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Analysis taking into account the influence of axial
loads and variable moment of inertia on member
stiffness and fixed-end moments, the effects of de-
flections on moments and forces, and the effects of
duration of loads is required for all columns when


r .100


For columns for which the slenderness ratio lies
between 22 and 100, and therefore the slenderness
effect on load-carrying capacity must be taken into
account, either an elastic analysis can be performed
mate method based on moment magnification may
be used. In the approximate method, the com-
pression member in a non-sway frame is designed
for the factored axial load Pu and the moment
amplified for the effects of member curvature Mc
defined by

Mc ¼dnsM2


where dns is the moment magnification factor for
non-sway frames and may be determined from:

dns ¼





where Cm¼factor relating actual moment diagram
to that forequivalent uniform moment

Pc¼ critical load for column

¼ p2




EI ¼(0:2EcIgþEsIse)



EI ¼0:4EcIg


For members without transverse loads between

Cm ¼0:6þ0:4M1



For members with transverse loads between sup-
ports Cm ¼1.
The critical load is given by

Pc ¼ p2




where EI is the flexural stiffness of the column.
The flexural stiffness EI may be computed ap-
proximately from

EI ¼EcIg=2:5


where Ec¼modulus of elasticity of concrete, psi

Ig¼moment of inertia about centroidal axis

of gross concrete section, neglecting
load reinforcement, in4

Es¼modulus of elasticity of reinforcement,


Ise¼moment of inertia of reinforcement, in4

bd¼ratio of maximum design dead load to

total load moment (always taken pos-

Because a column has different properties, such as
stiffness, slenderness ratio, and d, in different di-
rections, it is necessary to check the strength of a
column in each of its two principal directions.
For design of compression members in sway
frames for slenderness, the magnified sway
moment may be computed using a second-order
elastic analysis, or an approximate method in the
ACI 318 code.

8.54 n Section Eight

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8.33 Unified Design
Provisions of ACI 318-02

The Unified Design Provisions, which were in-
troduced in Appendix B of the 1995 edition of
ACI 318 “Building Code Requirements for Struc-
tural Concrete (American Concrete Institute), are
incorporated in the body of the 2002 edition. A
version of this design method was initially in-
troduced in a paper by Robert Mast in the ACI
Structural Journal. (Robert Mast, “Unified Design

Provisions for Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete
Flexural and Compression Members,” ACI Struc-
tural Journal, vol. 89, no. 2, March–April 1992, pp.


Before describing the Unified Design Pro-
visions, a brief review of the Strength Design
Method that has been utilized for many years to
design reinforced concrete members may be help-
ful. According to this method, the design strength
of a member at any section must be greater than or
equal to the required strength that is calculated by
the load combinations specified in Chapter 9 (see
also Art. 8.17.4) of the code:

Design Strength!Required Strength


Design Strength

¼Strength Reduction Factor (f)
ÂNominal Strength

Required Strength

¼Load FactorsÂService Load Effects

Strength reduction factors (f-factors) account for
the probability of understrength of a member due
to variations in material strengths and member
dimensions, inaccuracies in design equations, the
degree of ductility (range of deformations beyond
the stageof elastic response,over which full gravity
loads can be sustained), the probable quality con-
trol achievable, and the importance of a member in
a structure.

The nominal strength of a member or cross-
section is determined using the assumptions given
in Chapter 10 of the code and the design equations
given in various chapters throughout the code.
The Unified Design Provisions modify the
Strength Design Method for nonprestressed and
prestressed members subjected to flexure and axial

loads. Affected are strength reduction factors,
reinforcement limits, and moment redistribution.
Like the Strength Design Method, members are
proportioned by the Unified Design Provisions
usingfactoredloads andstrength reduction factors.
It is important to recognize that these provisions do
not alter nominal strength calculations; the nomi-
nal strength of a section is computed in the same
way as before. What is modified is the design
strength of a section via the strength reduction
factors. According to the Unified Design Pro-
visions, f-factors are determined based on the
strain conditions in the reinforcement farthest from
the extreme compression face. Prior to this,
f-factors depended only on the type of loading
(axial load, flexure, or both) on the section. The
Unified Design Provisions provide a rational
means for designing nonprestressed and pre-
stressed concrete members subjected to flexural
and axial loads, and eliminate many of the
inconsistencies in the previous design require-
ments. This method produces results similar to
those from the Strength Design Method. The
Unified Design Provisions apply to:

