Simplified Methods on

BUILDING· CONSTRUCTION
MAX 8. FA.JAAOQ JR.
B. S. Architecture, National University 1961; Passed the
. Boord Exam for Architects 1961; Former Deon College of
Architecture and   University of North Eastern
Pl)ilippines; Architect, . Public ';tNorks Province of Comorines
Sur; Practising Architect and Contractor; Author and
Usher of S'implified Construction
Philippines Copyright
1983
by
MAX B. FAJARDO, JR.
All Rights Reserved
Every copy of this book must bear the genuine signature of
the author. Copies not having the signature will be deemed to
hove emanated from on illegal source.
FOREWORD
Experienced builders agree t hat Building Construct ion is con-
sidered os the most challenging, complicoted and articulate work
in the field of construction. To discuss the subject matter embra-
cing t he whole aspect b_uilding construction from the laying
out up fo the lost touch of the finished work requires· several vol-
umes.
The author in this f irst volume presents the rudimentary
knowledge os well os the technie:a/ aspect and   of
building construction.
The book was designed to present the technical trade in-
-formation in a short, concise, direct and plain language ac-
companied with illustrations os o visual aid to the reader. Use-
ful tables, conversion foetor and formulae from the English to
the Metric System (Sil, various permit forms, problems and so-
lutions were also incorporated.
Hand tools, power tools and equipment including their res-
pective uses and functions in t he construction were also pre- .
sented because the author considered those to be the first one
a builder should be familiar wi th before any other thing in the
construction. The book could be of great help to Architecture
and Engineering students as well as trade school students, car-
penters and laymen who ·have interest in the field of construction.
·For the first.vqlume, the author wishes to express his grate-
ful acknowledgement to the. valuable research and contribu-
tions. of PepinN. Fajardo, and also to the constructive
of Supervisor Jhonny Blonquera who first read the preliminary
. manuscript. The author likewise expresses his indebtedness and
gratitude to the persons here unnamed wro in one way or ano-
ther hove contributed to the full realization of this book.
M. B. F.
}•
TAILE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER I TOOLS
1·1
1-2
1-3
1-4
l -5
1-6 ..
1-7
l-8
1-9
1-lO
I -ll
1-12
1- 13
1- 14
1- 15
Measuring i ools . . . .•.. •. . . .. . .. .. •. . • ... ..
Marking Tools • .• . . •... .. . •.• . ..• . . .. . .. .
Testing and Guiding Tools • ... .••. .. •..• •.• •
Fastening Too I 5 . ••• • •.. •• • • •.. • • • • • •• ••• •• •
Rough Foc:ing Tools . . .. . . ....• . ..... . ....
Toothed Cutting Tool!> . . ... .. . . .• .. . . .•• .. ..
Sharp-Edged Tools .. . . . . .. . . . .... .
Smoot h Facing Tools . . ...... . : . ... .. ..... . .
Boring or Drill ing Tools ... .. . . .. .... . . .. . . .
Holding Tools ... .•. . . .. . . . . ... . . . . .. . .. ..
Sharpening Tools . . . . . .. .. ... . . . . . .. ..... .
Work Bench .. .. .. . .. .. ...•• •. .. . ...•...
Roughing Up Tools .. . . .. .. . . .. : . . . . ... . . .
Surface Finishing Toofs .. . .. . .. \ .... . ... . . .
Miscel laneous Masonry Tools . . . . . . ...... .
CHAPTER 2 WO 0 0
Page
2
5
6
12
·13
14
19
22
26
29
31
32
33
35
37
2-1 Introduction ... .... .. ... ......... ,,. .. . .. .,,. ,. :.... . . 42
2-2 Definition of Terms .... ...- .,)••··-"' . . ... . . ..... ., .• , . .._. 42
2-3 Classification of Wood .i . . . r • • • ' ·'.., •• • • • , ,.,..,. _ 43
2-4 Preparation of Wood . . . .. .. ·" . . ..• . . . ... .. , , __ , , 44
2-5 Defects in Wood .• .... ., ••. , . .• , ... .. .... ... .. , 45
4!-6 Seasoning of Wood . .. .. •.... .... • .. . .... . .,,... 46
2-7 Causes of Decay and Methods of..F!JeServotrtm. --:':'J 47
Measuring of Wood . •.. .. , . ... . ... .... ..... . ,. . 49
2-9 English to Metric Measure o.f' ·     ,_ .. . _. • .;.• . . 51
CHAPTER 3 LA.YOUT AND EXCAVATIONS.
3-l
3-2
3-3
3-4
J ... s
3-6
3-7
3-8
3-9.
3-10
Defini t ion . . . •... . ....• • ... •. . •... .. . . . .. ..
Lay'out Methods c;md Procedures .. .. ... ... .. .
Minor ExcCtvation ... . , . • ... ..... •. . . .. .. . . ..
Major Excava t ion .. . ... . . . . . . . . . : ......... .
Sheeting and Braci ng Shallow Excavat ion .. .
Sheeting and Bracing ·of Deep Excavation . • .
Sheet Piles ..... . ..... . ..... .. ... . ..... . .
Excavat ion in Sond .. . .... , . . ......... . . .. .
Excavation in Clay · . . . . ... . . . •.. . . .. ... ...
Filling· ... . . .. .. . .. .. . . . . .. • ; ... . . . . ..... .
·53
53
57
59
61
63
65
67
68
69
CHAPTER 4 C 0 N C R E T E
4-1
4-2
4-3
4-4
4-5
4-6
4-7
4-8
4-9
4-10
4-11
4-12
Concrete ........ , ............... , , ...... ..
Cement ........................... ...... .
Aggregate ...............•................
Water ......................... , . ~ ........ .
Types of Concrete ond Their Weight ....•..•..
Mixing of Concrete .............•..........
Segregation ............................•..
Requirement for Good Quality Concrete ..... .
Curing ............................. , . , .. .
Admixture .............................. .
Concrete Proportion and Water Cement Ratio ..
Tests ................. · ...................... ..
CHAPTER 5 METAL REINFORCEMENT
5-1
5-2
5-3
5-4
5-5
5-6
5-7
5-8
5-9
5-10
5- J 1
S-12
Steel Reinforcement .........••......•... , .
Steel Bars ·from English to Metric Measure ....
Prestressed Steel •..•••••.•.•••........•..••
Welded Wire Fabric ..................••...
Identification of Steet Bars ................. .
Bar Cut Off and Bend ·Points ..•.............
Bar Splicing ................•....•... ; ... .
Bar Spacing ........•....... .' ............. .
Concrete Protection for Reinforcement ....... .
Bundle of Bars ....• ; ..•.•.....•............
Control of Crocks ......................... .
Metal Reinforcement Specifications . . . . . ..
CHAPTER 6 F 0 U N D AT I 0 N
6-l
6-2
6·3
6-4
6-5
6-6
6-7
  ~ 8
6-9
6-10
6-ll
6·12
6·13
Brief History ••••••••••••••••••. ! ......... .
Wall Footing ...•........•..•..•...... , ... .
Isolated or Independent Footing ......•.....
Combined Footing ..••..•....•.............
Continuous Footing ..•.......•...•........•
Raft or Mat Footing ......•........•.......
Piile Foundation ........•..••............•.
Piles •••••••...••..••.•••...•. • ............. .
The Important Functions or Uses of P i l e ~ ... .
Quality and Durability of Piles .•..... , ..... .
Timber Piles .....................•.......
Deterioration of Wood Piles .............•..
Protection of Timber Piles .................. ·
7J
71
71
72
72
73
76
76
77
78
78
82
86
87
90
91
91
93
94
94
95
97
98
98
100
102
102
106
107
107.
109
109
110
112
113
114
114
6-14
6-15
6-16
6-17
6-18
6-19
6-20
6-21
6-22
6-23
6-24
6-25
Pile Dr.ivi ng .................. .. .... .... .
Con.rete and Pipe Piles ...... · .... ........... .
Precast Concrete Piles ............ -. -.- ... .
Deterioration of Concrete Piles .... · .... ..... .
Metal' Pile ....••.... - .. ,. .. : . •.... . . . . . ...
Driving Equipment· •..........••••... : . ... .
Pile Spacing .............. ........ ........ .
Driving of Piles Through on Obstruction ... .
Causes of Pile Deflection in Driving
Settlement of Foundation ............. . .. . .
Failure of Pile Foundation ................. .
Grillage Footing •.•............. · .......... .
CHAPTER 7 SOIL TEST
115
118
119
119
120
120
124
124
125
125
126
l27
7-1 Auger Boring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . f 28
7-2 Wosh Boring . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . 128
7-3 Hollow Stem Auger Boring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
7-4 Rotary Drilling ........•....•..••... : . . ; . . 129
7-5 Percussion Drilling • . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
7-6 Penetrometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
7J7 Dutch Cone Penetration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
7-8 Vone Shear Test ..... :. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
7-9 Standard Load Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
CHAPTER 8 POST AND COLUMN
8-1 Definition . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . • . . • . . . . . . . . . . . 13'-4
8-2 Wooden Post . . . . • • • . • . . . • • • • • . . • . . • . . . • • . 134
8-3 . Rein'forced Concrete Column . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
8-4 Tied Column . . . . • • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
8-5 Spiral Column . . . • . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
8-6 Composite ·cotumn . • . . . ... • . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
8-7 Combined .Column . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
8'-8 Lally Column .. . . .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. . . . l 61
CHAPTER· 9 PLATFORM- FLOOR STRUCTURE
9-1 Wood Floor System • . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . • . . • . . . 162
9-2 Beam ...••. .. ....... ..•• ..•••..... .. : . . . 165
9-3 Relation Between the Materials and Structure . . 16.7
9-4 Behavior of Beam Under the Influence of Load . l69
9-5 Reinforcement of Concrete Beam . . . . . . . . • . 170
9-6 The Compression and Tension m a Beam . . • . 171
9-7 Spacing of Reinforcing Bars in Seam ...   • . • . 173
9-8
9-9
9-10
9-11
9-12
9-13
9- 14
9-15
9-16
9-17
Splicing Hooks and Bends .. .. .. .•• .- •••• •..
Steel Bors Cut Off 'ond -Bend Point ......• • ..
Beams Reinforced- for Compression •. ••• .• ..
Web Reinforcement ....... . .• . ...... .... .
Tor&ion in Reinforced Concrete Member •.•• . •
T-Beam Design & limitation , • • . ••.•• . ... . .
Other Causes of Beam Failure ...•.•....•..
Concrete Slob .. ....•.•••••.••• . .
Ribbed Flood Slab . ...... ............... .. ·
The AC I on Concrete Joist Floor Construction .
CHAPTER 10 · STEEL FRAMING
10-1
10-2
10-3
10-4
l0-5
l0-6
10-7
10-8
 
10-10
10-1 1
10- 12
10- 13.
Introduction . . .. . . . ..... . . . ..•••••.... . ..
Structural Shapes . . ....•. • .... . • . .•• .•. ...
Structural Steel ... . ....... . .. . .. . ........ .
High Strength Steel ....... .. . ..•.... . .. .. .
Rivets and Bolts . . . . . . . . . . . .••.•.... . .. ..
Riveting Procedures . . ... ... . ....•.••..... .
Conditions for Punching and Drilling •.. : ... .
Bolts . ...... .. . ...... ..... ,. .. .•• _ • : ... ... .
Connect ion of Structural Members .... . . ... .
Plate Girders . .. .. ... . ..... . .. ... ..... . .. .
Web Plates and· Intermediate Stiffeners ..... .
Roof Trusses ........ . ............... . . .. .
Welded Connections .•...... .. .•.... .. .... .
CHAPTER 1.1
TIMBER ROOF FRAMING
174
175
176
177
177
178
178
179
186
189
190
191
195
195
196
196
197
200
200
206
207
211
212
11-1 Introduction . • . . . . . . . . • • . . . . • • . • • • • . . • . . 215
11 .. 2 Types of Roof .. .. . .. .. . .. .. • . . • • .. .. .. . .. 216
11- 3 Types of Roof Frame . . ....• ... , . . • . . . . . . . . . 220
11 -4 Timber Framing Fasteners . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
11-5 lntf!rmediate Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
11-6 End Joints ·• . . . • . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
1 1-7 Splicing . . • . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . • . . . • . . . . . . . . . 233
11-8 Glued Laminated Lumber . . . . . . . . • • . . . . . . . . 235
CHAPTER 12 'ROOF AND ROOFING MATERIALS
12- l Roofing Materials . . . . . . .. .. . . • .. .. .. • .. .. 242
12-2 Galvanized iron Sheets ... . . . - .............. 243
12-3 Corrugated G.J. Roofing Fasteners·......... . 246
t 2-4 Advantages and Disadvantages of G. I. Rivets . . 247
12-5 Advantages and Oisadvcntagess of G. I. Nails . : 247
12-6
12-7
12-8
12-9
12-lO
12-1 1
Technical Specifications .•. . .•.....•....• . ..
Plain G.l. Sheet ...••......................
. Flat, Standing Seom and Botten_ Roofing ..... .
Slope of RooF • . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... .
Cloy Tile Roofing ... . .... ... ....... .. ... . .
Asbestos ond Color. Bond Roofing . .. .... .... .
CHAPTER 13
STAIRS
248
249
252
. . 252
255
256
13-1 Introduction ...•.•••.............•...... · . 259
13-2 Definitions . . . . • . . • • • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
13-3 Laying Out of Stairs ...................... · . 263
13-4 laying Out the Stringer . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
13-5 Type of Stringers . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
13-6 Handrail and Balusters . .. .. .. . . .. . . .. .. . .. 266
13-7 Reinforced Concrete Stairways . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
CHAPTER 14
PRECAST AND PRESTRESSED CONSTRUCTION
14-1

14-3
14-4
14-5
14-6
l4-7
14-8
14-9
14-10
14-11
14-12
14-13
·Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Types of Precast Structure ....... . ......... .
Roof and Floor Members ....... ..... · . . . .. •..
Precast Beams •.••••••••• • .•.. .. .•. .. .•.•
Precast Column ................... .. .•...
Prestressed Concrele .................... .
Prestressing of Concrete ........ ... ... .. ... .
Concrete for Prestressing ... ............. . .
Shope of Prestressed Structure ... . ......... .
Metal Rein:orcement .. .... .............. .
Grout for Bonded Tendons ...... .. ... ..... .
Measurement of Force .. .. . . ... .
Post Tensioning Anchorage . .... . .......... .
CHAPTER 15 FORM, SCAFFOLDING AND STAGING
269
269
270
271
272
272
273
275
275
, 280
282
283
283
15- J Form . . . • • . . • . . • . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . • . . 284
1-5-2 Construction ,f forms ...•.......... ,' ,.:. . . 285
  Erection ond Securing of Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
15-4 Wall Forms ...•••..................... ·. . . . 288
15·5 Greasing of Forms . . • • . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
15-6 Comparative Analysis Between tke T&G ond
Plywood as Form . . • . . . • • • • • . • . . . . • . . . . . . 289
15-7 Scaffolding and Staging .. • .. • .. .. . . . . . .. . .. 290
15-8 Staging for Reinforced Concrete Beam and
Floor Slob • . . . • • . • • . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
15-9 Conduits and Pipes Embedded in Concrete 294
CHAPTER 16
HOISTiNG EQUIPMENT and POWER TOOLS
16- 1 Hoi st • . . . • • . . . . • . . . . . . . • • . . . • . . . . . . • . . . . • 297
16-2 Definitions . . • . • . . . . . . . . • . . . . • • . . . • • . . . . . . 297
16-3 Knotting and H1tching . . .. .. . . .. . . . . . . .. 298
16-4 Pulleys .....•. . ..... . ...•....... . .... .. .. 304
16-5 Circular Sow . . ........... . ... , . . . . . . . . . . . . · 306
16-6 Radial Arm Sow . . . • . • . . • • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 0
16-7 Portable Electric Sow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
16-8 Portable Electric Drill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 11
16-9 Drill Press · . . • . . . . . . • . . • . . . . . • . • . . • • . . . . . . 31 2
16- 1 0 Portable Electric Saber Saw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 13
16-1 1 Band Saw • • • • • . • . • • • • • . . . • . • . • . . . . • • . . . • 3 1 4
16-12 Single Surface Planer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 7
16- 13 Portable Sanders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317
16- 1-4 Porta ble ·Hand Router . . . . . • . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . 318
16-15 Wood Lathe •. ..••..•• . , • • . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 319
16-16 Truck Mounted Crane . •..• • ........ , . . , . . . 320
16-17 Tpwer Crone . . • . . . • . . • • • • . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
APPENDICES ... .•... . .....•.•...... , . . . . . . . . . . 322
CHAPTER 1
TOOLS
INTRODUCTION
Tools had been regarded as a partner of man·s quest for
progress and survival from the early stone age down to the pre-
sent generation. The mechanical advantages, accuracy, speed
and efficiency derived from the use of the right tool s and equip-
ment, has prompted man to continuously search for the refine-
ment of old tools aside from the invention and introduction
of new ones that would provide greater efficiency and refinement
of work.
Comparatively, it could be seen from the structures and works
, of past builders, the quality. refinement of texture and the time
involved in their construction to be far behind the wor ks of the
present generation. These could be mainly attributed to the kind
of tools and or power tools that are being used by the present
contemporary builders
Experienced builder agrees, that the efficiency of the work
in building construction could be augmented by 25 percent or
more with the use of the right kind of tools aside from the im-
proved quality of the work performed.
By hiring an experienced worker who has a complete set of
tools however high his demand for pay is more advantageous and
cheaper than hiring a beginner with a lower rate but without the.
necessary tools for a particular job. The former although demand-
ing a higher pay can accomplish w   r ~ with better qu-ality in a
5hort time than the latter whose work r isks repair and delay not to
mention the extra cost involved.
The efficiency and quality of the work particularly in build-
ing construction depends upon three factors:
1. Avai labi I ity and sufficiency of materials.
2. Experience and skill of the workers in their respective
field.
3. Complete set of tools and equipment of good quality
and standard make.
The different kinds of construction tools may be classified
according to the different kinds of trade involved:
1. Carpentry Tools
4. Painters Tools ·
2. Masonry Tools
5. Plumbing Tools
3. Tinsmithing Tools
6. Electrical Tools
A- CARPENTRY TOOLS
Carpentry tools are classified according to their functions:
1. · Measuring Tools 7. Sharp-edged Cutting Tools
2. Marking Tools 8. Smooth Facing Tools
3. Testing and Guiding Tools 9. Boring or Drilling Tools
4. Fastening Tools 10. Holding Tools
5. Rough Facing Tools 11. Sharpening Tools
6. Toothed Cutting Tools 12. Work Bench
1- 1 MEASURING TOOLS
The early developed measuring tools used in constructions
were of various types provided with English-measure graduated
scale into 8th. and 16th of an inch. The forerunner in making ·
these kinds of warranted tools are the Stanley and the Lufki ns
Rule Co.
The increasing popularity and worldwide acceptance of the
Metric measure has prompted these companies and others to
adopt and incorporate the meter and centimeter rules in all the
measuring tools that they are manufacturing. The recent measu-
ri ng tools appear to contain the inches on one edge and the
centimeters on the opposite side of either the zig-zag or push·
pull tape. ·
Consequently, the worldwide adoption of the Metric System
otherwise known as the System International (SI). manufacturers
of all kinds of tools has to change the scale and graduation ot
measuring tools from English to Metric measure. However, al-
though the Engl·ish measuring tools are already obsolete, they
are still presented in this topic for historical background. How
the present tools developed the correlat ion between the English
and the Metr ic measure, their equivalent values, how they served
the past generation and how they used the instrumen-ts which
could be of help to the educational background and advance-
ment of the present crop of builders.
The di fferent kind,s of measuring tools that are being used
in building construction otherwise known as "Rules" are;
2

