the mouth, while the other ingredients sodium
bicarbonate and baking soda as an alkaline to reduce plaque acid and preventing decay, while
the bleach, the taste and so on is the extra material on the pasta concoction.
In effect, fluoride serves coating tooth structure and resistance to decay processes as
well as trigger the mineralization process. Chemical element in the substance hardens enamel
on the compounds. Likewise, since the first effects of the loss has also been widely
publicized the dangers when swallowed and therefore we are not swallow toothpaste. Levels
of usage have thresholds that can be harmful exposure effects when used excessive and not as
directed. From the existing literature, excessive levels of fluoride in the opposite effect and
should be monitored especially the provision for children who tend to swallow toothpaste
when brushing their teeth because fresh taste acquired especially when added a certain taste.
Not just from toothpaste, fluoride content can also be obtained from the consumption of
certain foods and available as dietary supplements that actually target granting of children.
From a number of stories circulating some time ago fluoride pointed out as one of the
ingredients used in the manufacture of atomic bombs. Chemical toxic effects presented by
these findings encourage researchers are increasingly critical to research on the dangers of
fluoride in toothpaste, and a lot of news to publish side effects and dangers of fluoride in
triggering osteoporosis and damage to the nervous system especially in the wrong uses.
The state of impaired absorption of calcium as one manifestation of side effects is also
known as fluorosis that can result in up to a decrease in IQ, impaired nervous system and
immune system as well as brittle bones and poor growth. In some countries, the suggestion of
its use has been limited for above 5 years old. In Indonesia has encouraged its use in
toothpaste tubes each no more than 500 ppm from about 1000-1500 ppm before and
following anticipated to decrease flavor enhancer as a prevention children not to swallow the
Beyond the possible reporting effects of fluoride this as fact, it may not need to rush
to be too restless and anxious to use the product toothpaste that contains fluoride as far as
levels are still below the recommended threshold. Awareness of consumers to choose the
product can still be carried out, at least to choose a toothpaste with fluoride levels are low,
and possibly, with the pros and cons of this one of the best anticipation that can be done is to
oversee its use.
Be Careful with Your Child’s Toothpaste
Based on the research, used toothpaste child (much less the added fruit flavors to
enchant children) has been shown have content considerable harm. Fluoride is added to
toothpaste can cause osteoporosis and nervous system damage. Moreover, if your child is
fond of sucking out the toothpaste that tastes good. Since the 1960s, the uses fluoride in
toothpaste a long debate among scientists. Some of them believe that fluoride can help
maintain dental health. Groups that oppose it argue that the use of fluoride can cause
dangerous side effects.
From this technology, try to implicate this technology with SETS elements (Science,
Environment, Technology and Society), both in terms of advantages and disadvantages!
STALACTITE AND STALAGMITE
Have you ever excursion to the caves in the limestone mountains? In that place we
can enjoy the beauty of the stalactites and stalagmites in the cave. The beauty of it naturally
carved hundreds of years. Carbon dioxide gas in the atmosphere can be dissolved in water to
form carbonic acid. Surface water flows and the acid erodes limestone rocks in its path and
dissolves calcium carbonate and other carbonate compounds. At seep into the limestone rock,
water that has been saturated with carbonate compounds dripping through the ceiling of the
cave and left especially calcium carbonate precipitated continuously accumulate into a
stunning natural stone carving.
Try to argue your opinion about the formation of stalactites and stalagmites relating to
material solubility and solubility product.
BLACK AND WHITE PHOTOS
Film negatives or cliché, is the name for the image formed on the film after the
photographed and after developed, in which the parts appear dark in the image, the object
looks bright. Arising opposite colors because the light from the object reflects a lot of light to
film and produce a dark area. The film is in black and white photo emulsion of silver halide
(usually bromide, AgBr) in gelatin. In the process of making black and white images, if the
film is exposed to light, granular activated silver bromide according to the level of light that
hit it. The film that has been exposed to light when inserted into the developer solution is
weak reducing agent such as metol, amidol or hydroquinone (C
), the grains of silver
bromide activated form of black silver metal. The stronger the intensity of the light, metallic
silver black is happening more and more. Vice versa, The weaker intensity of the light then
dark silver metal formed slightly.
If the film / photographic paper exposed to light, the reaction will occur:
the * states AgBr excitated by light. When the film have been used and exposed to light are
washed in a developer solution, the reaction will occur:
2 AgBr* (s) + C
(aq) 2 Ag (s) + 2 HBr (aq) + C
developer (hydroquinone), in this case acts as a reducing agent. So in the
process of the redox reactions.
(aq) + 2 H
+ 2 e
+ 2 e 2 Ag (s)
Beside hydroquinone, the developer solution should be added metol (N-methyl-p-
aminophenol sulfate). Metol function as superadditive agents, whose effects can not be
replaced by giving excessive amounts of hydroquinone existing. Metol This also acts as a
reducing agent. Hydroquinone activity can be stimulated by adding a little phenidone (1-
phenyl-3-pyrazolidinone). Because the developer solution is working effectively in an
alkaline, then we need to mix a solution of potassium carbonate (or sodium carbonate) as an
activator to obtain alkaline condition with a pH of 9.5 to 10.5.
Black silver metal formed produce shadows film. In order to shadow films attached to
films it must be fixed (tied). Binder commonly used is sodium thiosulphate. Fixation also
aims dissolve silver bromide that is not reduced to silver (if not eliminated, if the photo paper
exposed to light, there will be an additional black shadow). In the process of binding the
following reaction: AgBr (s) dissolves in a solution of silver ions formed fixer complex.
AgBr (s) + 2 S
The final stage after fixing is flushing with water splash flow order to formed a
permanent shadow. This washing process was aimed to throw the complex silver thiosulfate
and thiosulfate ions. If the thiosulfate ion is left behind on the film / photographic paper, then
the substance will react with the silver that has been formed photos / images, so that the
shadow of the photo will be brownish / yellowish because it will form silver sulfide stain. So
rinsing with running water are necessary so that the quality of photos / images to be good.
+ 2 Ag
Approximately only 25% of silver bromide that become metallic silver from silver
bromide entirely black, the remaining 75% of late with fixer. If fixer has been saturated with
silver, then the solution can not be used again. Should be replaced with new ones. Saturated
solution is that become major waste washing lab prints. Waste with a silver content of 75%
should not be carelessly discarded because heavy metals Ag will pollute the environment.
From this technology, try to implicate this technology with SETS elements (Science,
Environment, Technology and Society), both in terms of advantages and disadvantages.
How to recycle the waste contains silver in order to save our environment? Please