World of the Common Soldier

(Master List of Articles and Monographs)

John U. Rees
136 North Sugan Road,
New Hope, Pa. 18938
Phone: (215) 862-2348
Email: ju_rees@msn.com

Commander-in-Chief’s Guard, 1778

Jane Austen’s heroine Fanny Price sums up the historian’s quandary: “If any one faculty of our
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nature may be called more wonderful than the rest, I do think it is memory. There seems something
more speakingly incomprehensible in the powers, the failures, the inequalities of memory, than in any
other of our intelligences. The memory is sometimes so retentive, so serviceable, so obedient: at others
again so bewildered, and so weak; and at others again, so tyrannic, so beyond control! We are, to be
sure, a miracle in every way; but our powers of recollecting and of forgetting, do seem particularly
past finding out.” (Jane Austen, “Mansfield Park,” Jane Austen: The Complete Novels (New York:
Gramercy Books, 1981), 458.)
Subject Headings
Book Reviews
Campaign, Battle, Combat, and Operational Studies (1775-1783)
Women Following the Army (1775-1783)
Letters, Diaries, and Order Books
African-American Soldiers (1775-1783)
Military Musicians (1775-1783)
Enlistment and Conscription (1775-1783)
Miscellaneous Subjects (1775-1783)
Miscellaneous Subjects (Not Related to the War for Independence)
Family and Local History
New Jersey Brigade (1775-1783)
Regimental, Battalion, and other Unit Studies (1775-1783)
Miscellaneous Military Material Culture (1775-1783)
Tactics and Military Manuals
Transportation (1775-1783)
Soldiers' Shelter (1775-1783)
Soldiers' Rations, Food Preparation and Cooking Utensils (1755-2000)
Brother Jonathan’s Images
Other Authors’ Monographs (By Topic) Posted on My Scribd Page
(Note: Titles in reddish brown have duplicate entries under another category.)
John Rees has written over 140 articles and monographs since 1986 on various aspects of the common soldiers'
experience, focusing primarily on the War for Independence. Current works and interests include soldiers’ food
(1755 to the present day), Continental Army conscription (1777-1782), the organization and service of the late-war
Pennsylvania battalions, and the common soldiers’ burden.
John’s work has appeared in the ALHFAM Bulletin (Association of Living History, Farm, and Agricultural
Museums), American Revolution (Magazine of the American Revolution Association), The Brigade Dispatch
(Journal of the Brigade of the American Revolution), The Continental Soldier (Journal of the Continental Line),
Gastronomica: The Journal of Food and Culture, Journal of the Johannes Schwalm Historical Association, Military
Collector & Historian, Minerva: Quarterly Report on Women and the Military, Muzzleloader Magazine, On Point:
The Newsletter of the Army Historical Foundation, Percussive Notes (Journal of the Percussive Arts Society), and
Repast (Quarterly Publication of the Culinary Historians of Ann Arbor). He was a regular columnist for the
quarterly newsletter Food History News for 15 years writing on soldiers' food, wrote four entries for the Oxford
Encyclopedia of American Food and Drink, thirteen entries for the revised Thomson Gale edition of Boatner’s
Encyclopedia of the American Revolution, contributed a chapter to Carol Karels’ The Revolutionary War in Bergen
County (2007), and two chapters to Barbara Z. Marchant’s Revolutionary Bergen County, The Road to
Independence (2009).
Article list available online at http://tinyurl.com/jureesarticles . Selected Civil War monographs posted
online at http://www.libertyrifles.org/research/ Additional monographs posted at
http://tinyurl.com/jureesarticles or http://tinyurl.com/JReesAcademia1

https://www.scribd.com/doc/236104178/World-of-the-Common-Soldier-Comprehensive-list-of-
articles-and-monographs-by-John-U-Rees-updated-August-6-2014
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Book Reviews
http://www.scribd.com/doc/125414340/J-U-Rees-Article-List-Book-Reviews
Book Review: Joseph Lee Boyle, "`My last Shift Betwixt Us & death’: The Ephraim Blaine
Letterbook, 1777-1778," The Brigade Dispatch, vol. XXIX, no. 1 (Winter 2001), 22.
http://www.scribd.com/doc/124457540/Review-Ephraim-Blaine-Letterbook-New

Book Review: Frederick C. Gaede, “The Federal Civil War Shelter Tent,” Military Collector &
Historian, vol. 54, no. 4 (Winter 2002-2003), 197.
http://www.scribd.com/doc/124457304/Review-Shelter-Tent-New

Book Review: Thomas J. McGuire, “Battle of Paoli,” On Point: The Newsletter of the Army
Historical Foundation, vol. 8, no. 3 (Fall 2002), 17.
http://www.scribd.com/doc/124412310/Review-Rees-Paoli-Two-New

Book Review: Michael C. Scoggins, “The Day it Rained Militia: Huck’s Defeat and the
Revolution in the South Carolina Backcountry, May–July 1780,” The Dispatch of the Company
of Military Historians, Book Review Edition (December 2008).
http://www.scribd.com/doc/124457424/Review-Huck-s-Defeat-New

Book Review: Agostino von Hassell, Herm Dillon, Leslie Jean-Bart, Military High Life: Elegant
Food Histories and Recipes (New Orleans: University Press of the South, 2006), 162 pp.,
Illustrations. $34.95 (cloth), Gastronomica: The Journal of Food and Culture, vol. 7, no. 4 (Fall
2007), 106-107.
http://www.scribd.com/doc/124454282/Review-Military-High-Life-Final-Three-New

Book Review: “`We Were Marching on Christmas Day’: History, Food, and Civilian and
Soldiers’ Celebrations,” Food History News, vol. XIII, no. 2 (50), 2, 7. Review of Kevin
Rawlings, We Were Marching on Christmas Day: A History and Chronicle of Christmas During
the Civil War (Baltimore, Md.: Toomey Press, 1996). 170 pages, index, illustrations. $24.95.
Toomey Press, P.O. Box 122, Linthicum, Md., 21090; phone, (410) 850-0831.
(http://www.libertyrifles.org/research/christmasday.html)
http://www.scribd.com/doc/124281893/Review-Hard-Marching-on-Christmas-Day

Dual Book Review: Andrew F. Smith, Starving the South: How the North Won the Civil War
(New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2011), 304 pp., $27.99 (paper), and William C. Davis, A Taste
for War: The Culinary History of the Blue and the Gray (Mechanicsburg, Pa.: Stackpole Books,
2003), 233 pp., Illustrations. $26.95 (hardback), Gastronomica: The Journal of Food and
Culture, vol. 12, no. 1 (Spring 2012), 103-105.
http://www.scribd.com/doc/124410014/Reviews-Civil-War-Starving-the-South-and-a-
Taste-for-War

Campaign, Battle, Combat, and Operational Studies
http://www.scribd.com/doc/125414187/J-U-Rees-Article-List-Campaign-Battle-Combat-
And-Operational-Studies-1775-1783
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“`What is this you have been about to day?’: The New Jersey Brigade at the Battle of
Monmouth,” http://revwar75.com/library/rees/monmouth/MonmouthToc.htm
Narrative
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/monmouth/Monmouth.htm#1
1. Introduction
2. "In readiness to march at a moment's warning ...": Pre-Battle Dispositions and Plans
3. "To get up with the enemy": Major General Charles Lee's Force Sets Off
4. "I found the whole of the troops upon my right retreating ...": Morning Confrontation at
Monmouth Courthouse
5. "The day was so excessively hot ...": Lee’s Retreat
6. “They answered him with three cheers ...”: Washington Recovers the Day
7. “The Action was Exceedingly warm and well Maintained …”: Infantry Fighting at the
Point of Woods, Hedge-row, and Parsonage
8. "The finest musick, I Ever heared.": Afternoon Artillery Duel, and Cilley’s Attack on the
42nd Regiment
9. “Detached to assist in burying the dead …”: Battle’s Aftermath
10. “The March has proved salutory to the troops.”: Post-Battle: The Continental Army Moves North
11.“A very irregular & ill managed Embarkation.”: Post-Battle British March to Sandy Hook
12. "The defective constitution of our army ...": Casting Blame for the Morning Debacle
13. Battle of Monmouth, June 28, 1778: Event Synopsis
Appendices
A. “Beware of being Burgoyned.”: Marching Toward Monmouth, Delaware River to Freehold, 18
to 27 June 1778
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/monmouth/MonmouthA.htm
B. “The whole army moved towards the Delaware …”: Continental Army March from Valley
Forge to Englishtown, N.J., 18 to 27 June 1778
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/monmouth/MonmouthB.htm
C. “General Lee being detached with the advanced Corps …”: Composition of Charles Lee’s
Force
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/monmouth/MonmouthC.htm
D. “Our Division formed a line on the eminence …”:Washington’s Main Army Order of Battle,
28 June 1778
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/monmouth/MonmouthD.htm
E. “A large Number of troops …”: Continental and British Army Field Returns, 28 June 1778
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/monmouth/MonmouthE.htm
F.“I resolved nevertheless to attack them …”: American Monmouth Battle Accounts
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/monmouth/MonmouthF.htm
G. “Charge, Grenadiers, never heed forming”: British Accounts of the Monmouth Battle
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/monmouth/MonmouthG.htm
H. "More Glorious to America than at first Supposed ...": New Jersey Officers Describe the Battle of
Monmouth
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/monmouth/MonmouthH.htm
I. "They answered him with three cheers ...": New Jersey Common Soldiers' Pension Depositions
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/monmouth/MonmouthI.htm
J. “A very smart cannonading ensued from both sides.”: Maxwell’s Jersey Brigade Artillery and
the Afternoon Cannonade at Monmouth
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/monmouth/MonmouthJ.htm
K. “Jun 29th, Buried the Dead …”: Casualties in the Battle of Monmouth
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/monmouth/MonmouthK.htm
L. “We are informed by several persons …“: Contemporary Newspaper Accounts
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/monmouth/MonmouthL.htm
M. “That damned blue Regiment …”: Continental Army Clothing during the Monmouth
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Campaign
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/monmouth/MonmouthM.htm
N. “General Wayne's detachment is almost starving.”: Provisioning Washington’s Army on the
March, June 1778
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/monmouth/MonmouthN.htm
O. “The canopy of heaven for our tent”: Soldiers' Shelter on Campaign, June 1778
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/monmouth/MonmouthO.htm
P. “Be pleased to fill up the vacancy with the eldest Captain in the line …”: Field Officers, Commissioned Officers,
and Staff of the 2nd New Jersey Regiment December 1777 to May 1779
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/monmouth/MonmouthP.htm
Q. “Exceeding Hot & water is scarce …”: Monmouth Campaign Weather, 15 June to 7 July, 1778
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/monmouth/MonmouthQ.pdf

“’A very smart cannonading ensued from both sides.’: Continental Artillery at Monmouth
Courthouse, 28 June 1778”
Appendices
1. Col. Richard Butler’s 1778 Map of the Monmouth Battle (drawn by William Gray)
2. “The Company was sent to Eastown with the pieces taken at Saratoga …”: Brig. Gen. William Maxwell’s Jersey
Brigade Artillery at Monmouth.
3. Recreations of late 18th Century Cannons, Limbers, and Ammunition Wagons
4. Period Images of English Cannon and Ammunition/Powder Wagons
5. Images of German (mostly Hessian) Artillery, Limbers, and Ammunition Wagons during the Period of the War
for American Independence
https://www.scribd.com/doc/139365107/A-very-smart-cannonading-ensued-from-both-
sides-Continental-Artillery-at-Monmouth-Courthouse-28-June-1778

“’Reach Coryels ferry. Encamp on the Pennsylvania side.’: The March from Valley Forge
to Monmouth Courthouse, 18 to 28 June 1778”
http://www.scribd.com/doc/133301501/“Reach-Coryels-ferry-Encamp-on-the-Pennsylvania-side-”-
The-March-from-Valley-Forge-to-Monmouth-Courthouse-18-to-28-June-1778
Endnotes:
http://www.scribd.com/doc/133293312/Endnotes-“Reach-Coryels-ferry-Encamp-on-the-
Pennsylvania-side-”-The-March-from-Valley-Forge-to-Monmouth-Courthouse-18-to-28-June-1778
Contents
1. “We struck our tents and loaded our baggage.”: Leaving Valley Forge
2. Progress, June 18, 1778.
3. Progress, June 19, 1778.
4. “Crost the dilliware pushed on about 5 milds …”: June 20, 1778: Progress and a River Crossing
5. “4 Wagons & Horses, and 1000 Men at a Try.”: The Mechanics of Ferrying an Army
6. “Halt on the first strong ground after passing the Delaware ...”: June 20th River Crossing
7. “The number of boats … will render the passage of the troops very expeditious.”:
June 21st Ferry Operation
8. “The Troops are passing the River … and are mostly over.”: June 22d Crossing
9. “The Army will march off …”: June 22d and 23d, Camp at Amwell Meeting
10. “Just after we halted we sent out a large detachment …”: Camp and Council: Hopewell
Township, 23 to 24 June
11. “Giving the Enemy a stroke is a very desireable event …”: Advancing to Englishtown,
24 to 28 June
a. Progress, June 25, 1778.
b. Progress, June 26, 1778.
c. Progress, June 27, 1778.
d. Forward to Battle, June 28, 1778.

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12. “Our advanced Corps … took post in the evening on the Monmouth Road …”:
Movements of Continental Detachments Followng the British, 24 to 28 June 1778
a. The Advance Force: Scott’s, Wayne’s, Lafayette’s, and Lee’s Detachments.
b. Daily Movements of Detachments Later Incorporated into Lee’s Advanced Corps.
13. Echoes of 1778, Three Years After.
Addendum
1. Driving Directions, Continental Army Route from Valley Forge to Englishtown
2. Day by Day Recap of Route
3. The Road to Hopewell.
4. The Bungtown Road Controversy.
5. Weather During the Monmouth Campaign
6. Selected Accounts of the March from Valley Forge to Englishtown
a. Fifteen-year-old Sally Wister
b. Surgeon Samuel Adams, 3rd Continental Artillery
c. Henry Dearborn, lt. colonel, 3rd New Hampshire Regiment
d. Captain Paul Brigham, 8th Connecticut Regiment
e. Sergeant Ebenezer Wild, 1st Massachusetts Regiment
f. Sgt. Jeremiah Greenman, 2d Rhode Island Regiment
g. Dr. James McHenry, assistant secretary to General Washington
7. List of Related works by the author on military material culture and the
Continental Army
Endnotes contain:
1. Army General and Brigade Orders, June 1778.
a. Orders Regulating the Army on the March from Valley Forge.
b. Orders Issued During the Movement from Valley Forge to Englishtown.
2. Division and Brigade Composition for Washington’s Main Army to 22 June 1778
3. Washington’s army vehicle allotment for the march to Coryell’s Ferry,
4. Wheeled Transportation (a primer on the vehicles and artillery on the road to
Monmouth, including twenty-one illustrations)
5. Division and Brigade Composition for Washington’s Main Army after 22 June 1778
See also: http://www.scribd.com/doc/235994094/Bridget-Wingert-Happy-to-Be-Here-Washington-Crossed-the-
Delaware-in-1778-the-only-time-with-the-bulk-of-the-army-Bucks-County-Herald-26-June-
20?secret_password=Hr4pyF6D170zE9K0icIS

“`Reach Coryels ferry. Encamp on the Pennsylvania side.’: The Monmouth Campaign Delaware
River Crossing,” History in the Making (The Newsletter of the New Hope Historical Society),
vol. 4, no. 4 (December 2006), 1-12.
"’The Enemy Giting intelligence of our movement ...’: Surprise at Haddonfield and Cooper’s Ferry,
April 1778”
http://www.scribd.com/doc/131104556/The-Enemy-Giting-intelligence-of-our-movement-Surprise-at-
Haddonfield-April-1778

"Eyewitness to Battle: Alexander Dow's Account of Monmouth," The Brigade Dispatch, vol.
XXIX, no. 1 (Spring 1999), 15-16.
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/dow.htm
“`Endeavering to Keep them from going to New York ’: The New Jersey Brigade’s Pursuit of
the British Army, 18-27 June 1778” (manuscript)
“`I Expect to hear the Enemy are on the Move ...’: The New Jersey Brigade, July 1778 to June
1779” (manuscript)

“`The road appeared to be full of red Coats …’: The Battle of Millstone, 20 January 1777: An
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Episode in the Forage War,” Military Collector & Historian, vol. 62, no. 1
(Spring 2010), 24-35. http://www.scribd.com/doc/123985060/%E2%80%9C-The-road-appeared-
to-be-full-of-red-Coats-%E2%80%A6-An-Episode-in-the-Forage-War-The-Battle-of-Millstone-20-
January-1777
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/pdfs/millstone.pdf

“Large droves of Cattle & flocks of Sheep go dayly into [the] Enemy …”
Countering British Foraging at Darby, Pennsylvania, 22 to 28 December 1778
http://www.scribd.com/doc/240762337/Large-droves-of-Cattle-flocks-of-Sheep-go-dayly-into-the-
Enemy-Countering-British-Foraging-at-Darby-Pennsylvania-22-to-28-December-1778

“`The Enemy … will have no Mercey upon our loaded barns.’: British Foraging at Hackensack,
September and October 1778,” Carol Karels, ed., The Revolutionary War in Bergen County: The
Time That Tried Men’s Souls (Charleston, S.C. and London: The History Press, 2007), 112-117.
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/pdfs/forage.pdf

“`The Enemy was in Hackansack last night Burning & Destroing …’: British Incursions into
Bergen County, Spring 1780”
Part 1. “`So much for a Scotch Prize.’: Paramus, New Jersey, 23 March 1780”
http://www.scribd.com/doc/133062410/%E2%80%9CSo-much-for-a-Scotch-Prize-%E2%80%9D-
Paramus-New-Jersey-23-March-1780 (older version http://tinyurl.com/bja36 )

Part 2. “`Had all the Cavalry been in the front … not one man could have escaped …’:
Hopperstown, New Jersey, 16 April 1780,” Barbara Z. Marchant, ed.,
Revolutionary Bergen County, The Road to Independence (Charleston, S.C. and
London: The History Press, 2009), 123-135.
Published in Military Collector & Historian: part 1, vol. 65, no. 1 (Spring 2013), 28-42, and part
2, vol. 65, no. 3 (Fall 2013), 260-273.
http://www.scribd.com/doc/164512651/%E2%80%9C-Had-all-the-Cavalry-been-in-the-
front-%E2%80%A6-not-one-man-could-have-escaped-%E2%80%A6-Hopperstown-New-
Jersey-16-April-1780-Part-2-of-%E2%80%9C-The-Enemy-was-in-Ha

“`It appeared to me as if here we should live secure …: A Family’s Precarious Refuge in
Paramus, 1776 to 1780,” Barbara Z. Marchant, ed., Revolutionary Bergen County, The Road to
Independence (Charleston, S.C. and London: The History Press, 2009), 31-42.
http://www.scribd.com/doc/121845065/%E2%80%9CIt-appeared-to-me-as-if-here-we-
should-live-secure-%E2%80%A6%E2%80%9D-A-Family%E2%80%99s-Precarious-
Refuge-in-Paramus-1776-to-1780

“`Their presence Here … Has Saved this State …’: Continental Provisional Battalions with
Lafayette in Virginia, 1781”
Part 1. “`This Detachement is Extremely Good …’: The Light Battalions Move South”
A. “`The Fire of the Light Infantry …cheked the Enemys Progress …’: Light Battalion Composition
and Service”
B. “`Ill founded jealousies, and groundless suspicions.” ‘: Unrest in the Light Battalions”
C. “`The Cloathing you … long ago Sent to the light infantry is not Yet Arrived.‘: Apparel and
Equipment”
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The Brigade Dispatch, vol. XXXVI, no. 2 (Autumn 2006), 2-23.
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/pdfs/light.pdf
Appendices for Above
1. Diary of Soldier with Lafayette’s Light Infantry, 1781
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/pdfs/Atkins.pdf.pdf
2. Asa Redington, Scammell’s Light Infantry Regiment, 1781
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/pdfs/Redington.pdf
3. Barber’s Light Battalion, 1781 (New Jersey Light Company Personnel)
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/pdfs/Barber.pdf

“`Their presence Here … Has Saved this State …’: Continental Provisional Battalions with
Lafayette in Virginia, 1781”
Parts 2-4. “`Almost all old soldiers, and well disciplined …’: Brigadier General Anthony
Wayne’s 1781 Pennsylvania Provisional Battalions”
A. “I fear it is now too late …”: The Pennsylvania Line Mutiny, January 1781
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/pdfs/PA-A.pdf
B. “Our Regiments are yet but very small …”: Settling with the Troops and
Rebuilding the Line
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/pdfs/PA-B.pdf
C. “The whole Line … behaved in a most orderly manner.”: Reorganizing
the Pennsylvania Provisional Battalions and Service in the 1781 Campaign
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/pdfs/PA-C.pdf
The Brigade Dispatch, vol. XXXVII, no. 2 (Summer 2007), 2-19; vol. XXXVII, no. 4 (Winter
2007), 2-15; vol. XXXVIII, no. 1 (Spring 2008), 2-21.
Appendices for Above
1. “`A Smart firing commenc’d from from both parties …’: Brig. Gen. Anthony Wayne’s
Pennsylvania Battalions in Virginia, June to November 1781”
Contents:
A. “We will be much inferior to the enemy …”: May 31 to July 5 1781
B. “A charge … under a heavy fire of Grape shot …”:
Battle of Green Springs, 6 July 1781
C. “Cornwallis … threatens every Devastation that fire & sword can produce …”:
Marching and Countermarching, 9 July to 25 August
D. “The batteries were opened and fired with great success …”:
September to November 1781
E. “The Cloathing was drawn near twelve month ago …”:
1780-1781 Pennsylvania Clothing, Letters and Returns
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/pdfs/Virginia.pdf

2. “`The British army marched out and grounded their arms …’: Pennsylvania Lt. William
Feltman’s Diary, 26 May to 5 November 1781”
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/pdfs/Feltman.pdf
3. “`Pennsylvania Battalion Troop Returns, 1781-1783’:
(In Camp and on Campaign in Pennsylvania, Virginia, and South Carolina)”
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/pdfs/Returns.pdf

"’We ... wheeled to the Right to form the Line of Battle’: Colonel Israel Shreve's Journal, 23

8
November 1776 to 14 August 1777 (Including Accounts of the Action at the Short Hills)”
Contents
1. “The Enemy Came out fired several Cannon At our Pickets”: Journal Entries, 23 November 1776 to 25
June 1777
2. Composition of Maj. Gen. William Alexander, Lord Stirling's Division, Summer 1777
3. “Our Canister shot Did Great Execution.”: The Battle of the Short Hills: Journal Entries 26 to 28 June
1777
4. “There was a steady fire on us from out of the bushes …”: A German Officer’s View of Operations in
New Jersey, 24 to 28 June 1777
5. “A smart engagement ensued …”: A British Private’s View of the Short Hills Battle
6. "I propose leaving Colo. Daytons and Ogden's Regts. at Elizabeth Town … for the present ...”:
Movements of the 1st and 3d New Jersey Regiments, July and August 1777
7. “Crossed Delaware [River], halted At Doctor Enhams …”: Final Journal Entries, 29 July to 14 August
1777
Addenda
1. Listing of Field Officers, Commissioned Officers, and Staff of the 2d New Jersey Regiment December
1776 to December 1777
2. Company Strengths and Dispositions, Colonel Israel Shreve's 2d New Jersey Regiment December
1776 to December 1777
3. 2d New Jersey Regiment, Monthly Strength as Taken From the Muster Rolls, December 1776 to
December 1777
4. 2d New Jersey Regiment, Company Lineage, 1777 to 1779
5. “The Troops of this Army … Appear to Manoeuvre upon false principles …”: The State of
Continental Army Field Formations and Combat Maneuver, 1777
6. Composition of British Columns at the Short Hills Action, 26 June 1777; Organization of British Light
Infantry and Grenadier Battalions, Spring and Summer 1777
7. “I have sent down Lord Stirling's Division, to reinforce Genl. Maxwell …”: Summer Campaign
Letters, Gen. George Washington and Virginia Captain John Chilton, plus the role of “late
Ottendorff’s Corps,” 22 to 29 June 1777
8. “At sunrise the fire began …”: New Jersey Brigade Accounts of the 1777 Philadelphia Campaign
9. "Without Covering but the H[eaven's].C[anop].y and boughs of Trees …": 4th New Jersey Officer's
Diary, 21 June 1777 to 18 February 1778 (plus Journal of Ensign George Ewing, 3d New Jersey, 1777-1778)
http://www.scribd.com/doc/153790118/%E2%80%99We-wheeled-to-the-Right-to-form-the-Line-of-
Battle%E2%80%99-Colonel-Israel-Shreve-s-Journal-23-November-1776-to-14-August-1777-
Including-Accounts-of

