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8_CONCRETE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION4.0

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Analysis taking into account the inﬂuence of axial

loads and variable moment of inertia on member

stiffness and ﬁxed-end moments, the effects of de-

ﬂections on moments and forces, and the effects of

duration of loads is required for all columns when

klu

r .100

(8:77)

For columns for which the slenderness ratio lies

between 22 and 100, and therefore the slenderness

effect on load-carrying capacity must be taken into

account, either an elastic analysis can be performed

toevaluatetheeffectsoflateraldeﬂectionsandother

effectsproducingsecondarystresses,oranapproxi-

mate method based on moment magniﬁcation may

be used. In the approximate method, the com-

pression member in a non-sway frame is designed

for the factored axial load Pu and the moment

ampliﬁed for the effects of member curvature Mc

deﬁned by

Mc* ¼d*nsM2

(8:78)

where* d*ns is the moment magniﬁcation factor for

non-sway frames and may be determined from:

*d*ns* ¼
*

Cm

1*À*Pu=0:75Pc

*!*1

(8:79)

where Cm¼factor relating actual moment diagram

to that forequivalent uniform moment

Pc¼ critical load for column

*¼ p*2

EI

(klu)2

(8:80)

EI* ¼*(0:2EcIg*þ*EsIse)

1*þb*d

(8:81)

Or

EI* ¼*0:4EcIg

1*þb*d

(8:82)

For members without transverse loads between

supports,

Cm* ¼*0:6*þ*0:4M1

M2

*!*0:4

(8:83)

For members with transverse loads between sup-

ports Cm* ¼*1.

The critical load is given by

Pc* ¼ p*2

EI

(klu)2

(8:84)

where EI is the ﬂexural stiffness of the column.

The ﬂexural stiffness EI may be computed ap-

proximately from

EI* ¼*EcIg=2:5

1*þb*d

(8:85)

where Ec¼modulus of elasticity of concrete, psi

Ig¼moment of inertia about centroidal axis

of gross concrete section, neglecting

load reinforcement, in4

Es¼modulus of elasticity of reinforcement,

psi

Ise¼moment of inertia of reinforcement, in4

*b*d¼ratio of maximum design dead load to

total load moment (always taken pos-

itive)

Because a column has different properties, such as

stiffness, slenderness ratio, and* d*, in different di-

rections, it is necessary to check the strength of a

column in each of its two principal directions.

For design of compression members in sway

frames for slenderness, the magniﬁed sway

moment may be computed using a second-order

elastic analysis, or an approximate method in the

ACI 318 code.

**8.54 n Section Eight
**

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)

Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

CONCRETE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

**8.33 Uniﬁed Design
Provisions of ACI 318-02
**

The Uniﬁed Design Provisions, which were in-

troduced in Appendix B of the 1995 edition of

ACI 318 “Building Code Requirements for Struc-

tural Concrete (American Concrete Institute), are

incorporated in the body of the 2002 edition. A

version of this design method was initially in-

troduced in a paper by Robert Mast in the ACI

Structural Journal. (Robert Mast, “Uniﬁed Design

Provisions for Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete

Flexural and Compression Members,” ACI Struc-

tural Journal, vol. 89, no. 2, March–April 1992, pp.

185–199)

Before describing the Uniﬁed Design Pro-

visions, a brief review of the Strength Design

Method that has been utilized for many years to

design reinforced concrete members may be help-

ful. According to this method, the design strength

of a member at any section must be greater than or

equal to the required strength that is calculated by

the load combinations speciﬁed in Chapter 9 (see

also Art. 8.17.4) of the code:

Design Strength*!*Required Strength

where

Design Strength

*¼*Strength Reduction Factor (*f*)

*Â*Nominal Strength

Required Strength

*¼*Load Factors*Â*Service Load Effects

Strength reduction factors (*f*-factors) account for

the probability of understrength of a member due

to variations in material strengths and member

dimensions, inaccuracies in design equations, the

degree of ductility (range of deformations beyond

the stageof elastic response,over which full gravity

loads can be sustained), the probable quality con-

trol achievable, and the importance of a member in

a structure.

The nominal strength of a member or cross-

section is determined using the assumptions given

in Chapter 10 of the code and the design equations

given in various chapters throughout the code.

The Uniﬁed Design Provisions modify the

Strength Design Method for nonprestressed and

prestressed members subjected to ﬂexure and axial

loads. Affected are strength reduction factors,

reinforcement limits, and moment redistribution.

Like the Strength Design Method, members are

proportioned by the Uniﬁed Design Provisions

usingfactoredloads andstrength reduction factors.