1. The two foot four f olding rule
2. The Extension Rule
3. Zig-zag Rule
4. Push-Pull tape rule
5. Slide Caliper rule
6. Marking Gauges
The two foot four folding rule - is generally used in measuring
short distances. It is usually made up of four folds connected by
three hinges spaced at 6 inc;hes or 15 em apart which could be
folded-up. '
Figure l-1
Extention Rule - Is used for measuring inside distances such
  ~ doors, windows, cabinets etc.
Figure 1- 2
Zig-zag rule - Is availabe in (4 ft.) 1.20m and (6 ft.) 1.80 m
commonly used by carpenters for rough layout. There are three
types of joints available:
1. Concealed
2. Riveted
3. Springless
Push-Pull Tape rule - Is used to measure long distances;
available from 1.00 m to 50 meters tong.
Slide Caliper rule
cylindrical objects.
tio-zoo rule
Figure 1-3
Is used to measure outside diameter of
SLIDE CALIPER IIULE
Figure 1-4
Marking Gauges- Is used to make lines parallel to the edges.
Figure 1 - 5
4
.
The two foot four folding rule could be used as a protractor
using the values on table 1-1.
TABLE 1-1 ANGLES AND OPENINGS
OiL Ang. Dis. Ang. Dis. Ano, Dis. An g. Dis. Ang. Dis. Ang.
in. 0 in. 0 in. 0 in. 0 in 0 in. 0
.21
,
3.34 16 6.41 31 9.38 46 12.18 61 14.78 76
.42 2 3.55 17 6.62 32 9.57 47 12.36 62 14.94 77
.63 3 3.75 18 6.82 33 9.76 48 12.54 63 15.11 76
.84 4 3.96 19 7.02 34 9.95 49 12.72 64 15.27 79
1.05 5 4.17 20 7.22 35 10. 14 50 12.90 65 15.43 80
1.26 6 4.37 21 7.42 36 10.33 51 13.07 66 15.59 81
1.47 7 4.58 22 7.61 37 10.52 52 13.25 67 15.75 82
1.67 8 4.78 23 7.81 38 10.71 53 13.42 68 15.90 83
1.88 9 4.99 24 8.01 39 10.90 54 13.59 69 16.06 84
2.09 10 5.19 25 8.20 40 11.08 55 13.77 70 16.21 85
2.30 11 5.40 26 8.40 41 11.27 56 13.94 71 16.37 86
2.51 12 5.60 27 8.60 42 11.45 57 14.1 1 72 16.52' 87
2.72 13 5.81 28 8.80 43 11.64 58 14.28 73 16.67 88
2.92 14 6.01 29 8.99 44 11.82 59 14.44 74 16.82 89
3.13 15 6.21 30 9.18 45 12.00 60 14.61 75 16.97 90
1-2 MARKING TOOLS
Marking tools are classified according to the kind of work it
is to perform:
1. Chalk or charcoal line- is used for marking a very rough
work.
2. Round pencil lead- used for marking rough work.
3. Scratch awl - i s used in mark ing a semi-rough work.
4. Scriber - is used in marking fine work. It is hardened
steel with a sharp point designed to mark fine line.
5. Compass- is used to inscribe arcs or circle.
6. Divider - is used in dividing distances into equal parts' ·
particularly an arc or circumference.
5
SCRA"fCH AWL
         
CHALK OR CHARCOAL LINE
COMPASS
Figure 1-6
1-3 TESTING AND GUIDING TOOLS
Good carpentry work demands i n measurement and
a well fitted joint or parts together. This could be done with the
various guiding tools for a precise and quality work.
The different kinds of testing and guiding tools are:
1. Level- is used for both guiding and testing the work to
a vertical or ht>rizontal position.
2. Plastic Hose with water - is the best and accurate tool for
guiding the work in establishing a horizontal level.
Figure .. 1-7
3. Plumb Bob - is used to check or obtain a vertical line.
The word plumb means perpendicular to a horizontal plane.
6.
PL.UM8 808
Figure 1·8
4. Miter Box - is a device used as a guide of the hand saw in
cutting object to form a miter joint.
Figure 1·9
5. Miter shooting board - is a pl ai n board with two 45°
guide fastened on top of the upper board. This device is used for
designing patterns, cabinets. etc.
'
Figure 1-10 ·
7
8
6. Sliding r ~   e v e l - is like a try square with a slidina and
adjustable blade that could be set to any angle other than 90
SLIDING T- BEVEL
Figure 1·11
. ·TABLE 1·2 TABLE OF ANGLES
Polygon Angle Tongue Blade
No. of Sides Degrees ln. em. ln. em.
3 30 12 30.5 20718 53.0
5
54 12 30.5 8 25/32 22.3
6 60 12 30.5 6 15/16 17.6
7 64.3 12 30.5 5 25/32 14.6
8 67.5 12 30.5 4 31/32 12.6
9 70 12 30.5 43/8 11.1
10 72 12 30.5 3718 9.8
Table 1 - 2 is useful in laying out the included angles of a
given polygon.
7. Angle Divider- is a double bevel used to divide an angle
a complicated work. This tool could divide an angle in one
/
... ~
L-_J
SQUARE
/ /,.
'
COMBINED TRY AND
ANGLE OlVlOER
MITER SQUARE
Figure 1-12
8. Square - is called a "Trying Square". Square is a· right
angl e standard at 90 degrees us.ed in marking or testing work.
The different types of square are:
a) Try Square - is a square with blades that ranges from
(3" to 15") 7.6 to 38 em.
b) Miter Square - is a square wit h bl ades permanently set .
at 45 degrees.
c) Combined Try and Miter Square .- is a combination of
45 and 90 degrees in one set.
d) Combination Square ..:.. is similar to a try square only
that the head can be made to slide and clamp at any
desi red place of the blade and is also provided with a
miter and a level guide.
9
e) Framing or Steel Square - so called as it is used effec-
tively on framing work.
FRAMING OR STEEL SQUARE
Figure l -13
Parts of a framing square:
Body- the l onger and wider part
Tongue- the shorter and the narrower part
Face - the side visible when the square is held by the
tongue in the right hand, the body pointing to the left.
Back - the side ~ i s i   l e when the square is held by the tongue
with the left hand, the body pointing to the r ight.
10
..,._ u:n
HAND
TONGUE.
Figure 1-14
TAf?LE 1-3 TABLE OF ANGLE FORM BY THE SQUARE
(inches)
Angles: Tongue: Body: Angle: Tongue: Body: Angle: Tongue: Body:
.35 20.00 16 5.51 19.23 31 10.28 17. 14
2 .70 19.99 17 5.85 19. 13 32 10.60 16.96
3 1.05 19.97 18 6. 18 19.02 33 10.89 16.77
4 1.40 19.95 19 6.51 18.91 34 11 .18 16.58
5 1.74 19.92 20 6.84 18.79 35 11.47 16.38
6 2.09 19.89 21 7.17 18.69 36 11.76 16. 18
7 2.44 19.85 22 7.49 18.54 37 12.04 14.98
8 2.78 19.81 23 7.80 18.40 38 12.31 15.76
9 3.13 19.75 24 8.13 18.27 39 12.59 15.54
10 3.47 19.70 25 8.45 18. 13 40 12.81 15.32
11 3.82 19.63 26 8.77 17.98 41 13. 12 15.09
12 4.16 19.56 27 9.08 17.82 42 13.38 1<1.89
13 4.50 19.49 28 9.39 17.66 43 13.64 14.14
14 4.84 19.41 29 9.70 17.49 44 13.89 14.39
15 5. 18 19.32 30 10.00 17.32 45 14. 14 14. 14
l1
1- 4 FASTENING TOOLS
Fastening tools are the tools used to faster or secure parts of
the construction that are to be connected together with nails,
screws, bolts, etc.
The different types of fastening tools are:
1. Claw hammer - a hand tool made of steel carefully forged,
hardened and tempered. Its sizes varies from 140 to 560 grams.
a. A 400- 450 grams is recommended for finishing work.
b. A 450-560 grams is recommended for framing work.
C r v ~   l Claw Plolf\ N t   ~
Figure 1·15
2. Wrenches- a hand tool with a handle and a jaw which
may be fitted to the head of a nut used to tighten or loosen bolts.
The three general classes of wrenches are:
a. Plain
b. Socket
c. Adjustable
Figure 1-16
12
3. Screw driver- a hand tool with a head and a shank used
for turning screw·, classified either as:
a. Plai11
b. Automatjc ·
It may also be classified according to the shape of the tip of
. the shank, such as:
a. Ordinary
b. Phillips
PLAIN SCAE 'W DRIVER
SCRt:'W DRIVER
YMH<E£ SCREW DRIVER
Figurel-17
1- 5 ROUGH FACING TOOLS or STRIKING TOOLS
Rough facing tools are the so called "Striking Tools" because
they are used through a series of blows. They are also called "iner·
tia tools", or "Rough facing tools" because the cut produced were
rough.
The differe'nt kinds of rough facing tools are:
1. Hatchet - is generally a1utility tool used for sharpening
stakes and cutting down timber to rough sizes.
SI11HGLIHG CLAW
BUREL
Figure 1-18
13
2. Axe - a tool used for splitting wood or hewing  
Ol!tfFITH Ail-E
Figure 1·19
3. Adze- roughly, an adze is a hatchet in whi ch the blade is
at right angle with the handle.
CAftP(W'ttft.'S ADZE.
c .. t to lO 6&\4 1a em
$ .. If'
Cllt &0 to Ut••
Figure 1-20
1 ·6 TOOTHED CUTTING TOOLS
In carpentry work, the toothed cutting tools is of utmost
importance considering its versatility and service demand.
14
There are several types of thi s kind of tools:
1. Saws - The most important of this k i nd of tools
are classified according to:
a) Kind of cut:
1. Cross cut
2. Rip cut
3. Combined rip and cross cut
Figure 1-21
.b) Shape of the blades:
1. Straight back
2. Narrowed
STIIAieNT t•c;• Jtrl' s•w
THIN BACK f\tfl SAW
Figure 1-22
3. Thin back
4. Skew back
15
16
c) according to its u,se:
· 1. Cabinet
2. Joiner
·3. Miter
4. Stair
5. Floor
FLOOR
t<EY HOLE
JOINER OR BENCH
MITER
Figure 1-23
6. Buck or wood
7. Compass
8. Key hole
9. Coping
10. Hack
B U"CI< OR WOOD
HAC I<
COPING SAW
COMPASS
Figure 1-24
17
2. Files - a metal tool of different shapes and sizes used for
abrading, reducing or smooth cutting metal, wood or other mate-
rials. ·
HOM£NCI.ATUIU! Otr rii.E
SINGLE CUT OOUIH.E CUT RASP VUCEN
OtFft£1tl:ltT TYPE OF fiLES

-

0
CaOSS SECTtOit Of' flLU
Figure 1-25
18
1 - 7 SHARP-EDGED CUTTING TOOLS
A- Chisel ....: is an indispensable tool in carpentry which is also
considered as the most abused tool oftenly used for prying, can
opener, open cases or as   driver etc.
Chisels are classified according to:
1. Service:
a) Paring Chisel - a light duty tool used to plane
· long surfaces parallel with the grain of wood. Paring
chisel should not be driven by blows but only mani-
pulated by means of hand pressure.
b) Firming Chisel - for medium duty work
usually ddven by hand pressure in paring or by the use
of blow i n mort ising work
c) Framing Chisel - a heavy duty tool designed to
absorb a severe strain in framing work where deep cut
is necessary.
PARi llO Clll$£ L
'It AlliiN Gl CHIS£ L
Figure 1-26
19
2. Lengt h:
kZ  
a) Butt
g
 
b)
pocket
kZ
 
c) Mill
CHI SEL ACCORDIN8 TO LENGTH
20
3. Side of Blade:
a. p!ain
Figure 1-27
. b. Bevel
BEVE L
Figure 1-28
 
:J
]
4. Handle Attachment:
a. ·Tang
TAit
Figure 1-29
5. Shape of Blade:
b. Socket"
a) Flat . b) Round (gouge)
c) L (corner)
•oue1 011 IIOUND
L ott COIIIIIR
Figure 1·30
Chisels may also be   according to its blade with un-
natural width. ' Those chisels with blades wider than (2 in.) 5 em
is called "Slick" . .
B. Draw Knife- is used in trimming work by drawing towards
the worker.
Figure 1·31
21
1 - 8 SMOOTH FACING TOOLS
Smooth facing tools are sometimes regarded as "guided sharp
edge cutting tools". These tool s are actually chisels with frames to
guide and l im it the cut and make it smooth.
'The different kinds of smooth facing tools are:
L Spoke Shave - a modified k ind of draw knife with an
adjustabl e blade like a pl ane to limit the thickness of the cut.
' 22
SINGLE- SCREW RAISED
HANDLES
CHAIR MAKER'S WOOOEII $P0k£ SHAVE
DOUBLE SCIIEW
HAIIOLES
CQNCAVE CUTTER
CHAIH Ell CUTTER
Figure   ~ 3 2
, ,· -......
' '
1
'
2. Plane -- is used in smoothing boards or other surfaces for
framing and moulding. is also used to make wood surfaces
into uniform thickness.
Planes are classified according to its size and services:
1. Jack plane- for heavy rough work.
2. Fore plane- for smoothing and straightening the rough
or irregular cut of the jack plane.
3. Trying plane-is used to obtain the smoothest finish.
4. Jointer--:- a trying plane is a simple small jointer.
5. Smooth plane- a small plane used for smoothing un-
even surfaces in wood even those with minor depressions.
£
[
SYOOT M I' LAM£ .IIlJa . 30•.
FORt PLAII£ .411.,.
TIIYIMG PLANE .511 to . 80111.
e
JOIIITER I'LAIIE .TOto .1'11!ft.
Figure 1·33
23
J.&.CK PL.AME
SINGLE PI.AHit
........ .• -
l
,' ' ' ,., '•' '' ::--:: .;._ ·_-:.=
' ' ' - .:.= -:.
. --.-··
-,::---....   ,• .. ,.:;:.:_' -
TCiOTHI!D PLAIIIE
Figure 1·34
24
6. Moulding and Special Planes - are planes used in
making various shapes of moulding and cuts. The different
types of moulding planes are:
a) Rabbet or Rebate Plane - used for making a sinking
cut on wood to make them fit t o each other.
b) Fillester Plane - similar in use as the rabbet plane
but is more preferable because it cuts more accurately than
the former.
c) Groovi ng Plane - used in cutting across the wood
grain.
d) Router - used to surface the bottom of the grooves.
e) Round and hollow moulding plane- used to produce
a concave or convex surface.
IIA18E T
CO VI!
QUAil T !R ROUMO
MOULDINC. ANO SPECIAL I"LANf
Figure 1-35
25
1- 9 BORING OR DRILLING TOOLS
26
These tools are special ly designed to make hole in wood.
The different types of dr iII ing t-ool s are:
1. Brad awls- A small tool used for punching or piercing
small holes. It is generall y used in starting a nail or screw into
hardwood. •
Figure 1·36
2. Gimlets - Tool s used for boring small holes by hand
pressure classified as:
a) Twist b) Plain
TWIIt
I' LAI M
IIIII Lf.TI
Figure 1-37
3. Augers- is used for boring holes with a diameter from
liz" to 2" inches or 12.7 mm to 25 mm. Augers that are pro·
vided with a shank are commonly called "bits"
Tli£Ao· SlUt I CUTTU DOUet I CIIHlll If£ AD $1111' HEAD OOUILI! TREAt>
1\NGLt CUTTER Sln<.E CI.ITTEII
No If• er Kt•"
(a) Single cutter. extension lip, coarse screw, for general all around
boring; rapid, dean cutting tnd .. sy boring adopted in boring wet,
green, hard or knotty wood and boring with the grain.
(b} Double cutter, extension lip, fine screw, npcommended for fur·
nltures and cabiMt work or wherever a smooth hole is essential.
(t) Ship h .. d with single cutter and coarse screw, Absence of lip is
recommended for deep boring or in wood with strong grain.
(d) Ship hNd single cutter without screw or lip is recommended
for deep borln9 In wet pitchy woods. The absence of strew has less
to follow or drift with the   in of the wood.
Figure 1·38
4. Twist Drills- used for drilling small holes. Twist drills
are preferably used in cases where the gimlets or the auger may
cause splitting of the wood grain. These tools has lesser ten-
dency to split the wood grain because they are not provided
with a cutting lip.
l)II.ILL