“Receivd an Ensigncy in Capt Hagans Company Third Jersey Regt”
Ensign George Ewing’s Journal, New Jersey Line, 11 November 1775 to 21 May 1778
(Published as George Ewing, The Military Journal of George Ewing (1754-1824): A Soldier of
Valley Forge (Yonkers, N.Y.: Privately printed by T. Ewing, 1928))
http://www.scribd.com/doc/153505766/%E2%80%9CReceivd-an-Ensigncy-in-Capt-Hagans-
Company-Third-Jersey-Regt%E2%80%9D-Ensign-George-Ewing%E2%80%99s-Journal-New-
Jersey-Line-11-November-1775-to-21-May-1778-Pu

9
“`None of you know the hardships of A soldiers life …’: Service of the Connecticut Regiments in
Maj. Gen. Alexander McDougall’s Division, 1777-1778”
“I am … Packing up my baggage in order to March”: Service on the North River, and
Movement into Pennsylvania, May to September 1777
“God Grant I may Always be Preserv'd …”: The Battle of Germantown and Schuylkill Expedition,
October 1777
“So small A Garrison never attaind Greater achievments …”: Forts Mifflin and Mercer, and
Maneuvers in New Jersey, November 1777
“Nothing to cover us But ye heavens …”: The Whitemarsh Encampment and Early Days at Valley
Forge, December 1777
“This is a very Different Spirit in the Army …”: Wintering Over at Valley Forge and Spring
Training, January to June 1778
“Sixty three bullet holes were made through the colours …”: Summer Campaign and the
Battle of Monmouth, June 1778
“The Troops of the whole line will exercise and manoeuvre …”: The March to New York and the
White Plains Encampment, July to September 1778
“The Enemy are upon the eve of some general and important move.”: The Fredericksburgh Camp
and Shifting Commanders, September to October 1778
“Their countrymen would … conclude the Devil was in them …”: McDougall’s Division Takes
Post in Connecticut, October and November 1778
“Grievances … Justly complained of by your Soldiers …”: The Connecticut Line Winter Camp,
December 1778 to January 1779
http://www.scribd.com/doc/111086856/YZ-List-Connecticut-Division-1777-79-Narrative-New-
Longer and http://www.scribd.com/doc/111086939/YZ-List-Connecticut-Division-1777-79-
Bibliography-New

http://revwar75.com/library/rees/pdfs/CT-Div.pdf and
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/pdfs/biblio.pdf

Other Authors’ Monographs
(Campaign, Battle, Combat, and Operational Studies)

William W. Reynolds, “The Virginia Militia at the Siege of Yorktown,” Military
Collector & Historian, Vol. 67, no. 2 (Summer 2015), 168-186.
https://www.scribd.com/doc/283544605/William-W-Reynolds-The-Virginia-Militia-at-the-
Siege-of-Yorktown-Military-Collector-Historian-Vol-67-no-2-Summer-2015-168-186

“The Battle of Paoli”

10
Stephen R. Gilbert, “An Analysis of the Xavier della Gatta Paintings of the Battles of Paoli
and Germantown, 1777: Part I,” Military Collector & Historian, vol. XLVI, no. 3 (Fall
1994), 98-108.
http://www.scribd.com/doc/209737868/Stephen-R-Gilbert-%E2%80%9CAn-Analysis-of-the-
Xavier-della-Gatta-Paintings-of-the-Battles-of-Paoli-and-Germantown-1777-Part-I-%E2%80%9D-
Military-Collector-Histo

“The Battle of Germantown”
Stephen R. Gilbert, “An Analysis of the Xavier della Gatta Paintings of the Battles of Paoli
and Germantown, 1777: Part II,” Military Collector & Historian, vol. XLVII, no. 4 (Winter
1995), 146-162.
http://www.scribd.com/doc/209914033/%E2%80%9CThe-Battle-of-Germantown%E2%80%9D-
by-Xavier-della-Gatta-Stephen-R-Gilbert-%E2%80%9CAn-Analysis-of-the-Xavier-della-Gatta-
Paintings-of-the-Battles-of-Paoli-and-Ger

Lawrence E. Babits 'Supplying the Southern Continental Army, March 1780 to September
1781,' Military Collector & Historian, vol. 47, no. 4 (1995), 163-171.
http://www.scribd.com/doc/207337105/Lawrence-E-Babits-Supplying-the-Southern-Continental-
Army-March-1780-to-September-1781-Military-Collector-Historian-vol-47-no-4-1995

Women Following the Army
http://www.scribd.com/doc/125414053/J-U-Rees-Article-List-Women-Following-the-Army-1775-
1783

American Revolution Army Women Names Project
“Spent the winter at Jockey Hollow, and … washed together while there …”: American
Revolution Army Women Names Project - Continental Army
https://www.scribd.com/document/322026319/American-Revolution-Army-Women-Names-Project-
Continental

The aim of this project is to compile names and biographies of women attached to the military
forces of the War for American Independence, 1775 to 1783; Whig (Continental), French, Spanish,
British, German, and Loyalists. This includes females (and their offspring) who followed the troops
on campaign, or served in a camp, garrison, or other settled military post (including artificers and
other military support groups). Spouses and retainers of both enlisted men and officers are eligible.
The project will begin with Continental army and Whig militia female followers. Eventually, we
hope to convince people with special knowledge of the other nations’ armies involved to
participate.
Material may be sent to the editor at ju_rees@msn.com or via Facebook messaging (John U. Rees).
Names must be accompanied by supporting source material and a transcription of the same. Please
include available pension narratives and as much detail from other sources as is available.
Contributors will be listed with their submissions. Appended is the recommended structure for
entries (courtesy of Eliza West, revised by John Rees):

BASIC FACTS
Date of birth/age at time of first service with the army:
Date of death:
Names of spouse(s) and date of marriage(s):

11
Names and birthdates of children:

MILITARY FACTS
Unit (army, regiment, company, etc.):
Campaigns:
Garrison locations:
Battles participated in/observed:
Active dates, during which she was part of the military establishment:

DOCUMENTATION
(Personal account, pension record, company or other returns, etc.)

NARRATIVE(S) and/or WEBLINK(S)

________________

"`The multitude of women': An Examination of the Numbers of Female Camp Followers with
the Continental Army":
1777 and 1780: A Common Thread?
1776 to 1782: “Necessary to keep the Soldier's clean"
1781: "Their Wives all of whom ... Remained" - Women on Campaign With the Army
1781: "The women with the army who draw provisions"
1782: "Rations ... Without Whiskey" - Colonel Henry Jackson's Regimental Provision Returns
1783: "The proportion of Women which ought to be allowed ..."
The Brigade Dispatch (Journal of the Brigade of the American Revolution)
Three parts: vol. XXIII, no. 4 (Autumn 1992), 5-17; vol. XXIV, no. 1 (Winter 1993),
6-16; vol. XXIV, no. 2 (Spring 1993), 2-6 (Reprinted in Minerva: Quarterly Report
on Women and the Military, vol. XIV, no. 2 (Summer 1996)).
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/wnumb1.htm

"`The number of rations issued to the women in camp.': New Material Concerning Female
Followers With Continental Regiments":
Female Followers with the Troops at Wyoming: Prelude to Sullivan's Campaign, 1779
"Provisions and Stores Issued to the Grand Army": Female Followers at
Middlebrook, 1779
“The women belonging to their respective corps": Further Analysis and Comparison of the
Returns of Women
The Brigade Dispatch, vol. XXVIII, no. 1 (Spring 1998), 2-10; vol. XXVIII, no. 2
(Summer 1998), 2-12, 13. http://revwar75.com/library/rees/wnumb2.htm

"'`Some in rags and some in jags,’ but none ‘in velvet gowns.’ Insights on Clothing Worn by
Female Followers of the Armies During the American War for Independence," ALHFAM
Bulletin (Association of Living History, Farm and Agricultural Museums), vol. XXVIII, no.
4 (Winter 1999), 18-21. http://www.scribd.com/doc/122521121/Some-in-rags-and-some-
in-jags-%E2%80%99-but-none-%E2%80%98in-velvet-gowns-%E2%80%99-Insights-
on-Clothing-Worn-by-Female-Followers-of-the-Armies-During-the-American-War-for
Also:
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/wcloth.htm

12
"’The proportion of Women which ought to be allowed...’: An Overview of Continental Army
Female Camp Followers”
1. “A clog upon every movement. “: Numbers
2. "Rations... Without Whiskey": Women’s Food Allowance
3. "Some men washed their own clothing.": Women's Duties and Shelter
4. Orders Concerning Women in the Summer of 1777 (Delaware Regiment of Maj. Gen. John
Sullivan’s Division
5. "Coming into the line of fire.": Women on the March or on Campaign
Appendices
A. An Estimate of Females with Continental Army Units
on the March to Yorktown, 1781
B. Mess Roll of Capt. John Ross’s Company, 3d New Jersey Regiment
C. Tent Assignments in Lt. Col. John Wrottesley’s (3d) Company, 1st Battalion,
Brigade of (British) Guards (Including “British Army orders regarding female
followers, summer 1777”)
D. Period Images of Army Followers or Poor to Middling Female Civilians
E. Photographs of Army Women at Living History Events
F. Online Articles Pertaining to Female Camp Followers and Related Subjects
During the War for American Independence
G. Other Authors’ Monographs (Women Following the Army)
The Continental Soldier, vol. VIII, no. 3 (Spring 1995), 51-58. ALHFAM Bulletin (Association of
Living History, Farm and Agricultural Museums), vol. XXVIII, no. 4 (Winter 1999), 18-21.
https://www.scribd.com/doc/255868431/The-proportion-of-Women-which-ought-to-be-
allowed-An-Overview-of-Continental-Army-Female-Camp-Followers

“’Remember[ing] the Ladies’: Margaret Johnson and Elizabeth Evans, Women of the New Jersey
Brigade” http://www.scribd.com/doc/235418684/Remember-ing-the-Ladies-Margaret-Johnson-and-
Elizabeth-Evans-Women-of-the-New-Jersey-Brigade
“Reading List: Women and the Military During the War for Independence," The
Continental Soldier, vol. IX, no. 1 (Winter/Spring 1997), 52.
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/wread.htm

“`To Cash paid the Revrd. John Mason for Servant Hannah’s wages …': Hannah Till, General
Washington’s Wartime Cook"
https://www.scribd.com/document/330715949/To-Cash-paid-the-Revrd-John-Mason-for-Servant-
Hannah-s-wages-Hannah-Till-General-Washington-s-Wartime-Cook

Other Authors’ Monographs
(Women Following the Army)

Meloche, Celena M. (2014) "British Army Women in the Seven Years' War,"The Great Lakes
Journal of Undergraduate History: Vol. 2:
Iss. 1, Article 1.
Available at: http://scholar.uwindsor.ca/gljuh/vol2/iss1/1
http://scholar.uwindsor.ca/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1018&context=gljuh

13
Charlotte Brown, “The Journal of Charlotte Brown, Matron of the General Hospital, with
the English Forces in America, 1754-1756,” in Isabel M. Calder, Colonial Captivities,
Marches and Journeys (Port Washington, N.Y.: Kennikat Press, Inc., 1935; reprinted 1967),
169-198 (French and Indian War).
https://www.scribd.com/doc/274738578/Charlotte-Brown-The-Journal-of-Charlotte-Brown-Matron-of-the-
General-Hospital-with-the-English-Forces-in-America-1754-1756

Holly Mayer, “From Forts to Families: Following the Army into Western Pennsylvania, 1758-
1766.” The Pennsylvania Magazine of History andBiography 130 (January 2006): 5-43.
https://www.scribd.com/doc/273462949/Holly-Mayer-From-Forts-to-Families-Following-the-Army-
into-Western-Pennsylvania-1758-1766

Elizabeth Cometti, “Women in the American Revolution,” The New England Quarterly, vol. XX, no.
3 (September 1947), 335-337.
http://www.scribd.com/doc/213814242/Elizabeth-Cometti-%E2%80%9CWomen-in-the-American-
Revolution-%E2%80%9D-The-New-England-Quarterly-vol-XX-no-3-September-1947-335-337

(Part 1) Bruce E. Burgoyne, “Women with the Hessian Auxiliaries during the American
Revolutionary War,” The Brigade Dispatch, vol. XXVI, no. 1 (Spring 1996), 2-8.
http://www.scribd.com/doc/214066869/Bruce-E-Burgoyne-%E2%80%9CWomen-with-the-
Hessian-Auxiliaries-during-the-American-Revolutionary-War-%E2%80%9D-The-Brigade-
Dispatch-vol-XXVI-no-1-Spring-1996-2

(Part 2) Bruce E. Burgoyne, “Women with the Hessian Auxiliaries during the American
Revolutionary War,” The Brigade Dispatch, vol. XXVI, no. 1 (Spring 1996), 19-23.
http://www.scribd.com/doc/214077163/Part-2-Bruce-E-Burgoyne-%E2%80%9CWomen-with-the-
Hessian-Auxiliaries-during-the-American-Revolutionary-War-%E2%80%9D-The-Brigade-
Dispatch-vol-XXVI-no-1-Spring

Bruce E. Burgoyne, “Women with Hessian Military Units” (being a compendium of women
identified as having followed German corps during the American War, 1775-1783), The Brigade
Dispatch, vol. XXVI, no. 3 (Autumn 1996), 2-10.
http://www.scribd.com/doc/214347053/Part-1-Bruce-E-Burgoyne-%E2%80%9CWomen-with-
Hessian-Military-Units%E2%80%9D-being-a-compendium-of-women-identified-as-having-
followed-German-corps-during-the-Amer

Paul E. Kopperman, "The British High Command and Soldiers' Wives In America, 1755-1783,"
Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research, no. 60 (1982), 14-34. Married women, 14;
women's duties, 15-16, 21; number of women in the Continental Army, 16; the thoughts of the high
command concerning women, 16; the number of women in the army and individual regiments, 19-
20, 26-28; women's rations, 22-23; women as patients in hospital, 31, 33.
http://www.scribd.com/doc/214779011/Paul-E-Kopperman-The-British-High-Command-and-
Soldiers-Wives-In-America-1755-1783-Journal-of-the-Society-for-Army-Historical-Research-no-60

Don N, Hagist, “Women on Burgoyne’s Campaign,” The Brigade Dispatch, vol. XXX, no. 4 (Winter
2000), 18-20
http://www.scribd.com/doc/213934713/Don-N-Hagist-%E2%80%9CWomen-on-
Burgoyne%E2%80%99s-Campaign-%E2%80%9D-The-Brigade-Dispatch-vol-XXX-no-4-Winter-
14
2000-18-20

Mrs. Middleton and Mary Driskill, the Experiences of Two Women with British Regiments
Don N. Hagist, “Mrs. Middleton Takes Prisoners,” The Brigade Dispatch, vol. XXIX, no. 3 (Autumn
1999), 17 (a British Army woman’s experiences, from a primary source).
Don N. Hagist, “Mary Driskill, 10th Regiment of Foot,” The Brigade Dispatch, vol. XXX, no. 2
(Summer 2000), 15 (a British Army woman’s experiences, from a primary source).
http://www.scribd.com/doc/214783573/Mrs-Middleton-and-Mary-Driskill-the-Experiences-of-Two-
Women-with-British-Regiments-Don-N-Hagist-%E2%80%9CMrs-Middleton-Takes-Prisoners-
%E2%80%9D-The-Brigade
Apparel and Goods Issued to Female Followers of American Troops
Don N. Hagist, “She was very fond of soldiers,” The Brigade Dispatch, vol. XXIX, no. 2 (Summer
2000), 15-16.
Don N. Hagist, “The Women of Fort Jefferson” (goods issued to individuals at a Kentucky fort,
1780-1781), The Brigade Dispatch, vol. XXX, no. 1 (Spring 2000), 21-23.
http://www.scribd.com/doc/214790248/Apparel-Worn-by-and-Goods-Issued-to-Female-Followers-
of-American-Troops-Don-N-Hagist-She-was-very-fond-of-soldiers-The-Brigade-Dispatch-vol-XXI

French Troops and Female Followers
René Chartrand, “Notes Concerning Women in the 18th Century French Army,” The Brigade
Dispatch, vol. XXV, no. 3 (Summer 1995), 2 (explanation of the relative paucity of women with
French forces in America).
Donald J. Brandt, “Rochambeau's Army, and Women in America,” The Brigade Dispatch, vol. XXV,
no. 3 (Summer 1995), 3 (insights on women with and around a French regiment).
http://www.scribd.com/doc/214927135/French-Troops-and-Female-Followers-Rene-Chartrand-
%E2%80%9CNotes-Concerning-Women-in-the-18th-Century-French-Army-%E2%80%9D-The-
Brigade-Dispatch-vol-XXV-no

Refugees and Women following Loyalist Regiments (Part 1)
Todd W. Braisted, "Refugees & Others: Loyalist Families in the American War for Independence,"
The Brigade Dispatch (Journal of the Brigade of the American Revolution), two parts: vol. XXVI, no. 4
(Winter 1996), 2-7; vol. XXVII, no. 2 (Summer 1997), 2-6.
http://www.scribd.com/doc/214984897/Refugees-and-Women-following-Loyalist-Regiments-Part-1-
Todd-W-Braisted-Refugees-Others-Loyalist-Families-in-the-American-War-for-Independence

Refugees and Women following Loyalist Regiments (Part 2)
Todd W. Braisted, "Refugees & Others: Loyalist Families in the American War for Independence,"
The Brigade Dispatch (Journal of the Brigade of the American Revolution), two parts: vol. XXVI, no. 4
(Winter 1996), 2-7; vol. XXVII, no. 2 (Summer 1997), 2-6.
http://www.scribd.com/doc/214995035/Refugees-and-Women-following-Loyalist-Regiments-Part-2-
Todd-W-Braisted-Refugees-Others-Loyalist-Families-in-the-American-War-for-Independence

15
Following the Army, by Don Troiani

Letters, Diaries, and Order Books
http://www.scribd.com/doc/125413869/J-U-Rees-Article-List-Soldiers-Letters-Diaries-and-
Order-Books
"’We ... wheeled to the Right to form the Line of Battle’: Colonel Israel Shreve's Journal, 23
November 1776 to 14 August 1777 (Including Accounts of the Action at the Short Hills)”
(Originally published in The Brigade Dispatch, vol. XXII, no. 1 (Spring 1992), 7-16.)
16
Contents
1. “The Enemy Came out fired several Cannon At our Pickets”: Journal Entries, 23 November 1776 to 25
June 1777
2. Composition of Maj. Gen. William Alexander, Lord Stirling's Division, Summer 1777
3. “Our Canister shot Did Great Execution.”: The Battle of the Short Hills: Journal Entries 26 to 28 June
1777
4. “There was a steady fire on us from out of the bushes …”: A German Officer’s View of Operations in
New Jersey, 24 to 28 June 1777
5. “A smart engagement ensued …”: A British Private’s View of the Short Hills Battle
6. "I propose leaving Colo. Daytons and Ogden's Regts. at Elizabeth Town … for the present ...”:
Movements of the 1st and 3d New Jersey Regiments, July and August 1777
7. “Crossed Delaware [River], halted At Doctor Enhams …”: Final Journal Entries, 29 July to 14 August
1777
Addenda
1. Listing of Field Officers, Commissioned Officers, and Staff of the 2d New Jersey Regiment December
1776 to December 1777
2. Company Strengths and Dispositions, Colonel Israel Shreve's 2d New Jersey Regiment December
1776 to December 1777
3. 2d New Jersey Regiment, Monthly Strength as Taken From the Muster Rolls, December 1776 to
December 1777
4. 2d New Jersey Regiment, Company Lineage, 1777 to 1779
5. “The Troops of this Army … Appear to Manoeuvre upon false principles …”: The State of
Continental Army Field Formations and Combat Maneuver, 1777
6. Composition of British Columns at the Short Hills Action, 26 June 1777; Organization of British Light
Infantry and Grenadier Battalions, Spring and Summer 1777
7. “I have sent down Lord Stirling's Division, to reinforce Genl. Maxwell …”: Summer Campaign
Letters, Gen. George Washington and Virginia Captain John Chilton, plus the role of “late
Ottendorff’s Corps,” 22 to 29 June 1777
8. “At sunrise the fire began …”: New Jersey Brigade Accounts of the 1777 Philadelphia Campaign
9. "Without Covering but the H[eaven's].C[anop].y and boughs of Trees …": 4th New Jersey Officer's
Diary, 21 June 1777 to 18 February 1778 (plus Journal of Ensign George Ewing, 3d New Jersey, 1777-1778)
http://www.scribd.com/doc/153790118/%E2%80%99We-wheeled-to-the-Right-to-form-the-
Line-of-Battle%E2%80%99-Colonel-Israel-Shreve-s-Journal-23-November-1776-to-14-
August-1777-Including-Accounts-of

“Receivd an Ensigncy in Capt Hagans Company Third Jersey Regt”
Ensign George Ewing’s Journal, New Jersey Line, 11 November 1775 to 21 May 1778
(Published as George Ewing, The Military Journal of George Ewing (1754-1824): A Soldier of
Valley Forge (Yonkers, N.Y.: Privately printed by T. Ewing, 1928))
http://www.scribd.com/doc/153505766/%E2%80%9CReceivd-an-Ensigncy-in-Capt-
Hagans-Company-Third-Jersey-Regt%E2%80%9D-Ensign-George-Ewing%E2%80%99s-
Journal-New-Jersey-Line-11-November-1775-to-21-May-1778-Pu
“`Marched at Day Break and fell in With the Rebels’: Anonymous British Diary, 13 April
1777 to 26 September 1777,” http://revwar75.com/library/rees/diary.htm

"`Necessarys … to be Properley Packd: & Slung in their Blanketts’: Selected
Transcriptions 40th Regiment of Foot Order Book,”
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/40th.htm
Captain William Wolfe’s Light Company, 40th Regiment
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/wolfe.htm
17
“`The end of the war will be the commencement of our felicity.’: Insights on Two
Campaigns, Col. Israel Shreve (1779) and Lt. Col. Francis Barber (1781),” American
Revolution (Magazine of the American Revolution Association), vol. 1, no. 3
(October 2009), 47-52. http://revwar75.com/library/rees/pdfs/Shreve.pdf

“Diary of Soldier with Lafayette’s Light Infantry, 1781” (diary transcription)
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/pdfs/Atkins.pdf.pdf

“Asa Redington, Scammell’s Light Infantry Regiment, 1781” (soldier’s memoir)
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/pdfs/Redington.pdf

“`The British army marched out and grounded their arms …’: Pennsylvania Lt. William
Feltman’s Diary 26 May to 5 November 1781” (transcription)
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/pdfs/Feltman.pdf

“`We had a small attack … with our Riflemen …’: A Pennsylvania Soldier’s 1776
Letter,” Military Collector & Historian, vol. 61, no. 3 (Fall 2009), 155-156.
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/pdfs/krider.pdf

“`Remembour me to all inquiring friends’: New Jersey Private Henry Johnson’s Letters,
1778 to 1780” (manuscript)

"`The Action was renew.d with a very warm Canonade’: A New Jersey Officer’s Diary, June
1777 to August 1778” (manuscript) (Partial transcription in "’We ... wheeled to the Right to form
the Line of Battle’: Colonel Israel Shreve's Journal, 23 November 1776 to 14 August 1777,”
http://www.scribd.com/doc/153790118/%E2%80%99We-wheeled-to-the-Right-to-form-the-
Line-of-Battle%E2%80%99-Colonel-Israel-Shreve-s-Journal-23-November-1776-to-14-
August-1777-Including-Accounts-of )