† Flexural and compression members
† Nonprestressed members, prestressed mem-
bers, and members with a combination of
nonprestressed and prestressed reinforcement

† Sections with reinforcement at various depths
† Sections of any shape
† Composite (precast and cast-in-place) concrete

These provisions, as they appear in the body of the
2002 ACI code, are described below.

The following definitions are relevant to the
Unified Design Provisions. They can be found in
Chapter 2 of the code.

Net tensile strain, 1t: the tensile strain at
nominal strength, exclusive of strains due to
effective prestress, creep, shrinkage, and tem-

The net tensile strain is caused by external axial
loads and/or bending moments at a section due
to the loads applied on the member at the time
when the concrete strain at the extreme com-
pression fiber reaches its assumed limit of 0.003.
Generally speaking, the net tensile strain can be

Concrete Design and Construction n 8.55

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used as a measure of excessive cracking or
excessive deflection.

Extreme tension steel: the reinforcement (pre-
stressed or nonprestressed) that is the farthest
from the extreme compression fiber.

Figure 8.21 depicts the location of the extreme
tension steel for two sections with different
reinforcement arrangements where the top fiber
of the section is the extreme compression fiber.
The distance from the extreme compression
denoted in the figure as dt. The net tensile strain
1t in the extreme tension steel due to the external

lity analysis for sections with multiple layers of
reinforcement. For sections with one layer of
reinforcement, it can easily be determined from
the strain diagram by similar triangles.

Compression-controlled strain limit: The net
tensile strain at balanced conditions.

The definition of a balanced strain condition,
which is given in ACI Section 10.3.2, is
unchanged from previous editions of the code:
a balanced strain condition exists at a cross-
section when tension reinforcement reaches the
strain corresponding to its specified yield
strength just as the concrete strain in the extreme
compression fiber reaches its assumed limit of

For Grade 60 reinforcement and all pre-
stressed reinforcement, ACI Section 10.3.3
permits the compression-controlled strain limit
to be taken equal to 0.002. For Grade 60 bars, this
limit is actually equal to fy/Es¼60,000/
29,000,000¼0.00207 where fy and Es are the

specified yield strength and modulus of elas-
ticity of the nonprestressed reinforcement,
respectively. For other grades of nonprestressed
steel, this limit is computed from the ratio fy/Es.

Compression-controlled section: a cross-
section in which the net tensile strain in the
extreme tension steel at nominal strength is less
than or equal the compression-controlled strain

When the net tensile strain in the extreme
tension steel is small, a brittle failure condition
is expected. In such cases, there is little warning
of impending failure. Cross-sections of com-
pression members such as columns, subject to
significant axial compression, are usually com-

Tension-controlled section: a cross-section in
which the net tensile strain in the extreme
tension steel at nominal strength is greater than
or equal to 0.005.

The net tensile strain limit of 0.005 applies to
both nonprestressed and prestressed reinforce-
ment and provides ductile behavior for most
designs. When the net tensile strain in the
extreme tension steel is greater than or equal to
0.005, the section is expected to have sufficient
ductility so that ample warning of failure in the
form of visible cracking and deflection should
be available. Cross-sections of flexural members
such as beams, if not heavily reinforced, are
usually tension-controlled.

Some sections have a net tensile strain in the
extreme tension steel between the limits for
compression-controlledand tension-controlled sec-

Fig. 8.21 Location of extreme tension steel and net tensile strain at nominal strength.

8.56 n Section Eight

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tions. An example of this is a section subjected to a
small axial load and a large bending moment.
These members are in a transition region, which is
described below.
All of these definitions are utilized when
determining strength reduction factors and design

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