Figure 1-39
27
5. Hollow Augers- "!sed for external boring or turning.
  .---1;zr----,1
c     AUU. I liT
Figure 1-40
6·. Spoke Pointers - cuts conical holes. It is similar to the
auger only that the cutter is lengthwise.
7. Counter - used for enlarging a conical hole at
the surface of wood.
8. Reamers- usually a reamer is used chiefly by machinist
in enlarging metal holes. It is al so used in carpentry work for
enlarging holes on wood when made too small for the screw
or its head.
OCTAIOUI. TYPl jt«A*II
.. -- ·- .
1'0111 ,OIPITU
D
; .,)
...
4
-
"
sc••• *"''
CO!IITII ....
Figure 1·41
These tools are u5ually provided with a sha.nk instead of a
handle, hence, a brace is indispensable.
28
PLAIN liT IIUef.
Figure 1-42
1-10 HOLDING TOOLS
.. .
Holding tools is vital and important in accompl ishing f ine car-
pentry work. In many stages of construction the need for holding
the materials in place rigidly is necessary.
Holding tools may be classif ied according to its 5ervice: ·
1. Supporting - Carpentry wor.k such as chiselling planing
and the like, needs support to amply sustain the operation. The
Hor5e or Trestle is the r ight tool for the purpose.
Figure 1·43
2. Retaining- Under this category, there are several kinds of
holding tools considered as rigid and strong enough in tightly pres-
sing the materials together.
29
a) Clamps - is effective in tightly pressing pieces of
wood together in making tenon, mortise and other joints. Clamps
may be classi fi ed into:
1. Single Screw Jaw
4. Miter
2. Double Screw 5. Beam
3. Chain
  A .
. r · ''.·., .. / , ''t
·, '·. // . >
/,·"'
1
·•
IAOM J AW CLAM'
MITAI! CLAMP
, .. -.
I . . I


OHP TllAOAT C- CLAMP SO UAit[ C- CL AIIIP
ST EiL IAR CLAN,
Figure 1-44
b) Vises - A tool used t o hold a piece of material
rigidly secured in place to absorb severe blows. The available types
of vises are:
30 .
1. Screw 3. Parall el Jaw
2. Quick acting screw 4. Swivel Bottom
5. Self-adjusting jaw
Vllt:S
Figure 1-45
1-11 SHARPENING TOOLS
Experienced carpenters realize the importance.of sharpening
tools in carpentry operat ion. Sharp tools assure the worker in ac-
complishing a quality work and is faster than using dull tools.
The different kinds of sharpening tools are:
1. Grind Stone - a flat disc solid stone usually of sand-
stone mounted on a shaft used f.or sharpening, shaping or
polishing metal by turning. ·
2. Oil Stone- Used after the grinding operation to achieve
a sm.ooth and keen edge of the tools. Oil is used as a lubricafing
medium and that is why they are called oil stone. Oil stone are
of two types:
a. Natural - found in their natural state
b. Artificial -are ordinary abrasives such as carburan-
dum alundum and emery.
Figure 1   4 : ~
• .•
31
1-12 WORK BENCH
Work bench is also an important tool in carpentry operation
considering the var'ious tools attached to it. Work bench is con-
sidered as a shop tool and is needed for the different kinds of on-
site or off-site preparation of wood parts in all construction
projects.
.·:,;·-.; ..
Figure 1-47
B - MASONRY TOOLS
Masonry. is the art of shaping, forming, arranging, laying and
uniting stone, bricks, building blocks, plastering etc. to form walls
and other parts of the building.
Masonry tools are so designed to accompl i sh many types of
masonry work. Masonry tools also include some of the carpentry
tools previously mentioned particularly the measuring tools, the
testing and guiding tools. Masons also use other kinds of special
tools aside from. the previously enumerated tools adopted to the
kind of work involved ..
32
1-13 ROUGHING UP TOOLS
Roughing up is the process of preparing the surface and parts
of masonry work. It involves the rough work of dressing, and pre·
paration of the different phases of masonry work. Tools for this
type are mostly striking tools and those that also need a striking
medium.
1. Mason's Axe or Hammtr- Is also known as Ax-Hammer
used in two different ways. The axe to serve as a chisel and the
hammer for driving nails and other rough work in masonry.
2. Brick Hammer- 1$ another type of combination hammer
which is used for dressing and cutting bricks, stone or concrete
and other driving operations.
3. Patent Hammer - Is a hammer wherein the head is com-
posed of a group ofth in chisels used for dressing stone or concrete.
4. Crandall- A tool with sharp pointed steel spikes used for
dressing stone or concrete.
5. Cross Peen Hammer- Is a cross head hammer where one is
shaped I ike a wedge used for various striking need in masonry work.
6. Cold Chisel- Is a common tool for carpentry, and masonry
work used for dressing or cutting stone, concrete, metal and other
materials with the aid of hammer.
7. Star Drill - Used for boring or drilling holes on hard sur-
face such as rock, stone or concrete.
8. Bolster- A tool similar in appearance with the cold chisel
including its services but has a wide blade edge. It is· also known
as blocking chisel.
9. Wrecking Bar - a very useful tool made of steel bar used in
demolition work and in pulling- off large nails.
STEEL MALLEl
  ~ I C I< HAMME R
CRAN DALL
HATCHET
COLD CHISEL
STAR DRILL
CROSS PEEN HAMMER
MASONS HAMMER
SHOVEL
Figure 1-48
1-14 SUAFACE FINISHING TOOLS
Tools of this classification are categorized 'into:
1. Floats- flat tools with a handle at the back usually made
of wood. Kinds of float:
a. Common float- used for smoothing or for producing
textured surfaces on cement or plaster.
· b. Bull float - a tool used to smooth freshly placed
concrete. ·
c. Devil or Nail float- a tool.used to roughen the surface·
of plaster to provide a key for the next coat.
d. Carpet float - used in plastering to produce a fine- ·
grained texture in sand finishes.
e. Angle float- used for finishing corners and for pfaster:.
ing.
b   ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - *
Figure l-49.
35
2. Trowels- flat hand tools used for applying, spreading and ·
shaping plaster or mortar to produce a relatively smooth finish on
concrete surfaces in the final stages of finishing. The kind of
trowels are:
a. Ordinary trowel- similar in appearance as the ordinary
float but with a steel blade.
b. Pointing trowel - a trowel used in pointing or remov·
lng and laying mortar In masonry joints .
. c. Brick trowel - a trowel with an offset blade used to
pick up or spl'ead mortar.
d. Buttering trowel - a small trowel used to spread
mortar on bricks and tiles before it is laid.
e. Edger a finishing trowel used on the edges offresh
    or plaster to form a rounded corner.
f. Margin trowel - its sides has a box-l ike appearance
especially used for working corner angles.
MARGIN TIIOWlL
POIN'fiN8 TROWEL FINISHING TROWEL
aUT TEtiUIC$
36
1 -15 MISCELLANEOUS MASONRY TOOLS
There is so much duplicity in the functions of masonry tools.
There are also tools which can easily be fabricated by a prolific
mason. Tools of this kind are those simple tools but are considered
worthy of notice since they accomplish an important task in
making the rigorous work involved in masonry simpler.
1. Spade - a basic construction tool used in many of the
dirty work in the concrete mix or plaster.
2. G. I. pail- in the absence of a chute or a buggy, it is used
as vessel in handling especially lntransferringconcrete mix, mortar
or plaster from the mixing board.
3. Mixing board- usually made of wood or concrete used for
mixing' concrete in the absence of a concrete mixer. This is usually
fabricated on-site.
. ..
4. Mason's box - a shallow box, made of wood, used to
contain mortar or plaster to make it easily accessible to the mason.
5. Measuring box - a box, made of board or plywood with
handle, used for measuring sand, gravel etc. prior to mixing. This
tool is also fabricated.
6. Rubber foam - used to obtain a fine-grained texture in
plastering.
7. Painter's brush - its use in masonry work is similar to the
foam.
8. Plastic or nylon string- used for marking and guiding the
block laying, tile laying. etc. to produce a uniform and straight
course.
9. Aligning stick - various names can be attributed to this
tool which is simply a straight piece of lumber, more or less L50
m. long used in plastering and concreting the pavement to assure
alignment or a straight surface. . ·
37
C. PLUMBING TOOLS
~ ~ ·   . .
m ~ ~ ~ i . ; i r
,,:. : '-'---' ..
"\... ' .. ··--··- ······
PIP€ CUTTER
STILLSON WRENCH
YOI(I VIII£
Figur e 1 - !> ll
38
D. PAINTERS TOOLS
-uti ns ,
NAIL SET
HOOK SCRAPER WALL PUTTY PUTTY PLATE
SCRAPER KNif'E
CORNER ROLLER TRIM ROLLER
CUTTINO ·IN ROLLER
E OG1NG ROLLER
__ _.._ -- - - .
-- _.,,_ .......
r f '  
  .'   ,: , ; r !., It '
PAINT SPRAYER
WIRE &RUSHES
Figure 1 52
39
E. ELECTRICAL TOOLS
.---... ··-
(O) Simpl< bcod fo<ll'lllr.
l
l/>) Small hand   e n d • ~ maohont.
Pipe·bPnding muchines.
Figure 1-53
.40
F .. TINSMITHING TOOLS
C>IANNf.L ·LOCK PLII!II$
SOLO£fUK8 ROO
IUI/£T(II tOT10111 O I O L O   ~ '
Figure 1-54
.1,
CHAPTER 2
WOOD
2.- 1 INTRODUCTIOI\.I
Wood is that fibrous substances which compose the trunk and
branches of the tree that lies between the pith and the bark.
Wood is the most common of the building materials.
The versatility of using wood in the construction has lifted it
to its present importance in the field of construction. Small houses
and even palatial homes used wood from its structure down to the
finishing and articulate carvings.
Even with the introduction and acceptance of new methods
and materials in construction, wood is evidently much in use. Con-
crete buildings used wood from the very start of its erection. Like-
wise, steel c.onstruction also use wood. Wood because of its
strength, light in weight, durability and ease of fastening has
become one of the most important bui ldi ng materi als.
Many Scientists and Engineers are engaged in the study and
research for the development of new methods of full utilization
of wood. New processes are being developed to reduce if not to
el i minate waste in the manufacturing of wood.
2-2 DEFrNITION OF TERMS:
1. Lumber = Is the term appl ied to wood after it is sawed or
sliced into boards, planks, timber etc.
2. Rough Lumber = Is the term applied to unplaned or un-
dressed lumber.
3. Surfaced o_r Dressed Lumber = Is a planed lumber having at
least one smooth side.
4. S2s; S4s   Are planed or dressed lumber of which the
number connotes the number of smooth sides; such as S2s is
· smooth on two sides.
5. Slab = Is a kind of rough lumber which is cut tangent to
the annual rings, running the full length ofthe fog and containing·
at feast one flat surface.
-------·-·· ---
42
6. Timber = Is a piece of lumber five inches or 13 em. or larger
in its smallest dimension.
7. Plank= Is a wide piece of lumber from 4 to 13 em. thick.
8. Board = Is a piece of lumber less than Hz" or 4 em. thick
and at least 4 inches or 10 em. wide.
9. Flitch= Is a thick piece of lumber.
10. Fine Grained= When the annual rings are small, the grain
or marking which separates adjacent rings is said to be fine grained;
when large, it is called Coarse Grained.
11. Straight Grained = When the direction of the fibers are
nearly parallel with the sides and edges of the board, it is said to
be straight grained. When the lumber is taken from a crooked tree,
it is said to be crooked or cross·grained.
2-3 CLASSIFICATION OF WOOD:
Wood used in building construction are those wood which
grow larger by addition of layer on the outer surface each year
known to botanist as OXOGENS.
Wood are classified according to:
1. Mode of Growth:
a. Exogeneous = Are those outward growing trees which
are most preferred for lumbering.
b. Endogeneous = Are those inside growing trees and
are not preferred for lumbering because they produced a soft
center core.
2. Density= Density is either:
a. Soft
b. Hard
3. Leaves : The leaves of a tree is either:
a. Needle shape {conifers)
b. Broad shape
43
4. Shade or Color:
a. White
b. Yellow
c. Red
d. Brown
e. Black, etc.
5. Grain:
a. Straight
b. Cross
c. Fine
d. Coarse
6. Nature of the surface when sawed:
a. Plain
b. Grained
c. Figured or marked
.,:···;·
CROOKED GRAIN CROSS Ga.Anf STRAIGHr GRAIN
Cross Section of a Tree
Figure 2-1
2-4 PREPARATION OF WOOD
Lumbering is the term applied to the operations performed in
preparing wood for commercial purposes. It involves logging which
is the process or operation of felling or cutting of trees including
ib hauling and delivery to the sawmill for sawing.
Sawing on the otherhand, is the operation of preparing or cut-
ting the logs into its.commercial sizes.
The methods and manner of log ~ w i n   are:
1. Plain or 811Stard Sawing: Is the cutting of the logs entire!.
through the diameter and parallel chords tangential to the annuc
rings.
2. Quarter or Rift Sawing
a. Radial
b. Tangential
c. Quarter Tangential
d. Combined Radial and Tangential
COMa!He!P 1\.\0\M.
TlMUtl'ftA\.
Figure 2·2
2-5 DEFECTS IN WOOD
Defects· are irregularities found in wood. The most common
defects in wood are:
1. Caused by Abnormal Growth
a. Heart Shakes = Are radial cracks originating at the
heart of the logs.
45
b. Wind Shakes or Cup Shakes = Are cracks or breaks
across the annual rings of timber during its growth
caused by excessive bending of the t ree due to wind.
c. Star Shakes = Composed of several heart shakes w-hich
radiate from the center of the log in a star-like
manner.
d. Knots = Occurs at the starting point of a limb or branch
of the wood.
2. Due to Deterioration:
a. Dry Rot = Is the presence of moisture caused by fungi
in seasoned wood.
b. Wet Rot = Takes place sometimes in the growth of the
tree caused by water saturation.
Figure 2-3
2 - 6 SEASONING OF LUMBER
Trees when fallen contains moisture i n their cell layer. These
moisture should be expelled thoroughly to preserve the .lumber
from shrinkage or decay. Experiments have proven that timber 'im·
mersed in water immediately after being fallen and squared is less
subject to splitting and decay. It reduces warping but'makes the
wood brittle and less elastic. Soaking timber into liquid is the
' method of seasoning practiced by the ancient Roman builders.
Sometimes wood are steeped in oil of cedar t o protect it from
worm attack.
...
Salt water makes wood harder, heavier and durable. However.
wood intended for use in buildings has the tendency to attract
moisture from the air.
The Two methods adopted in seasoning of lumber are:
1. Natural or Air Seasoning= This is considered as one of the
best method of seasoning lumber although the period involved is
relatively longer. The processes are:
'
a. Lumber is piled outside where its length are sloped at
about 10 em. to the meter height. ·
b. Lumber is piled in a well.ventilated shed. Each piece
is properly and evenly spaced from each other for free
circulation of air around the lumber. ,
2. Artificial Seasoning = The lumber is stacked in a drying
kiln and then exposed to steam and hot air. Artifidal seasor.ing i.:;
resorted for quick drying but wood from this process is quite
inferior than that seasoned by the natural method. The different
artificial seasoning methods employed are: ·
a. Forced Air Drying = Fans are 'used to booster the cir·
culation of air preparatory process to kiln drying.
b. Kiln Drying= Lumber is dried in a specially built room
or chamber by which temperature and humidity as
well as the circulation of air is controlled.
c. Radio Frequency Dmlectric Drying = A very fast
method of drying lumber wherein the use of radio fre·
quency dielectric heat is employed. Drying through
this process may only take 24 hours as compared to
the other methods.
2 - 7 · CAUSES OF DECAY AND METHODS OF
PRESERVATION
Wood does not decay naturally through age, nor will it decay
if it is kept constantly dry or continuously submerged in water.
The common causes of decay in wood are:
1.   moisture. and dryness
2. Fungi and molds
3. Insects and worms
4. Heat and confined air
47
The essential requirement to achieve a successful preservation
of wood is good seasoning and the process of preserving wood are:
1. External = The wood is coated with a preservative coating
(as paint) which will penetrate the fibers.
2. Internal = A chemical compound is impregnated at a pres-
sure to permeate the wood thoroughly. The different processes are:
a. By impregnating the timber with a 2 percent zinc
chloride solution followed by an injection of about 45
kg of creosote oil per cubic meter of wood.
b. The cylindrical tank is filled from the charging tank
with creosote oil at a temperature of 930 C and pres·
sure is applied until the timber absorb oil to a pre·
determined amount.
c. A partially seasoned timber is run into the metal
cylinder 2.50 to 3.00 m. diameter by 50 meters long
and the doors or heads bolted. A pressure of 1.5 kg per
sq. em. steam is applied in 30 minutes and maintained
from 1 to 5 hours. A vacuum of 60 centimeters is
created and maintain for 11/z hour when creosote oil is
introduced at a temperature of about 70° C. A pressure
of about 12 to 14 kg. per cm2 is then applied until the
timber has absorbed 50 kg. of oil per cubic meter.
d. Another method is by emersing timber into 2 ·solution
of corrosive sublimate, 1 part of bichloride mercury to
99 parts of water for a period of 5 to 10 days sufficient
enough to insure thorough penetration o.f the preserva·
tive. The sublimate is insoluble in water/ and remains in
timber for a longer time than salts like zinc chloride.
The external non·pressure process of preserving wood is the
application of a penetrating nature as tar oils, carbolineum, spirit-
tine, solignum, etc. It may be applied on the surface of wood either
by brush, spray or by immersion. External preservatives could
only be effective if the wood to be treated is absolutely dry and ·
well seasoned in order to absorb a sufficient quantity of the pre·
servative.
All tar oil products should preferably be applied hot.
48
2-8 MEASURING WOOD
Although the System International (SI) has already superseded
the Engl1sh System of measure, the board foot as the unit measure
of lumber popularly and widely used is still presented for reference
in preparation for the transition from English to Metric approach.
A board foot is actually one square foot of wood one inch thick.
The formula being used in com·puting board foot is:
txw xL
Board Foot = -....;._...:..:.........;.;..-...:..;_...=._
12
Where t =thickness in inches
w = width in inches
L = Length in feet
This formula is being used for sawed wood of commercial
dimensions.
Example:
Compute the board foot of the following lumber :
5 pes- 2"x6"xl4'
Bd. ft. = 5 X 2 X 6 X 14'
12
== 70
Note* Under the English measure of lumber, the length
is always ordered at even· length.
The above formula could not beusedin finding the board foot
of. logs. Instead, the following formula is applied:
{0 - 4)2x L
Board ft. = ---.:.-..--
16
Where 0 = smaller diameter of the logs in inches
L"" Length of iog in feet
4 and 16 = are slab deduction allowance which
are constant in the formula
.49 ..
1-. t8'
Figure 2·4
·Illustration:
From the above figure, find the total board foot that coul(j be
derived from the log for commercial purposes.
Sol ution:
Board Ft. -
{24 - 4)2 X 18ft.
16
(20)
2
X 18
16
= 450 bd.   t ~
Sometimes lumber is computed by the linear foot method,
APPl ied to l umbe.r havi ng a width and thickness of 2 inches or less.
The linear foot-method is simply mu.ltiplying its length in teet by
the unit price.
50
To convert linear foot to board foot
Linear foot of lumber size.
1 X 2" --·- ---
2x2 ------
divide length by to get
6
3
- -- bd. ft.
bd. ft.
2-9 ENGLISH TO METRIC MEASURE OF WOOD
Lumber is customarily computed in terms of board foot which
simply means that one board foot is equivalent to 1 inch thick,·
one foot wide and one foot long wood. To find a board foot of a
piece of wood say 2'' x 6'' x 20' the thickness is multiplied by the
width and length divided by 12 thus:?. x 6 x 20'= 20 bd. ft. ·
12
Following such principle where one inch is the unit measure in
a foot, one centimeter is also the unit measure in a meter, the
above piece of lumber could be written as .5 x 15 x 6 m "' 4.5
board meter 1 00
where: 2""" 5 em;
6" = 15 em
20' = 6 meters
From this example, we could then say that a board foot multi-
plied by .225 is converted to a Board Meter. Thus, 20 x .225 = 4.5
Bd. m.
Most probably, the length of lumber under the Sl measure will
be at the intervals of .50 m phasing out the even length of lumber
in feet.
Example: 2" x 4" x 16' will be ordered 5 em x 10 em x 5 m.
2,-,10 MANUFACTURED BOARDS
Manufactured boards are made of wood but does not appear in
their natural state. This type of building materials can be classified
as a type of lumber as they are the by-product in the manufacture
of lumber. The complete utilization of wood has led to an ex-
panded field of manufactured boards.
·There are different types of manufactured boards available
such as:
1. Plywood = is made of an odd number of veneer sheets
glued together with the grains ruMing at right angle toeach other.
Forest laboratory test show that plywood shrinks less tnan Itt of
1% in drying from saturation to 6% moisture content which is less
than the shrinkage of solid wood of the same species under similar
conditions.
51
Plywood is light in weight and strong that screw or nail can be
driven dose to the edges without danger of splitting. Plywood
thickness varies from (1/8") 3.2 mm; 4. 7 mm {3/16"); 12.7 mm
(lk .. } to 25 mm. available in 3 to 5 ply panels.
52
The different types of plywood are:
1. Soft Plywood = The most common for structural use.
2. Hardwood Plywood =Are used for panelling and finishing
where usually only one face is hard finished.
3. Exterior or Marine Plywood = Is made for external use,
sometimes used for construction of boats.
Typical plywood construction
Figure
FoV£ ·Pl"t  
OIWIT .. 8ANGII!Nl OIIIU'LIIIO
2. Hardboard = Hardboard or pressed wood is made from
wood chips which are exploded into fibers under steam of
high pressure. The lining in the wood itself binds pressed
wood together with no fillers or artificial adhesives ap·
plied. Pressed wood is equally strong in all directions but
very brittle. Its color varies from I ight to dark brown.
3. Particle Board: Is manufactured from wood chips, curls,
fibers, flakes. strands, shaving. slivers, strands etc .• bound
together and pressed into sheets and other molded shapes.
Particle board has equal strength in alt directions of a given
cross sectional area, it is not brittle and can resist warping.
,
CHAPTER 3
LAYOUT AND EXCAVATIONS
3-1 DEFINITION
Layout is sometimes 01lled "Staking out" which means the
process of relocating the point of boundaries and property line of
the site where the building is to be constructed. It includes clear-
ing, staking, batter boards and establishing the exact location of
the building foundation and wall line on the ground. For short
others define layout as the process of transferring the building
plan measurements to the 9round of the site.
Stake - are wooden sticks used as posts sharpened at one end
- driven int o the ground to serve as boundaries or support of t he
batter boards.
Batter board - wood stick or board nailed hori zontally at the
stake which serves as the horizontal plane where the reference
point of building measurements are established.
String - is either plastic chord or galvanized wire across the
batter board used to indicate the outline of the building wall and
foundation.
3 .. 2 LAYOUT METH.OOS AND PROCEDURES
Step 1. Before the construction begins see to it that a Building
Permit is first secured from the locaJ authorities concerned. Con-
structing a building without the necessary permit is considered as
malpractice and contrary to • existing laws punishable by f ine
or jmprisonment or both upon the discretion of the court. The
amount that you are supposed to sav.e from not paying the neces-
sary building permit fees Is comparatively less than the expenses
you will incur in seeking remedy to your problem.
Step 2.. Relocate the ·boundaries of the construction site. It
is suggested that lhe relocation of the property line shall be done
by a Geodetic Engineer specially for those. lots without existing
reference points or adjoining structures. There were numerous
cases filed in court for· encroachment to adjoining property which
· all started f rom layouting and excavation without property relo-
cation by a competent surveyor.
53
Step 3. Clear the site of any existi ng structures, trees ana
other elements that will obstruct the construction work. Cutting
of trees shall be limited only to those that will hinder the progress
of the work but don't forget to consult the local forestry authority
. before the cutting to avoid further jusHfication, penalty or impri-
sonment.
GOMSaiiCTIOII lAYOUT
Figure 3 -1
Step 4. Construct and allocate a space for laborers' quarters,
construction office, bodega for the materials and working tools
and temporary waste disposal. These requirements could be pos-
sible if the construction site is' big enough to allocate · space for
such a purpose. On the contrary, if the site is l imited to t he area
occupied by the structure, an off-site preparation, storaging and
batching of conc;:rete is inevitable.
Step 5. Apply for a temporary connections of electric and
water supply. Electric current is important for the power needs
of the tools and equipment and is necessary on overtime schedules
especially in the time of concreting. Water is also a prim& need in·
the construction, should there be no source of water along the
vi cinity of the project, undeground water pump is the alternative.
54
Step 6. Construct a temporary fence around the construction.
The fence will protect the materials from pilferage both from out·
side and inside.
Step 7. Order the construction materials that are sufficient for
the working force to accomplish in a week period. Insufficient
supply of construction materials increases the overhead cost.
StepS. Verify the ·measurement in the plan if the distances
i ndicated are from:
1. Center to center
2. Center to outer
3. Outer to outer
4. Inside to inside
these methods of indicating distances on the plan are commonly
overlooked by the foreman, hence, should be given attent ion before
the layout work.-
OUTEI! TO CENTER
lt4SIOE OUTSIOI!:
Figure 3-2
Step 9. Fix the batter board to its horizontal position with the
aid of a level instrument preferably plastic hose with. water. Usually,
the batter board is aligned with the ground floor elevation. The
important points in the plan such as post distances and wall cor- .
ners are indicated on the batter board by common wire nails
wherein the string is tied and laid across the opposite direction of
the batter board.
Most if not all building plans are parallel with the fronting
street, the setback of the building from the road is first verified
from the plan and is marked as the reference l ine where to start
the measurement. Establish the. corner to 900 angle with the aid
of plywood or stick made to a right triangle. The use of transit
instrument is preferred for a large construction but is seldom used
on small and medium projects. The use of small square in layouting
is not advisable because it will always result to big errors.
55
Figure 3 - 3
Step 10. ·Verify the measurement on the b   t t ~ r board. Some·
times the number 110 on the zig-zag rule is mistakably read as 100
by the measuring carpenter in the process of indicating the dis-
tances of post or column. The position of the stake should be well-
planned ·not to be affected by the excavation, otherwise, future
adjustment and correction of the batter board might displace the
right position of the reference points. ·
Step 11. · After establi shing the reference point and line of t he
footing, transfer the intersecting points of the string on the ground
by the aid of plumb bob and indicate the size and width to be
excavated.
EXCAVATION
Excavation work in buil ding construction is categor ized into
two types: the minor, and major excavation depending upon the
size .and nature of the foundation to be constructed. Excavation
for a small construction with independent wall. or combined
footing is classified under the minor excavation, while the rest
which requires sizable or total extraction of the earth fall under
the category of major construction.
'56
3-3 MINOR EXCAVATION
ExcavatiOI:'IS under this category are those constructions having
independent footing and hollow block wall footing where the dig·
ging of the soil for the footing extend to a depth from 1.00 to
l.SO meter and about half a meter depth for the wall footing.
Constructions involving minor excavations are common and
occupy the biggest percentage of works accomplished in the· field
of construction. Under this type of work, excavation is considered
as minor because it does not involve the difficulties· of sheeting,
bracing or underpinning except on rare cases where underground
soil are too· fluid or loose that small vibration creates erosion that
cause damage to the construction activities.
It is a common concept that excavation is simple as digging
the soil after the final marking of the building out I ine has been
established on the ground. Unfortunately, there are factors that
should be considered in the process which when overlooked might
result to waste of materials and labor in the process of correcting
and adjusting the work.
The topographical condition of the ground plays an important
role in excavation work. For instance, when the· ground is level
or flat , laying out and excavation are simple and easy because the
problem of whate:ver depth is required could be readily verified
from the top of the ground so that a uniform depth could be as-
certained. Consequently, the succeeding work such as setting the
reinforcements, forms and concreting followed by the block laying
will meet no problem of adjustment and correction.
When the site is sloped' or a rolling ground, there are problems
that are most likely to arise:
1. What depth shall be excavated for each of the different
footings?
2. How deep shall the excavation be for the wall footing
and where shall the excavation depth be based?
It has been observed that most of. the building plans submitted
applying for a building permit shows a uniform height of footing,
. regardless' of ·the ·topographical condition of the site, much more
of the footing detail that heights of the footing to the floor line is ·
measured not by the number of value but by word "verify". This
is an absolute manifestation of the planner's neglect either through
omission or commission of not obtaining the accurate and ·complete
information of the site condition before finalizing-the plan. ·
51
To handle the problems of excavation on sloped or rolling
ground, the following methods are presented:
58
1. For grounds with a minor slope condition, it is advis·
able to base the depth of the excavation from the horizontal
level of the batter board which is usually extended by the
layout string.
IIATTU tOAAO E•€VI'T10" AS Rt:H.R£NC£ LIME
f'OR EXCAVAYION
Figure 3 -4
2. The excavation depth of the wall footing from the
batter board elevation Is equal to the cumulative· sum of the
footing thickness plus the height o! hollow blocks and the
mortar.
  ~
i
s
Ct:I'TM Of U<:olV.TIOM
lli!PTII or UCAVATION &A$£0 'RO .. TN£
COM .. ULATIV£ NltOIIT 00 FOOTING1
loiOtn'AR AIIO C k8
Figure 3-5
3. Another method is the use of stepped or sloped wall
footing where excavation follows gradually with the slope of
the ground. It is more economical to make adjustment in the
excavation of the ground than adjusting on the block laying
using masonry block or concrete mortar which are very ex·
pensive.
I
l l I
l I I I
J
I I I
I
I I I
I
I I
I
STEPPED FOOTING SLOPED fOOTING
Figure 3-6
3 -4 MAJOR EXCAVATION
Building construction that requires wide excavation or total
extraction of the soil are classified into two categories depending
upon the condition or location of the site.   h ~ n the area of t he
construction site is big that there is enough space to accomodate
working activities, storaging of materials and dumping ground for
the excavated soil, problem is less due to the free movement of
construction equipment. Under this condition, the necessity of
providing lateral support to the excavation ground 'such as sheeting,
bracing or underpinning is not necessary since there is no adjoin-
i ng proper ty to be protected from damage that may be caused
by· digging, pile driving and other factors that may contribute
to the settlement of the existing structure. The constru'ction
progress could be seen immediately .due to the accessibility of the
construction materials, site fabrication of building parts and the
disposal of excavated soil within the premi ses which minimizes
overhead expenses of haul ing, rental and maint enance of heavy
e.qu ipment.
Building construction on a b.usy commercial center with
adjacent existing structure is considered to be the most complicated
among t he various construction works since this requires· careful
study and analysis of the right approach. Under this condition,
professionals and experienced builders have al so encountered t he
following problems: ·
1. The manner of excavation to be employed which will
not affect or damage the adjoining'structure.
59
2. The kind of equipment to be used in digging and
extracting the ground may not be a problem but the place
where to station the equipment during the operation. Manual
digging Is very costly and time consuming, but sometimes could
not be avoided if the situation does not warrant the use of
power equipment.
3. How and where to dispose the extracted soil involves
the effective manner of maneuvering the payloader and dump: .
trucks in hauling without obstructing the pedestrian and
vehicular traffic flow.
4. Where to dispose the underground water to be drained
by the water pump during the process of construction which
might cause muddy road and create inconvenience to traffic.
5. The kind of sheeting and bracing to be used in shoring
or under.pinning to protect the adjoining structure must be