John U. Rees and Bob McDonald, "’The Action was renew.d with a very warm Canonade’: New
Jersey Officer's Diary, 21 June 1777 to 31 August 1778”
https://www.scribd.com/document/347860978/The-Action-was-renew-d-with-a-very-warm-
Canonade-New-Jersey-Officer-s-Diary-21-June-1777-to-31-August-1778

Military Music
http://www.scribd.com/doc/125413552/J-U-Rees-Article-List-Military-Musicans

Music, Military, vol. 2, 763-765 (1500 words), Mark M. Boatner, Encyclopedia of the
American Revolution: Library of Military History, Harold E. Selesky, ed. (2nd
Edition, Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2006)

Artwork Narrative: Pamela Patrick White, “`Each morning we… had to play and beat the

18
Reveille’: Continental Army Musicians,” (2004) http://www.whitehistoricart.com

"`The musicians belonging to the whole army': An Abbreviated Study of the Ages of
Musicians in the Continental Army," The Brigade Dispatch, two parts: vol. XXIV, no. 4
(Autumn 1993), 2-8; vol. XXV, no. 1 (Winter 1994), 2-12. Abridged version of this article
published in Percussive Notes, Journal of the Percussive Arts Society (August 2005), 64-66.
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/musician1.htm and
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/musician2.htm

"`Bugle Horns', 'conk shells' and 'Signals by Drum': Miscellaneous Notes on Instruments and
Their Usage During the American War for Independence," The Brigade Dispatch, vol.
XXVI, no. 4 (Winter 1996), 13-15 http://revwar75.com/library/rees/buglehorns.htm

Other Authors’ Monographs
(Military Music)

Samuel Dewees, A History of the Life and Services of Captain Samuel Dewees... The whole written (in
part from a manuscript in the handwriting of Captain Dewees) and compiled by John Smith Hanna. (R.
Neilson, Baltimore, 1844), 92-97, 125-126, 133-134, 138-152, enlistment and detached service; 148,
some time between late summer of 1778 and spring of 1779 Dewees was serving as a waiter at Humpton's
private residence at Somerset Courthouse in New Jersey. He claimed that while he "homed" he "was
dressed in a Fifer's regimental coat and cap, with [a] horse or cow tail hanging thereon..."; 152-153, attack
on Stony Point. Samuel Dewees' pension file gives two different ages (57 years old in 1820 and 56 years
old in 1818) for which reason he is not included in the age statistics of this study. A brief outline of his
early services according to his memoirs is as follows: His father having been captured at Fort Washington
in November of 1776 was released from prison in the beginning of 1777. Samuel Dewees was enlisted by
his father as a fifer, in the 11th Pennsylvania Regiment commanded by Colonel Richard Humpton, being
"about or turned of 15, but quite small of my age." Dewees served in the fall of 1777 in a hospital at the
"Brandywine meeting-house" (probably Birmingham Meetinghouse), at one point under the command of
Captain George Ross, Jr. of the 11th Regiment, and remained on duty with the sick or was absent from the
army until the spring of 1778. Following his return to the army at Valley Forge be rejoined the 11th
Pennsylvania, became waiter to Colonel Humpton and again was detached from the army. In July of 1779
when he returned to his regiment he claimed to have been "one of the musicians attached to the
detachment" which attempted to attack Stony Point, though General Anthony Wayne left "the musicians
(or at least a portion of them) myself included in the number behind him." Dewees says that this assault
was not successful and he did not take part in the later successful assault on July 16th (hereafter cited as
Dewees, History of the Life and Services of Captain Samuel Dewees).
(Courtesy of Steve Dillon) http://www.fifemuseum.com/sammy-the-fifer.html

Steve Dillon, “William Callender, Fife Maker of the American Revolution”
http://www.fifemuseum.com/william-callender-.html

Steve Dillon, “What does a Revolutionary War fife look like?”
http://www.fifemuseum.com/revolutionary-war-fifes.html

Steve Dillon, "`What is the age of my fife?’"
(Including information on and images of Historic Fifes, A-Z, and Fife Advertisements, 1760s-1930s)
http://www.fifemuseum.com/how-old-is-my-fife-.html
19
Steven M. Baule, “Drummers in the British Army during the American Revolution,“ Journal of the
Society for Army Historical Research: , vol. 86 (2008), no. 346, 20.
https://www.scribd.com/document/327314715/Steven-M-Baule-Drummers-in-the-British-Army-
during-the-American-Revolution-Journal-of-the-Society-for-Army-Historical-Research-vol-86-2008
African-American Soldiers
http://www.scribd.com/doc/125413719/J-U-Rees-Article-List-African-American-Soldiers

“’They were good soldiers.’: African–Americans Serving in the Continental Army,”
http://www.scribd.com/doc/123231213/%E2%80%9CThey-were-good-soldiers-
African%E2%80%93Americans-Serving-in-the-Continental-Army

“’At Eutau Springs he received three wounds …’: Black Soldiers in Southern Continental
Regiments”
Contents
Overview of Numbers
Gleaning Veterans’ Pensions
Georgia
South Carolina
Maryland
Delaware
Virginia
Analysis: William Ranney’s Painting “Battle of Cowpens” and Black Cavalry Soldiers
Analysis: Officers’ Servants
North Carolina
Post-War Comments on Unit Integration, Slavery, and Societal Attitudes towards Blacks
Appendices
A. "Return of the Negroes in the Army," 24 August 1778, White Plains, New York
B. Estimated Populations of the American Colonies, 1700-1780
C. Synopsis of African-American veterans’ pensions found on Southern Campaign Revolutionary War
Pension Statements & Rosters (with links to pension transcriptions)
D. Analysis of average number of African Americans in all the brigades listed in the 24 August 1778 “Return
of the Negroes in the Army” showing 755 black soldiers in fifteen brigades of Gen. George Washington’s main
army at White Plains, New York.
E. A Study in Complexity: Comparison of Virginia Continental regiment lineage with that of the
Pennsylvania and Massachusetts Lines
F. Synopsis of the Chesterfield List (Virginia, 1780-1781) (Including, “Numbers of African-Americans on the
Chesterfield List.”)
https://www.scribd.com/doc/290761045/At-Eutau-Springs-he-received-three-wounds-Black-
Soldiers-in-Southern-Continental-Regiments
Pensions used for the above study:
A. Delaware and Georgia Pensions Gleaned from “Southern Campaign Revolutionary War Pension
Statements & Rosters,”
https://www.academia.edu/18409677/Delaware_and_Georgia_Pensions_Gleaned_from_Southern_C
ampaign_Revolutionary_War_Pension_Statements_and_Rosters_as_of_14_April_2011_http_www.
southerncampaign.org_pen_
B. South Carolina Pensions Gleaned from SCRWP,
https://www.academia.edu/18409708/South_Carolina_Pensions_Gleaned_from_Southern_Campaig
n_Revolutionary_War_Pension_Statements_and_Rosters_as_of_14_April_2011_http_www.souther
ncampaign.org_pen_
C. Maryland Pensions Gleaned from SCRWP,
https://www.academia.edu/18409828/Maryland_Pensions_Gleaned_from_Southern_Campaign_Rev

20
olutionary_War_Pension_Statements_and_Rosters_as_of_14_April_2011_http_www.southerncamp
aign.org_pen_
D. Virginia Pensions Gleaned from SCRWP (Including a Synopsis of the 1780 Chesterfield Roll),
https://www.academia.edu/18409884/Virginia_Pensions_Gleaned_from_Southern_Campaign_Revol
utionary_War_Pension_Statements_and_Rosters_as_of_14_April_2011_http_www.southerncampai
gn.org_pen_
E. North Carolina Pensions Gleaned from SCRWP,
https://www.academia.edu/18409910/North_Carolina_Pensions_Gleaned_from_Southern_Campaig
n_Revolutionary_War_Pension_Statements_and_Rosters_as_of_14_April_2011_http_www.souther
ncampaign.org_pen_
F. Examples of African-Americans Serving in the North Carolina Militia Gleaned from SCRWP,
https://www.academia.edu/18409926/Examples_of_African-
Americans_Serving_in_the_North_Carolina_Militia
See also: Examples of the Complexity of Continental Army Unit Lineage: (The Virginia, Pennsylvania and
Massachusetts Continental Lines)
https://www.scribd.com/doc/307784931/Examples-of-the-Complexity-of-Continental-Army-Unit-Lineage-
The-Virginia-Pennsylvania-and-Massachusetts-Continental-Lines

“`They were good soldiers.’ African–Americans Serving in the Continental Army, and
General Glover’s Soldier-Servants,” Military Collector & Historian, vol. 62, no. 2
(Summer 2010), 139-141. http://revwar75.com/library/rees/pdfs/glover.pdf

“Revolutionary War Pension File: Jeffery Brace a.k.a. Stiles (African-American soldier,
6th Connecticut Regiment),” http://www.americanrevolution.org/rees.html

Other Authors’ Monographs
(African-American Soldiers)
Peter Copeland, “Lord Dunmore’s Ethiopian Regiment,” Military Collector & Historian, vol. 58,
no. 4 (2006), 208-215.
http://www.scribd.com/doc/199777778/Peter-Copeland-Ethiopian-Regiment-Military-Collector-
Historian

Matt Thorenz, "Substitutes, Servants, and Soldiers: The Black Presence at New Windsor
Cantonment in the Massachusetts and New Hampshire Lines"
https://www.scribd.com/doc/245294267/Substitutes-Servants-and-Soldiers-The-Black-
Presence-at-New-Windsor-Cantonment-in-the-Massachusetts-and-New-Hampshire-Lines-
by-Matt-Thorenz

Enlistment and Conscription
http://www.scribd.com/doc/125413359/J-U-Rees-Article-List-Enlistment-and-Conscription

Continental Army draft , vol. 1, 250 (300 words);
German soldiers serving in British regiments, vol. 1, 424-425 (250 words);
Entries in Mark M. Boatner, Encyclopedia of the American Revolution: Library of
Military History, Harold E. Selesky, ed. (2nd Edition, Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2006)
“Friedrich Lacour: A German Deserter with the Second New Jersey Regiment,”
Journal of the Johannes Schwalm Historical Association, vol. 7, no. 4 (2004), 55-56.
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/pdfs/lacour.pdf

21
“`The pleasure of their number’: 1778, Crisis, Conscription, and Revolutionary Soldiers’
Recollections”
Part I. “’Filling the Regiments by drafts from the Militia.’: The 1778 Recruiting Acts”
Part II. "’Fine, likely, tractable men.’: Levy Statistics and New Jersey Service Narratives”
Part III. "He asked me if we had been discharged …”: New Jersey, Massachusetts, New
York, Maryland, and North Carolina Levy Narratives”
ALHFAM Bulletin, vol. XXXIII, no. 3 (Fall 2003), 23-34; no. 4 (Winter 2004),
23-34; vol. XXXIV, no. 1 (Spring 2004), 19-28.
http://www.scribd.com/doc/126069484/First-Part-%E2%80%9CThe-pleasure-of-their-
number%E2%80%9D-1778-Crisis-Conscription-and-Revolutionary-
Soldiers%E2%80%99-Recollections-A-Preliminary-Study-Part-I-%E2%80%9CFil

http://www.scribd.com/doc/126069114/Second-Part-%E2%80%9CThe-pleasure-of-their-
number%E2%80%9D-Crisis-Conscription-and-Revolutionary-Soldiers%E2%80%99-
Recollections-A-Preliminary-Study-Part-II-Fine-l

http://www.scribd.com/doc/126068332/Third-Part-%E2%80%9CThe-pleasure-of-their-
number%E2%80%9D-Crisis-Conscription-and-Revolutionary-Soldiers%E2%80%99-
Recollections-A-Preliminary-Study-Part-III-He-aske

http://tinyurl.com/blz2gjw
http://tinyurl.com/cttrxe8
http://tinyurl.com/cayayg5

"`He Come Out with us this time As a Volunteer': Soldiers Serving Without Pay in the
Second New Jersey Regiment, 1777-1780," Military Collector & Historian,
vol. XLV, no. 4 (Winter 1993), 154-155.
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/volunteer.htm

"`The new Leveys are coming in dayly ...': The Nine Month Draft in the Second New
Jersey Regiment and Maxwell's New Jersey Brigade” (Including a study of "The
Use and Effect of the Nine-Month Draft in the Other Brigades of Washington's
Army"), included in "I Expect to be stationed in Jersey sometime...": An Account
of the Services of the New Jersey Regiment, December 1777 to June 1778, Part I
MSS (1994), for which see Regimental and Battalion Studies.)

22
(Image, previous page.)
Two of four Continental soldiers drawn in 1781 by French Sublieutenant Jean-Baptiste-Antoine de Verger,
Royal Deux-Ponts Regiment. The soldier on the left has long been thought to be from the Rhode Island
Regiment of 1781, that on the right of Hazen’s Canadian Regiment. Another version, found in French officer
Baron Ludwig von Closen’s journal, is headed “Costumer de l’Armé Américaine en 1782.” Closen’s copy
notes that the left-hand soldier belongs to a Massachusetts Continental regiment, that on the right a New
Jersey regiment. Howard C. Rice and Anne S.K. Brown, eds. and trans., The American Campaigns of
Rochambeau's Army 1780, 1781, 1782, 1783, vol. I (Princeton, N.J. and Providence, R.I.,: Princeton University
Press, 1972), between pages 142-143 (description on page xxi). Anne S.K. Brown Military Collection, Brown
University. Sidney Kaplan, The Black Presence in the Era of the American Revolution, 1770-1800 (Greenwich, Ct.:
New York Graphic Society, Ltd. in Association with the Smithsonian Institution Press, 1973), 42.

23
Miscellaneous Subjects
(War for American Independence)
“When the whole are completely formed, they may ground their arms …”: Grounding versus
Stacking Arms in the Continental Army (With Notes on British and German Practices)
https://www.scribd.com/doc/292407335/When-the-whole-are-completely-formed-they-may-
ground-their-arms-When-the-whole-are-completely-formed-they-may-ground-their-
arms-Groundin

“’Was not in the battles ... being a Waiter.’ Enlisted Men and Civilians as Officers’ Servants
during the War for American Independence”
Part 1. “Our boys bring down something to eat ...”: Overview: Field and Company Officers’ Servants
https://www.scribd.com/doc/260955648/Was-not-in-the-battles-being-a-Waiter-Enlisted-Men-and-Civilians-
as-Officers-Servants-during-the-War-for-American-
Independence?secret_password=OJ0XV4DLMfjssaEcdU34
see also http://allthingsliberty.com/2015/04/war-as-a-waiter-soldier-servants/
Part. 2. “When the Cook has a mind to cut a figure …”: General Officers’ Personal and Household Servants
(Work in progress)

“`To Cash paid the Revrd. John Mason for Servant Hannah’s wages …': Hannah Till, General
Washington’s Wartime Cook"
https://www.scribd.com/document/330715949/To-Cash-paid-the-Revrd-John-Mason-for-Servant-
Hannah-s-wages-Hannah-Till-General-Washington-s-Wartime-Cook

"`Sospecting the prisner to be a tory ...': A Continental Army Court Martial, July 1777,"
The Continental Soldier, vol. IX, no. 1 (Winter/Spring 1997), 45-46, and,
Military Collector & Historian, vol. 60, no. 3 (Fall 2008), 167.
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/tory.htm
“`I … am Determined to serve you … If Possible.’- John Coryell (1778): General
Washington’s Request for Assistance during the Valley Forge Winter,” History in
the Making (The Newsletter of the New Hope Historical Society), vol. 4, no. 1 (May
2006), 4-5.
“Echoes of 1778, Three Years After,” Bravo Pastimes (Battlefield Restoration and
Archaeological Volunteer Organization Newsletter), vol. 2.06 (February 2006), 3.

"`Politeness', 'Mirth' and 'Vocal Musick': Sidelights of General John Sullivan's Indian
Campaign of 1779," The Continental Soldier,vol. XII, no. 1 (Spring 1999), 37-39.
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/mirth.htm

“`Our wants of the common conveniences were sometimes curiously supplied …’: A
Revolutionary Soldier’s Wooden Bowl,” Military Collector & Historian, vol. 61, no. 3 (Fall
2009), 210-214. Revised and published in Solebury Chronicle (Newsletter of the Solebury
Township Historical Society), vol. 12, no. 1 (Winter 2010), 4-5.
http://www.soleburyhistory.org/newsletter.htm

24
(Rewritten in 2012 as “The common necessaries of life …” A Revolutionary Soldier’s Wooden
Bowl,” including, “’Left sick on the Road’: An Attempt to Identify the Soldier Left at the Paxson
Home, ‘Rolling Green,’ June 1778.”)
http://www.scribd.com/doc/123562525/%E2%80%9CThe-common-necessaries-of-life-
%E2%80%A6%E2%80%9D-A-Revolutionary-Soldier%E2%80%99s-Wooden-Bowl
or http://tinyurl.com/at3dj3e
“’A wave struck the ship, the soup flew out of my bowl …’: Food and Accommodations for
Soldiers at Sea during the War for Independence” (Including a section titled, “German Troops on
Campaign in America”)
https://www.scribd.com/doc/259230707/A-wave-struck-the-ship-the-soup-flew-out-of-my-
bowl-Food-and-Accommodations-for-Soldiers-at-Sea-during-the-War-for-Independence-
Including-a

“With Peale to Princeton: Events leading up to the battles of the Assunpink and Princeton, 2 and 3
January 1777 or Just How Did We Get Into This Mess?”
https://www.scribd.com/doc/249551727/With-Peale-to-Princeton-Events-leading-up-to-the-battles-
of-the-Assunpink-and-Princeton-2-and-3-January-1777-or-Just-How-Did-We-Get-Into-This-Mess

(Charles Lee at the Battle of Monmouth) "'The defective constitution of our army ...': Casting
Blame for the Morning Debacle"
https://www.scribd.com/doc/248758117/Charles-Lee-at-the-Battle-of-Monmouth-The-
defective-constitution-of-our-army-Casting-Blame-for-the-Morning-Debacle
Other Authors’ Monographs
(Miscellaneous Subjects)
(War for American Independence)

Harold E. Selesky, A Demographic Survey of the Continental Army That Wintered at Valley
Forge, Pennsylvania, 1777-1778 (New Haven, Ct., 1987)
https://www.scribd.com/doc/278478856/Harold-E-Selesky-A-Demographic-Survey-of-the-
Continental-Army-That-Wintered-at-Valley-Forge-Pennsylvania-1777-1778

“A British Military Lodge in the War of the Revolution” (17th Regiment of Foot), Henry R.
Evans, https://www.scribd.com/document/347780957/A-British-Military-Lodge-in-the-War-
of-the-Revolution-17th-Regiment-of-Foot-Henry-R-Evans

25
Miscellaneous Subjects
(Not Related to the War for Independence)
http://www.scribd.com/doc/125413179/J-U-Rees-Article-List-Miscellaneous-Subjects

“Our job is to keep the planes flying and if necessary, defend the airfield.”
Lester E. Folkenson, Jr., War Letters, June 1943 to February 1946
Aircraft Mechanic, M.A.G. (Marine Air Group) 31
http://www.scribd.com/doc/143992218/%E2%80%9COur-job-is-to-keep-the-planes-flying-
and-if-necessary-defend-the-airfield-%E2%80%9D-Lester-E-Folkenson-Jr-War-
Letters-June-1943-to-February-1946-Airc
and
https://www.academia.edu/14387029/_Our_job_is_to_keep_the_planes_flying_and_if_nece
ssary_defend_the_airfield._Lester_E._Folkenson_Jr._War_Letters_June_1943_to_Febr
uary_1946_Aircraft_Mechanic_M.A.G._Marine_Air_Group_31

"Headmaster with a Heart" by Charlotte Andersen (Article on George Rowe, new headmaster of
Buckingham Friends School, from the Panorama Magazine, October 1972)
https://www.scribd.com/doc/290795176/Headmaster-with-a-Heart-by-Charlotte-
Andersen

“Carols by Candlelight" (History of the Wrightstown Friends Meeting Carol Sing)
https://www.scribd.com/doc/290796276/Carols-by-Candlelight

”’There was a family dance at Phillips Mill …’: Family and Township History: It’s Easy and Fun
to Do,” Solebury Chronicle (Newsletter of the Solebury Township Historical Society), vol. 12,
no. 3 (Fall 2010)
http://soleburyhistory.org/wp/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/newsletterfall2010.pdf
“’Think of me kindly for my spirit may want help ere this terrible work is done.’:
Commemorating Solebury’s Soldiers,” Solebury Chronicle (Newsletter of the Solebury
Township Historical Society), vol. 12, no. 2 (Spring 2010)
http://www.scribd.com/doc/191677126/%E2%80%9CThink-of-me-kindly-for-my-spirit-
may-want-help-ere-this-terrible-work-is-done-%E2%80%9D-Two-of-
Solebury%E2%80%99s-Soldiers-Robert-Kenderdine-and-William-Tinsman
Also:
http://soleburyhistory.org/wp/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/newsletterspring2010.pdf
“’Schickelgruber is getting the worst licking everywhere.’: A Lumberville Artist’s Letter to a
Soldier, 1943,” Solebury Chronicle (Newsletter of the Solebury Township Historical Society),
vol. 13, no. 1 (Winter 2011)
http://www.scribd.com/doc/210921391/%E2%80%9C-Schickelgruber-is-getting-the-worst-
licking-everywhere-A-Lumberville-Artist%E2%80%99s-Letter-to-a-Soldier-1943
Also:
http://soleburyhistory.org/wp/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/newsletterwinter2011.pdf

26
"’But you may Plough with ease …’: An Early 18th Century Letter from Solebury,” Solebury
Chronicle (Newsletter of the Solebury Township Historical Society), vol. 13, no. 2 (Summer
2011), 4-5.
http://soleburyhistory.org/wp/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/newslettersummer2011.pdf

Family and Local History
“Our job is to keep the planes flying and if necessary, defend the airfield.”
Lester E. Folkenson, Jr., War Letters, June 1943 to February 1946
Aircraft Mechanic, M.A.G. (Marine Air Group) 31
http://www.scribd.com/doc/143992218/%E2%80%9COur-job-is-to-keep-the-planes-flying-
and-if-necessary-defend-the-airfield-%E2%80%9D-Lester-E-Folkenson-Jr-War-
Letters-June-1943-to-February-1946-Airc
and
https://www.academia.edu/14387029/_Our_job_is_to_keep_the_planes_flying_and_if_nece
ssary_defend_the_airfield._Lester_E._Folkenson_Jr._War_Letters_June_1943_to_Febr
uary_1946_Aircraft_Mechanic_M.A.G._Marine_Air_Group_31

“Miscellaneous Family Information: Rees Family (See also Kauth Family at end)”
https://www.academia.edu/18245855/Miscellaneous_Family_Information_Rees_Family_Se
e_also_Kauth_Family_at_end_
“Miscellaneous Family Information: The Claytons and Related Families”
https://www.academia.edu/18245952/Miscellaneous_Family_Information_The_Claytons_a
nd_Related_Families

“Miscellaneous Family Information: Urban Family”
https://www.academia.edu/18245996/Miscellaneous_Family_Information_Urban_Family

“Miscellaneous Family Information: Folkenson Family”
https://www.academia.edu/18246066/Miscellaneous_Family_Information_Folkenson_Family

“Miscellaneous Family Information: Townsend Family”
https://www.academia.edu/18246126/Miscellaneous_Family_Information_Townsend_Family

“Carols by Candlelight" (History of the Wrightstown Friends Meeting Carol Sing)
https://www.scribd.com/doc/290796276/Carols-by-Candlelight

"Headmaster with a Heart" by Charlotte Andersen (Article on George Rowe, new headmaster of
Buckingham Friends School, from the Panorama Magazine, October 1972)
https://www.scribd.com/doc/290795176/Headmaster-with-a-Heart-by-Charlotte-
Andersen
”’There was a family dance at Phillips Mill …’: Family and Township History: It’s Easy and Fun
to Do,” Solebury Chronicle (Newsletter of the Solebury Township Historical Society), vol. 12,
no. 3 (Fall 2010)
http://soleburyhistory.org/wp/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/newsletterfall2010.pdf

27
“’Think of me kindly for my spirit may want help ere this terrible work is done.’:
Commemorating Solebury’s Soldiers,” Solebury Chronicle (Newsletter of the Solebury
Township Historical Society), vol. 12, no. 2 (Spring 2010)
http://www.scribd.com/doc/191677126/%E2%80%9CThink-of-me-kindly-for-my-spirit-
may-want-help-ere-this-terrible-work-is-done-%E2%80%9D-Two-of-
Solebury%E2%80%99s-Soldiers-Robert-Kenderdine-and-William-Tinsman
Also:
http://soleburyhistory.org/wp/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/newsletterspring2010.pdf
“’Schickelgruber is getting the worst licking everywhere.’: A Lumberville Artist’s Letter to a
Soldier, 1943,” Solebury Chronicle (Newsletter of the Solebury Township Historical Society),
vol. 13, no. 1 (Winter 2011)
http://www.scribd.com/doc/210921391/%E2%80%9C-Schickelgruber-is-getting-the-worst-
licking-everywhere-A-Lumberville-Artist%E2%80%99s-Letter-to-a-Soldier-1943
Also:
http://soleburyhistory.org/wp/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/newsletterwinter2011.pdf
"’But you may Plough with ease …’: An Early 18th Century Letter from Solebury,” Solebury
Chronicle (Newsletter of the Solebury Township Historical Society), vol. 13, no. 2 (Summer
2011), 4-5.
http://soleburyhistory.org/wp/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/newslettersummer2011.pdf

New Jersey Brigade
http://www.scribd.com/doc/125412783/J-U-Rees-Article-List-New-Jersey-Brigade
New Jersey Brigade, vol. 2, 808 (250 words), Mark M. Boatner, Encyclopedia of the
American Revolution: Library of Military History, Harold E. Selesky, ed. (2nd
Edition, Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2006)

(Brother Jonathan’s Images, No. 7)
Major Joseph Bloomfield, 3d New Jersey Regiment (John U. Rees)
Artist: Charles Willson Peale
Year: 1777
Collection: Private
http://www.scribd.com/doc/179477933/Brother-Jonathan%E2%80%99s-Images-No-7-
Major-Joseph-Bloomfield-3d-New-Jersey-Regiment-Artist-Charles-Willson-Peale-Year-
1777-Collection-Privatel

“’The Blues offered again to fight …’: Contemporary Use of the Terms ‘Jersey Blues’ and ‘Jersey
Greys’ (Appendix of Brother Jonathan’s Images, No. 7, above.)

