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Hook-up drawing for Pressure/Differential pressure measurement instruments
Hook-up drawing for Flow measurement instruments
Hook-up drawing for Temperature measurement instruments
Hook-up drawing for Level measurement instruments
Hook-up drawing for Instrument Air supply
Instrument Installation or Hook-up
Hook-up drawing for Instrument Air supply
Impulse Pipe and Tube
What is Instrument hook-up drawing?
Instrument hook-up drawing gives the detail of the connection from the tapping
point in the process line up to the sensing instrument.
So, while Piping and Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID) shows the instruments that
are to be connected to a process line, the Instrument Hook-up gives detail
information about how that is to be done during actual installation.
Why do we need Instrument Hook-up drawing?
- To make measurements accurate and reliable
- To make measurement systems safe
- To be used at site for correct instrument erection & installation
Type of instrument
Bill of Material
Scope of work
Tapping orientation
Introduction: How does a typical hook-up drawing look like?
Impulse line Sensing instrument/transmitter with
valve manifolds
Figure: Typical Instrument Hook-up Drawing for a Pressure Transmitter
Input documents required for making Instrument Hook-up drawings:
Contract Requirement and Project Design Criteria
Piping and Instrument Diagrams (P&ID)
Instrument List (with Instrument Datasheet)
Piping Material Classification (PMC) or Piping Material Specification (PMS)
Instrument Rack grouping, elevation of tapping and rack
Control Valve List (for Instrument Air)
Tank and Heat Exchanger GA drawings
Output documents from Hook-up drawing:
Bill of Material (erection and installation)
Introduction: Engineering Process & Interface
Support drawings along with Hook-up drawing:
Pipe Support drawing
Piping Isometric Drawing
General check-points:
Check Instrument Installation material specification with Boiler/Turbine group for maintaining uniformity across plant.
Instrument/Rack location and drain connections to be informed to related departments for proper end connections.
Elevation of rack provides enough scope for requisite slope for instrument mounting.
Cross-check the connections of materials at interface points.
Hook-up drawing for Pressure/Differential pressure measurement instruments
a) Tapping points - Preferred angle of tapping point in horizontal line:
Gas service: within 45 degree around vertical centre-line
Steam service: within 45 degree around horizontal centre-line
Liquid service: within 45 degree of horizontal centre-line in lower half, preferred horizontal because taps
below the centre-line can accumulate solids, while taps above the centre-line can accumulate air or
non-condensing gases.
For differential pressure measurement, both tapping points should be at same elevation.
b) Root valve
- Root (isolation or block) valves are required to separate the entire measurement system fromthe main
pipeline when necessary, but they should not affect the pressure signal.
For gas service
For steam service
For liquid service
- Root valves are to be located as close as possible to tap connections.
- Root valves shall be designed for maximum design pressure and temperature of the piping system
- For process pressure greater than 40 bar(g) (or as specified in contract), two nos. of root valves to be used.
c) Preferred Location of measuring instrument (secondary) with respect to process tapping (primary)
Gas service - secondary above primary
Liquid service- secondary below primary
Root valves
For gas service, secondary above primary
For liquid service, secondary above primary
Lesson learnt (Root valve): To provide accessibility, Root valves were brought to floor level
which caused a potential safety issue (high steam application) and slope issues which could
lead to inaccurate measurement. The valve was moved near to tapping point.
d) Impulse tube/pipe and fittings
The required diameter of the impulse line depends on the service conditions. Internal diameter of tube/pipe should be adequate to allow
gas bubbles to flow up and out of a liquid system, and to allow liquid drops to flow down (ISO 2186:2007 does not allow diameter less
than 6mm, prefers 10mm and specifies a maximum of 25mm).
It is always recommended that the shortest possible impulse-line lengths be used. The diameter is given as per the length for the
impulse as per the service in ISO 2186:2007, Table A.1
Material of Impulse line should be as per service, process conditions.
Wall thickness of impulse line to be as per ANSI B31.1 for a given temperature and pressure rating.