·Comments
Shallow excavation can be done even without supporting the
encloSure if there is enough space to establish a lower slope which
the excavated earth could stand. The steepness of the stope de·
pends upon the character of the soil, climate and weather con·
dition and the duration of time the excavation will remain open.
Excavation that are extended below -the .. usually
demand drainage.of the;site priortoorduring the construction work
Erosion or sliding of the excavated soR is a problem not only
during the excavation stage but even during the installation of
steel bars and forms. The cost of removing· the materials affected
by the slide plus the additional excavation to provide a flat area
contributes largely to the cost aside from the delay of the work:
These problems should be anticipated and that necessary prevent-
ive measures should be made to prevent undue erosion. Sheeting
and bracing are the solutions.
The Building .Code on the protection of adjoining property
provides:
"Any person making or causing excavation to be made be-
low existing grade shall protect the excavation so that the soil
of adjoining property will not cave-in or settle and shall defray
the cost of underpinning or extending the foundation of
buildings on adjoining properties. ·Before commencing the
excavation, the person making or causing the excavation to be
made shall notify in writing the owner of the adjoining   u i l d ~
ings not less than · 10 days before such excavation is to be
made and that the adjoining buflding will be protected by him.
The owners of the adjoining properties shall be given access
to the excavation for the purpose of verifying if their pl'o-
perties are sufficiently protected by the person making the
excavation. Likewise, the person causing such excavation shall
be given access to enter the adjoining property for the purpose
of physical examination of su<::h property. prior to the com-
mencement and at reasonable periods during the progress of
excavation. If the necessary consent is not accorded to the
person making the excavation, t hen it shall be the duty of the
person refusing such permi ssi on to protect his 'building or
structure, The person causing the excavation shall not be res-
ponsible for damages on account of such refusal by the adjoin-
ing owner to permit access for inSpection. In case there is a
party wall along a lotline of the premises where an excavation
is being made, the person causing the excavation to be made
shall at his own expense, preserve such party wall in a safe
condition as it was before the· excavation was made and shall
when necessary, underpin and support the same by adequate
methods."· ·
3 - 5 SHEETING AND BRACING SHALLOW EXCAVATION
There are some legal cases filed in Court demanding damages
due to settlement of existing structure brought about by excava-
tion of adjoining property. Excavation involves the removal and
. disturbance of materials that consequently create changes in the
present concHtion of the soil or rock, such disturbances occur
61
even if the sides of the cut is supported or not by sheeting and
bracing. Changes in stress is always associated with deformation
in the same manner as excavation is always accompanied by move-
ments which contribute to the tendency of settlement which
could be minimized by the proper application of sheeting and
bracing enumerated as follows:
1. The lateral pressure in the material adjacent to the excava-
tion could be reduced materially by means of a. proper design
and careful placement of sheeting and bracing, if the excavation
will not extend beyond the depth of 3.50 meters. The common
practice is to drive vertical planks called sheeting around the
property line of the proposed excavation.
2. The sheeting and bracing should be strong enough and
capable of resisti ng lateral pressure.
3. The depth of the sheeting shal l be maintained below the
bottom of the hole as the excavati on progresses. Previous failure
is due to u nstrict observance of the proper sequence of excava-
tion and   when excavation are permitted to advance too
far before the installation of the next set of support.
4. The sheeting shall be supported by horizontal beam
called wales supported by horizontal struts extending from side
to side of the excavation, if the excavation is too wide for the
struts. to be ex1ended the entire width, the wales shall be
supported by inc I ined struts called rakes or rakers.
llertico I
wood .
t'lleetlnq
62
WGie
Slrul
- Vet lleol wood
BRACING SID£$ 01' SHALLOW £XCAVATt0tiS··
Figure 3 -7
5. There should a close observation, frequent measure·
ments and recording of the·verticat and lateral movement and be·
haviour of the sheeting and bracing to provide early warning of
unfavorable development which might cauSe settl.ement of the
    property or structure. .
6. If the work is under contract, a rigorous provisions regard·
ing the sheeting, bracing and excavation shall be incorporated in
the agreement to be strictly enforced during the execution of the
work.
7. The most effective way of prevent ing lateral movement of
the soil rs oy prestressing the bracing or struts.
Figure 3 -a
3 -6 SHEETING AND BRACING OF DEEP EXCAVATION
The methods of sheeting and bracing a deep excavation to
be discussed under this topic is not independent from that which
was previously explained under sheeting for shallow excavation
but rather a continuation and improvement of the methods, appli-
cation of new materials and approach. ·
1. The use of timber sheeting on excavation that exceeds 4 to
5 meters depth is generally uneconomical; instead, steel sheet
piles are driven along the property line of the excavation. The
wales and struts are inserted as the soil is removed from the site.
2. Steel sheet piles are driven down to a meter length below
the bed of the excavation to prevent local heaves, this embedment
of steel sheet below the excavation bed sometimes eliminate the
use of struts to support the lower portion of the sheeting.
63
3. The use of H pile is sometimes employed, driven along the
property line of the excavation spaced at 1.20 to 2.50 meters
eliminating the use of steel piles. The H piles are sometimes called
soldier pile, installed with their flange parallel with the side of the
excavation.
4. Horizontal wood board called lagging are inserted as the
soil next to the pile is removed. As excavation advances from one
level to another, wales and struts are inserted in the same manner
as that of the steel sheeting .
. ......,
f