"’The Enemy Giting intelligence of our movement ...’: Surprise at Haddonfield, April 1778”
http://www.scribd.com/doc/131104556/The-Enemy-Giting-intelligence-of-our-movement-
Surprise-at-Haddonfield-April-1778

28
“`What is this you have been about to day?’: The New Jersey Brigade at the Battle of
Monmouth, 28 June 1778,” narrative and appendices available only on the World
Wide Web, http://revwar75.com/library/rees/monmouth/MonmouthToc.htm

“’A very smart cannonading ensued from both sides.’: Continental Artillery at Monmouth
Courthouse, 28 June 1778” (Including information on artillery attached to the New Jersey Brigade)
http://www.scribd.com/doc/139365107/%E2%80%9C-A-very-smart-cannonading-ensued-
from-both-sides-Continental-Artillery-at-Monmouth-Courthouse-28-June-1778-
Including-information-on-artillery

"`He Come Out with us this time As a Volunteer': Soldiers Serving Without Pay in the
Second New Jersey Regiment, 1777-1780," Military Collector & Historian, vol.
XLV, no. 4 (Winter 1993), 154-55.
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/volunteer.htm

“`Be pleased to fill up the vacancy with the eldest Captain in the line …’: Field Officers,
Commissioned Officers, and Staff of the 2nd New Jersey Regiment
December 1777 to May 1779” http://revwar75.com/library/rees/pdfs/MonmouthP.htm

"'The Great Neglect in provideing Cloathing': Uniform Colors and Clothing in the New
Jersey Brigade During the Monmouth Campaign of 1778":
"The Jersey Blues:" The New Jersey Regiments, 1755-1776
"Never...Our Proper Quantity:" The New Jersey Brigade of 1777
"The Regiments Have No Uniforms or Distinguishing Colours:" Uniform Coats
and the New Jersey Brigade During 1778
“The following Articles of Cloathing …”: 1778 Nine Months Levies’ Apparel
“Only a few light things in the Spring.": Clothing the Jersey Brigade’s Long Term
Soldiers, 1778
Military Collector & Historian, two parts: vol. XLVI, no. 4. (Winter 1994), 163-170;
vol. XLVII, no. 1 (Spring 1995), 12-20. http://revwar75.com/library/rees/neglect1.htm
and
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/neglect2.htm

"'One of the best in the army.': An Overview of Brigadier General William Maxwell's Jersey
Brigade," The Continental Soldier, vol. XI, no. 2 (Spring 1998), 45-53
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/njbrigade.htm

29
"`The great distress of the Army for want of Blankets ...': Supply Shortages, Suffering
Soldiers, and a Secret Mission During the Hard Winter of 1780":
1. "Our condition for want of ... Blankets is quite painful ..."
Shortages in the Continental Army, 1776-1779
2. "Without even a shadow of a blanket ..."
Desperate Measures to Procure Covering for the Army, 1780
Addendum.
“To Colonel Morgan, for the use of the Light Infantry, twenty four Dutch Blankets & four pair of rose
Blankets.”: Examples of Bed Coverings Issued to Continental Troops
Endnote Extras.
Note
20. Clothing New Jersey's Soldiers, Winter 1779-1780
38. The Effect of Weather on the Squan Mission
Location of Squan Beach
43. Captain Bowman's Soldiers
46. Bowman's 2d New Jersey Light Company at the Battle of Connecticut Farms
Military Collector & Historian, vol. 52, no. 3 (Fall 2000), 98-110.
https://www.scribd.com/doc/274667902/The-great-distress-of-the-Army-for-want-of-
Blankets-Supply-Shortages-Suffering-Soldiers-and-a-Secret-Mission-During-the-Hard-
Winter-of-1780
or http://revwar75.com/library/rees/blanketts.htm

“`The end of the war will be the commencement of our felicity.’: Insights on Two
Campaigns, Col. Israel Shreve (1779) and Lt. Col. Francis Barber (1781),” American
Revolution (Magazine of the American Revolution Association), vol. 1, no. 3
(October 2009), 47-52. http://revwar75.com/library/rees/pdfs/Shreve.pdf
http://www.scribd.com/doc/168698235/%E2%80%9C-The-end-of-the-war-will-be-the-
commencement-of-our-felicity-Insights-on-Two-Campaigns-by-Col-Israel-Shreve-1779-
and-Lt-Col-Francis-Barber-1

June 2013 Battle of Monmouth "Recreated New Jersey Continental Regiment Augmented With
Nine-months Levies" (June 1778 Roster for Capt. Jonathan Phillips' Company, 2d New Jersey
Regiment. For members and friends of the Augusta County Militia interested in portraying a
New Jersey Continental company with both long-term soldiers and nine-month drafts from the
militia during the 1778 Monmouth Campaign)
http://www.scribd.com/doc/126071601/June-2013-Battle-of-Monmouth-Recreated-New-
Jersey-Continental-Regiment-Augmented-With-Nine-months-Levies
“’I have ... got the Arms from Easton, [and] is now divideing them out.’: Clothing and Equipment
Needed to Recreate a 1778 New Jersey Continental Company Augmented with Nine-Months
Levies”
http://www.scribd.com/doc/130606718/%E2%80%9CI-have-got-the-Arms-from-Easton-
and-is-now-divideing-them-out-%E2%80%9D-Clothing-and-Equipment-Needed-to-
Recreate-a-1778-New-Jersey-Continental-Compa

30
“`Their presence Here … Has Saved this State …’: Continental Provisional Battalions with
Lafayette in Virginia, 1781”
Part 1. “`This Detachement is Extremely Good …’: The Light Battalions Move South”
D. “`The Fire of the Light Infantry …cheked the Enemys Progress …’: Light Battalion
Composition and Service”
E. “`Ill founded jealousies, and groundless suspicions.” ‘: Unrest in the Light Battalions”
F. “`The Cloathing you … long ago Sent to the light infantry is not Yet Arrived.‘: Apparel
and Equipment”
The Brigade Dispatch, vol. XXXVI, no. 2 (Autumn 2006), 2-23.
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/pdfs/light.pdf
Appendices for Above
1. Diary of Soldier with Lafayette’s Light Infantry, 1781
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/pdfs/Atkins.pdf.pdf
2. Asa Redington, Scammell’s Light Infantry Regiment, 1781
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/pdfs/Redington.pdf
3. Barber’s Light Battalion, 1781 (New Jersey Light Company Personnel)
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/pdfs/Barber.pdf

"Eyewitness to Battle: The Pension Depositions of Frederick Van Lew and Isaac Childs," The
Brigade Dispatch, vol. XXIX, no. 3 (Autumn 1999), 18-20.
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/vanlewchilds.htm

"Eyewitness to Battle: The New Jersey Brigade at Connecticut Farms and Springfield, June
1780," The Brigade Dispatch, vol. XXIX, no. 4 (Winter 1999), 20-22.
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/smithandshreve.htm

“`Endeavering to Keep them from going to New York ’: The New Jersey Brigade’s
Pursuit of the British Army, 18-27 June 1778” (manuscript)

“`The Combat was Renewed very Briskly ...': Maxwell's Brigade and the 1780 British
Incursion into New Jersey" (manuscript)

"`The enemy hove in a tollerable fire ...': New Jersey Brigade Casualties in the Actions of
Connecticut Farms and Springfield, June 1780"
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/hove.htm

"`The new Leveys are coming in dayly ...': The Nine Month Draft in the Second New
Jersey Regiment and Maxwell's New Jersey Brigade” (Including a study of "The Use
and Effect of the Nine-Month Draft in the Other Brigades of Washington's Army"). *

"`In reduced circumstances': Pension Papers of the Soldiers of the 2nd New Jersey Regiment" *

"`From thence to the Battle ...': Gleanings from the Pension Depositions of the Soldiers of
the New Jersey Brigade for 1778" *

"Losses in the New Jersey Brigade at the Battles of: Short Hills (June 26, 1777);
Brandywine (September 11, 1777); Germantown (October 4, 1777)." *
http://www.scribd.com/doc/130997982/Losses-in-the-New-Jersey-Brigade-at-the-Battles-of-Short-
Hills-June-26-1777-Brandywine-September-11-1777-Germantown-October-4-1777
"`They answered him with three cheers …’: New Jersey Brigade Losses in the
31
Monmouth Campaign, 17 June to 6 July 1778" *
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/NJlosses.htm

"Listing of the Names of Casualties in the 2nd New Jersey Regiment from 1777 to Spring of 1779" *

* (Note: All the above marked with an asterisk are included in "I Expect to be stationed
in Jersey sometime...": An Account of the Services of the New Jersey Regiment,
December 1777 to June 1778, Part I MSS (1994), for which see below.)

"’We ... wheeled to the Right to form the Line of Battle’: Colonel Israel Shreve's Journal, 23
November 1776 to 14 August 1777 (Including Accounts of the Action at the Short Hills)”
Contents
1. “The Enemy Came out fired several Cannon At our Pickets”: Journal Entries, 23 November 1776 to 25
June 1777
2. Composition of Maj. Gen. William Alexander, Lord Stirling's Division, Summer 1777
3. “Our Canister shot Did Great Execution.”: The Battle of the Short Hills: Journal Entries 26 to 28 June
1777
4. “There was a steady fire on us from out of the bushes …”: A German Officer’s View of Operations in
New Jersey, 24 to 28 June 1777
5. “A smart engagement ensued …”: A British Private’s View of the Short Hills Battle
6. "I propose leaving Colo. Daytons and Ogden's Regts. at Elizabeth Town … for the present ...”:
Movements of the 1st and 3d New Jersey Regiments, July and August 1777
7. “Crossed Delaware [River], halted At Doctor Enhams …”: Final Journal Entries, 29 July to 14 August
1777
Addenda
1. Listing of Field Officers, Commissioned Officers, and Staff of the 2d New Jersey Regiment December
1776 to December 1777
2. Company Strengths and Dispositions, Colonel Israel Shreve's 2d New Jersey Regiment December
1776 to December 1777
3. 2d New Jersey Regiment, Monthly Strength as Taken From the Muster Rolls, December 1776 to
December 1777
4. 2d New Jersey Regiment, Company Lineage, 1777 to 1779
5. “The Troops of this Army … Appear to Manoeuvre upon false principles …”: The State of
Continental Army Field Formations and Combat Maneuver, 1777
6. Composition of British Columns at the Short Hills Action, 26 June 1777; Organization of British Light
Infantry and Grenadier Battalions, Spring and Summer 1777
7. “I have sent down Lord Stirling's Division, to reinforce Genl. Maxwell …”: Summer Campaign
Letters, Gen. George Washington and Virginia Captain John Chilton, plus the role of “late
Ottendorff’s Corps,” 22 to 29 June 1777
8. “At sunrise the fire began …”: New Jersey Brigade Accounts of the 1777 Philadelphia Campaign
9. "Without Covering but the H[eaven's].C[anop].y and boughs of Trees …": 4th New Jersey Officer's
Diary, 21 June 1777 to 18 February 1778 (plus Journal of Ensign George Ewing, 3d New Jersey, 1777-1778)
http://www.scribd.com/doc/153790118/%E2%80%99We-wheeled-to-the-Right-to-form-the-Line-of-
Battle%E2%80%99-Colonel-Israel-Shreve-s-Journal-23-November-1776-to-14-August-1777-
Including-Accounts-of

“Receivd an Ensigncy in Capt Hagans Company Third Jersey Regt”
32
Ensign George Ewing’s Journal, New Jersey Line, 11 November 1775 to 21 May 1778
(Published as George Ewing, The Military Journal of George Ewing (1754-1824): A Soldier of Valley
Forge (Yonkers, N.Y.: Privately printed by T. Ewing, 1928))
http://www.scribd.com/doc/153505766/%E2%80%9CReceivd-an-Ensigncy-in-Capt-Hagans-
Company-Third-Jersey-Regt%E2%80%9D-Ensign-George-Ewing%E2%80%99s-Journal-New-
Jersey-Line-11-November-1775-to-21-May-1778-Pu
"’I Expect to be stationed in Jersey sometime...’: An Account of the Services of the Second
New Jersey Regiment”:
Part I. December 1777 to June 1778 (1994, unpublished, copy held in the collections of the David Library
of the American Revolution, Washington Crossing, Pa.), contains seventeen appendices covering
various subjects including studies of the casualties incurred by the New Jersey Brigade (1777-1779), the
uniform clothing of the New Jersey Brigade (1776-1778), the use of the nine-month draft in 1778, and
names of all the officers and enlisted men of the regiment. Also included is a collection of pension
narratives of the common soldiers of the New Jersey Brigade:
The March to Winter Quarters: 13 December to 25 December 1777
General Orders, 20 December to 25 December 1777
Countering the "depredations of the Enemy": 23 December to 28 December 1777
The Valley Forge Camp in the Waning Days of 1777
A. General Orders: 25 December to 31 December 1777
B. "I fancy we may ... Content ourselves in these Wigwams ...": 1 January to 19 March 1778
Valley Forge in the First Months of 1778
General Orders, 1 January to 19 March 1778
"I Expect to be stationed in Jersey sometime ...": 22 March to 1 April 1778
General Orders of the Army, 20 March to 28 March 1778
"The Enemy Giting intelligence of our movement ...": 4 April to 30 May 1778
General Orders of the Army, 8 April to 6 May 1778
Reinforcements and Alarms: The Actions of Brigadier General William Maxwell and
the Remainder of the Jersey Brigade, May 7 to May 24, 1778
The Institution of Nine-Month Enlistments from the New Jersey Militia, February to June 1778
Procuring Arms and Equipment for the Regiment, March to June 1778
Clothing the Men in the Spring of 1778
The Jersey Brigade is Reunited, May 28 to June 19, 1778
Appendices (partial list)
Company Strengths and Dispositions, December 1777 to May 1779
(including tables of casualties, deserters, etc.)
Monthly Regimental Strength as Taken from the Muster Rolls, December 1777 to May 1779
Listing of Field Officers, Company Officers, and Staff, December 1777 to May 1779
Company Organization, December 1777 to May 1779
A. Lineage of Companies, 1777 to 1779
B. Continuity of Company Command Through May 1779
Proportion of Men from 2nd N.J. of 1776 Who Reenlisted in 2nd N.J. of 1777
A Listing of Non-Commissioned Officers and Privates of the 2nd N.J. of 1778
Part II. “`What is this you have been about to day?’: The New Jersey Brigade at the Battle of Monmouth,
28 June 1778,” narrative and appendices available only on the World Wide Web,
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/monmouth/MonmouthToc.htm
Part III. "’I Expect to hear the Enemy are on the Move ...’: The New Jersey Brigade, July 1778 to June
1779,” covers the period just after the 1778 Monmouth Campaign to the unit’s departure for the 1779
expedition led by Major General John Sullivan against the Iroquois (manuscript).

Regimental, Battalion, and other Unit Studies
http://www.scribd.com/doc/125409736/J-U-Rees-Article-List-Regimental-and-Battalion-Studies
33
Huntington’s and Parson’s Connecticut Brigades:
"`None of you know the hardships of A soldiers life …’: Service of the Connecticut Regiments in
Maj. Gen. Alexander McDougall’s Division, 1777-1778 (2009)
“I am … Packing up my baggage in order to March”: Service on the North River, and
Movement into Pennsylvania, May to September 1777
“God Grant I may Always be Preserv'd …”: The Battle of Germantown and Schuylkill Expedition,
October 1777
“So small A Garrison never attaind Greater achievments …”: Forts Mifflin and Mercer, and Maneuvers
in New Jersey, November 1777
“Nothing to cover us But ye heavens …”: The Whitemarsh Encampment and Early Days at Valley Forge,
December 1777
“This is a very Different Spirit in the Army …”: Wintering Over at Valley Forge and Spring Training,
January to June 1778
“Sixty three bullet holes were made through the colours …”: Summer Campaign and the
Battle of Monmouth, June 1778
“The Troops of the whole line will exercise and manoeuvre …”: The March to New York and the
White Plains Encampment, July to September 1778
“The Enemy are upon the eve of some general and important move.”: The Fredericksburgh Camp and
Shifting Commanders, September to October 1778
“Their countrymen would … conclude the Devil was in them …”: McDougall’s Division Takes
Post in Connecticut, October and November 1778
“Grievances … Justly complained of by your Soldiers …”: The Connecticut Line Winter Camp,
December 1778 to January 1779
http://www.scribd.com/doc/111086856/YZ-List-Connecticut-Division-1777-79-Narrative-
New-Longer and http://www.scribd.com/doc/111086939/YZ-List-Connecticut-Division-
1777-79-Bibliography-New

Lafayette’s Light Troops, 1781 and Wayne’s Pennsylvania Battalions, 1781-1783:
“`Their presence Here … Has Saved this State …’: Continental Provisional Battalions with
Lafayette in Virginia, 1781”
Part 1. “`This Detachement is Extremely Good …’: The Light Battalions Move South”
A. “`The Fire of the Light Infantry …cheked the Enemys Progress …’:
Light Battalion Composition and Service”
B. “`Ill founded jealousies, and groundless suspicions.” ‘: Unrest in the Light Battalions”
C. “`The Cloathing you … long ago Sent to the light infantry is not Yet Arrived.‘: Apparel and
Equipment”
The Brigade Dispatch, vol. XXXVI, no. 2 (Autumn 2006), 2-23.
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/pdfs/light.pdf
Appendices for Above
1. Diary of Soldier with Lafayette’s Light Infantry, 1781
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/pdfs/Atkins.pdf.pdf
2. Asa Redington, Scammell’s Light Infantry Regiment, 1781
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/pdfs/Redington.pdf
3. Barber’s Light Battalion, 1781 (New Jersey Light Company Personnel)
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/pdfs/Barber.pdf

Part 2. “`Almost all old soldiers, and well disciplined …’:
Brigadier General Anthony Wayne’s 1781 Pennsylvania Provisional Battalions”
A. “I fear it is now too late …”: The Pennsylvania Line Mutiny, January 1781
The Brigade Dispatch, vol. XXXVII, no. 2 (Summer 2007), 2-19.
34
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/pdfs/PA-A.pdf
Part 3. B. “Our Regiments are yet but very small …”: Settling with the Troops and
Rebuilding the Line
The Brigade Dispatch, vol. XXXVII, no. 4 (Winter 2007), 2-15.
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/pdfs/PA-B.pdf
Part 4. C. “The whole Line … behaved in a most orderly manner.”: Organizing and
Disciplining the Pennsylvania Provisional Battalions for the 1781 Campaign
The Brigade Dispatch, vol. XXXVIII, no. 1 (Spring 2008), 2-21.
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/pdfs/PA-C.pdf
Appendices for 1781 Pennsylvania Battalions
1. “`A Smart firing commenc’d from from both parties …’: Brig. Gen. Anthony Wayne’s
Pennsylvania Battalions in Virginia, June to November 1781”
Contents:
A. “We will be much inferior to the enemy …”: May 31 to July 5 1781
B. “A charge … under a heavy fire of Grape shot …”:
Battle of Green Springs, 6 July 1781
C. “Cornwallis … threatens every Devastation that fire & sword can produce …”:
Marching and Countermarching, 9 July to 25 August
D. “The batteries were opened and fired with great success …”:
September to November 1781
E. “The Cloathing was drawn near twelve month ago …”:
1780-1781 Pennsylvania Clothing, Letters and Returns
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/pdfs/Virginia.pdf

Appendices (continued)
2. “`The British army marched out and grounded their arms …’: Pennsylvania Lt. William
Feltman’s Diary, 26 May to 5 November 1781”
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/pdfs/Feltman.pdf
3. “`Pennsylvania Battalion Troop Returns, 1781-1783’:
(In Camp and on Campaign in Pennsylvania, Virginia, and South Carolina)”
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/pdfs/Returns.pdf
(Pennsylvania Battalion series continued)
(Future article) D. “We pick’d a Quarrel with the British …”: With Lafayette in Virginia,
June to December 1781
(Future article) E. “Trivial skirmishes happen daily but nothing worth relating …”:
Operations in South Carolina, January to September 1782
(Future article) F. “Now incorporated into one regiment of six hundred men …”:
Winding Down, October 1782 to November 1783

Lafayette’s Light Division, 1780:
“`Firm built men inur'd to the Field ...’: The Embodied Corps of Light Infantry, 1780”
(manuscript)
2nd New Jersey Regiment:
"’I Expect to be stationed in Jersey sometime...’: An Account of the Services of the Second
New Jersey Regiment”:
Part I. December 1777 to June 1778 (1994, unpublished, copy held in the collections of the
David Library of the American Revolution, Washington Crossing, Pa.), contains seventeen
35
appendices covering various subjects including studies of the casualties incurred by the New
Jersey Brigade (1777-1779), the uniform clothing of the New Jersey Brigade (1776-1778), the
use of the nine-month draft in 1778, and names of all the officers and enlisted men of the
regiment. Also included is a collection of pension narratives of the common soldiers of the New
Jersey Brigade:

Section A.
https://www.scribd.com/document/347859920/I-Expect-to-be-stationed-in-Jersey-sometime-A-Narrative-
History-of-Second-New-Jersey-Regiment-December-1777-to-June-1779-Section-A
1. The March to Winter Quarters: 13 December to 25 December 1777
2. General Orders, 20 December to 25 December 1777
3. Countering the "depredations of the Enemy": 23 December to 28 December 1777
4. The Valley Forge Camp in the Waning Days of 1777
A. General Orders: 25 December to 31 December 1777
B. "I fancy we may ... Content ourselves in these Wigwams ...": 1 January to 19 March 1778
5. Valley Forge in the First Months of 1778
A. General Orders, 1 January to 19 March 1778
6. "I Expect to be stationed in Jersey sometime ...": 22 March to 1 April 1778

Section B.
7. General Orders of the Army, 20 March to 28 March 1778
8. "The Enemy Giting intelligence of our movement ...": 4 April to 30 May 1778
9. General Orders of the Army, 8 April to 6 May 1778
10. Reinforcements and Alarms: The Actions of Brigadier General William Maxwell and
the Remainder of the Jersey Brigade, May 7 to May 24, 1778
11. The Institution of Nine Month Enlistments from the New Jersey Militia, February to June 1778
12. Procuring Arms and Equipment for the Regiment, March to June 1778

Section C.
13. Clothing the Men in the Spring of 1778
14. The Jersey Brigade is Reunited, May 28 to June 19, 1778
Appendices (partial list)
1. Company Strengths and Dispositions, December 1777 to May 1779
(including tables of casualties, deserters, etc.)
2. Monthly Regimental Strength as Taken from the Muster Rolls, December 1777 to May 1779
3. Listing of Field Officers, Company Officers, and Staff, December 1777 to May 1779
4. Company Organization, December 1777 to May 1779
A. Lineage of Companies, 1777 to 1779
B. Continuity of Company Command Through May 1779
5. Proportion of Men from 2nd N.J. of 1776 Who Reenlisted in 2nd N.J. of 1777
6. A Listing of Non-Commissioned Officers and Privates of the 2nd N.J. of 1778
Part II. “`What is this you have been about to day?’: The New Jersey Brigade at the Battle of
Monmouth, 28 June 1778,” narrative and appendices available only on the World Wide Web,
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/monmouth/MonmouthToc.htm

Part III. "’I Expect to hear the Enemy are on the Move ...’: The New Jersey Brigade, July 1778 to
June 1779,” covers the period just after the 1778 Monmouth Campaign to the unit’s departure for
the 1779 expedition led by Major General John Sullivan against the Iroquois (manuscript).