It is important to recognize that these provisions do

not alter nominal strength calculations; the nomi-

nal strength of a section is computed in the same

way as before. What is modiﬁed is the design

strength of a section via the strength reduction

factors. According to the Uniﬁed Design Pro-

visions,* f*-factors are determined based on the

strain conditions in the reinforcement farthest from

the extreme compression face. Prior to this,

*f*-factors depended only on the type of loading

(axial load, ﬂexure, or both) on the section. The

Uniﬁed Design Provisions provide a rational

means for designing nonprestressed and pre-

stressed concrete members subjected to ﬂexural

and axial loads, and eliminate many of the

inconsistencies in the previous design require-

ments. This method produces results similar to

those from the Strength Design Method. The

Uniﬁed Design Provisions apply to:

† Flexural and compression members

† Nonprestressed members, prestressed mem-

bers, and members with a combination of

nonprestressed and prestressed reinforcement

† Sections with reinforcement at various depths

† Sections of any shape

† Composite (precast and cast-in-place) concrete

sections

These provisions, as they appear in the body of the

2002 ACI code, are described below.

The following deﬁnitions are relevant to the

Uniﬁed Design Provisions. They can be found in

Chapter 2 of the code.

†** Net tensile strain,** 1**t:** the tensile strain at

nominal strength, exclusive of strains due to

effective prestress, creep, shrinkage, and tem-

perature.

The net tensile strain is caused by external axial

loads and/or bending moments at a section due

to the loads applied on the member at the time

when the concrete strain at the extreme com-

pression ﬁber reaches its assumed limit of 0.003.

Generally speaking, the net tensile strain can be

**Concrete Design and Construction n 8.55
**

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)

Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

CONCRETE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

used as a measure of excessive cracking or

excessive deﬂection.

†** Extreme tension steel:** the reinforcement (pre-

stressed or nonprestressed) that is the farthest

from the extreme compression ﬁber.

Figure 8.21 depicts the location of the extreme

tension steel for two sections with different

reinforcement arrangements where the top ﬁber

of the section is the extreme compression ﬁber.

The distance from the extreme compression

ﬁbertothecentroidoftheextremetensionsteelis

denoted in the ﬁgure as dt. The net tensile strain

*1*t in the extreme tension steel due to the external

loadscanbedeterminedfromastraincompatibi-

lity analysis for sections with multiple layers of

reinforcement. For sections with one layer of

reinforcement, it can easily be determined from

the strain diagram by similar triangles.

†** Compression-controlled strain limit:** The net

tensile strain at balanced conditions.

The deﬁnition of a balanced strain condition,

which is given in ACI Section 10.3.2, is

unchanged from previous editions of the code:

a balanced strain condition exists at a cross-

section when tension reinforcement reaches the

strain corresponding to its speciﬁed yield

strength just as the concrete strain in the extreme

compression ﬁber reaches its assumed limit of

0.003.

For Grade 60 reinforcement and all pre-

stressed reinforcement, ACI Section 10.3.3

permits the compression-controlled strain limit

to be taken equal to 0.002. For Grade 60 bars, this

limit is actually equal to fy/Es¼60,000/

29,000,000¼0.00207 where fy and Es are the

speciﬁed yield strength and modulus of elas-

ticity of the nonprestressed reinforcement,

respectively. For other grades of nonprestressed

steel, this limit is computed from the ratio fy/Es.

†** Compression-controlled section:** a cross-

section in which the net tensile strain in the

extreme tension steel at nominal strength is less

than or equal the compression-controlled strain

limit.

When the net tensile strain in the extreme

tension steel is small, a brittle failure condition

is expected. In such cases, there is little warning

of impending failure. Cross-sections of com-

pression members such as columns, subject to

signiﬁcant axial compression, are usually com-

pression-controlled.

†** Tension-controlled section:** a cross-section in

which the net tensile strain in the extreme

tension steel at nominal strength is greater than

or equal to 0.005.

The net tensile strain limit of 0.005 applies to

both nonprestressed and prestressed reinforce-

ment and provides ductile behavior for most

designs. When the net tensile strain in the

extreme tension steel is greater than or equal to

0.005, the section is expected to have sufﬁcient

ductility so that ample warning of failure in the

form of visible cracking and deﬂection should

be available. Cross-sections of ﬂexural members

such as beams, if not heavily reinforced, are

usually tension-controlled.

Some sections have a net tensile strain in the

extreme tension steel between the limits for

compression-controlledand tension-controlled sec-

**Fig. 8.21** Location of extreme tension steel and net tensile strain at nominal strength.

**8.56 n Section Eight
**

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)

Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

CONCRETE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

tions. An example of this is a section subjected to a

small axial load and a large bending moment.

These members are in a transition region, which is

described below.

All of these deﬁnitions are utilized when

determining strength reduction factors and design

strengths.

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