..... ..,
h.
.,
··-
. SECTIO" Z-Z _ /
Figure 3-9.
5. There are instances where the central portion of the site is
excavated to its final depth and then part of the permanent found-
ation is constructed. This structure then serves as the support for
the inclined bracing or rakers when the remaining soil is excavated.
  0' lltllti'ORtt:O
C.ONCitETE tAFT f OVNOo\TION
••.eoo.C) "••cro "' Tllt:lltll
(xeava1oott OJ II£·.
MAI"l"G .OIL
Figure 3-10
6. Ahother method that is sometimes employed is the cross-lot
bracing or inclined struts method called tieback.
fl""'l OltOUO lE .
LE VE1.
3 - 7 SHEET PILES
Figure · 3 - 11
The different types of sheet piles used in excavation are:
a. Flat web
b. Arch web·
c. Z piling
TABLE 3 - 1 AMERICAN STEEL SHEET PILES
Section Number -Width Weight Wall Interlock- Strength
US Steel Bethlehem in Per Kg. ing Lb./in. Kg.(Cm.
Meter Sa. Ft. Sa. m.
MZ 38 ZP38 .46 17 182 8,000 1.431
MZ32 ZP32 .53 14 150 8,000 1.431
MZ27 · ZP 27 .46 12 129 8,000 1.431
M 110 DP 1 .41 15 161 8,000 1..431
M 116 DP2 .41 12 129 8,000 1,43f
M 115 AP3 .50 10 107 8,000 1,431
M 112 SP4 .41 10.5 112 12,000 2,147
M 113 SP 5 .41 13 139 12,000 2,147
SP 6a .38 13 139 16,000 2,863
M 117 SP 7a .38 15 161 16,000_ 2,863
AP8 .38 14 150 8,000 1,431
65
66
ZP·38
ZP-32
Jr-\
L·· \
,'l \\
. ~ - - 1 6   .1,
!:lP-1 Df>·Z
·---19r---.-!
AP·3
Some tvoes &nd dim.euiou o! America ewe! thee' pilee. {From <OtGlog1u
of tfu Bethlehem &tel Co,)
Figure 3- 12
TABLE3-2 KRUPP STEEL SHEET PILES
SECTION b mm h mm
K:awP 8nKL 8auT Pn.u ·
(Fl'OIIl' eatalope o( Rbeinhaueeu A. G.)
ksla
432 160
ksl
432 160
r L I t1!J
kslb
432 160
ksll
432 181
....._.ICidon
kll
400
181
 
k'l
400 ·320
kvl
400
320
llllldiiiiiCIIIIdoliS t=-. -:..1
3-8 EXCAVATION IN SAND:
The Characteristic of sand above the water table possess the
quality of enough cohesion which facilitates the excavation work.
Tests have been conducted and results show that settlement of
the adjacent ground in large excavation does not exceed about
0.5% of the depth of the cut and that the influence thereof does
not extend farther than equal the depth from the edge of the cut,
when properly supported by sheeting and bracing called shoring.
Excavation of sand extended below water table is of different
approach , it is advisable to lower the water table before starting
the to minimize if not to avoid subsidence which is the
usual nature of sand to sink down to lower level when springs are
permitted to form at or near the bottom of the excavation. The
water springs carry the materials into the excavation grain by
grain that might produce a tunnel beneath the slightly cohesive
layer that when sufficiently enlarged causes the roof to give way
and the water above subside to form into a sink hole that may
extend to a considerable distance from the edge of the excavation.
Ditches must be cut at the bottom leading the water to a sump pit
at a lower elevation than the rest ·of the excavation. The water
level in the sump should be maintained at the lowest elevation;
otherwise, wet sand becomes readily active in swallowing up any
heavy object resting on it. When springs sprout out, the sand will
start to boil; the slope will slough or drop off and the entire base
of the excavation might slope upward and the ditches around the
edge of the excavation that emerge near the toe of the slope will
cause the bank to collapse.
The methods and processes of pumping is a matter of impor-
tance. Sufficient equipment is necessary just from the beginning
of the work to guarantee the efficient removal of water without
the necessity of making additions or alterations during the pro-
cess. Inadequate pumping capacity wil! only lead to sand boils
and instability of the excavation base.
3-9 EXCAVATION IN CLAY .
·.
Large cut and deep excavation in soft clay develops lateral
forces in the subsoil due to the weight of the earth surrounding
the edge of the excavation which becomes a surcharge or addi-
tional pecuniary load, and if the depth of the cut becomes so great
that the bearing capacity of the soil below the sides is reached,
vibration and large movement become inevitable irrespective of
the care which the sides may be shored or braced. The movement
could only be decreased by driving piles around the cut braced by
struts or the use of metal sheeting. If the lateral pressure is so great
that metal sheeting could not withstand it. the use of steel piles is
the last recourse.
Shoring- is the process of providing temporary supports to
the. structure or ground during the excavation;"th is is sometimes
called sheeting and bracing.
Heave- horizontal of vein or stratum.
Subsidence- sinking down, or sink to lower level •
. Settlement - the sinking or lowering of materials or struc·
ture.
Underpinning - the operation of providing a permanent
foundation in place of an inadequate footing, for instance, r•
olacino a 41h"llnw fnotino bv,. nP.w fnntinn   a oreater deoth.
68
..
Comments and Observations:
The excavation work involved irf continuous footing is a con·
tinuous trench comparatively cheaper than that ofa series of sma.ll
pits for isolated footing, moreso, the excavation work for a raft
footing is not so much for it involved a simple broad shallow hole.
If the construction requires bracing of the excavations aside from
the forms necessary for the concrete work, less materials will be
needed for the continuous. or raft foundation than that of the in-
dividual ·footings. Records of cost comparison of several projects
show that a raft footing in some ways appears to be more econo·
mical than individual footings whose total area occupied exceed
50 to 75% gross area of the building.
3- 10 FILLING
1. If the compressible materials is comparatively thin and is
just below the original surface, it can. in some instances be re-
moved economically thru excavatiors.
2. If it is very weak it is sometimes displaced by advancing
the fill from one direction to another so that a mud wave is
progressibly swept across the site.
3. The most suitable materials for filling on building sites are
well graded sand and gravel but it is considered costly.
4. Fills are placed in layers usually not thicker than .15 m.
(6") after compaction and compaction by equipment suitable to
the type of soil.
5. Filling materials are often dumped into the enclosure
. loosely and then flooded in an attempt to compact them. This
procedure although still widely used should not be permitted.. In
cohesive backfill, it inevitably leads to weakenina and softening
of the soil and to future loss ot support and subsidence
6. Clay with high swelling potential should be avoided as
fill beneath foundations or fill to support floors. If the soil dries.
69
differenti al shrinkage will most likely happen and irregular subsi-
dence will develop. If the moisture content increases, floors will
crack thereby creating lateral forces on foundation walls. If there
is no alternative material except the swelling clay for filling it is
better to compact the materials somewhat with more water than
at t he optimum moisture content because the effect of swelling
is more damaging than those of shrinkage.
7. Treatment is necessary. The addition of lime may also be
beneficial in improving the workability of clay and silts. The
principal effect of lime is to reduce the free ~   t e r in the soil by
hydration. It also reduces the plasticity of the d ay. The com-
pacted soil will develop an addit ional strength   n ~ stiffness with
time. Portland cement is seldom used for such a purpose because it
is less effective in reducing the free water content of the soi l
although it may enhance strength in the clay later.
7 0
CHAPTER 4
·c 0 NCR E T E
4 - 1 CONCRETE
Concrete is an artificial stone made out from the mixture of
cement, sand, gravel and water or other inert materials; this is
known as solid mass or plain concrete. Concrete in which rein-
forcement is embedded in sueh a manner that the two materials
act together in resisti ng forces is called Reinforced Concrete.
4 - 2 CEMENT
Of the various hydraulic cement which ha'-<e been developed,
Portland cement is by far the most extensively used in building
construction. The early strength portland cement is another type
of portland cement which is often recommended in constructions
that requires an early high strength such as road concreting or
building construction in time of lower temperature. Thi s type of
cement is somewhat costly but reaches its strength in 3 to 7 days
compared to t he 7 to 28 days strength of ordinary portland
cement.
4-3 AGGREGATE
It is an inert granular materials such as natural sand, manufac-
tured sand, gravel, crushed gravel, crushed stone, pebbles, vermi-
culite, pert ite, cinders, slag, etc. Aggregates are classified as fine
and coarse that forms into concrete when bound together into a
conglomerate mass .by a matrix or cement paste.
Fine Aggregate - the materials smaller than 9 mm. in
diameter.
Coarse Aggregate- the materials over 9 mm. in diameter.
Coarse Aggregate vary In sizes from ( l/4" to 3") 6 mm to
76 mm the maximum size for a reinforced concrete is (1") 25 _mm
71
or {1 lh'') .38 mm. When a concrete member is small and the
reinforcement spacings are close to each other, the coarse aggre-
gate shall be oroperly graded at {¥4 .. to 13/4") 6 mm to 44 mm.
4-4 WATER
The water .intended for use in concrete mixing shall be clean
and free from injurious amounts of oils, acids, alkali, salts, or-
ganic materials or other substances that may be deleterious to con-
crete or steel. Water to be used for prestressed concrete or con-
crete which will contain aluminum embedments, shall be free
from deleterious amounts of chloride-ion.
Conditions for maximum size of coarse aggregate
1. It shall easily fit into the forms and in-between
reinforcing bars.
2. It should not be larger than 1/5 of the narrowest
dimension of the forms or 1/3 of the depth of the slab
nor lf4 of the minimum distance between the reinforcing
bars.
4- 5 TYPES OF CONCRETE AND THEIR WEIGHT
1. Ugh t weight concrete 3. Heavyweight concrete
2. Medium stone concrete
Lightweight concrete- is classified into three types depending
upon the kind of aggregates used in mixing, which predetermines
their weight.
a. Low density concrete- is employed for insulation
t-- purposes whose unit weight rarely exceeds 50 pounds per cubic
foot or 800 kgjm3
72
b. Moderate-strength concrete - with unit weight
from 960 to 360 kg. per cubic meter with a compressive strength
of 70 to 176 kg. per square <:f'ntimeter is usually used to fill
over light gage. steel floor panels. ·
c.   t r ~ l W a l concrete - has somewhat the same
characteristics as that of medium stone coocrete and weighs
from 90 to 120 pounds per cubic foot or 1440 to 1920 kg/
cu.m.
Med1um stone concrete ts a•so Known as structural concrete
weighing from 145 to 152 pounds per cubic foot generally assumed
to be 150 pounds per cubic foot or 3300 kg/cum
Heavyweight concrete - is used for shielding against gamma
and radiation in nuclear reactor and other s.imilar structure. This is
also used as counter weight·for a lift bridge. The contents. of heavy-
weight concrete are cement, heavy iron ores, crushed rock, steel
scraps, punchings or shot (as fine) is also used .
. WEIGHT OF HEAVYWEIGHT CONCRETE
The weight of the heavyweight concrete depends upon the
kind of aggregate used in mixing:
1. Heavy rock aggregate - weighs 200 to 300 pounds per
cu. ft. or 3,200 kg/cu. m.
2. Iron pa.1chings added to high density ores- 4,325 kg/
cum
3. Ores and steel - 330 lb/cu. ft or 5,300 kg/cum
4- 6 MIXING OF CONCRETE
The process of mixing concrete for building construction is
done in two different ways either on site job-mixing or ready mixed
concrete. The ACI Building Code so provides that:
"For job-mixed concrete, mixing shall be done   ~ a batch
mixer of approved type. The mixer shall be rotated at a speed
recommended by the manufacturer and mixing shall be con-
tinued for at least 1 Yz minutes after all materials are in the
. drum, unless a shorter time is shown to be satisfactory by the
criteria of "Specification for Ready-Mixed Concrete for cen"tral
mixers."
Mixing of concrete shall be done until after a uniform distrib-
ution of the materials has been attained· and that the mixture shall
be discharged completely before recharging the mixer.
73
Ready-mixed conaete. The concrete mixture from batching
plant is most preferred, because the proportion of the materials
such as cement and i!Qgregates are controlled by weight through
a manual or automatic scale connected to the hoppers. Water is
also batched either by a measuring tank or by water meter. The
use of Ready-Mix concrete is suitable and convenient for construc-
tions done in a congested city condition. Experienced builders
have proven the Ready-mixed concrete to be more economical
than the job-mixing processes. The Ready-mi xed concrete is batched
in a stationary plant then hauled to the site in any of the following
manner:
1. Mixed completely then hauled by truck agitator.
2. Transit mixed-batched at the plant then mixed in a
truck mixer.
3. Partially mi xed at plant and compl eted in a truck
mixer.
The Bui lding Code specifies - "Concrete shall be conveyed
from the mixer to the place of final deposit by methods
which will prevent the separation or loss of materials. Con-
veying equipment shall be capable of providing a supply of
concrete at the site of placement without separation of
ingredients and without interruptions sufficient to permit
loss of plasticity between successive increments."
Concrete should be discharged from the truck mixer within 1%
hours after the water is poured to the batch. Conveying of concrete
mixture is done by either:
1. Bottom dump
4. Pumping through steel
pipelines
2. Buckets 5. Buggies
3. Wheelbarrows
6. G. I. pail
Points to avoid in the placement of concrete to its final form:
1. Segregation of particles
2. Displacement of forms
3. Displacement of reinforcement in the form
4. Poor bond between successive layers of concrete
74
Preparatton of equipment and depositing:
Concrete mixing requires prior adequate preparation of equip-
ment and materials for the activities. Sec. 5.1 of the ACI Code
specifies:
"Before concrete is placed, all equipment for mixing and
transporting of concrete shall be cleaned, all debris and ice
shall be removed from the spaces to be occupied by the con-
crete, forms shall be properly coated, masonry filler units that
will be in contact with concrete shall be well drenched and the
reinforcement shall be thoroughly cleaned of ice or other dele- .
ter ious coatings.''
'Water shall be removed from the place of deposit before
concrete is placed unless a tremie is to be used or unless other-
wise permitted by the Building Official."
Building construction in a place where ice fall is not known or
encountered. preparation of the site for pouring of concrete only
embraces the removal of water, debris, mud, dirts, laitance and
other unsound materials that will adversely affect the strength and
durability of concrete.
Depositing of Concrete. Depositing of concrete shall be made
as early as practicable in its final place to avoid segregation of par-
ticles due to rehandling or flowing. Concrete shall be carried at all
times in plastic form to flow into the spaces between the
reinforcing steel bars. Concrete that has partially hardened or that
has been contaminated by foreign materials shall not be deposited
in the structure or retampering or remixing of concrete shall be
made   the initial setti ng has started unless authorized by the
Supervising Engineer.
"After the concreting is started, it shall be carried on as a
continuous operation until the placing of the panel or section is
completed. All concrete shall be thoroughly consolidated by
suitable means during placement and shall be thoroughly worked
. around the reinforcement and ·embedded fixtures and into the
corners of the forms."
75
Where difficulties are encountered particularly in areas con-
gested with reinforcing bars, batches of mortar containing the
same proportion of cement, sand and water as used in the concrete,
shall be deposited first in the forms to a depth oH1 inch)25 mm.
then followed by the regular batch of concrete.
4 - 7 SEGREGATION
Is the separation of sand and stone from the matrix or paste
that causes inferior quality of concrete. The causes of separation
or segregatiQn of aggregates are:
1. Transferring of the concrete from the mixer to the
forms.
2. Dropping of the concrete mixture from a high elevation
3. Improper tamping and spading
4. The use of long chutes
5. Excess amount of tamping, vibrating or puddling in
the forms
6. Concrete particles tend to segregate because of their
· dissimilarity.
7. Gravel tends to settle and the lighter materials and
water also tend to rise inside a container when delayed in the
delivery to the forms.
8. Lateral movement such as the flow within the form
tends to separate the particles.
4 - 8 REOUI REMENTS FOR A GOOD QUALITY CONCRETE
A premium quality of concrete is not just attained by mixing
cement and aggregates, there are several considerations to be ob-
served in order to produce a good quality of concrete:
76
1. Strenth and Durability of concrete is attained from the
class of mixture or the right proportion of cement, aggregates
and w   t e r ~
2. Workability - concrete mixture must be in plastic
form and could readily be P.lac.d in the form. ·
3. Dense. and Uniformity in Quality - concrete must be
compact with un,iform distribution of particles in order to be
water tight.
4. Curing - curing requires time, favorable temperature,
and continuous presence of water or moisture in concrete.
after pouring.
Factors that regutate the strength of concrete
1. Correct proportion
2. Suitability or quality of the materials
3. Proper methods in mixing
4. Proper placement or depositing of concrete inside the
form.
5. Adequate protection of concrete during the period of
curing.
4-9 CURING
The hardening of concrete depends upon the chemical reaction
between the cement and water. Hardening of concrete will continue
as long as moisture is present under a favorable temperature condi-
tion. The initial setting of concrete will start at about two or three
hours after the concrete has been mixed. At this stage, concrete
shall be properly protected to prevent craze due to rapid evapora·
tion of moisture; 70% of concrete strength is reached at the. end of
the 1st week and 30% could be lost by premature drying out of the
concrete. The protection of concrete from loss of surface moisture
is 7 days when ordinary portland cement is used and 3 days for an
early high strength portland cement.
The methods of ew-ing surface concrete are:
1. Covering of the surface with burlap continuously wet
for the required period.
2. Covering of the slab with a layer of wet sand or saw
dust l inch or 25 mm. thick.
77
3. Wet straw or hay on top of the slab continuously wet.
4. Continuous sprinkling of water on the slab surface.
5. Avoid early removal of forms; this will permit undue
evaporation of moisture in the concrete.
The Building Code on Curing so provides-" ... concrete shal!
be maintained above lOOC temperature and in a moist
condition for at least the first 7 days after placing, except
that high-early strength concrete shall be so maintained for
at least the first 3 days .... xx xxx Curing by high pressure
·steam at atmospheric pressure, heat and moisture or other
accepted processes, may be employed to accelerate strength
gain and reduce the time of curing."
4- 10 ADMIXTURE
Admixture is a material other than portland cement, aggregate,
or water added to concrete to modify its properties. All admixture
added to concrete serves as water repellent, coloring agent, increase
workability, accelerate or retard the setting, harden its surface etc.
The Code on admixture specifies "The admixture shall be shown
capable of maintaining essentially the same composition
and performance throughout the work as the product used
in establishing concrete proportions .. . xx .. Admixtures
containing chloride ions shall not be used in prestressed
concrete or in concrete containing aluminum embedments
if their use will produce a deleterious concentration of
chloride-ion in the mixing water."
4 --11 CONCRETE PROPORTION AND WATER CEMENT
RATIO
It has been mentioned that concrete proportion and water
cement ratio plays an important role in the strenth and durability
of concrete. There are two methods being adopted in proportion·
ing concrete mixture; it is either by volume or by weight measure.
7&
TABLE 4- 1 CONCRETE PROPORTION
Class of Cement Sand Gravel
Mixture Bag 40 kg. cu. ft. cu.m
-----,.A---=A------=,.1---=---....,1:7% .043
cu. ft. cu.m.
3 .085
A 1 2 .057 4 .113
B 1 2Ya .071 5 .142
c 1 3 .085 6 .170
The philosophy behind in establishing the proportion of fine
and coarse aggregate is to create a solid mass where cement paste
enters the voids of the fine aggregate and in turn fill the void of
the coarse aggregate Theoretically, concrete proportion shows that
sand is always one half the volume of gravel, for instance, 1 : 2 :
4 means 1 bag cement, 2 parts sand, and 4 parts gravel is the
proportion for Class A concrete. Another way of expressing such
proportion is 1 : 6 which simply means that for every bag cement,
6 parts of fine and coarse aggregate forms a class A mixture. Such
idea does not necessarily fix the volume of the fine aggregate to be
always Y:r the volume of gravel.
Adopting the concrete proportion as presented in Table 4·1
is theoretically right and also correct as far as the specification is
concerned. How if problems arise during the actual concreting
work when segregation of aggregate could not be avoided, specially
on portions where steel bars are crowded and closed to each
other? In a situation like this where workable plasticity of concrete
and other factors are adversely affected, correction and adjust·
ment should be made immediately to prevent further damages. In
this connection, the following solutions are suggested:
1. Verify the diameter .of the gravel, these might be bigger
than what is required by the specification, if so then, order the
right grade or have it passed the right screen.
2. Ascertain the thorough mixing of the concrete.
3. Verify if the proportion you are adopting, say 1 :2 : 4
79
mixture has enough paste to cover the gravel and the reinforcing
bars including the pipes and other materials. to be embedded in the
concrete. The paste of a concrete mixture should not only be
enough to cover the gravel mixed but also the steel bars and other
materials incorporated in the forms. This simple neglect will invite
a building of a honeycombed structure.
4. Aggregate proportion could be adjusted say from 1 : 2 ; 4
to 1 : 2% : 3lh which is also equivalent to 1 : 6 mixture, this will
reduce a little the gravel volume and at the same   increase
the paste to cover both the gravel and the steel bars Testshave.been
    on such kind of adjusted proportion and the result was
equally satisfactory. It has also been proven that the adjusted pro·
portion is economical than the 1 : 2 : 4 mixture.
5. The concrete proportion where fine aggregate is always %
volume of the coarse aggregate is effective on a massive struc-
ture with less reinforcement and also on concrete slabs with consi·
derable thickness like roads and the like.
TABLE 4 - 2 MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE WATER- CEMENT RATIOS
FOR CONCRl:TE (when strength data from trial batches or field
experience are not available)
Specified
Compressive
Strength
Maximum permissible water-cement ratio
Non-air entrained Air entrained
Concrete Concrete
f's · Psi · kg/cm2 Absolute Liters. per Absolute : Liters. per
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
80
175
210
245
280
315
ratio by wt. bag cement ratio by wt. bag cement
. 0.65
0.58
0.51
0.44
0.30
27.6
25.0
22.0
19.0
16.3
0.54
0.46
0.40
0.35
0.30
23.1
19.7
17.0
15.1
12.9
There is no definite rule or formula that could give the exact
amount of water per bag or batch of mixture to attain the desired
workable plasticity of concrete. The Code on water cement ratio
so provides. ..
"If suitable data from trial batches or field experience
cannot be obtained, permission may be granted t o base concrete
proportions on the water cement ratio. limits as shown in Table
4-2" .
.. 'When made with normal weight aggregate, concrete that
is intended to be watertight shall have a maximum water
cement ratio of 0.48 for exposure to fresh water and 0.44 for
exposure to sea water."
Air-entrained concrete is used extensively in the pavement of
road construction, it resists frost action and cycles of wetting or
freezing. It also provides higher immunity to surface scaling caused
by chemicals.
TABLE 4 - 3 CONCRETE AIR CONTENT FOR VARIOUS
SIZES OR COARSE AGGREGATE
Nominal maximum size of coarse:
aggregate
inches
3/8
lf2
lf4
1
fl/2
2
3
Comments and Observations
mm
9.5
12.7
19.0
25.4
38.0
51.0
76.0
Total air content
percent by volume
percent by volume
6 to 10
5 to 9
4 to 8
3.5 to 6.5
3 to 6
2.5 to 5.5
1.5 to 4.5
l. Concrete shall be of plastic and workable form, hence, it
should neither be too dry nor too wet. Too dry concrete is dif·
ficult to place in the form, because it resists packing around the
reinforcement and corners of the form that honeycombing could
not be avoided.
81
2. Too wet concrete results to the segregation of the ingre-
dients. Water ratio is best determined by trial batch method to
determine the kind of mixture in obtaining the required strength
and consistency.
3. The water cement ratio shall be established during the first
hour of mixing operation and adjustment shall be made under the
following weather conditions: ·
a. On fair or cloudy weather
b. Sunny day
c. Rainy day
Fair or cloudy weather - at this weather   adjust-
ment of water-cement ratio is sometimes negligible or Uf!necessary
because the moisture content of the aggregate will remain
constant throughout the mixing operation. ·
On Sunny day - the regular mixing operation follows after
the right water-cement ratio had been established in the first hour
through the trial batch · method. As the sun rises, temperature
increases which cause rapid evaporation· of aggregate moisture
dumped on the batching site; consequently, adjust ing gradually
t he water content per mixture batch i s necessary. If mixing will
continue until after sunset, adjustment by reducing the water
content ratio is sometime necessary to maintain a uniform mixture
of concrete.
On Rainy day - if rain occur any time after the water·cement
ratio has been established, an immediate readjustment of water
ratio is neccessary to maintain the uniformity of the mixture.
Under this situation, a reduction of water content per mixture
batch is inevitable. All conveying devices in deli vering concrete
shall be free from rain water before use.
4-12 TESTS
<;:on crete should undergo tests specially those made of various
proportions few days or weeks before the actual construction. The
Building Officials has the right to order the testing of any materials
used in concrete construction to determine if the concrete con-
82
forms wit.h the. quality specified. The   records of the
tests shall be maintained and made accessible for inspection during
the progress of the work and for a period of 2 years aner all and
shall be preserved by the inspecting Architect or Engineer for
re.ference purposes.
Consistency - refers to the state of f l uidity of mixed
concrete.
1. Slump Test ·- this method of test requires a fabricated
metal with the following dimensions:
lOtm
Figure 4- 1
Stump test procedures:
a. · Place the freshly mixed concrete inside the mould in
3 layers each rodded sepMately by 16 mm rod 25 times.
b. Level the mould and lift ·at once.
c. Measure the slump action immediately by getting the
difference in height between the height :.Jf the mould and fhe
top of the slumped concrete.
d. If the slump measure 10 em., It is said to be a 10 em.
slump.
• e. The degree of consistency of concrete could be as-
certained on the following table:
83
84
. TABLE 4-4 RECOMMENDED SLUMPS FOR VARIOUS
CONSTRUCTIONS
Types of construction
Maximum
em
Minimum
em
Reinforced foundation wall and footing 13
Plain footings, caissons and sub-
structure walls 10
Slabs, beams and reinforced walls 15
Building colums 15
Pavement 7
Heavy mass construction 7
5
2.5
7.5
7.5
5
2.5
2. Compression Test: This type of test is the process
applied in determining the strength of concrete; the procedures
are as follows: ,
a) For a coarse aggregate not more than 5 em. dia·
meter, prepare a cylindrical specimen 15 em. diameter and
30 em. long
b) For a coarse aggregate more than 5 em. diameter
prepare a cylindrical specimen with a diameter 3 times the
maximum size of the aggregate and a height double its
diameter.
c) The mould should be made of metal placed on a
plane surface preferably 6 to 12 mm glass plate.
d) Place the fresh concrete inside the mould in 3
separate equal layers rodded separately with 16 mm rod 25
· strokes.
e) Level the surface with trowel and cover with a glass or
plane steel. ·
f) After 4 hours, cover the specimen with a thin layer
of cement paste and cover again with the planed metal or
glass.
·g) After 24 hours, curing shall be made in a moist
atmosphere at 21° C.
h) Test should be done at 7 and 28 days period.
i} Ascertain that both ends of the specimen are per·
fectly levelled.
j) Specimen is placed under a testing machine; then
a compressive load is applied until the specimen fails. The
load that makes the specimen fail is recorded.
k) The recorded load divided by the cross sectional
area of the cylinder gives the ultimate compressive unit
stress of the sample.
Gaga
. . .
. : .. ··::
......
.• '. -:_t•
Figure 4-2
CHAPTER 5
METAL. REINFORCEMENT
5-1 STEEL REINFORCEMENT
Steel is the most widely used reinforcing materials in most
constructions. It is an excellent partner of concrete in resisting
both tension and compression stresses.
Comparativeiy, steel is ten times stronger than concrete in
resisting compression load and 100 times stronger in tensile stress.
The design of reinforced concrete assumes· that concrete and steel
reinforcements act together in resisting load and likewise to be in
the state of simultaneous deformation, otherwise due to excessive
load, steel bars might slip from the concrete in the absence of suf·
ficient bond.
Und.er this assumption, the load between the concrete and steel
should be sufficiently strong to prevent any relative movements of
steel bars and the surrounding concrete. In order to provide a high
degree of interlocking between the two materials, a steel reinforc·.
ing bar with a surface deformation in various sizes in diameters
were introduced.
Type's of deformed bars
Figure 5-1
The combtnation of concrete and steel shows the following
satisfactory joint performance:
86
1. There is a negligible difference in thermal expansion
coefficient that makes it safe from undue effects of differen-
tial thermal deformation.
2. The concrete that surrounds the steel reinforcement is
considered an excellent protective covering that retards corro-
sion in steel.
3. The strength of steel when exposed to high temperature
substantially decreases, but concrete covering provides a suffi·
cient thermal insulation.
4. While concrete is weak in tension force, steel has that
property in resisting high tensile stresses
Steel could be used in two different ways:
~   A s reinforcing steel, it is placed in the forms before the
pourin of fresh concrete. .
~ As prestressed steel, heavy tension forces are applied to
the steel reinforcement before the casting of concrete.
5-2 STEEL BARS FROM ENGLISH TO METRIC MEASURE
Steel bar diameters have been standardized from '14" to 2114"
and the length varies from 20', 25', 30', 35' and 40' long. Aside
from these standard diameter measurements. a corresponding
number were introduced and designated to each diameter size for
convenience and proper identification. For instance, a number 2
bar is 114'' f/J No. 3 is 3/8''¢J bars etc. From these examples one could
easily determine the diameter of bars by dividing the designated
number by 8. In short, the diameter of bars differ from the con·
secutive numbering by 1/8".
TABLE 5-l
DESIGNATIONS, AREAS, PER.IMt;TER$ &
WEIGI.ITS OF STANDARD BARS
Croes-
sectional Perimeter,
Unit weight
Bar No. Diameter, in.
• t
area, m. in. ·pet foot, lb
2 i- 0.250
0.05. 0.79
0.167
3 1- o.a75
0.11 1.18
0.376
"
-t- 0.500
0.20 1.57
0.668
5 i- 0.625 0.31 1.96
1.043
6 f-0.750
0.44 2.36
1.502
1 f .. 0.875 0.60 2.75
2.044--
8
1 - 1.000
0.79 3.14 2 .. 670
9
Ii- 1.128
1.00 3.54
3.400
10 It,. 1.270 1.27 3.99
4.303
11 lf- 1.410 1.56
4.43 5.313
14 lf- 1.693 2.25
5.32 1.650
18 2f ... 2 257 4.00 7.09
13.600
87
TABLE 5-2 AREAS OF GROUPS OF STANDARD BARS,
IN SQUARE INCHES
NvMkr o/.&oN
B'lr
No. 2 3