5th Pennsylvania Battalion of 1776:

36
“The Fifth Pennsylvania Battalion of 1776” (1987, unpublished, copy held in the collections
of the David Library of the American Revolution, Washington Crossing, Pa., U.S.
Military History Institute, Carlisle, Pa., and Spruance Library, Bucks County Historical
Society, Doylestown, Pa.) Including a 65 page narrative history, 5 page
appendix and 31 page addenda with 12 maps, 6 charts and 2 illustrations. Including
A Brief Itinerary of the 6th Pennsylvania Regiment of 1777 (unpublished, 1991):
Formation
Equipment and Clothing
Beginning of Active Service, June 1776
Action on Long Island, 27 to 30 August 1776
The American Evacuation of New York, 30 August to 16 September 1776
Council of War and Condition of the Army
Service on the Lines, 13 September to 8 October 1776
The British Move: Prelude to Fort Washington, 9 October to 4 November 1776
The Fall of Fort Washington, 18 October to 16 November 1776
Prisoners of War, 16 to 19 November 1776
Parole and Release of the Prisoners, 20 November 1776 to 2 June 1777
Appendices
Chronology of the 5th Pennsylvania Battalion
Brief History of the 6th Pennsylvania Regiment of 1777
Miscellaneous Information
Names and Service of 5th Pennsylvania Battalion Officers
Battalion Strength Returns, 28 May to 15 November 1776
Bibliography for Narrative
List of Muster Rolls and Sources for Same
Alphabetical Listing of Known Personnel
Material from Nathaniel Vansandt Papers
Letters to and from Thomas Mifflin and William Heath
List of 5th Pennsylvania Battalion Soldiers Likely Reenlisted in 6th Regiment of 1777
https://www.academia.edu/18735173/_The_Fifth_Pennsylvania_Battalion_of_1776_
or
https://www.scribd.com/doc/290762089/5th-Penna-Battalion-1776-Two

6th Pennsylvania Regiment, 1777
1. "Revolutionary Services of Captain John Markland"
2. "Brief History of the 6th Pennsylvania Regiment of 1777"
3. "Return of Clothing delivered to NCO’s and Privates of Capt. Jacob Bower’s Company, 6th
Pennsylvania Regt. in 1777 " (Transcribed by John U. Rees)
https://www.scribd.com/doc/259067396/6th-Pennsylvania-Regiment-1777-to-1783-
Revolutionary-Services-of-Captain-John-
Markland?secret_password=7eVCzzepODSEDDfBo5gD

1st Pennsylvania Regiment of 1777:
Documentation of the Clothing Worn by the1st Pennsylvania Regiment of 1777
(unpublished, 1991), 15 pages.

Reflections on the Clothing Worn by the Soldiers of the Rifle Company of the 1st
Pennsylvania Regiment of 1777 with Additional Thoughts Concerning Riflemen in the
37
Continental Army (unpublished, 1994), 43 pages with 1 map and 17 illustrations.
(manuscript)
Other Authors’ Monographs
(Regimental, Battalion, and other Unit Studies)

Jim W. Filipski and Steve Collward, “A Chronology of the Appointments & Commands of
Captain Antoni Selin and His Association with the Independent Corps of Captain John Paul
Schott, Major Nicholas de Ottendorf and Col. Charles Armand and their Affiliated Units and
Officers During the Revolutionary War.”
https://www.scribd.com/document/347114481/Captain-Antoni-Selin-and-His-Association-
with-the-Independent-Corps-of-Captain-John-Paul-Schott-Major-Nicholas-de-Ottendorf-
and-Col-Charles-Armand
See also: Clothing and Equipment Guidelines: Capt. John Paul Schott’s Independent Rifle
Company; formed 6 September 1776, attached to Ottendorff’s Corps May 1777. Captain Schott
captured at the Battle of Short Hills, 26 June 1777.
https://www.scribd.com/document/347212369/Schotts-Company-Clothing-and-Equipment-
Guidelines
Capt. John Paul Schott’s Independent Rifle Company, Ottendorff's Corps, Battle of Short Hills,
26 June 1777
https://www.scribd.com/document/347250413/Capt-John-Paul-Schott-s-Independent-Rifle-
Company-Ottendorff-s-Corps-Battle-of-Short-Hills-26-June-1777

Eric Manders, 'Notes on Troop Units in the Flying Camp, 1776,' Military Collector & Historian,
vol. XXVI, no. 1 (Spring 1974), 9-13.
http://www.scribd.com/doc/205416927/Eric-Manders-Notes-on-Troop-Units-in-the-Flying-
Camp-1776-Military-Collector-Historian-vol-XXVI-no-1-Spring-1974
Francis E. Devine, "The Pennsylvania Flying Camp, July-November 1776," Pennsylvania
History. Vol. 46, no. 1 (Jan. 1979), 59-78.
http://www.scribd.com/doc/205415374/Francis-E-Devine-The-Pennsylvania-Flying-Camp-
July-November-1776-Pennsylvania-History-Vol-46-no-1-Jan-1979
Steven Rosswurm, "The Philadelphia Militia, 1775-1783: Active Duty and Active Radicalism,"
from Ronald Hoffman and Peter J. Albert, eds., Arms and Independence: The Military
Character of the American Revolution (University Press of Virginia, 1984)
https://www.scribd.com/doc/236074704/Steven-Rosswurm-The-Philadelphia-Militia-1775-
1783-Active-Duty-and-Active-Radicalism

Tucker F. Hentz, “Unit History of the Maryland and Virginia Rifle Regiment (1776–1781):
Insights from the Service Record of Capt. Adamson Tannehill”
https://www.scribd.com/doc/241839243/Tucker-F-Hentz-Unit-History-of-the-Maryland-
and-Virginia-Rifle-Regiment-1776-1781-Insights-from-the-Service-Record-of-Capt-
Adamson-Tannehill

38
Miscellaneous Military Material Culture
http://www.scribd.com/doc/125409549/J-U-Rees-Article-List-Military-Material-Culture

Resource File: Examples of Continental Army Camp Equipage and Vehicle Returns, 1775-1781
(John U. Rees) http://www.scribd.com/doc/223095304/Resource-File-Examples-of-
Continental-Army-Camp-Equipage-and-Vehicle-Returns-1776-1781-John-U-Rees
Contents
1. Clothing and Equipment Lost at Bunker Hill, 17 June 1775 (including a discussion of “snapsacks”)
2. Cooking and Other Equipment in Brig. Gen. John Sullivan’s Brigade, 24 March 1776
3. Main Army: Return of Arms and Accoutrements issued from 1 April to 1 August 1777
4. Return of Camp Equipage Delivered to the Army during the 1777 Campaign
5. Partial List of Stores Captured on the British Ship Symmetry, Wilmington, Delaware, January 1778
6. Camp Equipage in the 1st Pennsylvania Brigade, Valley Forge, 3 June 1778
7. "A Return of Quarter-Master-General's Stores in The Brigades at West Point & Constitution Island," 1 August
1779: North Carolina, 4th Massachusetts, and Paterson’s (Massachusetts) Brigades
8. "A Return of Quarter-Master-General's Stores in the Second Pennsylvania Brigade ... at Camp West Point," 4
August 1779
9. Return of Quartermaster’s Stores for Maj. Gen. John Sullivan’s Army, Tioga, 21 August 1779.
10. Return of Clothing and Camp Equipment in Maj. Gen. Arthur St. Clair’s Pennsylvania Division in the Hudson
Highlands, 1 October 1779.
11. Return of Quartermaster’s Stores in the 1st Connecticut Brigade (Including Brigadier General and Staff),
Hudson Highlands, 25 May 1781
12. "Return of Waggons, Horses … &c the property of the United States Army – Camp Tappan – 27th September
1780"
13. "Return of all Public Property in the Quarter Masters Department with the Southern Army"
14. Two Returns of Horse and Wagons with the Pennsylvania Line in Virginia, 12 June and 27 November 1781
Appendices:
1. Overview of Wheeled Transportation.
2. Material Culture Articles Related to Items on the Equipment Returns

“’Cost of a Knapsack complete …’: Notes on Continental Army Packs and the Soldiers’ Burden”
Part 1. “This Napsack I carryd through the war of the Revolution”
Knapsacks Used by the Soldiers during the War for American Independence
a. Overview
b. Knapsacks and Tumplines, Massachusetts, 1775
c. The Uhl Knapsack
d. Leather and Hair Packs, and Ezra Tilden’s Narrative
e. The Rufus Lincoln and Elisha Gross Hair Knapsacks
39
f. The “new Invented Napsack and haversack,” 1776
g. The Benjamin Warner Linen Pack
h. British Linen Knapsacks
Appendices
a. Carrying Blankets in or on Knapsacks.
b. “Like a Pedlar's Pack.”: Blanket Rolls and Slings
c. More Extant Artifacts with Revolutionary War Provenance or with a Design Similar to Knapsacks
Used During the War
d. Extant Knapsacks Discounted as having Revolutionary War Provenance
http://www.scribd.com/doc/210794759/%E2%80%9C-This-Napsack-I-carryd-through-the-
war-of-the-Revolution-Knapsacks-Used-by-the-Soldiers-during-the-War-for-American-
Independence-Part-1-of-%E2%80%9C-Cos

(Projected additions to knapsack series.)
Part 2. “I have a Number of Women employ’d in making Knapsacks …”
Miscellaneous General Orders and Notes on Knapsack Manufacture and Supply

“The ‘new Invented Napsack and haversack,’ 1776.”
https://www.academia.edu/21701404/New_Invented_Knapsack_and_Haversack_1776 or
http://www.scribd.com/doc/217351637/The-%E2%80%9Cnew-Invented-Napsack-and-
haversack-%E2%80%9D-1776
Blankets, vol. 1, 77-78 (250 words);
Cartridge boxes, pouches, canisters, vol. 1, 173-174 (250 words);
Knapsacks and the soldiers’ burden, vol. 1, 591 (300 words);
Entries in, Mark M. Boatner, Encyclopedia of the American Revolution: Library of Military
History, Harold E. Selesky, ed. (2nd Edition, Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2006)

“’With my pack and large blanket at my back …’: British and American Officers’ Equipage and
Campaign Gear
Contents
1. “Things necessary for a Gentleman to be furnished with …”
Officers’ Kit for Regimental Service
a. British Officers’ Belongings
b. Continental Army Officers’ Kit.
c. Cooking and Eating Utensils.
2. "The officers must be satisfied walking …”: Allotment of Horses
3. Officers and Knapsacks: A Compendium of Accounts and Images
a. 1762, British Grenadiers
40
b. 1771, 7th Regiment
c. Undated, Brigade of Guards
d. August 1776, Gen. Sir William Howe’s troops
e. 1776, Brigade of Guards
f. 1777, 40th Regiment, Personal Effects and Blanket Slings
g. 1777, 49th Regiment, Personal Effects and Blanket Slings
h. 1778, Guards Battalion
4. Other Resources (Online Articles)
Appendix A.
Officers and Knapsacks: A Compendium of Accounts and Images
a. Knapsack: Rufus Lincoln, Massachusetts militia and 14 th Massachusetts
b. 1775, British, 43d Regiment, officer’s knapsack
c. 1776, 17th Regiment, Officer’s Rolled Blanket (“Pedlar's Pack “) and
Personal Belongings
d. 1776, Continental, 22d Continental Regiment, knapsack and belongings
e. 1777, Massachusetts Militia officer carrying a knapsack
f. 1777, British, 42d Regiment, portmanteau, no knapsack
g. 1777, British 49th Regiment, officers’ blanket slings
h. 1777, Continental Officers’ Knapsack Contents Described by a German Officer
i. 1777, British Officers, Saratoga Campaign, Knapsacks and Packhorses
j. 1779, British, 43d Regiment, officer’s marquee and possibly officer’s knapsack
k. 1781, British, Cornwallis’s Southern Army, officers and knapsacks
l. 1782, Continental, 2d Maryland Regiment, lieutenant colonel wearing a knapsack.
m. 1782, Continental Army, New Jersey Regiments, officers issued canteens
but not knapsacks
Appendix B.
Miscellaneous Narratives on Officers’ Belongings and Campaign Living
a. 1776, British, Suggested Officers’ Campaign Equipage
b. 1776, British, 5th Regiment, campaign camp and food
c. 1776, Continental, 3d Virginia officer’s chest
d. 1776, Continental, Gen. Thomas Mifflin’s blanket coat and Colonel Lippitt’s andirons
e. 1776/1777, Militia, 1st Battalion Philadelphia Associators, Deceased Officer’s Belongings
f. 1776/1777, British, 33d Regiment, Officer’s Necessaries
g. 1777, British, 40th Regiment, Reduction of Officers’ Baggage
h. 1777, British, 24th Regiment and 24th Regiment, Saratoga Campaign
i. 1777, British, 46th Regiment, Officer’s Field Equipage
j. 1777, Continental, 7th Pennsylvania Regiment, Officer’s Belongings
k. 1777-1778, Continental, Rev. Enos Hitchcock’s personal belongings
l. 1777 and 1782, British and Continental, a bed made of chairs or stools (In honor of Joshua Mason)
m. 1778, Continental Officers and Horse Canteens
n. 1778, British, 42d Regiment, campaign living
o. 1780, German, Jaeger Camp Description
p. 1781, Continental Maryland Regiments, Officers’ Portmanteaus
q. 1781, French Officer’s Remarks on Continental Officers’ Life Style
r. 1781, Continental, 3d Maryland Regiment, Officer’s Greatcoat and wearing red coats
https://www.scribd.com/document/338154147/With-my-pack-and-large-blanket-at-my-
back-British-and-American-Officers-Equipage-and-Campaign-Gear

"’The load a soldier generally carries during a campaign …”’: The British Soldier's Burden in the
American War for Independence”
Contents
1. Overview
2. “Complement of necessaries, etc., for the soldier.”
Personal Equipage as Stipulated in Military Treatises
41
3. "An enormous bulk, weighing about sixty pounds"
British Troops’ Necessaries in Garrison and on Campaign
a. 1762, British Grenadiers
b. 1771, 7th Regiment
c. Undated, Brigade of Guards
d. August 1776, Gen. Sir William Howe’s troops
e. 1776, Brigade of Guards
f. 1777, 40th Regiment, Personal Effects and Blanket Slings
g. 1777, 49th Regiment, Personal Effects and Blanket Slings
h. 1778, Guards Battalion
i. 1779, 17th Regiment
j. 1780-1781, Cornwallis’s Army
4. British Camp Kettles, 1776-1782
5. “A habersack for Each Soldier"
Ways and Means of Carrying Food, and the Burden of Rations
6 "Four Days' flour to be Issued to the Troops": The Burden of Rations, 1762-1783
7. "The men having no other way ..."
Shortages of Equipment for Food Carriage and Cooking
8. "Very Dirty and muddy."
Carrying Beverages and Difficulties in Finding Drinkable Water
9. Other Resources (Online Articles)
https://www.scribd.com/document/335479170/The-load-a-soldier-generally-carries-during-
a-campaign-The-British-Soldier-s-Burden-in-the-American-War-for-Independence

"An Account of some things I carried … in my Pack.”: The Continental Soldier's Burden
in the American War for Independence
Contents
1. Overview: “Our almost incessant marching – marching almost day & night.”
2. “Complement of necessaries, etc., for the soldier.”
Personal Equipage as Stipulated in British Treatises
3. “The load a soldier generally carries during a campaign …”
What British Troops Actually Carried, 1755-1783
4. “Only such articles as are necessary and useful …”: Lightening the Soldiers’ Load
5. “Spare cloathing and necessaries ..."
Personal and Other Items Carried by Continental and Militia Soldiers
a. Ezra Tilden, 1775 to 1779
b. Equipment Lost on 17 June 1775 in Col. James Reid’s New Hampshire Regiment
(including discussion of “snapsack[s]”)

42
c. An "Estimate of the Expences of raising a foot soldier … 1776, in Colo. Smallwood's
battalion & ye 7 independent Companies …”
d. An inventory of the possessions of the late Samuel Lamson of Colonel Fisher
Gay's Connecticut Regiment, 1776.
e. Sergeant Major John Hawkins, 2 nd Canadian Regiment, September 1777
f. Inventory of a Deceased Rhode Island Soldier’s Belongings, October 1777
g. References to Soldiers’ Belongings and Knapsacks in Regulations for the Order and
Discipline of the Troops of the United States. 1779
h. "Plan for the Cloathing of the [light] Infantry,"circa 1779
i. Massachusetts Soldier: Sgt. Andrew Kettell’s Journal, May 1780-March 1781
j. Soldier-Tailor: “Inventory of the Effects of Frederick Oblieskie,” West Point,
September 1780
6. "All the tin Camp-kettles they can procure ...": Cooking Gear and other
Food-Related Items
a. Light-Weight Military Kettles, and Cast-Iron Cooking Gear, 1775-1782.
b. Continental Army and States' Militia, 1775-1780.
c. American Sheet-Iron Kettles, 1781-1782.
d. Iron Pots and Pans.
e. Makeshift Cookware.
d. Eating Utensils.
7. The Ways Soldiers Carried Food.
8. The Burden of Rations, 1762-1783.
9. Carrying Drink and Procuring Water.
10. Equipment Shortages
Appendix A.
“I hired some of my pack carried about a dozen miles …”: Excerpts from Ezra Tilden’s
diary, 1776-1777
Appendix B.
Soldiers had what and how many?
List of Related Articles
https://www.scribd.com/document/340889214/An-Account-of-some-things-I-carried-in-my-
Pack-The-Continental-Soldier-s-Burden-in-the-American-War-for-Independence

“`That damned blue Regiment …’: Continental Army Clothing during the Monmouth
Campaign,” Appendix M of, "’What is this you have been about to day?’: The New Jersey
Brigade at the Battle of Monmouth,”
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/monmouth/MonmouthToc.htm
"`The great distress of the Army for want of Blankets ...': Supply Shortages, Suffering
Soldiers, and a Secret Mission During the Hard Winter of 1780":
1. "Our condition for want of ... Blankets is quite painful ..."
Shortages in the Continental Army, 1776-1779
2. "Without even a shadow of a blanket ..."
Desperate Measures to Procure Covering for the Army, 1780
Addendum.
“To Colonel Morgan, for the use of the Light Infantry, twenty four Dutch Blankets & four pair of rose
Blankets.”: Examples of Bed Coverings Issued to Continental Troops
Endnote Extras.
Note
20. Clothing New Jersey's Soldiers, Winter 1779-1780
38. The Effect of Weather on the Squan Mission
Location of Squan Beach
43. Captain Bowman's Soldiers
46. Bowman's 2d New Jersey Light Company at the Battle of Connecticut Farms
43
Military Collector & Historian, vol. 52, no. 3 (Fall 2000), 98-110.
https://www.scribd.com/doc/274667902/The-great-distress-of-the-Army-for-want-of-
Blankets-Supply-Shortages-Suffering-Soldiers-and-a-Secret-Mission-During-the-Hard-
Winter-of-1780
or http://revwar75.com/library/rees/blanketts.htm

"`White Wollen,' 'Striped Indian Blankets,' 'Rugs and Coverlids': The Variety of
Continental Army Blankets," The Brigade Dispatch, vol. XXVI, no. 4 (Winter 2000), 11-
14. http://www.revwar75.com/library/rees/variety.htm

“To Colonel Morgan, for the use of the Light Infantry, twenty four Dutch Blankets & four
pair of rose Blankets.”: Examples of Bed Coverings Issued to Continental Troops
https://www.scribd.com/doc/273957204/To-Colonel-Morgan-for-the-use-of-the-Light-
Infantry-twenty-four-Dutch-Blankets-four-pair-of-rose-Blankets-Examples-of-Bed-
Coverings-Issued-to?secret_password=xY0eynb69XnvEPEOnKFY

“Images and Descriptions of Wool Blankets and Wool, Wool/Linen Coverlets in the American
Textile History Museum, Lowell, Massachusetts (The Chace Catalogue)”
https://www.scribd.com/doc/273789670/Images-and-Descriptions-of-Wool-Blankets-and-
Wool-Wool-Linen-Coverlets?secret_password=9AeF0J9Ae2vyuCCoKqRC

“A Quantity of Tow Cloth, for the Purpose of making of Indian or Hunting Shirts …”:
Proper Terminology: Hunting shirt, Rifle Shirt, Rifle Frock … ?
http://www.scribd.com/doc/241410261/A-Quantity-of-Tow-Cloth-for-the-Purpose-of-
making-of-Indian-or-Hunting-Shirts-Proper-Terminology-Hunting-shirt-Rifle-Shirt-
Rifle-Frock?secret_password=B5Ass1zGmYgykkILpBjz

“Continental Soldiers' Milled Wool Caps, 1778," The Brigade Dispatch, vol. XXX, no. 2
(Summer 2000), 16-17.

"On the Use of Tin Cartridge Boxes in the Continental Army," Military Collector &
Historian, vol. XLII, no. 4 (Winter 1990), 150-51. Illustration by Ross Hamel.

