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8_CONCRETE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

8_CONCRETE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

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Published by: api-3797737 on Dec 03, 2009
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04/28/2015

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There are a wide variety of spread footings. The
most commonly used ones are illustrated in
Fig. 8.32a to g. A simple pile footing is shown in
Fig. 8.32h.

Forwalls,aspreadfootingisaslabwiderthanthe
wallandextendingthelengthofthewall(Fig.8.32a).
Square or rectangular slabs are used under single
columns (Fig. 8.32b to d). When two columns are so
close that their footings would merge or nearly
touch, a combined footing (Fig. 8.32e) extending
under the two should be constructed. When a
column footing cannot project in one direction,
perhaps because of the proximity of a property line,
thefootingmaybehelpedoutbyanadjacentfooting
with more space. Either a combined footing or a
strap (cantilever) footing (Fig. 8.32f ) may be used
under the two columns.
For structures with heavy loads relative to soil
capacity, a mat or raft foundation (Fig. 8.32g) may
prove economical. A simple form is a thick, two-
way-reinforced-concrete slab extending under the
entire structure. In effect, it enables the structure to
float on the soil, and because of its rigidity, it
permits negligible differential settlement. Even
greater rigidity can be obtained by building the raft
foundation as an inverted beam-and-girder floor,
with the girders supporting the columns. Some-
times, also, inverted flat slabs are used as mat
foundations.

In general, footings should be so located under
walls or columns as to develop uniform pressure
below. The pressure under adjacent footings
should be as nearly equal as possible, to avoid
differential settlement. In the computation of
stresses in spread footings, the upward reaction
of the soil may be assumed to vary linearly. For
pile-cap stresses, the reaction from each pile may
be assumed to act at the pile center.
Simple footings act as cantilevers under the
downward column or wall loads and upward soil
or pile reactions. Therefore, they can be designed as
rectangular beams.

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