5 6 7 8 t 10 11 12 13 14.
---
~
- --
----
----
----
--
4 0.39 0.58 0.78 0.98 118 1.37 1.57 1.77 1.96 2.16 2.38 2.$5 2.75
s 0.61 0.91 1.23 1.53 1.84 2.15 2.45 2.76 3.07 3.37 3   6 ~ 3.09 4.30
6 0.88 1.32 1.11 2.21 2.65 3.09 3.53 3.98 4.42 4.86 5.3C 6.74 6.19
7 1.20 1.80 2.61 3.01 3.61 4 21 4.81 5.<41 6.01 6.61 7.22 7.82 8.4.2
8 1.57 2.35 3.H 3.93 4.71 s.so 6.·28 7.07 7.85 8.64 9.43 10.21 11.00
9 2.00 3.00 4.00 500 6.00 7.00 8 00 9.00 10.00 11.00 12.00 13.00 14.00
10 2!13 3.79 5.06 6 33 7.59 8.86 10.12 11.39 12.66 13 92 15.19 16.4.5 17.72
11 3.12
' 68
6 25 7 81 9 37 10 94 12..'i0 14.00 15.62 17,19 18.75 20.31 21.87
14 4.50 6.75 900 11.25 l.'J50 15.75 18.00 20.2.') 22.50 24.75 27.00 29.25 31.50
18 8.00 12 00 16 00 20 00 24.00 f2s.oo 32.00 36.00 40.00 44.00 48.00 52.00 56.00
Recently the great confusion arose after the intoduction of the
Sl Metric System in all kinds of measure. Steel bar manufacturers
in the guise of conforming with the international movement as
emphasized through a presidential decree produced steel bars that
slightly differ by millimeter. Manufacturers produced steel bars
with their own standard under the millimeter diameter and was
allegedly referreq to as "standard" (that which refer to the English
measure); below standard; oversize; undersize; mm; etc. which
created confusion even among technical men. The production of
steel bars that slightly differ by a millimeter in diameter was pur·
posely designed to cater on the buyers who in these time of eco·
nomic crisis prefer the cheaper steel bars. As a result. customers·
disregard the diameter size whether the materials that they are
buying are smaller than what is specified. As an outcome, there is
a total sacrifice in the strength of the structure.
COMMENTS AND ANALYSIS
1. How could one distinguish the difference between 10 mm
from 11 mm steel bars through the naked eye without the aid o;
a caliper? Even with the aid of' a caliper, one could not effectively
measure a steel bar with perforations and elliptical cross-sectional
diameter.
88
2. The former measure that differ by 1/8" could be easily
noticed and distinguished by anybody even without the aid of a
caliper.
To be able to buy the right diameter of steel bar:
a· Verify the weight per meter or weight per bar length
with the aid of Table 5-3 and 5-4
b. Order of steel bars shall be specific according to the
millime.ter sizes such as 12 mm. Avoid the '112" </J or other measure
in inches because they are no longer under production unless on
special orders.
c. Do not insist on bigger discount in buying steel bars,
because you will most likely get steel bars a millimeter or more
smaller than what you actually need which in turn might be
more costly and damaging to your construction.
3. The knowledge and training of the recent crop of Engineers
are centered on the English measure particularly on the structural
design as the textbooks and references in circulation are all based
from the English system of measure. The shifting from English to
Metric System needs time for adjustments and revision of most
if not all of the technical books and manuals of instructions.
4. The different steel bar manufacturers must be compelled
to strictly follow a standard of measurement of steel bars through
a more specific order. Guideline must be provided in the manufac
6
ture of standard steel bars for protection of the public from un-
scrupulous manufacturers and suppliers.
TABLE 5-3 ST ANOARD WEIGHT OF REINFORCING BARS
NOM UNIT Near AS T M
6M 7.5M 9M 10.5M 12M
Dia. wt (19.68') 24.6') -(29.52') (34,44') (39.36')
(mrn) Kg.- (M) Designation Kg . Kg. Kg. Kg. Kg.
6 .222
No.2
1.332 1.665
2.000 2.331 2.664
10 .616
No.3
3.696 4.620 5.544 6.468 7.392
12 .888
No.4
5.328 6.660 7.992 9.324 10.656
16 1.579
No.5
9.474 11.843 14.211 16.580 18.948
20 2.466
. No.6
14.796 18.495 22.194 25.893 29.592
25 3.854
No.8
23.124 28.905 34.686 40.467 46.248
28 4.833
No.9
28.998 36.248 43.497 50.747 57.996
32 6.313
No. 10
37.878 47.348 56.817 66.286 75.756
36 7.991
No.ll
47.946 59.933 71.919 83.906 95.892
89
TABLE 5-4 PHILIPPINE STANDARD
COMPARED WITH ASTM STANDARD
(SECTIONAL AREA)
Philippine Nominal Unit Weight
Standard Sectional Kilogram/ REMARKS
. Designation Area mm
2
Meter
6 (mm}
10 (mm)
12 (mm)
16 fmm)
20 (mm}
25 (mm}
28 (mm)
32 (mm)
36 (mm}
28.27
78.54
113.10
201.10
314.2
491.9
615.75
804.25
1017.9
0.222
0.616
9.887
1.577
2.463
3.848
4.827
~   3 0 5
7.980
10.7% smaller than ASTM No. 2
10.22% larger than ASTM No. 3
10.7% smaller than ASTM No.4
1.6% larger than ASTM No. 5
10.22% larger than ASTM No.6
2.9% smaller than ASTM No.8.
4.49<¥o smaller than ASTM No. 9
1.6% smaller than ASTM No. 10
.97% larger than ASTM No.n
TABLE 5-5 STEEL GRADE AND STRENGTH PER mm
2
ASTM
Philippine
STANDARD
Grade 60
Intermediate
Grade40 .
Structural
Grade
Yield Point/Strength Tensile Strength
(minimum} (minimum)
Newton/ Kg. Force psi Newton/Kg. Fo·rc:e psi
mm
2
mm
2
mm
2
mm
2
Grade 410 41.808 60.00 620 63.22 90,000
Grade 275 28.042 40,000 480 48.95 70,000
Grade 230 24.453 33,350 390 39.77 55,000
5-3 PRESTRESSED STEEL
Prestressed steel is used in three forms:
1. Wire strand
2. Single wire
3. High strength bar
90
The wire strand are of even wire types where the center wire is
enclosed rigidly by hexagonal outer wires with a pitch of 12 to 16
times the nominal diameter of the strand. The diameter of the
strand ranges from 1!4 to 1fz inch (6mmto 12mm). Prestressing wire
ranges from .192 to .276 in. (5 to 7mm) made out from
cold drawn high carbon steel.
High strength alloy steel bars for prestressing ranges from 3/4"
to 1 3/8" {20 to 36 mm) diameter.
5-4 WELDED WIRE FABRIC
Aside from the individual reinforcing bars, welded fabric is
sometimes used for reinforcing concrete slab and other similar
structure such as shells. Siz• and spacing of wire may be similar for
both ways or might be different depending upon the detail of the
design.
5-5 IDENTIFICATION OF STEEL BARS
How to distinguish the different grades and sizes of bars is a
problem that one might accidentally use a lower strength or smaller
size of steel bars from what is being required.
All deformed bars are provided with distinctive markings iden·
tifying the· manufacturer usually by an initial and the bar size
number from 3 to 18 including the type of steel such as:
N - for Billet A- for Axle Rail sign- for rail steel
Additional marking for identifying high strength steel bars:
• • 1. • •o
• 1.....0 ... ,...s   1$
Marking System
Figure 5-2
91
TABLE 5-6 STANDARDIZED REINFORCING AND PRESTRESSING STEELS
Minimum Yield Minirnum Tensile
Product ASTM Strength Stren9th
Specification
G"de
KSI MPa KSI MPa
Reinforcing Bar A615 40 40 276 70 483
A616 60 60 414 90 620
A617
50 50. 345 80 552
60 60 414 90 620
40 40 276 70 483
60 60 414 90 620
A706 60 60 414 80 552
(78max) (538 max)
Bar mats *Al84,*A704 70 483 80 552
Wire, smoth A82 75 517 85 586
Deformed A496 75 517 85 586
Welded wire
fabric, smooth A185 65 448 75 517
Deformed A497 70 483 80 550
Prestress Bar A722 Type 1 127.5 880 150 1034
Type II 120 827 150 1034
Prestress wire A421 188-200 1296-1330 235-250 1620-1725
Prestress
Strand A416 250 212.5 1465 250 1725
270 229.5 1580 270 1860
* Same as reinforcing Bars
TABLE 5-7
MINIMUM DIAMETERS OF BEND FOK
STANDARD HOOK
Bar Size Minimum Diameter
No.3
-8 6 bar diameter
No.9
-11 8 bar diameter
No. 14-- 18 10 bar diameter
Example : lf2" (l.l/ em} rounu uo• "v "'"' ..... cuneter"'"
3 inches or 7.6 em. diameter for hook.
Note: Hooks are not effective in adding compression
resistance of reinforcement.
92
Figure 5-3
Standard Hook
5- 6 BAR CUT OFF AND BEND POINTS
1. Every bar be continued to at least a distance to the
effective depth of the beam or 12 bar diameter whichever is larger.
2. The Code requires that at least 1/3 of the positive moment
of steel (bottom bars) must be continued uninterrupted along the
face of the beam a distance of at least 6 inches ( 15 em) into
the support.
3. At least 1/3 of the negative moment reinforcing bars Should
be extended beyond the extreme position not less than 1/16 the
clear beam whichever the grMter.
              ,. ...... -----+f
EndS,.
Figure 5-4
93
5- 7 BAR SPLICING
1. Tension bars may be spliced through:
a. welding
b. sleeves
c. tying
d. mechanical devices which provides full positive
connection between the bars.
2. Compression bars may be spliced by:
a. tapping
b. direct end bearing
c. welding
d. mechanical device which will provide full positive
connection.
. ..
The Code specif ies·. the compressive splice should not be less
than 12 inches (30 em) long."
5-8 BARSPACING
1. The ACI Code specifies that the minimum clear distances
between the adjacent steel bars shall not _be less than the nominal
diameter of the bars or 1 inch 25 mm. for column, this require-
ment was increased to ll/2 bar diameter or !
1
/2 inches or 4 em.
2. Where beam reinforcement are placed in two or more layers,
the clear distances between layers must be. not be less than l -inch
(25 mm.) and the ·bars in the upper layer should be placed directly
above those in the bottom layers. ·
3. In walls and slabs other than concrete joist construction,
the pri ncipal reinforcement shall be spaced not farther apart than
three times the wall or slab thickness nor-more than 18 inches or
45cm.
4. The clear distance between pretensioning steel at each end
of the member shall be not less than four times the diameter of
individual wires nor three the diameter of the  
5. The clear spacing between spirals shall not exceed 3 inches
(7.5 em.) odess than 1 inch (25 mm), havi.ng a minimum diameter
94
of 10 mm. Spiral splices shall be48 b4ar diameter minimum but not
less than 12 inches (30 em.) or welded. ·
6. Lateral ties shalf be at least no. 3 bars spaced not to exceed
16 times the longitudinal bar diameter or 48 tie bar diameter orr
the least dimension of the column.
7. Shrinkage and temperature reinforcement shall not be
· placed farther apart than 5 times the slab thickness nor more than
18 inches or 45 em.
5-9 CONCRETE PROTECTION FOR REINFORCEMENT
The following minimum concrete c.over shall be provided for
reinforcing bars, prestessing tendons, or ducts. For bar bundles the
minimum cover shall equal the equivalent of the bundle but should
not be more than 2 inches (5 em.) or the tabulated minimum,
whichever is greater. · '
TABLE 5-8 PROTECTIVE COVERING FOR STEEL
REINFORCEMENT
Minimum cover in
Cast-in place concrete (non-prestressed) Inches em.*
Cast against and perrreanently exposed to earth 3 8.0
  x p ~ d to earth or weather:
_ No. 6 through No. 18 bars • • • • • • • • • • • • • 2 5.0
No. 5 bins 16 mm. wire and smaller ..•..•••. ·Hz 4.0
Not exposed to weather nor in contact with the
ground:
Slabs, walls, joists:
No. 14 and No. 18 bars . • • • • • • . . . • . l!!z 4.0
No. 11 and smaller • • • . • . • • • • • . • • . • 3/4 2.0
Beams, girders, columns:
· Principal reinforcement, ties stirrups or
spirals •. ·• • . . • . . . . . • • • • . . . . • • • . l!!z 4.0-
Shells and folded plate members:
No. 6 bars and larger • • • • • • • • • • . • • . 3/4 2.0
No.5 bars 16 mm. wire and smaller • . • liz 1.5
95
Pre-cast Concrete (manufactured under plant}
control conditions)
Exposed to earth or weather:
Wall panels:
Minimum cover in
tnches em.*
No. 14 and No. 18 bars . . . . . • . . • . . . . . . • . 1112 4.0
No. 11 and smaller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . 3/4 2.0
Other members:
No. 14 and No. 18 bars . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . 2 5.0
No. 6 through No. 11 .. : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .•. 1 1f2 4.0
No. 5 bars, 16 mm. wire and smaller . . . . . . . lit'•
Not exposed to Weather nor in contanct with the
ground:
Slabs, walls, joists:
No. 14 and No. 18 bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lV• 3.2
No. 11 and smaller ............•...•... 5/8 1.0
Beams, girders, columns:
Principal reinforcements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . llfz 4.0
Ties, stirrups or spirals .. ..... . . ·. . . . . . . • 3/8 1.0
Shells and felded place members:
No. 6 bars and larger ................ .
No. 5 bars, 16 mm. wire and smaller
*Values rounded to the next whole number.
5/8
. 3/8
1.6
1.0
Pre--stressed concrete members-prestressed and non- Minimum Cover
prestressed reinforcements, ducts and end fittings Inches em.
Cast against and permanently exposed to earth 3 8.0
Exposed to earth or weather:
Wall panels, slabs and joists . . . . . . • • • . . . . . . . . 1 2.5
Other members ...............•..•........ llf2 4.0
Not exposed to weather not in contact with the
ground;
Slab, walls joists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . 3/4 2.0
96
Beams, girders, columns:
Principal reinforcements. . • . • . • . • . • . • . • • • l'h 4.0
Ties, stirrups or spirals • • • • • • • . • • . • . • • • . • 1 2.5
Shells and folded plate members:
Reinforcement 16 mm. and smaller • • • • • • • • 3/8 1.0
Other reinforcements • • • . • • . . . • . . • . . . . . . 3/4 2.0
TABLE 5-9 PHILIPPINE STANDARD STEEL BARS
COMPARED WITH ASTM STANDARD: DESIGNATIONS,
AREAS AND UNIT WEIGHT PER METER
Cross
Unit weight
Bar No.
Nominal Diameter· Sectional Area
per meter
Inches mm (mm}2
kilogram kg.
2 1!4
6 28.27
0.222
3
3/8 10 78.54
0.616
4
ll2 12
113.10 0.887
5
5/8 16 201.10
1.577
6
3/4 20 314.2
2.463
7
7/8 22
280.13
2.980
8 1 25
490.87
3.848
9
11/8 28
615.75
4.827
10
ll/4 32
804.25
6.305
11 1 3/8
36 1,017.9
7.980
14
1 3/4 45 1,590.43
12.469
18 2
1
/4 57
2.551.76
20.005
5-10 BUNDLE OF BARS
For large girders and columns, bundle bars is allowed and these
bundle act as one unit reinforcement with no more than 4 in any
bundle provided that stirrups or ties enclosed the bundle. The
Code specifies that:
1. Not more than two bars shall be bundled in one plane
2. Typical bundle shape are triangular, square or L-shaped
pattern.
3. Bars larger than No. 11 shall not be bundled in beams
or girders. .
4. Individual bars in a bundle cut off within the span of
flexural members shall terminate at different points with at
least·40 bar diameters staggered.
97
5- 11 CONTROL OF CRACKS
1. Cracks are minimized through the use of deformed steel
bars.
2. A larger number of small bars is more effective in mini-
mizing crack width than a smaller number of large bars having the
same total cross-sectional area. ·
5-12 METAL REINFORCEMENT SPECIFICATIONS:
The ACI building code requirements for reinforced concrete
Specifies;
98
1. Deformed Billet-Steel Bars for Concrete Reinforcement
shall be (ASTM A615). If No. 14 or 18 bars meeting this
· specifications are to be bent, they shall also be capa-
ble of being bent, 90 degrees at a minimum temperature
fo 42° C around a ten-bar diameter pin without cracking
transverse to the axis of the bar.
2. Rail-Steel Deformed Bars = (ASTM A616). If bars are to
be bent, they shall meet the bending requirements of AS.TM
614
3. Axle-Steel Deformed Bars = Shall be ASTM A617
4. Bar and rod mats for concrete reinforcement shall be the
dipped type conforming with the Specifications for ASTM
A184.
5. Plain wire for spiral reinforcement shall be Cold-Drawn
Steel wire for concrete reinforcement ASTM A82.
6. Welded plain wire fabric for concrete reinforcement shall
conform to the specifications of Welded Steel Wire Fabric
ASTM A185. Welding intersections shall be spaced not
farther apart than 30 em in the direction of   ~ principal
reinforcement.
8. Welded deformed wire fabric for concrete reinforcement
shall conform to the specification for of ASTM A497.
Welded intersection shall be spaced not farther apart than
40 em in the direction of the principal reinforcement.
9. Wire and tendons in prestressed concrete shall conform
with the specifications for Uncoated Seven-wire ·Stress-
Relieved Strand for Prestressed Concrete ASTM A416 or
ASTM A421. Strands other than A416 or A421 may be
used provided that they conform to the minimum require·
k.
f ments of these specifications and have no properties which
make them less satisfactory than those listed under A416
or A421. ·
10. Grade B of specifications for welded and seamless steel
pipe ASTM A53.
11 . . Specifications for Structural Steel ASTM A36
12. Specifications for High Strength Low Alloy Structural
Steel ASTM A242
13. For High-Strength Structural Steel ASTM.A440
14. High-Strength Low Alloy Structural Manganese Vanadium
Steel ASTM A441.
15. High-Strength Low Alloy Columbium-Vanadium Steel of
Structural Quality ASTM A572
16. For High Strength Low-Alloy Structural Steel with 50,000
psi or 344,7!?0 kPa minimum yield point to 10 em thick
ASTM A588.
It is interesting to note that the present manufactured steel
bars is either small er or larger in cross sectional area compared to
the· ASTM standard as shown ~ ~   m Table 5-4. In the absence of
standard specifications that regulates the manufacture of steel bars
when the Metric System super<:eded the English Measure, manu-
facturers produced steel bars having diameters. at almost in incre-
ment of one millimeter which created problems and confusion.
Lately the Board of Standard has agreed to standardize the manu-
facture of steel bar diameters as follows:
Diameter Millimeter
Inches Equivalent
If• . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 mm
3/8 ............... lOmm
lf2. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 13 mm
5/8. ..... ........ 16 mm
3f4............... 20 mm
1· ................ 25 mm
1 1/8" . .. ......•... 30 mm
1 lf• . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 mm
1 3/8 .............. 40 mm
1 3f4 • •.•••••••. •. • . 45 mm
211• •.....•. : •.... •. 60 rnm
Bar No.
Designation
2
3
4
5
6
8
9
10
11
14
18
99
CHAPTER 6
FOUNDATION
6- 1 MIEF HII10RY
Builders and laymen throughout the ages have realized the
importance of building structure on • strong foundation. Jesus
Christ on his remarkable sermon before the multitude of people
said:
''Therefore, whoso.v• h,areth these saying of
mine, and doeth them, I will liken him unto a wise man,
which built his house upon a r.ock. And the rain descend,
and the floods came, and the winds blew, and beat upon
the house: and It fell not: for it was founded upon the
rcx:k."
Mathew 7 : 24- 26
The advanced knowledge brought about by the science ot
Geology and Soil Mechanics have confirmed the rock foundation
bed to be the most stable medium where to lay the footing of a
structure.
The early builders of the Babylonian Empire constructed Raft
or Mat Foundation from out of the sun-dried and burned brid<!s
on top of a flat moulded earth which was filled up and raised from
1.50 m to 4.50 meters high.· The mat founda.tion was constructed
to a thickness of 1.00 to 1.50 meters of brick platform bound
together by a natural asphaltic materials forming a soiid founda·
tion where the city walls, temples and public buildings were con-
structed.
The Greeks t:tas extensively used marble blocks as foundation
oftenly tied together with metal band. Marble being abundant in
Greece becomes the chief construction materials extensively used
in their articulate temples, carvings and statues.
the Chinese builders also used large stones carefu(ly
.cut and titted to each other without the use of mortar
as in the construction of the Great Wall of China.
The Romal)i Builders, introduced various foundation type to
the   ce)nditions. Wood piles were used .on a very soft
100
ground and . wooden mats were laid underground where masonry
structure were built upon them, the Roman builders further devel-
oped the construction of Built-up foundation consisting of flat
stone bonded with Roman cement which. unfortunately, this early
use of concrete has been forgotten during the Middle Ages.
The introduction of the Griltage Footing resolves the problem
of foundation weight in the year 1880 when it was first introduced.
Consequently, the improved grillage footing made of steel· rail
embedded in concrete was introduced in Chicago by John Root in
the year 1891. The advent of Reinforced Concrete in the early
part of 1890 superceded all these kind of footings due to the ad-
vantages it offers in al .. l aspect of building construction.
Foundations
Foundation .is that portion of the structural elements that carry
or support the superstructure of the building. Foundation is fur-
ther defined as the substructure wh1ch is usually placed below the
surface of the ground that transmits the load of the building to
the under-lying soil or rock.
Footing
Footing is that portion of the foundation of. a structure which
directly transmits the column load to the underlaying soil or rock.
In short, footing is the lower portion of the foundation structure.
Fomdation Bed -refers to the soil or rock directly beneath
the footing.
·,.oottllo
Figure 6-1
Foundation Nomenclature
.COl. UN
101
Footings are classified into two types, the wall and column
footings. Walt footings is a strip of reinforced concrete wider than
the wall which distributes the load to the soil. Column footing on
the otherhand, is also classified into the following types:
1. Isolated or Independent footing
2. Combined footing
3. Continuous footing
4. Raft or Mat footing
5. Pile footing or foundation
6. Grillage footing
6- 2 WALL FOOTING
In wall footing, the main reinforcements are pla_ced at right
angle perpendicular to the wall uniformly spaced with each other
Longitudinal reinforcement parallel with the wall are laid to assist
in bridging soft portion associated with the almost uncertain varia·
tion of soil conditions. A steel percentage equals to 0.2 to 0.3% of
the cross sectional area of concrete is said to be adequate except
on unusual cases.
-I-'-
  I 15 em ;; · · .·
I•