“’To hold thirty-six cartridges of powder and ball …’: Continental Army Tin and Sheet-Iron
Canisters, 1775-1780”
Also including:
1. “They will … scarcely last one Campaign.” The Problem of Poorly-Made Continental Army
Cartridge Pouches and Introduction of the New Model Box
2. “The tin magazines … preserve the ammunition from wet … better than any other.”
Miscellania Concerning Crown Forces and Tin Canisters.
3. Alternative Names for Tin/Iron Cartridge Boxes
4. “Carried by Moses Currier in the Rev. War.”: Descriptions of Extant Canisters
http://www.scribd.com/doc/145591110/%E2%80%9C-To-hold-thirty-six-cartridges-of-powder-
and-ball-%E2%80%A6-Continental-Army-Tin-and-Sheet-Iron-Canisters-1775-1780

44
"The Care and Cleaning of Firelocks in the 18th Century: A Discussion of Period Methods
and Their Present Day Applications," published in The Brigade Dispatch, vol. XXII, no. 2
(Summer 1991), 2-11, and Muzzleloader, vol. XXI, no. 4, (September/October 1994),
62-66. To be updated as “`The first object … should be to clean your Arms …’: The Care and
Cleaning of Firelocks in the 18th Century” (work in progress)
https://www.scribd.com/doc/292985859/The-Care-and-Cleaning-of-Firelocks-in-the-18th-
Century-A-Discussion-of-Period-Methods-and-Their-Present-Day-Applications

“When the whole are completely formed, they may ground their arms …”: Grounding versus
Stacking Arms in the Continental Army (With Notes on British and German Practices)
https://www.scribd.com/doc/292407335/When-the-whole-are-completely-formed-they-may-
ground-their-arms-When-the-whole-are-completely-formed-they-may-ground-their-
arms-Groundin

"’The taylors of the regiment’: Insights on Soldiers Making and Mending Clothing, and
Continental Army Clothing Supply, 1776 to 1783,” Military Collector & Historian, vol. 63,
no. 4 (Winter 2011), 254-265.
http://www.scribd.com/doc/131742393/The-taylors-of-the-regiment-Insights-on-Soldiers-
Making-and-Mending-Clothing-and-Continental-Army-Clothing-Supply-1778-to-1783

"`That the Soldiers may Know... Respect': Military Courtesies Shown to Officers by Enlisted
Men in the Continental Army," The Brigade Dispatch, vol. XXIII, no. 3 (Summer 1992),
11-13, 19.

"Shoulder Arms of the Officers of the Continental Army (With some mention of bayonets and
the lack thereof)," The Brigade Dispatch, vol. XXIII, no. 1 (Winter 1992), 12-14.

"Firelocks in the Continental Army: Their Supply, Care and Condition," The Continental
Soldier, two parts: vol. 4, no. 1 (Winter, 1991), 19-26; vol. 4, no. 2 (Spring 1992), 20-25.

“`Taking to the field only what is essential for decency and comfort …’: Officers’ Food, Mess,
and Campaign Equipage during the American War, 1775-1783” (work in progress)
Part 1. “’Those necessaries only which cannot be dispensed with …’:
Revolutionary Officers' Campaign Experience and Equipage”
1. “Things necessary for a Gentleman to be furnished with …”: Officers’ Kit
for Regimental Service
2. “Divers officers are intitled to two horse wagons …”: Equipment Carriage
3. “The Absurdity of heavy Baggage …”: American and British Attempts to Reduce
Excess Baggage
4."The officers must be satisfied walking …”: Allotment of Horses
5. British Officers’ Campaign Equipage and Living Conditions.
6. American Campaign Gear and Conditions
Part 2. "’A better repast …’: Continental Army Field and Company Officers’ Fare”
Part 3. “’The repast was in the English fashion’: Revolutionary General Officers’
Culinary Equipage in Camp and on Campaign”
1. “Plates, once tin but now Iron …”: General Washington’s Mess Equipment
2. “40 Dozens Lemons, in a Box”: British Generals’ Provisions and Mess Equipage
45
3. “My poor cook is almost always sick …”: General Riedesel Goes to America
4. “A Major General & family”: Nathanael Greene’s Food Ware

“’A very smart cannonading ensued from both sides.’: Continental Artillery at Monmouth
Courthouse, 28 June 1778” (Including information on artillery attached to the New Jersey Brigade)
https://www.scribd.com/doc/139365107/A-very-smart-cannonading-ensued-from-both-sides-
Continental-Artillery-at-Monmouth-Courthouse-28-June-1778
(Originally published in Military Collector & Historian, vol. 60, no. 1 (Spring 2008), 38-39.

"The Use of Tumplines or Blanket Slings by Light Troops," The Continental Soldier, vol.
VIII, no. 2 (Summer 1995), 27-29.

Other Authors’ Monographs
(Miscellaneous Military Material Culture)

Matthew Skic, “’Stand Fast in the Liberty’: A Rare Waistcoat Belt”
https://www.scribd.com/document/330601936/Matthew-Skic-Stand-Fast-in-the-Liberty-A-Rare-
Waistcoat-Belt
James L. Kochan, “The Belted Waistcoat,” Military Collector & Historian, vol. 33, no. 4 (Winter
1981), 178-179.
https://www.scribd.com/doc/274674172/James-L-Kochan-The-Belted-Waistcoat
James L. Kochan, “The French-nade “Lottery” Uniforms of the Continental Army, 1777-1779:
Their Procurement, Distribution, Cut and Construction”
https://www.scribd.com/doc/272894004/James-L-Kochan-The-French-nade-Lottery-Uniforms-of-
the-Continental-Army-1777-1779-Their-Procurement-Distribution-Cut-and-
Construction?secret_password=ncfzkaywDy7jwyPYpnZ5

Matthew Keagle, “The Regimental Coat of the 4th Connecticut Regiment, 1777-1778”
https://www.scribd.com/doc/270642133/Matt-Keagle-The-Regimental-Coat-of-the-4th-Connecticut-
Regiment-Guidelines?secret_password=GLx66vu3DQvljLCwPaC6
(Living History) 4th Connecticut Regiment, 1778, Valley Forge Clothing and Equipment Guidelines
https://www.scribd.com/doc/279331484/Living-History-4th-Connecticut-Regiment-1778-Valley-
Forge-Guidelines?secret_password=m11egDa6UNMVMl0GKs6O
Al Saguto, “The Seventeenth Century Snapsack” (January 1989)
http://www.scribd.com/doc/212328948/Al-Saguto-The-Seventeenth-Century-Snapsack-January-
1989
Bob McDonald, “’The arms and accouterments belonging to the United States shall be stamped …’:
Markings on Continental Army Muskets”
http://www.scribd.com/doc/181283657/Bob-McDonald-%E2%80%9CThe-arms-and-
accouterments-belonging-to-the-United-States-shall-be-stamped-%E2%80%A6%E2%80%9D-
Markings-on-Continental-Army-Muskets
Bob McDonald, “A Primer on French Firelocks Supplied to the Continental Army”
46
https://www.scribd.com/doc/274797195/Bob-McDonald-A-Primer-on-French-Firelocks-Supplied-
to-the-Continental-Army
Ross K. Harper, “An Early New England Pouch and Toolkit,” Museum of the Fur Trade
Quarterly, vol. 46, no. 3 (Fall 2010) 6-14. http://www.scribd.com/doc/220871791/Ross-K-Harper-
%E2%80%9CAn-Early-New-England-Pouch-and-Toolkit-%E2%80%9D-Museum-of-the-Fur-
Trade-Quarterly-vol-46-no-3-Fall-2010-6-14
“The Battle of Paoli”
Stephen R. Gilbert, “An Analysis of the Xavier della Gatta Paintings of the Battles of Paoli and
Germantown, 1777: Part I,” Military Collector & Historian, vol. XLVI, no. 3 (Fall 1994), 98-108.
http://www.scribd.com/doc/209737868/Stephen-R-Gilbert-%E2%80%9CAn-Analysis-of-the-
Xavier-della-Gatta-Paintings-of-the-Battles-of-Paoli-and-Germantown-1777-Part-I-%E2%80%9D-
Military-Collector-Histo
“The Battle of Germantown”
Stephen R. Gilbert, “An Analysis of the Xavier della Gatta Paintings of the Battles of Paoli and
Germantown, 1777: Part II,” Military Collector & Historian, vol. XLVII, no. 4 (Winter 1995), 146-
162.
http://www.scribd.com/doc/209914033/%E2%80%9CThe-Battle-of-Germantown%E2%80%9D-
by-Xavier-della-Gatta-Stephen-R-Gilbert-%E2%80%9CAn-Analysis-of-the-Xavier-della-Gatta-
Paintings-of-the-Battles-of-Paoli-and-Ger
Lawrence E. Babits 'Supplying the Southern Continental Army, March 1780 to September 1781,'
Military Collector & Historian, vol. 47, no. 4 (1995), 163-171.
http://www.scribd.com/doc/207337105/Lawrence-E-Babits-Supplying-the-Southern-Continental-
Army-March-1780-to-September-1781-Military-Collector-Historian-vol-47-no-4-1995
Frank Packer, “Benjamin Warner Knapsack,” Military Artifact (newsletter, No.2 Mk.IV
(December 1997)(Addendum by John U. Rees)
https://www.academia.edu/14462141/Warner_Knapsack

Court Martial of Capt. John F.D. Smyth, Queen’s Rangers, 4 to 8 May 1779. Courtesy of Todd W. Braisted
(http://www.royalprovincial.com/)
http://www.scribd.com/doc/241297441/Court-Martial-of-Capt-John-F-D-Smyth-Queen-s-Rangers-
4-to-8-May-1779-Courtesy-of-Todd-W-Braisted-http-www-royalprovincial-
com?secret_password=HsfW9Z3s3dUEqlnPKxrM

47
Tactics and Military Manuals
http://www.scribd.com/doc/125409340/J-U-Rees-Article-List-Military-Tactics-and-
Manuals

Military manuals, vol. 2, 721-722 (250 words);
Tactics and maneuvers, vol. 2, 1137-1138 (300 words);
Entries in, Mark M. Boatner, Encyclopedia of the American Revolution: Library of
Military History, Harold E. Selesky, ed. (2nd Edition, Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2006)
48
“`Knowledge necessary to a soldier …’: The Continental Officer’s Military Reading List,
1775-1778,” Military Collector & Historian, vol. 59, no. 1 (Spring 2007), 65-71.
http://www.scribd.com/doc/124458058/YZ-List-Military-Manuals-Plus-Cavalry-New
“’Our Troops were drawn upon a Battalion … supported by solid Colums …’: Continental Army
Training, Tactics, and Field Maneuvers, 1776 to 1782” (manuscript)

Military Treatises
http://www.scribd.com/doc/125409340/J-U-Rees-Article-List-Military-Tactics-and-
Manuals

Ira D. Gruber, “The Education of Sir Henry Clinton,” Bulletin of the John Rylands University
Library of Manchester, vol. 72, no. 1 (Spring 1990)
https://www.scribd.com/doc/290802750/Ira-D-Gruber-The-Education-of-Sir-Henry-Clinton-
Bulletin-of-the-John-Rylands-University-Library-of-Manchester-vol-72-no-1-Spring-1990

Steuben's original Instructions March-April 1778, as written in regimental order books at Valley
Forge (Transcribed by Matthew Murphy, February 2003; Transcription of original manuscript of
Steuben's Discipline)
http://www.scribd.com/doc/125728661/Steuben-s-original-Instructions-March-April-1778-as-
written-in-regimental-order-books-at-Valley-Forge-Transcribed-by-Matthew-Murphy-February-
2003

Steuben s Regulations for the Order and Discipline of Troops 1807; Later edition of Maj. Gen.
Friedrich Wilhelm de Steuben's Manual of Exercise and Maneuver (substantially the same as the
Blue Book published in 1779)
http://www.scribd.com/doc/125728492/Steuben-s-Regulations-for-the-Order-and-Discipline-of-
Troops-1807

Townshend's Light Infantry Instructions, 15 May 1772; Nascent British light infantry doctrine,
1772
http://www.scribd.com/doc/125727710/Townshend-s-Light-Infantry-Instructions-15-May-1772-
New

Light Infantry Discipline Established by Major General Howe 1774; British light infantry
exercise used during the War for American Independence
http://www.scribd.com/doc/125727528/Light-Infantry-Discipline-Established-by-Major-General-
Howe-1774

Cuthbertson’s System for the Complete Interior Management and Oeconomy of a Battalion of
Infantry (Bristol, 1776) http://www.scribd.com/doc/228496507/Cuthbertson-s-System-for-the-
Complete-Interior-Management-and-Oeconomy-of-a-Battalion-of-Infantry-Bristol-1776

The Manual Exercise, as Ordered by His Majesty, in 1764. Together with plans and explanations
of the method generally practis’d at reviews and field-days &C., Edward Harvey, Adjutant-
General (New York, 1780) http://www.scribd.com/doc/228494290/The-Manual-Exercise-as-
Ordered-by-His-Majesty-in-1764-Together-with-plans-and-explanations-of-the-method-generally-
practis-d-at-reviews-and-field-d

49
A Plan and Discipline for the Use of the Norfolk Militia. In three parts.
Part I. Containing
The Manual Exercise, with Explanations.
The Officers’ Exercise, and Manner of Saluting,
And the Halbert Exercise.
Part II.
Method of Teaching the Exercise.
Rules and Directions for Marching and Wheeling.
The Prussian and oblique Steps.
Marching, Counter-marching, and Wheeling by Platoons.
Exercise by Single Companies.
Part III.
Reviewing, Forming the Battalion, Firings, Evolutions,
Mounting and Relieving a Guard, Standing Orders, &c.
by William Windham, Esq; and the Right. Hon. George Townshend, the Lord Lieut. Of Ireland (Second
edition: Whitehall, 1768)
http://www.scribd.com/doc/228495181/A-Plan-and-Discipline-for-the-Use-of-the-Norfolk-Militia-
In-three-parts-Part-I-Containing-The-Manual-Exercise-with-Explanations-The-Officers

A Treatise of Artillery …, by John Muller, Professor of Artillery and Fortification, and Preceptor
of Engineering, &c. to His Royal Highness the Duke of Gloucester (London, 1768)
http://www.scribd.com/doc/228493794/A-Treatise-of-Artillery-by-John-Muller-Professor-of-
Artillery-and-Fortification-and-Preceptor-of-Engineering-c-to-His-Royal-Highness-the-Duke

Johann Ewald, A Treatise Upon the Duties of Light Troops: Translated from the German of
Colonel von Ehwald, of the Danish Sleswick Yager Corps, and Knight of the Hessian Order Pour
le Merite (London, 1803)
http://www.scribd.com/doc/228492951/Johann-Ewald-A-Treatise-Upon-the-Duties-of-Light-
Troops-Translated-from-the-German-of-Colonel-von-Ehwald-of-the-Danish-Sleswick-Yager-
Corps-and-Kn

A View of the Diseases of the Army in Great Britain, America, the West-Indies, and on board of
King’s Ships and Transports, from the beginning of the late war to the present time, together
with monthly and annual returns of the sick and some account of the method in which they were
treated in the Twenty Ninth Regiment, and the Third Battalion of the Sixtieth Regiment, by
Thomas Dickson Reide, surgeon to the First Battalion of the First (or Royal) Regiment of Foot
(London, 1793)
http://www.scribd.com/doc/228491343/A-View-of-the-Diseases-of-the-Army-in-Great-Britain-
America-the-West-Indies-and-on-board-of-King-s-Ships-and-Transports-from-the-beginning-of-
the
Lewis Lochee, An Essay on Castrametation (London, 1778) (British treatise on tents and
encampments.)
https://www.scribd.com/doc/262114106/Lewis-Lochee-An-Essay-on-Castrametation-
London-1778

Transportation
http://www.scribd.com/doc/125409123/J-U-Rees-Article-List-Army-Transportation

Transport (wheeled), vol. 1, 1159-1160 (750 words);
Watercraft on inland waterways, vol. 2, 1243-1244 (750 words);
50
Entries in, Mark M. Boatner, Encyclopedia of the American Revolution: Library of Military
History, Harold E. Selesky, ed. (2nd Edition, Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2006)
“`Reach Coryels ferry. Encamp on the Pennsylvania side.’: The Monmouth Campaign
Delaware River Crossing,” History in the Making (The Newsletter of the
New Hope Historical Society), vol. 4, no. 4 (December 2006), 1-12.

"`Employed in carrying cloathing & provisions': Wagons and Watercraft During the War for
Independence" (abbreviated article):
Part I. "`Country Waggons,' `Tumbrils,' and `Philadelphia Carts': Wheeled Transport in
The Armies of the Revolution," ALHFAM Bulletin, vol. XXIX, no. 3 (Fall
1999), 4-9, and The Continental Soldier, vol. XII, no. 2 (Winter 1999), 18-25.
http://www.continentalline.org/articles/article.php?date=9902&article=990202
Part II. "Sloops, `Scows,' `Batteaux,' and `Pettyaugers': Continental Army Rivercraft,
1775-1782," ALHFAM Bulletin, vol. XXIX, no. 4 (Winter 2000), 8-16, and The
Continental Soldier, vol. XIII, no. 1 (Winter/Spring 2000), 34-46.
http://www.continentalline.org/articles/article.php?date=0001&article=000101
“’Make use of Pack-Horses as far as may be practicable ...’: Baggage Carried on Horseback during the
American War, 1776 to 1781”
Contents
American Campaigns, 1755-1764.
The British Army in 1776.
The 1777 Campaign.
Marching Through New Jersey, 1778.
Going Against the Iroquois, 1779.
Continental Army, 1780-1782.
Cornwallis’s Campaigns, 1781.
Addenda: Miscellaneous Pack Saddle Images and Narratives
http://www.scribd.com/doc/132177295/%E2%80%9C-Make-use-of-Pack-Horses-as-far-as-may-be-
practicable-Baggage-Carried-on-Horseback-during-the-American-War-1776-to-1781

“`You will extend your Enquiry to the Number and Kind of Waggons …’: Wheeled Vehicles in the
Armies of the Revolution” (manuscript)

"`The uses and conveniences of different kinds of Water Craft’: Continental Army Vessels
on Inland Waterways, 1775-1782”
http://www.scribd.com/doc/208475142/The-uses-and-conveniences-of-different-kinds-of-
Water-Craft-Continental-Army-Vessels-on-Inland-Waterways-1775-1782
Table of Contents:
(page)
1 Introduction
2-8 “In transporting of stores.”: Sailing Vessels
3 Sloop
4 Schooner
4 Pettiauger
8 Shallop
51
8-11 “A Thirty two Pounder in the Bow ”: Rowed Vessels for River Defense
8 Gunboat
9 Galley
11 Xebec
12-34 “4 Wagons & Horses, and 1000 Men at a Try.”
Flat-Bottomed Transport for Soldiers, Supplies, and Vehicles
12-16 Ferry Boats and River Crossings
16-19 Scows and Flatbottom Boats
19-20 Barge
20-22 Durham Boat
22-28 Bateaux
28-34 Wagon Boat
34-52 1781 Campaign: Bateaux, Flat Boats, Wagon Boats and Other Craft
52-54 “For the purpose of sounding Haverstraw Bar.”: Miscellaneous Small Craft
52-53 Whale Boat
53 Skiff
53 Rowboat
53 Wherry
54 Round-futtock Boat
54-57 “The best Oars men in the Army”: Soldiers Serving in Boat Crews and at Ferries
57-58 Conclusion
59-64 Addendum
59-60 I. British Military Flatboats and Landing Craft
60-64 II. More on Bateaux in the 1776 New York and Canadian Campaign
64-77 Endnotes

“`Little chariots painted red …’: Continental Army Vehicle Paint Colors,” Military Collector & Historian,
vol. 60, no. 2 (Summer 2008), 154-156. http://revwar75.com/library/rees/pdfs/paint.pdf

“’Reach Coryels ferry. Encamp on the Pennsylvania side.’: The March from Valley Forge to
Monmouth Courthouse, 18 to 28 June 1778”
http://www.scribd.com/doc/133301501/“Reach-Coryels-ferry-Encamp-on-the-Pennsylvania-side-”-The-
March-from-Valley-Forge-to-Monmouth-Courthouse-18-to-28-June-1778
Endnotes:
http://www.scribd.com/doc/133293312/Endnotes-“Reach-Coryels-ferry-Encamp-on-the-Pennsylvania-side-”-
The-March-from-Valley-Forge-to-Monmouth-Courthouse-18-to-28-June-1778
Contents
1. “We struck our tents and loaded our baggage.”: Leaving Valley Forge
2. Progress, June 18, 1778.
3. Progress, June 19, 1778.
4. “Crost the dilliware pushed on about 5 milds …”: June 20, 1778: Progress and a River Crossing
5. “4 Wagons & Horses, and 1000 Men at a Try.”: The Mechanics of Ferrying an Army
52
6. “Halt on the first strong ground after passing the Delaware ...”: June 20th River Crossing
7. “The number of boats … will render the passage of the troops very expeditious.”:
June 21st Ferry Operation
8. “The Troops are passing the River … and are mostly over.”: June 22d Crossing
9. “The Army will march off …”: June 22d and 23d, Camp at Amwell Meeting
10. “Just after we halted we sent out a large detachment …”: Camp and Council: Hopewell
Township, 23 to 24 June
11. “Giving the Enemy a stroke is a very desireable event …”: Advancing to Englishtown,
24 to 28 June
e. Progress, June 25, 1778.
f. Progress, June 26, 1778.
g. Progress, June 27, 1778.
h. Forward to Battle, June 28, 1778.
12. “Our advanced Corps … took post in the evening on the Monmouth Road …”:
Movements of Continental Detachments Followng the British, 24 to 28 June 1778
c. The Advance Force: Scott’s, Wayne’s, Lafayette’s, and Lee’s Detachments.
d. Daily Movements of Detachments Later Incorporated into Lee’s Advanced Corps.
13. Echoes of 1778, Three Years After.
Addendum
1. Driving Directions, Continental Army Route from Valley Forge to Englishtown
2. Day by Day Recap of Route
3. The Road to Hopewell.
4. The Bungtown Road Controversy.
5. Weather During the Monmouth Campaign
6. Selected Accounts of the March from Valley Forge to Englishtown
a. Fifteen-year-old Sally Wister
b. Surgeon Samuel Adams, 3rd Continental Artillery
c. Henry Dearborn, lt. colonel, 3rd New Hampshire Regiment
d. Captain Paul Brigham, 8th Connecticut Regiment
e. Sergeant Ebenezer Wild, 1st Massachusetts Regiment
f. Sgt. Jeremiah Greenman, 2d Rhode Island Regiment
g. Dr. James McHenry, assistant secretary to General Washington
7. List of Related works by the author on military material culture and the Continental Army
Endnotes contain:
1. Army General and Brigade Orders, June 1778.
a. Orders Regulating the Army on the March from Valley Forge.
b. Orders Issued During the Movement from Valley Forge to Englishtown.
2. Division and Brigade Composition for Washington’s Main Army to 22 June 1778
3. Washington’s army vehicle allotment for the march to Coryell’s Ferry,
4. Wheeled Transportation (a primer on the vehicles and artillery on the road to
Monmouth, including twenty-one illustrations)
5. Division and Brigade Composition for Washington’s Main Army after 22 June 1778

Other Authors’ Monographs
(Transportation)
Don H. Berkebile, "Conestoga Wagons in Braddock's Campaign, 1755," United States National
Museum Bulletin, no. 218 (Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., 1959)
http://www.scribd.com/doc/153819233/Don-H-Berkebile-Conestoga-Wagons-in-Braddock-s-
Campaign-1755
Hugh Boscawen, “The Origins of the Flat-Bottomed Landing Craft 1757-58,” Army Museum ’84
(Journal of the National Army Museum, Royal Hospital Road, London, UK, 1985), 23-30.
http://www.scribd.com/doc/222794851/Hugh-Boscawen-The-Origins-of-the-Flat-Bottomed-
Landing-Craft-1757-58-Army-Museum-84-Journal-of-the-National-Army-Museum-Royal-
53
Hospital-Road-Lo

Soldiers’ Shelter
http://www.scribd.com/doc/125408707/J-U-Rees-Article-List-Soldiers-Shelter

"`Soldiers are ingenious animals.’: American Civil War Campaign Shelters,”
Comparative Use of Makeshift Shelters, 1755 to 1812
"More like a chicken-coop er a dog-kennel": Civil War Soldiers' Tents
A. Soldier-Built Supports and Shelter Tent Amenities.
B. Southern Tents and Substitutes.
"Ther' ain't no use lyin' 'n the mud.": Soldiers' Bedding Arrangements With and Without Shelter
"Their shebang enclosures of bushes.": The Variety of Brush and Board Huts
"It is so awful hot here to-day": Soldier-Built Shades
Military Collector & Historian, vol. 56, no. 4 (2004), 248-266.
http://www.libertyrifles.org/research/campaignshelters.html

"`Shebangs,' `Shades,' and Shelter Tents: An Overview of Civil War Soldiers' Campaign
Shelters," part I. Muzzleloader, vol. XXX, no. 1 (March/April 2003), 69-75.
part II. Muzzleloader, vol. XXX, no. 2 (May/June 2003), 63-69.