Fitting material should conform to ANSI B16.11 and should match with the impulse line material (for e.g. SS fittings for SS tubing). An
exception to this is brass fittings with copper tubing. Different materials could cause Galvanic corrosion due to different electrode
potentials of dissimilar metals.
Hook-up drawing for Pressure/Differential pressure measurement instruments
potentials of dissimilar metals.
For gas application: slope from process line to measuring instrument to be upwards with gradient of minimum 8% for self-draining
(otherwise low-point drain to be provided)
For steam: slope for impulse line to be downwards from tapping point to measuring instrument, with gradient of minimum 8% for self-
venting of non-condensing gases (otherwise high-point vent to be provided)
For liquid: downwards slope of minimum 8%(otherwise high-point vent to be provided)
Lesson learnt: In case of tube fittings, compression fittings (double ferrule type) for pressure greater than 40 bar (g) caused
leakage. To correct, welded fittings were used for all high pressure application.
a) Instrument Isolation Valve and Valve manifolds: Valves/valve manifolds are installed to permit operation, calibration and
troubleshooting of the secondary device (measuring instrument) without removing it. An assembly of two, three, or more valves, often
in one package, used to facilitate calibration and maintenance is called valve manifold. These valves are used to:
Isolate the secondary device fromthe impulse lines
Open a path between the high and low pressure sides of the secondary device. The secondary device zero (no flow signal) can be
adjusted at operating pressure with one block valve closed and the bypass valve(s) open
Drain or vent the secondary device and/or the impulse piping to the drain or to atmosphere.
2-valve manifold: One valve connects the process to secondary instrument, another valve allows testing, venting and calibration (when
the first valve is closed).
3-valve manifold: Two block valves provide instrument isolation, and one equalize valve is positioned between the high and low
Hook-up drawing for Pressure/Differential pressure measurement instruments
3-valve manifold: Two block valves provide instrument isolation, and one equalize valve is positioned between the high and low
transmitter process connections. Equalizing valve provides a means to check for 0 PSI differential pressure when both Isolation
valves are closed and only equalizing valve is left open. Such valves are used for d/p type measurement.
5-valve manifold: Two block valves provide instrument isolation and one equalize valve is positioned between the high and low transmitter
process connections. In addition, two drain/vent valves allow for venting/draining, and in-process calibration capability.
2-valve manifold 3-valve manifold 5-valve manifold
b) Remote Seal:
This arrangement of an Remote Isolating diaphragm at the tapping point and a
capillary tube containing a fill-fluid which combine to transfer the pressure from
the process to the measuring instrument without allowing the process fluid to
come directly in contact with the secondary instrument is called Remote Seal.
This is employed when,
There is a need to protect transmitter sensor fromharsh process fluid
Process fluid is viscous or might get frozen in the impulse tube because of
temperature fall
Process fluid might clog the impulse line with contaminants
Process fluid is to be prevented from getting contaminated (as in food
processing systems)
Hook-up drawing for Pressure/Differential pressure measurement instruments
processing systems)
c) Condensate Pots (Seal Pots or Reservoirs):
To measure the pressure of high-temperature steam without damaging the
pressure transmitter sensor, Condensate Pot is used which has a small volume
of liquid which creates a barrier for steam which prevents it fromreaching the
sensing element.
Pigtail Siphon: It is a loop of tube which serves the same purpose as the condensate
pot. The condensed steam will accumulate and create a barrier for steam.
Condensate pot
In situations where the flow measurement is done by measuring differential pressure, all sections of Differential Pressure measurement are to
be followed.
Magnetic flow meter:
The magnetic flow meter must be electrically grounded to the process liquid. This is because the magnetic meter is part of the path for any stray
current traveling down the pipeline or through the process liquid. Bonding, by grounding the meter at both ends to the process fluid, provides a
short circuit for stray currents, routing them around the flow-tube instead of through it. If the system is not properly grounded, these currents can
Flow measurement
(on the basis of installation type)
By measuring differential-pressure
(e.g. Orifice, nozzle)
By In-line Mechanical or Electrical flow meters
(e.g. Positive Displacement meter, Ultrasonic
Hook-up drawing for Flow measurement instruments
short circuit for stray currents, routing them around the flow-tube instead of through it. If the system is not properly grounded, these currents can
create a zero shift in the magnetic flow meter output.