em 1- Property LlneL,.I------1
Figure 6-2
6- 3 ISOLATED OR INDEPENDENT FOOTING
This kind of footing represents the simplest and most eco-
nomical type usually in the form of:
a. Square Block Footing
b. Square Slope Footing
c. Square Stepped Footing
.
.
.
.
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The reinforcement for square footing is usually placed in the
direction parallel to both sides spaced uniformly and perpendicular
with each other.
I.
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SQUARE 8LOCK SQUARE SLOPED
SQUARE STEPPED
Figure 6-3
To use the above table consider the following example:
Problem:
A square column with a general dimension of 12" x 12" is to
support an axial load of 100,000 lb. with the following data:
Bearing capacity of soil= 2,000 psf
f'c for concrete = 2,500 psi
fc for concrete = 1,125 psi
fs for steel = 20;000 psi
Determine the dimensions and reinforcement for a two-way
square footing:
Solution:
1. By illustrative analysis
L0-'0 - 10   0 0 ~ 1 ~ .
0
1
z.. Figure 6-3
li'"
104
2. Referring to the Table 6 -1; under soil pressure fs.= 20,000
psf the value along 100 kips Joad and column size 12"- the width
of the footing will be 7'- 5 .. while the depth is 14".
3. The number and size of reinforcement under f'c =2,500 psi
are 14 pes. of No.5 steel bars one-way. .
4. Since the reinforcement is two-way, another 14 pes. No.5
is necessary on the opposite direction.
5. The footing will then be as follows;
It Pt5. */J lfAqS-
•OTH WAYS.
j ..... """I
Figure 6- 3b
  t ~ e effective use of Table 6-1 could be either:
1. To determine the dimension of the concrete footing
and the size of the reinforcement Including its spacing.
2. To determine the load that could be carried by a foot-
ing of a given dimension and reinforcement. .
PROBLEM:
The values given on Table 6-1 and the accompanying illustration
were· all in English measure. Solve for its equivalent in Metric
System using the following convertion factor:
Multiply.
pounds per square foot (psf)
pounds per square fo9t (psf)
pounds per square inch (psi)
pounds per square inch (psi)
inch
kips
by
47.88
4.882
.074
. 703
2.54
454.5
. to get
pascals
kg./sq.m.
kg.fsq. em.
kg./sq. m •
em.
kilograms
105
6- 4 COMBINED FOOTING
The use of independent footing for extension columns some-
times meet difficulties on property line were footing projection
beyond the exterior wall is not allowed. Under this situation,
bined footing or strip footing is employed to avoid tncroachment
to an property and at the same time satisfy the bearing
capacity requirement of the foundation. Combined footing is ·em·
ployed when two or more columns are spaced closely to each
other that their footing will almost or completely merge . The
main reinforcement in a combined footing is laid along the longi·
tudinal direction assuming that the footing acts one way slab.
Transverse reinforcement is also placed at the bottom of the foot-
ing near the column where the critical section for transverse bend- ·
ing is taken at the faG'S of the column pedestal. Consequently,
footing reinforcementS are spaced closely to the center of the
column than the outer portion.
106
Combined footing is either:
a. Rectangular
b. Trapezoidal
.
11
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Figure 6 7'"· 4
•, '
6 - 5 CONTINUOUS FOOTING
Continuous footing is sometimes classified as wall footing
which supports columns in a row. It is either:
a. Inverted Slab Footing
b. Inverted Tee Footing
  FOUNDATIOI'I
INVERTED- T
Figure 6 - 5
6 - 6 RAFT OR MAT FOOTING
Unless deep foundation is required by the soil condition, Raft
footing is preferred. This type of footing occupies the entire
area beneath the structure and carry the wall and the column loads.
When a building is too heavy that individual or combined footing
would cover about 'h of the building area, the Raft' footing is
likely to be economical.
The Raft footing is either made of an inverted slab provided
with a .capital or pedestal at the bottom of the column or an·
inverted slab with partitions as the stem ofT-Beam connected to
the raft where the column rests at their intersections. Other types
· are shown in Figure 6-6.
107
: :
108
CANTILEVER FOOTING
: : :
A UNif'ORllll SLAS
II TMICitEMED SLAB
C BEA!Iol &. GIA0£.11 D . T·UAM WITH IMDEP!:MDUT ,.LOOII.
RAFT OR MAT FOUNDA lION
Figure 6·6
6- 7 PILE FOUNDATION
When a foundation bid fs too weak to support o Raft footing,
there is on urgent need to provide o suitable material where to
transfer the excess load to a greater depth wherein piles or pier
is the answer.
6-8 PILES
The use' of piles have been employed by the early builders to
support private and public buildings which was found iri the cons-
truction of the Romans. The brJdge across the Rhine ·River is
afso supported by piles constructed during the rule of Julius
C:oesor. Piles were Jikewise found near the lake of Lucerne and
New Guinea, construction which where built about A.D. 200. The
Campanile of Venice after its destruction have been found oUt to
be resting on wood pHes which according to history has been
driven os .arly as A.D. 900 and yet after the destruction ·of
the Compardle,   piles were found out to be In oblo1ute per-
fect condition tNt 4t was even reused for pH• foundation.
Pile - is a structural member of small cross-sectional area with
·reasonable length driven down the ground by means of hammer or
vibratory generator.
Pier- refers to a large cross-sectional dimension, each capable
of transmitting the entire load from a single column down to a
stable stratum. ·
Piles are classified according to:
1. Type and size
2. Shape as to the cross-section
3. Materials
As to the kind of materials:
1. Timber pile
2. Concrete pile
3. Metal pile
109
CHAMFERED POINTED SQUARE
TIMBER PILES
WOOD PILE
Figure 6- 7 ·
6-9 THE IMPORTANT FUNCTIONS OR USES OF PILES
The decision to use pile foundation is the result of scientific
method of exploration and tests of the underlying soil conducted
by the designing Engineer which were brought about by any of the
following purpose:
1. As friction pile at their bottom portions in transmit·
ting the load through soft strata into stiffer lower strata.
2. As friction pile utilizing its full length.
3. As soil compactor.
4. As end-bearing columns
5. As stabiHzers of banks
6. As better piles
7. As a dolphin
8. As sheeting
Unless batter piles are intended to be effective in serving any
one of these functions, they should not be used, otherwise dri-
ving piles without any purpose will be an exercise in futi.lity.
110
Rock
Soft"' ... ,,.,
sOft material
or soil "'bje(t .
to scour
friction
load-earrylnl
materiaf
Friction