Soldiers’ shelter, vol. 2, 1068-1069 (750 words), Mark M. Boatner, Encyclopedia of the
American Revolution: Library of Military History, Harold E. Selesky, ed. (2nd Edition,
Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2006)
“`The canopy of heaven for our tent’: Soldiers' Shelter on Campaign, June 1778,” Appendix 0 of
"`What is this you have been about to day?’: The New Jersey Brigade at the Battle of
Monmouth” http://revwar75.com/library/rees/monmouth/MonmouthToc.htm

"`We are now ... properly ... enwigwamed.': British Soldiers and Brush Shelters, 1777-
1781," The Brigade Dispatch, vol. XXIX, no. 2 (Summer 1999), 2-9.
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/monmouth/MonmouthO.htm

“`They had built huts of bushes and leaves.’: Analysis of Continental Army Brush Shelter
Use, 1775-1782,” The Brigade Dispatch, vol. XXXII, no. 3 (Autumn 2002), 7-10.
Appendices
A. American Brush Huts.
B. Brush Huts and the British Army.
Addendum: List of articles and links for author’s series on soldiers’ campaign shelters (1775-1783, 1861-1865)
https://www.scribd.com/doc/299341406/They-had-built-huts-of-bushes-and-leaves-Analysis-of-
Continental-Army-Brush-Shelter-Use-1775-1782
or
https://www.academia.edu/22008316/_They_had_built_huts_of_bushes_and_leaves._Analysis_o
f_Continental_Army_Brush_Shelter_Use_1775-1782

"`We ... got ourselves cleverly settled for the night': Soldiers' Shelter on Campaign
During the War for Independence,"
54
part I, "`Oznabrig tabernacles’: Tents in the Armies of the Revolution":
1. “Put our Men into barns …”: The Vagaries of Shelter
2. "We Lay in the open world": Troops Without Shelter on Campaign
3. "State of Marquees and Tents delivered to the Army...": Varieties of Tentage
a. British Common Tents
b. American Common Tents
c. Horseman’s and Cavalry Tents
d. Wall Tents
e. Marquees
f. Bell Tents for Sheltering Arms
g. Dome, Square, and Hospital Tents
h. French Tents
4. "Return of Camp Equipage": More on Tents.
Appendices
A. Illustrations of French Tents
B. The Common Tent as Illustrated in a German Treatise
C. How to Fold a Common Tent for Transport (from a German Treatise)
D. Interior Views of Common Tents: Sleeping Arrangements in Three
Armies
E. A Melange of Marquees: Additional Images of Officers’ Tents
F. Encampment Plans: Continental Army, Hessian, and British
1. Friedrich Wilhelm de Steuben, Regulations for the Order and Discipline
of the Troops of the United States Part I. (Philadelphia, Pa.: Styner and
Cist, 1779)
2. “A Correct View of the Hessian Camp on Barton Farm near
Winchester … by Willm. Godson, Land Surveyor to the Right
Worshipful the Corporation of Winchester occupé le 16 Juillet 1756”
3. Lewis Lochee, An Essay on Castrametation (London, 1778)
(British treatise on tents and encampments.)
4. Humphrey Bland, A treatise of military discipline: in which is laid
down and explained the duty of the officer and soldier, through the
several branches of the service. The 8th edition revised, corrected,
and altered to the present practice of the army (London: B. Law and
T. Caslon, 1762).
Military Collector & Historian, vol. 49, no. 3 (Fall 1997), 98-107.
https://www.scribd.com/doc/262657282/Oznabrig-tabernacles-Tents-in-the-Armies-of-the-
Revolution-part-1-of-We-got-ourselves-cleverly-settled-for-the-night-Soldiers-Shelter
or
https://www.academia.edu/12360099/_We_..._got_ourselves_cleverly_settled_for_the_night
_Soldiers_Shelter_on_Campaign

part II, “The great [wastage] last Campaign was owing to their being wet in the Waggons."
Allotment and Transporting Tents in the Armies of the Revolution
1. "The Allowance of Tents is not sufficient ...”: An Overview of Tents as Shelter
a. Tent Allotment, 1776 to 1779
b. Female Followers and Tents
c. Tent Allotment, 1779 to 1782
d. Tent Supply and Shortfalls
2. "The fewer the Waggons to the Army, the better...": Transporting Tents

55
a. Wagons
b. Pack Horses
c. Soldiers as Beasts of Burden
d. Watercraft
Appendix: ”British Army Wheeled Transport in the American War: A Primer”
Addendum
1. “No. 9 – Return of Drivers, Horses and Waggons furnished by Brigadr-General William
Dalrymple, Quarter Master General of the Army in North America in the District of New York
by order of His Excellency the Commander in Chief for the General and Staff Officers and
several Corps of the Army between 1st January & 31st March 1781 inclusive being 90 days”
2. “Return of Drivers, Horses and Waggons belonging to the Quart. Master General’s
Department attached to the General and Staff Officers and Several Corps of Hessians in the
District of New York. – 26th August 1781.”
3. “Return of Drivers, Horses and Waggons attached to the several British Regiments in the
District of New York 26th August 1781.”
4. “Enclosure 2d Return of Drivers, Horses and Waggons that are with the Corps to the
Southward [Virginia] New York 23d August 1781.”
5. “Enclosure 4 Return of Conductors, Drivers, Horses and Waggons in the Quarter Master
General’s Department, attached to the Several Corps at and near the Six Mile Stone. 26th
August 1781.”
6. Enclosure No. 6, Johann Friedrich Cochenhausen (also Cockenhausen or Kochenhausen),
colonel and quartermaster general, Hessian forces, to Board of General Officers, 14 May 1781
(regarding wagons for the German troops).
https://www.scribd.com/doc/301615108/We-got-ourselves-cleverly-settled-for-the-night-
Soldiers-Shelter-on-Campaign-During-the-War-for-Independence-Part-2-The-great-
wastage-l
or
https://www.academia.edu/22669568/_We..._got_ourselves_cleverly_settled_for_the_night...
_Soldiers_Shelter_on_Campaign_During_the_War_for_Independence_Part_2._The_great_
wastage_last_Campaign_was_owing_to_their_being_wet_in_the_Waggons._Tents_in_the_
Armies_of_the_Revolution
Military Collector & Historian, vol. 49, no. 4 (Winter 1997), 156-168.

part III, "`The camps ... are as different in their form as the owners are in their dress ...':
Shades, Sheds, and Wooden Tents, 1775-1782":
1. "Not a bush to make a shade near [at] hand ...":
Bush Bowers, "Arbours," and "Shades," 1776-1782
2. "An elegant shade ...": Officers' Bowers
3. "The Men employed in making Bowers before their Tents ..."
Shades for Common Soldiers
a. Pennsylvania and New Jersey, 1777 to 1780
b. Virginia Peninsula, 1781
c. New York, 1782
d. Bowers and British Troops, 1776 and 1781
4. "The troops hutted with Rails and Indian Corn Stocks ..."
Sheds, Planked Huts, and Straw Tents, 1775-1777
Addendum
“The … roof consists of boughs, or branches … curiously interwoven …”: The
“curious edifice” Built at West Point to Celebrate French Dauphin’s Birth, 1782
https://www.scribd.com/document/351091933/The-camps-are-as-different-in-their-form-as-
56
the-owners-are-in-their-dress-Shades-Sheds-and-Wooden-Tents-1775-1782
Military Collector & Historian, vol. 53, no. 4 (Winter 2001-2002), 161-169.

part IV, "`We are now ... properly ... enwigwamed.': British and German Soldiers and
Brush Huts, 1776-1781":
1. Overview
2. "Laying up poles and covering them with leaves ...": Building Brush Huts
3. Comparative Use of Makeshift Shelters in the French and Indian War,
and American Civil War
Appendix
1. A Narragansett Wigwam, 1761
2. Recreated Brush Shelters
3. Additional Articles on Campaign Shelter, 1775-1865
https://www.scribd.com/document/350786577/We-are-now-properly-enwigwamed-British-
and-German-Soldiers-and-Brush-Huts-1776-1781
Military Collector & Historian, vol. 55, no. 2 (Summer 2003), 89-96.

part V, “`We built up housan of branchis and leavs ’: Continental Army
Brush Shelters, 1775-1777”
A. "This night we lay out without shelter ...”:
Overview of American Soldiers' Campaign Lodging
B. "We maid us some Bush huts ...": Brush Shelters, 1775 and 1776.
C. "Huts of sticks & leaves": Washington's Army in New Jersey and
Pennsylvania, 1777.
Military Collector & Historian, vol. 55, no. 4 (Winter 2003-2004), 213-223.
https://www.scribd.com/document/134028900/Part-V-We-built-up-housan-of-branchis-
leavs-Continental-Army-Brush-Shelters-1775-1777-Series-We-got-ourselves-cleverly-settled-f

part VI, "`We built up housan of branchis & leavs ...’: Continental Army Brush Shelters,
1778-1782
A. "Found the regiment lying in bush huts ...": Continental Troops on
Campaign and on the March, 1778-1780.
B. "Pine huts," "Huts of rails," and "Bush Tents":
Virginia and the Carolinas, 1781-1782.
C. "Return of Camp Equipage": More on Tents.
Military Collector & Historian, vol. 56, no. 2 (2004), 98-106.
https://www.scribd.com/document/133993824/Part-VI-We-built-up-housan-of-branchis-
leavs-Continental-Army-Brush-Shelters-1778-1782-Series-We-got-ourselves-cleverly-settled

Soldiers' Rations, Food Preparation and Cooking Utensils
http://www.scribd.com/doc/125381511/J-U-Rees-Article-List-Soldiers-Food-1775-to-the-
modern-era

Soldiers’ rations, vol. 2, 1066-1068 (1250 words), Mark M. Boatner, Encyclopedia of the
57
American Revolution: Library of Military History, Harold E. Selesky, ed.
(2nd Edition, Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2006)

“Hard Tack,” vol. 1, 589-590.
“Historical Overview: The Revolutionary War,” vol. 1, 622-624.
“Historical Overview: The Civil War and Reconstruction,” vol. 1, 631-633.
(Posted online at http://www.libertyrifles.org/research/cwreconstfoods.html )
“Supawn,” vol. 2, 516.
Entries in, Andrew F. Smith, ed., Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America, 2
vols. (New York and London: Oxford University Press, 2004)

Artwork Narrative: Pamela Patrick White, “’Victuals well dressed’: Revolutionary Soldiers’
Food and Cooking,” (2004) http://www.whitehistoricart.com
“`O carrion sublime …’: Doughboy Odes to Army Food,” Military Collector &
Historian, vol. 56, no. 4 (Winter 2004), 238.
“`Things were fine. Then things weren’t.”: Donuts and Coffee, 1862 to 1968,”
Military Collector & Historian, vol. 57, no. 2 (Summer 2005), 99.
http://www.scribd.com/doc/168461891/%E2%80%9CThings-were-fine-Then-things-
weren%E2%80%99t-%E2%80%9D-Donuts-and-Coffee-1862-and-1968
“`Sufficient for the army for fifteen days …’: Continental Army Frozen Meat Ration,”
Military Collector & Historian, vol. 58, no. 3 (Fall 2006), 163.

“`Baked Beans 140 Men’: Earnest Harrison’s 1909 Army Recipe Book,”
Military Collector & Historian)

“’A wave struck the ship, the soup flew out of my bowl …’: Food and Accommodations for
Soldiers at Sea during the War for Independence” (Including a section titled, “German Troops on
Campaign in America”)
https://www.scribd.com/doc/259230707/A-wave-struck-the-ship-the-soup-flew-out-of-my-
bowl-Food-and-Accommodations-for-Soldiers-at-Sea-during-the-War-for-Independence-
Including-a

“`A capital dish …’: Revolutionary Soldiers and Chocolate,” Brigade Dispatch, vol. XXXVIII,
no. 3 (Autumn 2008), 2-17.
http://www.scribd.com/doc/131353233/%E2%80%9CA-capital-dish-%E2%80%A6-
Revolutionary-Soldiers-and-Chocolate
“`General Wayne's detachment is almost starving.’: Provisioning Washington’s Army on the
March, June 1778,” Appendix N of "’What is this you have been about to day?’: The
New Jersey Brigade at the Battle of Monmouth,”
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/monmouth/MonmouthN.htm
58
“’It's hard living … but living too high ain't healthy no how.’: Soldiers Making the Best of Army
Food, 1861-1865,”
1. “Seeing the Elephant’: New Soldiers and Army Food”
2. Experienced Soldiers and the Practicalities of Food Preparation
3. “A very palatable mess’: Seasoned Soldiers and Cooking Innovations”
Sidebars:
A. A Victual-Rich Vocabulary
B. Confederate Soldiers and Scanty Food
Repast: Quarterly Publication of the Culinary Historians of Ann Arbor,
vol. XXVIII, no. 2 (Summer 2012), 4-10.
http://www.scribd.com/doc/236075560/It-s-hard-living-but-living-too-high-ain-t-healthy-no-how-
Soldiers-Making-the-Best-of-Army-Food-1861-1865-Repast-Quarterly-Publication-of-t

"`The foundation of an army is the belly.' North American Soldiers' Food, 1756-1945,"
ALHFAM: Proceedings of the 1998 Conference and Annual Meeting, vol. XXI (The Assoc.
for Living History, Farm and Agricultural Museums, Bloomfield, Ohio, 1999), 49-64.
Part I. "'I live on raw salt pork ... hard bread and sugar.': The Evolution of
Soldiers' Rations"
Part II. "Salt Beef to C Rations: A Compendium of North American Soldiers'
Rations, 1756-1945"
(World Wide Web, http://revwar75.com/library/rees/belly.htm )

"’False hopes and temporary devices’: Organizing Food Supply in the Continental Army”
Part I. “To subsist an Army well”: An Organizational Overview
Part II. “Owing to this variety of waste …”: Producing, Storing, and Transporting Bread
Part III. “We now have 500 head of fat cattle”: Procuring, Transporting, and Processing
Livestock
http://www.scribd.com/doc/227059610/False-hopes-and-temporary-devices-Organizing-
Food-Supply-in-the-Continental-Army-1-To-subsist-an-Army-well-An-Organizational-
Overview
"Compendium of Ration Allotments, 1754-1785," The Continental Soldier, vol. IX, no. 2
(Summer 1996), 30-34.

"`To subsist an Army well ...': Soldiers' Cooking Equipment, Provisions, and Food
Preparation During the American War for Independence”:
"’All the tin Camp-kettles they can procure ...’: Iron Pots, Pans, and Light-
Weight Military Kettles, 1759-1782”
Subheadings:
Tin Kettles, 1759-1771”
“British Kettles in the American War, 1776-1781”
“Continental Army and States’ Militia, 1775-1780”
“American Sheet Iron Kettles, 1781-1782”
“Iron Pots, Pans, and Makeshift Cookware”
“Eating Utensils”
“Officers’ Cooking Equipment”
“Kettle Covers”
“’The extreme suffering of the army for want of … kettles …’:
Continental Soldiers and Kettle Shortages in 1782”
“’A disgusting incumbrance to the troops …’:
59
Linen Bags and Carts for Carrying Kettles”
“’The Kettles to be made as formerly …”: Kettle Capacity and Weight, and Archaeological
Finds”
Subheadings:
“Kettle Capacity and Sizes, 1759-1782”
“Louisbourg Kettle, Cape Breton Island”
“Fort Ligonier (Buckets or Kettles?)”
“Rogers Island (Bucket or Kettle?)”
“1812 Kettles, Fort Meigs, Ohio”
“Overview of Cooking Equipment, 1775-1783”
Addendum to online version:
“Two brass kettles, to contain ten gallons each … for each company …”
Brass and Copper Kettles
Military Collector & Historian, vol. 53, no. 1 (Spring 2001), 7-23.
http://www.scribd.com/doc/180835470/To-subsist-an-Army-well-Soldiers-Cooking-
Equipment-Provisions-and-Food-Preparation-During-the-American-War-for-
Independence

(Addendum to above): Brass Kettles, Military Collector & Historian, vol. 53, no. 3 (Fall 2001),
118-119.

"`To the hungry soul every bitter thing is sweet.’: Soldiers' Food and Cooking in the War
for Independence”
Part 1.
"The manner of messing and living together": Continental Army Mess Groups
“Who shall have this?”: Food Distribution
"A hard game ...": Continental Army Cooks
Military Collector & Historian, vol. 62, no. 4 (Winter 2010), 288-298.
Part 2.
“On with Kittle, to make some hasty Pudding …”: How a "Continental Devil" Broke His Fast
1. The Army Ration and Cooking Methods.
2. Eating Utensils.
3. The Morning Meal.
4. Other Likely Breakfast Fare.
Military Collector & Historian, vol. 63, no. 1 (Spring 2011), 12-25.
Online version:
"`To the hungry soul every bitter thing is sweet.’: Soldiers' Food and Cooking in the War
for Independence”
60
"The manner of messing and living together": Continental Army Mess Groups
“Who shall have this?”: Food Distribution
"A hard game ...": Continental Army Cooks
“On with Kittle, to make some hasty Pudding …”: How a "Continental Devil" Broke His Fast
1. The Army Ration and Cooking Methods.
2. Eating Utensils.
3. The Morning Meal.
4. Other Likely Breakfast Fare.
Addenda
“The men were very industrious, in baking, all the forepart of the evening.”: Soldiers’ Ingenuity,
Regimental Bakers, and the Issue of Raw Flour
“The Commissary [is] desired … to furnish biscuit and salt provisions …”:
Hard Bread in the War for Independence.
"The victuals became putrid by sweat & heat ...": Some Peripheral Aspects of Feeding an Army
1. The Ways Soldiers Carried Food
2. The Burden of Rations, 1762-1783
3. Carrying Drink and Procuring Water
4. Equipment Shortages
5. Spoilage of Issued Meats
"We had our cooking utensils ... to carry in our hands.": Continental Army Cooking and Eating Gear,
and Camp Kitchens, 1775-1782
Endnotes:
#50. Compendium of Ration Allotments, 1754-1782
Continental Army rations (summary)
British Army rations (summary)
Caloric Requirements and Intake
#73. Miscellaneous returns of cooking gear and eating utensils, 1778-1781
(Appended) List of author’s articles on food in the armies of the American Revolution
http://www.scribd.com/doc/129368664/To-the-hungry-soul-every-bitter-thing-is-sweet-
Soldiers-Food-and-Cooking-in-the-War-for-Independence

“`Six of our regt lived together …’: Mess Groups, Carrying Food … (and a Little Bit of Tongue)
in the Armies of the Revolution”
Mess Groups
Food Distribution
Carrying Food
The Burden of Rations
And … Tongue
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/pdfs/tongue.pdf

“`Iron pots,’ ‘Spiders,’ and Tea Kettles: Cooking and Eating Utensils in Sullivan’s Brigade,
1776,” Military Collector & Historian, vol. 62, no. 2 (Summer 2010), 100.

“`Our wants of the common conveniences were sometimes curiously supplied …’:
A Revolutionary Soldier’s Wooden Bowl,” Military Collector & Historian,
vol. 61, no. 3 (Fall 2009), 210-214. Revised and published in Solebury Chronicle
(Newsletter of the Solebury Township Historical Society), vol. 12, no. 1
(Winter 2010), 4-5. http://www.soleburyhistory.org/pdf/newsletterwinter2010.pdf
61
(Rewritten in 2012 as “The common necessaries of life …” A Revolutionary Soldier’s Wooden
Bowl,” including, “’Left sick on the Road’: An Attempt to Identify the Soldier Left at the Paxson
Home, ‘Rolling Green,’ June 1778.”)
http://www.scribd.com/doc/123562525/%E2%80%9CThe-common-necessaries-of-life-
%E2%80%A6%E2%80%9D-A-Revolutionary-Soldier%E2%80%99s-Wooden-Bowl
or http://tinyurl.com/at3dj3e

Soldier’s mess bowl (original artifact), see article above.

Brigade Dispatch series on Continental soldiers' utensils, food and cooking during the
War for Independence:
1. "`We had our cooking utensils  to carry in our hands.’: Light-Weight Military
Kettles, 1775-1782,” The Brigade Dispatch, vol. XXXI, no. 1 (Spring 2001), 2-11.
2. “`The Kettles to be made as formerly ’: Kettle Capacity and Weight, and
62
Excavated Artifacts,” The Brigade Dispatch, vol. XXXI, no. 1 (Spring 2001), 5-8.
3. “`They were made of cast iron and consequently heavy.’: Less Commonly Used Utensils,
Eating Implements, and Officers’ Cooking Equipment,” The Brigade Dispatch, vol.
XXXI, no. 2 (Summer 2001), 2-7.

"`Sufficient ... to strip a soldier to the skin.': Sutlers in the Continental Army, 1777-1782," The
Continental Soldier, vol. X, no. 2 (Summer 1997), 27-28.

“`As many fireplaces as you have tents': Earthen Camp Kitchens”:
Part I. "`Cooking Excavations': Their History and Use by Soldiers in North
America";
Part II. "Matt and I Dig a Kitchen."
The Continental Soldier, vol. XI, no. 3 (Summer 1998), 26-32.
First published in Fall 1997 Food History News (see below). Also published as "Earthen
Camp Kitchens,” Muzzleloader, vol. XXX, no. 4 (September/October 2003), 59-64.
RevWar75 online version titled:
"`As many fireplaces as you have tents ...': Earthen Camp Kitchens”
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/kitchen.htm

"`As many fireplaces as you have tents ...': Earthen Camp Kitchens”:
Contents
Part I. "Cooking Excavations": Their History and Use by Soldiers in North America
A. Advantages.
B. Digging a Field Kitchen.
Part II. Complete 1762 Kitchen Description and Winter Covering for Field Kitchens
Part III. Matt and I Dig a Kitchen.
Sequenced photos of kitchen construction, June 1997, Bordentown, New Jersey.
Part IV. Original Earthen Kitchens Examined by Archaeologists.
A. The Laughanstown, Ireland Earthen Kitchen.
B. The Gloucester Point (VIMS) Kitchen, 1781.
C. Hessian Kitchens, Winchester, England, 1756.
Appendices:
1. Encampment Plans (with an emphasis on kitchen placement): Continental Army, Hessian, and
British
2. British Image of Cooking Excavations (Redcoat Images No. 2,000)
3. Newspaper Article on the Discovery of the Gloucester Point Kitchen
4. Miscellaneous Images of Earthen Camp Kitchens and Soldiers Cooking
https://www.academia.edu/21056265/_As_many_fireplaces_as_you_have_tents_..._Earthen
_Camp_Kitchens
(Video of Old Barracks kitchen, courtesy of David Niescior, https://vimeo.com/151154631 )
"`A disgusting incumbrance to the troops': More on Kettle Bags and Carts in the Continental
Army, 1781," The Brigade Dispatch, vol. XXVIII, no. 3 (Autumn 1998), 12-13.
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/encumberance.htm

“`Properly fixed upon the Men’: Linen Bags for Camp Kettles,” The Brigade Dispatch, vol.
XXVII, no. 3 (Autumn 1997), 2-5.
63
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/kettlebags.htm

Book Review: Agostino von Hassell, Herm Dillon, Leslie Jean-Bart, Military High Life: Elegant
Food Histories and Recipes (New Orleans: University Press of the South, 2006), 162 pp.,
Illustrations. $34.95 (cloth), Gastronomica: The Journal of Food and Culture, vol. 7, no. 4 (Fall
2007), 106-107.
http://www.scribd.com/doc/124454282/Review-Military-High-Life-Final-Three-New

Book Review: “`We Were Marching on Christmas Day’: History, Food, and Civilian and
Soldiers’ Celebrations,” Food History News, vol. XIII, no. 2 (50), 2, 7. Review of Kevin
Rawlings, We Were Marching on Christmas Day: A History and Chronicle of Christmas During
the Civil War (Baltimore, Md.: Toomey Press, 1996). 170 pages, index, illustrations. $24.95.
Toomey Press, P.O. Box 122, Linthicum, Md., 21090; phone, (410) 850-0831.
(http://www.libertyrifles.org/research/christmasday.html)

Dual Book Review: Andrew F. Smith, Starving the South: How the North Won the Civil War
(New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2011), 304 pp., $27.99 (paper), and William C. Davis, A Taste
for War: The Culinary History of the Blue and the Gray (Mechanicsburg, Pa.: Stackpole Books,
2003), 233 pp., Illustrations. $26.95 (hardback), Gastronomica: The Journal of Food and
Culture, vol. 12, no. 1 (Spring 2012), 103-105.
http://www.scribd.com/doc/124410014/Reviews-Civil-War-Starving-the-South-and-a-
Taste-for-War

“‘It was my turn to cook for the mess’: Provisions of the Common Soldier in the Continental
Army, 1775-1783" (entire article, 39 pages) First conceived as a lecture for the Historic
Foodways Society of the Delaware Valley, given 15 January 1995. Reworked as a feature
column in Food History News beginning with vol. VII, no. 1 (Fall 1995). Below are the
column titles:

FHN, vol. VII, no. 1 (Fall 1995), 2, 8.
"It was my turn to cook for the Mess"
Provisions of the Common Soldier in the Continental Army
1775-1783

FHN, vol. VII, no. 3 (Winter 1995), 2-3.
"Sometimes we drew two days rations at a time."
The Soldiers' Daily Issue

FHN, vol. VIII, no. 1 (Summer 1996), 2-3.
"Drew 2 pound of Shugar and 1 pound of Coffee"
Extraordinary Foodstuffs Issued the Troops

FHN, vol. VII, no. 4 (Spring 1996), 2-3.
"The unreasonable prices extorted ... by the market People":
64
Camp Markets and the Impact of the Economy

FHN, vol. VIII, no. 2 (Fall 1996), 1-2, 7.
"Complaint has been made by many of the Inhabitants"
Soldiers' Efforts to Supplement the Ration Issue

FHN, vol. VIII, no. 3 (Winter 1996), 2, 6-7.
"Whilst in this country"
Sullivan's Expedition and the Carolina Campaigns
http://www.scribd.com/doc/172542103/Whilst-in-this-country-Supplementing-
Soldiers%E2%80%99-Rations-with-Regional-Foods-Sullivan-s-Expedition-1779-and-the-
Carolina-Campaigns-1781-1782

FHN, vol. VIII, no. 4 (Spring 1997), 2, 3-5, 6-7.
"Hard enough to break the teeth of a rat."
Biscuit and Hard Bread in the Armies of the Revolution
(Also in the same issue, information on cooking with biscuit
and hardtack during the American Civil War and the War for
Independence in "Joy of Historical Cooking: Using Hardtack &
Crackers.")