Grounding when pipe is conductive
Grounding when pipe is non-conductive
Typical hook-up drawing for Positive Displacement type flow meter
Hook-up drawing for Temperature measurement instruments
Connection type of the thermo-well: flanged, weld, threaded etc should be indicated as per the instrument selected.
Thermo-well drawing to be reviewed with respect to Isometric drawing to avoid thermowell diameter mismatch.
ASME PTC 19.3 2010 does not recommend velocity collar as a rigid support for the purposes of shortening the unsupported length.
Typical hook-up drawing for Test Well (Flange type) with Velocity collar Typical hook-up drawing for Test Well (Threadolet type)
In case of Level measurement by D/P method, all the points of Differential Pressure measurement apply as it is.
In DP type Level Measurement for avoiding density variation in one Leg Wet leg Calibration is performed
Root valve and impulse pipe shall have a minimum of 1 (DN 25 mm) diameter
From Tank tapping point to stand pipe and further from stand pipe tapping to instrument
Impulse routing shall be always straight with minimum bends.
For Displacer type Level transmitter, side-side and side-bottom criteria should be checked with instrument selected.
For Tanks Level Gage, center-to-center (C-C) distance should be checked with application requirement.
For a Tank multiple Level Gauges can be used with overlapping C-C length.
For Ultrasonic and Radar Type Level Transmitters Signal transmission angle to be checked of nozzle.
Hook-up drawing for Level measurement instruments
Typical installation method for Level transmitters/gauge. We
can see the side-bottom configuration of the transmitter.
Also, can be seen are multiple level gauges with overlapping
C-C length.
GL: Gauge length
SL: Sigh length (Visible length)
ME: Center-to-center (C-C) distance
Hook-up drawing for Ultrasonic method for
level measurement
Hook-up drawing for Instrument Air supply
This hook-up contains the connection from the instrument air source to the instrument requiring the air for its working.
Air line tube material (Copper/SS), size and thickness to be considered as per requirement
Typical hook-up drawing for Instrument Air supply to Modulating Type Control Valve
Connector: tube fitting designed to
connect tube to pipe.
Union: tube fitting designed to connect
tube to tube. If union joins tubes of
different sizes, it is called reducing
union. To connect two pipes, Coupling
is used.
Bulkhead fittings: Connectors and
Pipe and Tube, both are hollow structures designed to
provide an enclosed pathway for fluids to flow.
Essential difference is that both are manufactured with
different standards.
Pipes are thick-walled, tubes are thin-walled.
Tube is never threaded (like a pipe) and a tube fitting is a
must to join ends.
Tube is specified by OD (Outer diameter) and wall
Impulse Pipe and Tube
Bulkhead fittings: Connectors and
fittings designed to fit through holes
drilled in panels or enclosures.
Similar to Connectors and Union
except long length of central barrel
piece and a nut to lock the piece
into the place.
Elbow: Fittings with a bend
Tee fittings: Fittings that
are used to join three fluid
Pipe is denoted by NB (Nominal bore) or NPS (Nominal
Pipe Size) [both in inches] or DN (translated to Nominal
Diameter) [in mm] and Schedule (wall thickness). NB, NPS
or NB are equivalent in their meaning, but different in
dimensions used.
NPS (or DN or NB) are closely related to internal diameter
but are not exactly same as the internal diameter.
For a given NPS, OD gets fixed. As the Schedule changes
the wall thickness increases (thereby changing the Internal
Impulse Pipe and Tube: Connection types
Considering hook-up, pipes are connected to another pipe or a component by:
Socket weld
Threaded connection
Flanged connection
Tubes are connected to other tubes or a component by:
Socket weld
Compression fittings
Tubes are too weak to support threads or flanges.
The left end is Socket end in which a tube
is inserted and welded at the joint. The
right end is threaded for Pipe connection
as it is a male connector.
Flanged connection
Compression fitting with double ferrule
Thank You