FHN, vol. IX, no. 1 (Summer 1997), 2, 6.
"The essential service he rendered to the army"
Christopher Ludwick, Superintendent of Bakers
http://www.scribd.com/doc/125310836/The-essential-service-he-rendered-to-the-army-
Christopher-Ludwick-Superintendent-of-Bakers

FHN, vol. XVII, no. 1 (Summer 2005) (65), 2.
“The Gingerbread Man”
More on Washington’s Baking Superintendent, Then and Now
http://www.scribd.com/doc/125310836/The-essential-service-he-rendered-to-the-army-
Christopher-Ludwick-Superintendent-of-Bakers

FHN, vol. IX, no. 2 (Fall 1997), 2, 8-9.
"As many fireplaces as you have tents"
Earthen Camp Kitchens
http://www.scribd.com/doc/229610630/As-many-fireplaces-as-you-have-tents-Earthen-
Camp-Kitchens

FHN, vol. IX, no. 3 (Winter 1998), 2.
Matt and I Dig a Kitchen
Recreating an 18th-Century Cooking Excavation
http://www.scribd.com/doc/229610630/As-many-fireplaces-as-you-have-tents-Earthen-
Camp-Kitchens

65
FHN, vol. IX, no. 4 (Spring 1998), 2, 7-8.
"Our pie-loving ... stomachs ... ache to even look."
Durable Foods for Armies, 1775-1865
https://www.scribd.com/doc/262786402/Our-pie-loving-stomachs-ache-to-even-look-
Durable-Foods-for-Armies-1775-1865

FHN, vol. X, no. 1 (37), 2, 8-9.
"Tell them never to throw away their ... haversacks or canteens"
Finding Water and Carrying Food
During the War for Independence and the American Civil War

FHN, vol. X, no. 2 (38), 2, 6-7.
"The victuals became putrid by sweat & heat"
Equipment Shortages, the Burden of Rations and Spoilage
During the War for Independence and the War Between the States

FHN, vol. X, no. 3 (39), 2, 7.
(1775-1945)
An "unrational predicament."
Soldiers, Food, and Humor

FHN, vol. XI, no. 1 (41), 2, 9.
(1775-1945)
"This is the way they live"
Soldiers' Observations of Other Regions, Other Cultures

FHN, vol. XI, no. 2 (42), 2, 12-13.
(1775-1945)
"Happy New Year, you guys."
A Soldier's Holiday
https://www.scribd.com/doc/291192804/Happy-New-Year-you-guys-A-Soldier-s-Holiday

FHN, vol. XI, no. 3 (43), 2.
Extreme Cuisine: Doughnuts and Coffee
"The Zouave Doughnuts" (1862)
"A Cup of Coffee in the Tet Offensive" (1968)
http://www.scribd.com/doc/168461891/%E2%80%9CThings-were-fine-Then-things-
weren%E2%80%99t-%E2%80%9D-Donuts-and-Coffee-1862-and-1968

FHN, vol. XI, no. 4 (44), 2, 5.
(1775-1945)
From Firecake to K Rations:
Books on the American Soldier's Diet.

66
FHN, vol. XII, no. 1 (45), 2.
Extreme Cuisine: Alligator Soup, Louisiana, 1864
(Captain John DeForest, 12th Connecticut Volunteers)

FHN, vol. XII, no. 2 (46), 2.
Extreme Cuisine: The Indispensable Frying Pan and Coffee Pot,
(Civil War mess groups and utensils; contents of a Confederate Haversack)

FHN, vol. XII, no. 3 (47), 2, 9-10.
"False hopes and temporary devices"
Organizing Food Supply in the Continental Army
Part I. “To subsist an Army well”
An Organizational Overview
http://www.scribd.com/doc/227059610/False-hopes-and-temporary-devices-Organizing-
Food-Supply-in-the-Continental-Army-1-To-subsist-an-Army-well-An-Organizational-
Overview

FHN, vol. XII, no. 4 (48), 2, 9-10.
"False hopes and temporary devices"
Organizing Food Supply in the Continental Army
Part II. “Owing to this variety of waste …”
Producing, Storing, and Transporting Bread
http://www.scribd.com/doc/227059610/False-hopes-and-temporary-devices-Organizing-
Food-Supply-in-the-Continental-Army-1-To-subsist-an-Army-well-An-Organizational-
Overview

FHN, vol. XIII, no. 1 (49), 2, 8-9.
"False hopes and temporary devices"
Organizing Food Supply in the Continental Army
Part III. “We now have 500 head of fat cattle”
Procuring, Transporting, and Processing Livestock
http://www.scribd.com/doc/227059610/False-hopes-and-temporary-devices-Organizing-
Food-Supply-in-the-Continental-Army-1-To-subsist-an-Army-well-An-Organizational-
Overview

FHN, vol. XIII, no. 2 (50), 2, 7.
“We Were Marching on Christmas Day”
History, Food, and Civilian and Soldiers’ Celebrations: A Book Review
(Also posted online at http://www.libertyrifles.org/research/christmasday.html )

67
http://www.scribd.com/doc/124281893/Review-Hard-Marching-on-Christmas-Day

FHN, vol. XIII, no. 4 (52), 2.
“The new process of cooking”
Robert Beecham’s 1862 Birthday Meal

FHN, vol. XIV, no. 1 (53), 2, 7.
“A perfect nutriment for heroes!”
Apples and North American Soldiers, 1757-1918
http://www.scribd.com/doc/169286285/%E2%80%9C-A-perfect-nutriment-for-heroes-
Apples-and-North-American-Soldiers-1757-1918

FHN, vol. XIV, no. 2 (54), 2.
“The oficers are Drunk and Dancing on the table …”
U.S Soldiers and Alcoholic Beverages

FHN, vol. XIV, no. 3 (55), 2.
“The repast was in the English fashion …”
Washington’s Campaign for Refined Dining in the War for Independence

FHN, vol. XIV, no. 4 (56), 2-3.
“We'll eat as we ne'er ate before …”
The Immutable Army Bean
Part I.
“The proof of the pudding is in the eating.”: U.S. Army Baked Bean How-to and Recipe

FHN, vol. XV, no. 1 (57), 2, 9-10.
“We'll eat as we ne'er ate before …”
The Immutable Army Bean
Part II. Eating Beans, 1775 to 1945

FHN, vol. XV, no. 2 (58), 2, 7.
“We'll eat as we ne'er ate before …”
The Immutable Army Bean
Part III. Beans in Song and Verse
FHN, vol. XV, no. 3 (59), 2, 8.
“Indolence is the mother of invention.”
Private Post’s 1898 Culinary Campaign
https://www.scribd.com/doc/266597944/Indolence-is-the-mother-of-invention-Private-Post-s-1898-
Culinary-Campaign

FHN, vol. XV, no. 4 (60), 2, 9-10.
"Give us Our Bread Day by Day."
Continental Army Bread, Bakers, and Ovens
Part I.
“Waste and bad management …”
68
Regulating Baking
http://www.scribd.com/doc/125174710/Give-us-day-by-day-our-daily-bread-Continental-
Army-Bread-Ovens-and-Bakers

FHN, vol. XVI, no. 1 (61), 2, 9-10.
"Give us Our Bread Day by Day."
Continental Army Bread, Bakers, and Ovens
Part II.
“A bake-house was built in eleven days …”
Contemporary Baking Operations and Army Masonry Ovens
http://www.scribd.com/doc/125174710/Give-us-day-by-day-our-daily-bread-Continental-
Army-Bread-Ovens-and-Bakers

FHN, vol. XVI, no. 3 (63), 2, 8-9.
"Give us Our Bread Day by Day."
Continental Army Bread, Bakers, and Ovens
Part III.
“Seeing that the Ovens may be done right …”
Bake Oven Designs
http://www.scribd.com/doc/125174710/Give-us-day-by-day-our-daily-bread-Continental-
Army-Bread-Ovens-and-Bakers

FHN, vol. XVI, no. 4 (64), 2.
"Give us Our Bread Day by Day."
Continental Army Bread, Bakers, and Ovens
Part IV.
“The mask is being raised!!”
Denouement: Early-War Iron Ovens, and a Yorktown Campaign Bakery
http://www.scribd.com/doc/125174710/Give-us-day-by-day-our-daily-bread-Continental-
Army-Bread-Ovens-and-Bakers

(See above for issue 65 column, Christopher Ludwick: Reprise )

FHN, vol. XVII, no. 2 (66), 2, 8.
“Invited to dine with Genl Wayne; an excellent dinner …”
Revolutionary Commanders’ Culinary Equipage in Camp and on Campaign
(Part 1)
“Plates, once tin but now Iron …”
General Washington’s Mess Equipment

FHN, vol. XVII, no. 3 (67), 2, 8.
“Invited to dine with Genl Wayne; an excellent dinner …”
Revolutionary Commanders’ Culinary Equipage in Camp and on Campaign
(Part 2)
“40 Dozens Lemons, in a Box”
69
British Generals’ Provisions and Mess Equipage

FHN, vol. XVII, no. 4 (68),2.
“Invited to dine with Genl Wayne; an excellent dinner …”
Revolutionary Commanders’ Culinary Equipage in Camp and on Campaign
(Part 3)
“A Major General & family”
Nathanael Greene’s Food Ware

FHN, vol. XVIII, no. 1 (69), 2-3.
“Invited to dine with Genl Wayne; an excellent dinner …”
Revolutionary Commanders’ Culinary Equipage in Camp and on Campaign
(Part 4)
“My poor cook is almost always sick …”
General Riedesel Goes to America

FHN, vol. XVIII, no. 2 (70), 2.
“Sufficient for the army for fifteen days …”
Continental Army Frozen Rations

FHN, vol. XVIII, no. 3 (71), 2, 9.
Condensed Milk, “Corned Willie,” and K Rations
Canned Foods for American Troops
Part I
“Manufactories sprung up everywhere …”
Early Use of Tinned Goods, and Their Proliferation During the American Civil War
(Column No. 43)

FHN, vol. XVIII, no. 3 (72), 2, 5.
Condensed Milk, “Corned Willie,” and K Rations
Canned Foods for American Troops
Part II
“Pat and I ate a can of salmon and some hard tack.”2
The Incorporation of Canned Foods into U.S. Army Rations
(Column No. 44)

FHN, vol. XVIV, no. 1 (73), 2, 5.
Condensed Milk, “Corned Willie,” and K Rations
Canned Foods for American Troops
Part III
“We hated them until we ran out and started to starve.”
U.S. Military Tinned Field Rations, 1940 to 1981
(Column No. 45)

70
FHN, vol. XVIV, no. 2 (74), 2, 5.
"The manner of messing and living together"
Continental Army Mess Groups
(Column No. 46)
http://www.scribd.com/doc/129368664/To-the-hungry-soul-every-bitter-thing-is-sweet-
Soldiers-Food-and-Cooking-in-the-War-for-Independence

FHN, vol. XVIV, no. 3 (75), 2, 9.
“On with Kittle, to make some hasty Pudding …”
How a "Continental Devil" Broke His Fast
(Column No. 47)
http://www.scribd.com/doc/129368664/To-the-hungry-soul-every-bitter-thing-is-sweet-
Soldiers-Food-and-Cooking-in-the-War-for-Independence

FHN, vol. XVIV, no. 4 (76)), 2, 9.
"A hard game"
Cooks in the Continental Army
(Column No. 48)
http://www.scribd.com/doc/129368664/To-the-hungry-soul-every-bitter-thing-is-sweet-
Soldiers-Food-and-Cooking-in-the-War-for-Independence

FHN, vol. XX, no. 1 (77)), 2, 7, 10.
"We had our cooking utensils ... to carry in our hands."
Light-Weight Military Kettles, 1775-1782
Included in the endnotes:
“Tin Kettles, 1759-1771”
“British and German Kettles”
“Kettle Capacity and Weight, and Excavated Artifacts, Circa 1750-1815”
(Column No. 49)
http://www.scribd.com/doc/180835470/To-subsist-an-Army-well-Soldiers-Cooking-
Equipment-Provisions-and-Food-Preparation-During-the-American-War-for-
Independence

FHN, vol. XX, no. 2 (78)), 2, 4-5.
"They were made of cast iron and consequently heavy."
Eating Utensils and Less Commonly Used Cooking Implements, 1775-1783
(Column No. 50)
http://www.scribd.com/doc/180835470/To-subsist-an-Army-well-Soldiers-Cooking-
Equipment-Provisions-and-Food-Preparation-During-the-American-War-for-
Independence

71
FHN, vol. XX, no. 3 (79)), 2, 9, 12.
“A capital dish …"
Revolutionary Soldiers and Chocolate
(Column No. 51)
http://www.scribd.com/doc/131353233/%E2%80%9CA-capital-dish-%E2%80%A6-
Revolutionary-Soldiers-and-Chocolate
http://tinyurl.com/ce22e6t

(Final Issue, 2010)
FHN, vol. XX, no. 4 (79), 2-3.
"A better repast"
Continental Army Field and Company Officers’ Fare
(Column No. 52)
____________________

"Give us day by day our daily bread."
Continental Army Bread, Ovens, and Bakers
http://www.scribd.com/doc/125174710/Give-us-day-by-day-our-daily-bread-Continental-
Army-Bread-Ovens-and-Bakers
Compiled and updated for:
“Their best wheaten bread, pies, and puddings…,”
An Historic Baking Symposium,
Fort Lee Historic Park, N.J., 28 August 2010
(Hosted by Deborah's Pantry)
Contents

“Waste and bad management …”
Regulating Baking

"Hard enough to break the teeth of a rat."
Biscuit in the Armies of the Revolution

“A bake–house was built in eleven days …”
Contemporary Baking Operations and Army Masonry Ovens

“Seeing that the Ovens may be done right …”
Bake Oven Designs

“The mask is being raised!!”
Early–War Iron Ovens, and a Yorktown Campaign Bakery
“Hands are most wanted to bake bread for the Soldiers …"
The Superintendent's Bakers

"The essential service he rendered to the army ..."
Christopher Ludwick, Superintendent of Bakers

72
Addendum: Hard Biscuit Recipes

"’The essential service he rendered to the army ...’: Christopher Ludwick, Superintendent
of Bakers,” http://www.scribd.com/doc/125310836/The-essential-service-he-rendered-to-
the-army-Christopher-Ludwick-Superintendent-of-Bakers

Jeff Pavlik, "Summary of Reproducing the 18th Century English Sea Biscuit"
http://www.scribd.com/doc/238489016/Jeff-Pavlik-Summary-of-Reproducing-the-18th-
Century-English-Sea-Biscuit

Brother Jonathan’s Images
(List 17 of 17)
http://www.scribd.com/doc/236989726/Articles-List-Brother-Jonathan-s-Images
https://www.academia.edu/16583533/Brother_Jonathan_s_Images

Brother Jonathan’s Images (Relaunch introduction, July 2012)
http://www.scribd.com/doc/175344617/Brother-Jonathan-Image-series-Introduction-July-
2012
Brother Jonathan’s Images, No. 1. (Gregory J. W. Urwin)
Colonel Henry Beekman Livingston, 4th New York Regiment
Artist: Charles Willson Peale
Year: Circa 1778-1780
Collection: Smithsonian
http://www.scribd.com/doc/175414586/Brother-Jonathan-No-1-Colonel-Henry-Beekman-
Livingston-7-22-2012
Brother Jonathan’s Images, No. 2. (Gregory J. W. Urwin)
Captain John Gassaway, 2nd Maryland Regiment
Artist: Charles Willson Peale
Year: Circa 1781-83
Collection: Smithsonian
http://www.scribd.com/doc/175419675/Brother-Jonathan-No-2-Captain-John-Gassaway-7-
22-2012
Brother Jonathan’s Images, No. 3. (Matthew C. White)
Captain Charles W. Peale, 2d Battalion Philadelphia City Associators
Artist: Charles Willson Peale
Year: Circa 1777-78
Collection: American Philosophical Society
http://www.scribd.com/doc/175423051/Brother-Jonathan-No-3-Charles-Willson-Peale-7-
22-2012

73
Brother Jonathan’s Images, No. 4
(Contributor: Stephan P. Zacharias)
Lt. Col. James Innes, Williamsburg Volunteers and 15th Virginia Regiment
Artist: Charles Wilson Peale
Year: 1774 -1777
Collection: Virginia Historical Society
http://www.scribd.com/doc/175454391/Brother-Jonathan-No-4-Col-James-Innes

Brother Jonathan’s Images, No. 5.
Brigadier General Otho Holland Williams
Artist: Charles Willson Peale
Year: 1786
Collection: Private
http://www.scribd.com/doc/175454771/Brother-Jonathan-No-5-Brigadier-General-Otho-
Holland-Williams

Brother Jonathan’s Images, No. 6.
Lt. Colonel Richard Cary (Neal Hurst)
Artist: Charles Willson Peale
Year: 1776
Collection: Private
http://www.scribd.com/doc/175455267/Brother-Jonathan-No-6-Lt-Colonel-Richard-Cary

(Brother Jonathan’s Images, No. 7)
Major Joseph Bloomfield, 3d New Jersey Regiment (John U. Rees)
Artist: Charles Willson Peale
Year: 1777
Collection: Private
(Including “The Blues offered again to fight …”: Contemporary Use of the Term “Jersey Blues”)
http://www.scribd.com/doc/179477933/Brother-Jonathan%E2%80%99s-Images-No-7-
Major-Joseph-Bloomfield-3d-New-Jersey-Regiment-Artist-Charles-Willson-Peale-Year-
1777-Collection-Privatel

(Brother Jonathan’s Images, No. 8) (Gregory J. W. Urwin, with John U. Rees)
Captain Samuel Blodget, Jr., 2d New Hampshire Regiment or New Hampshire Militia
Artist: John Trumbull
Year: circa 1786
Collection: Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Richmond.
http://www.scribd.com/doc/240639514/Brother-Jonathan-s-Images-No-8-Captain-Samuel-
Blodget-Jr-2d-New-Hampshire-Regiment-or-New-Hampshire-Militia

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Brother Jonathan’s Images, No. 9
Virginia Rifleman (John U. Rees)
Artist: Richard St George Mansergh St George, 52d Regiment of Foot, 1777
Year: 1777
Collection: Harlan Crow Library, Dallas, Texas (purchased from the estate of Arthur E.
Bye, Bucks County, Pennsylvania)
Contents
1. Background
2. Virginia Rifleman, 1777
3. “Chosen Men Selected from the Army at large …”: Rifle-Armed
Companies, Battalions, and Regiments, 1775-1779.
Appendices
A. “A Quantity of Tow Cloth, for the Purpose of making of Indian or Hunting
Shirts …”: Proper Terminology: Hunting shirt, Rifle Shirt, Rifle Frock …
B. Letter by Jesse Lukens, describing Pennsylvania riflemen and service at the siege of Boston, 1775.
C. Capt. William Dansey, 33d Regiment, describes two encounters with rifle troops.
D. Morgan’s Rifle Corps: Selected Documents Not Included in the Narrative
E. “We returned them a very brisk fire …”: A Rifleman’s View of Two Campaigns
F. “He was in that noted Battel in the Bukwheat field with Morgan …”
Riflemen’s Pension Service Narratives, 1775-1779
G. The Rebels (Sung to the tune, Black Joak), originally published in the Pennsylvania Ledger, 1778
https://www.scribd.com/doc/245356391/Brother-Jonathan-s-Images-No-9-St-George-s-
Virginia-Rifleman-Artist-Richard-St-George-Mansergh-St-George-52d-Regiment-of-Foot-
1777-Collection

Brother Jonathan’s Images, No. 10
Verger’s Rifleman (John U. Rees)
Artist: Jean-Baptiste-Antoine de Verger, Sublieutenant, Royal Deux-Ponts Regiment.
Year: 1781
Collection: Anne S.K. Brown Military Collection, Brown University.
Contents
1. Background
2. Virginia Rifleman, 1781
3. “Joined Gen’l. [Daniel] Morgan … about 36 hours … before the Battle at the
Cowpens”: Riflemen in the Carolina Campaigns, 1780-1781 (sources)
4. “My riflemen, their faces smeared with charcoal, make the woods resound
with their yells …”: The Marquis de Lafayette’s 1781 Summer Virginia Campaign
5. “The American riflemen insulted the outposts, whilst a body of continentals
advanced …”: British Accounts of the Green Spring Action
6. “My brave boys give them one more fire …”: Riflemen Pension Narratives, 1781 Virginia Campaign
https://www.scribd.com/doc/293382911/Brother-Jonathan-s-Images-No-10-Verger-s-
Virginia-Rifleman-1781

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(Above and below) 4th Connecticut Regiment, Valley Forge

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Grenadiers of Virginia, Yorktown Campaign, 1781

Dunlap’s Partisan Corps, 1777

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Dunlap’s Partisan Corps, 1777

Commander-in-Chief’s Guard, Williamsburg, Virginia
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Private soldier, Lt. Charles Willson Peale’s company, 2d Battalion, Philadelphia Associators, January
1777
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Peale’s Company, 2d Battalion Philadelphia Associators, Princeton Battlefield

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More images from “With Peale to Princeton”
https://www.facebook.com/john.u.rees/media_set?set=a.10205283481149549.1073741830.132288856
7&type=3

“Trenton to Princeton March Route and Schedule”
https://www.scribd.com/doc/251085624/Trenton-to-Princeton-March-Route-and-
Schedule?secret_password=ylNxQE0my27enMtx14oT

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4th Connecticut Regiment, 1778-1779

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