material
A• End·Bearinc
Columns
A$   Pile&
In Poltlon\
A$ Friction Piles
for Full length
As Stabilizers of Banks
·,.
looaa
mettfitl
As Soil
Compactor$
As Batter Piles, Fender Piles,
Dolphin,, and Sheeting
Uses of pilea.
Figure 6- 8
111
6-10 QUALITY AND DURABILITY OF PILES
Pile should be selected properly to possess a quality capable of
resisting without damage to the following:
1. To resist crushing under vertical load
2. To resist crushing during the process of driving. Timber
piles are not susceptible to withstand high stresses due to hard
driving that requires a desirable penetration on a highly resistant
layer. In driving piles, it is very important to select the right type
of hammer and the number of blows to prevent breakage and create
damage on the pile head, piles driven by steam hammer at 15,000
ft. pound (20,340 joules) energy should not exceed three to four
blows per inch or 25 mm. to prevent breakage or brooming of the
piles, the normal resistance of pile is from 6 to 8 blows per inch
or 25 mm. which is normal and commonly specified.
3. To resist handling stresses. Timber piles should be capable
of resisting breakage or other damages that may result from hand·
ling, hauling and impact in loading or unloading.
4. To resist tension from uplift forces, heaving of soil or re·
bound in the process of driving. Timber piles shall be strong
enough to counteract the uplift f o r   ~ s and expansion of soil
including the rebound action received in the process of driving.
5. To resist horizontal and eccentric forces that will cause
bending when applied on it.
6. To resist curvature bending and column action for the por-
tions not receiving lateral support from the ground when freely
standing in air, water or a very liquid mud.
Pile Selection
In selecting the use and types of piles the following factors
are considered:
1. Availability of supply 8. Carrying capacity
2. Expected life span 9. Proximity of structure
3. Deterioration condition
10. Cost
4. Types of underground
5. Method of placing
6. Length of piles
7. Characteristic of structure and ,loading
112
Economic comparison should be based on the cost of the
entire foundation instead on the cost of the pile alone.
6-11 TIMBER PILES
Timber pile is not new in the field of construction. Vitruvius
in his writing described the Roman builders to have been using
timber piles in their foundation work as early as 58 A.D. It shows
that even the early builders during the Roman Empire dispensation
have recognized the importance of providing a structure with a
strong foundation. The use of stone, bricks and· cemented slab
footing have already been employed by the Egyptian, Romans,
Babylonians and the Mayan and Yucatan builders. The discovery of
cement by the Romans associated by the demand for a massive
structures have prompted the early builders to study the nature
and behavior of soil in carrying a massive load. It is during this
stage that timber piles were introduced in making foundation. With
the advent of power equipment used in building construction, pile
driving would not be difficult as that of the Romans way of driving
piles crudely through manpower.
TABLE 6- 2 WOOD PILE LENGTH AND DIAMETER
Diameter of Butt (em.)
Length of Pile Min. em Max em
Under 12 meters 30
13m to 18m 32
Over 18 meters 35
45
45
50
Minimum Tip
Diameter em
20
18
15
The diameter of the piles shall be measured in their peeled
condition. When the piles is not exactly round, the average mea-
surement may be used. The butt diameters for the same length of
pile shall be uniform as possible. Piles shall be peeled removing atl
the rough bark and at least 80% of the inner bark and no less than
80% of the surface on any circumference shall be cleaned wood.
No strip of inner bark remaining on pile shall be over 2 em. wide
and 20cm.long. All knots shall be trimmed close to tl'le body of
·the pile.
113
6- 12 DETERIORATION OF WOOD PILES
Wood piles are subject to deterioration caused by decay, insect
attack, marine borer attack, mechanical wear and fire. Timber
piles are said to be durable when driven below the normal water
level, on the otherhand, the life span of timber pile above water
!J level even if treated with creosote under pressure will only last for
a duration of about 40 years. Tirriber piles penetrated by salt
water are subject to deterioration caused by marine organism called
Teredo and limnoria. Wood piles under attack by marine borer
maybe terminated within a few years under extreme favorable
condition of which no amount of chemical treatment could cure
in any manner.
6-13 PROTECTION OF TIMBER PILES:
The methods of wood protect ion depends upon the local con-
ditions, types of expected economic life of the structure, severity
of service, e(!se of repairs, costs, etc. The two methods applied in
eliminating or reducing wood attack are:
1. Poisoning the wood by creosote through pressure
treatment.
2. Mechanical protection.
Untreated wood piles is capable of resisting decay indefinitely
if driven below the normal water table. CreosOte treatment protects
the outer surface of wood through penetration of the chemical
that ranges from 20 to 25 mm. Piles shall retain preservative in at
least the amount given in the following table.
TABLE 6-3 MINIMUM PRESERVATION PER CUBIC METER
OF WOOD
Uses and Type
General Use
Marine Use
114
Type of Processing
Empy Cell Process Full Cell Process
190 Kg.
200 Kg.
320 Kg.
350 Kg.
6- 14 PILE DRIVING
Before driving piles, adequate knowledge and preparation had
already been made such as. gathering of data, underground explora-
t ion and soil tests and the use of pile which were brought about by
the result of the struct ural design. Driving of pi les involves some
considerations which some of them are enumerated as follows:
1. The timber pile to be used shall be free from sharp, short
or reverse because crooked piles with sharp bend will only
create trouble during t he process of driving. ,
2. See t o it that the taper of the pile should be uniform from
the butt to t he tip.
3. The butt of the pile should be square or chamfered to fit
in the pile cap.
4. The t ip of the pile is either pointed or squared. Pointed
t ips sometimes cause the pile to drive out of vertical position that
in most cases square tip is preferred.
5. Timber pile shall be driven by the right type of hammer
because it cannot resist high stresses due to hard drivinglthat is
required to penetrate highly resistant layer of soil. Timber piles
could not be driven against a very high soil resistance without
damage and are rarely specified to receive driving load in excess of
(30 tons) 298 kilonewton but usually restricted to (25 tons) 250
KN or less. The tip of the timber pile which coul d be easily
damaged is protected by t he use of steel shoes, on the otherhand
the butt is also provided with an ample protection by the use of
cushion block.
6. Pile cushion should be attached at the hammer base in
order to reduce the impact stresses and at the same instance pro-
long the life span of the hammer. The hammer i s rat ed based upon
the energy per blow where the rated energy is the product of the
weight of the ram and the height of the fall less the friction energy
loss on the ram guide.
Driving   dif fers greatly in the manner in which they
deliver energy to the anvil or hammer cushion. The ham111er
cushion are of two different types, the soft and the hard type.
The soft type is sometimes made of wood and asbestos which are
very common although there are other types being developed. The
hard type cushion contains alternating disks of aluminum and
micarta which is considered to be efficient in i ts performance after
l15
several use while others which are of low quality such as wood
chips or coiled steer cable are rarely specif ied.
The pile cushion elements does not only protect t he top of
the pile as well as the hammer from t he high stresses but also deliver
significant influence on the wave stresses that is being developed
in the process of pile driving such as:
a. It affects the driving characteristics of the pile
b. The depth to whi ch it can be driven
c. The load carrying capacity
The selection of the type and dimension of cushion block that.
gives satisfactory result including the type of the hammer are of
two categories:
a. To assure a maximum driving force in the pile equal to
the maximum capacity of the pile without overstressing the pile.
b. As much as possibl e to transmit the maximum energy
of the hammer to the pile.
The lack of control and selection .of the right cushioning
materials which is usually recommended by the manufact urer in
their catalogue of the types of cushion block for a certain driving
hammer will permit a degree of subterfuge or escaping of the
device t o avoid impact force.
7. Driving sequence of pil e shall be given attention for it
might affect the penetration of the pile into the ground. The
central piles in a group shall not be left until the last has been
driyen to a definite depth, otherwise, this might be dangerous to
cause damages to th.e piles previously driven.
8. Driving piles near a reta ining wall should be given careful
attention for it may cause displacement and damage t o the adjoin·
ing struct ure due to the vibration of the soil.
9. Over driving indicates bending of piles, hammer bouncing,
cutting of driving plate into the pile and separation of wood along
the annual growth rings which causes head brooming. Careless
driving procedure such as unusually hard compaction of the cushion,
block tilting of the head cap, non axial blows and uneven pile
head causes damage to the pile. The head failure due to impact
of driving could be prevented by banding before drivi.ng.
116
'---A-1...:.
PlL'E. DRIV\1-16
Figure 6 - 9
TABLE 6-4 PENETRATION RESISTANCE AND SOIL
PROPERTIES BASED FROM THE STANDARD PENETRATION
TEST
Sand
Fairly Reliable
Clay
Rather Unreliable
Number .of blows   Number of blows
per meter Density per meter :Consistency
0-12 Very loose 3 very soft
12-30 loose 6-12 soft
30-90 medium 12-24 medium
90 - 150 dense 24-45 stiff
over 150 very dense over 90 hard
TABL£ 6-5 RANGE OF SKIN FRICTION FOR VARIOUS
SOIL
1. Silt and soft mud ... .... .
2 . . Silt compacted • • . . •....
3. Cl.ly and sand .. ••..•....
4. Sand with some clay ••.. •.
5. Sand and Gravel . . . . .... .
240 to 480 kg.jsa.m.
580 to 1,700 kg.jsq. m.
2.440 to 4,880 kg./sq. m.
1,950 to 3,900 kg./sq. m.
2,930 to 4,880 kg./sq. m.
117
6 -: 15 CONCRETE AND PIPE PILES
Concrete piles are cl assified into two types:
1. Cast-in-place 2. Precast piles (prestressed)
a. cased
b. uncased
CUed piles- is cast inside a metal shell form which are left in
the ground.
Uncased piles - eliminate the metal casing or shell which i n-
variably reduces the cost. The methods of construction are as
follows:
· 1. An open end pipe is driven into t he ground, clean it out
then f ill the hole with concrete and finally, the pipe is withdrawn.
2. Heavy drive is dragged into the ground by dropping a ham-
mer directly on plug of fresh concrete. The pipe is removed pro-
gressively as additional concrete mixture is rammed inside the pipe.
3. Pumping concrete under continous pressure through a hol-
low shaft of an auger, the hole is drilled by an auger which i s then
pulled out f rom the ground. Consequently concrete is then pumped
into the shaft .
4. Pipe piles usually has a diameter of 25 t o 75 em. wi th a
thickness t hat varies from 2.5 to 4.5 mm.
..
--
tlr,·.,,,
.... ,_,;,.,,
...,..,,
_,__
#/tou/11,,...
. (!VaJ""Dt>d)
118
_{)ti""
IMo.J
J;K,,., Tltilt·
co,.. tW>/4Jtf
P'l"
--1 C#MIV,.
p/Uif ff>ilt
Dr,..,, <D'Vt
tNilltdi'GWI'J
- t>itH IJ'l/f'(f
wilht:'OI'tcr.-IC'.


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m.-dr;l
lfiJ,..
1>,61>•H.
(Cob;}
Pr!dulol
l'rm.ittd,.. in (F)
 

"Y

tiMNHy -f'IINJ
$/s,l( dri_.
Slt,l/lilkd willloul
willt'I:D<nc-.hl. ttrtlnd,.;l.
(rr.anlri) (MonolviM'
Figure 6-10
_.,.,.,..
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......

.. ,...,._
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IV--

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. .,
_,_,._
-·"'·
(,,.,..,.,
'
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I
6-16 PRECAST CONCRETE PILE
Precast concrete piles are reinforced to resist high stresses ·
caused by the hammer in driving. Precast pile reduces tension
cracking caused by handling and driving. This type of piles are
resistant to deterioration even when used above the normal
water table. The presence of high concentration of magnesium or
  sulphate salts in the water may cause deterioration of the
ieinforcement in the piles through cracks, or thin protective c;on-
rete covering. Covering will spall-off as rust continues to develop.
(a) steel bonds
welded to reinf.
co
. (b)
0
(c )
a) COMMON T 'fPE USEO FOR BRIDGE TR E. S TLES.
b) FUENTES PILE.
e) 8RUMSPILE PRESTRESSED CONCRETE PROVIDED
WITH ORIVING FIT OF STEEl.. HR·RULE.
Figure 6 - 11
6- 17 DETERIORATION OF CONCRETE PILES
1. Deterioration above the ground is caused by weather and
air borne destructive elements.
2. Underground deterioration is not common unless water
contains destructive alkali, acid or salt. Other destructive elements·
may come from the chemical and industrial manufacturing plants.
3. Deterioration in sea water is caused by mechanical and
chemical action
4. Damage due to handling and driving of the concrete pile.
5. Defects in the manufacture of concrete pile. ·
6-18 METAL PILE
Metal is an excellent material for pile because of its strength
character.istics to withstand hard driving and rapid penetration
into the ground, relatively with small material displacements. The:
different metal piles used in building constructions are:
1
1
i
1. H-piles which are suitable in penetrating into rocks or any· ..
hard materials with ease in driving and least effect in time. ..,
2. Box pile- is suitable materials for pile on sliding bank or 1\
in deep water. .
3. Rail piles - the railroad rails are used by welding 3 rails \
~ o g   t h   r at head and base to form a unit pile. i
1
I
\
i
I
1.,
H·"IU
I
I
I
I
••
u
H
=
1
Figure 6 -12
6-19 DRIVING EQUIPME.NT
The. early builders in their way of driving piles used mauls,
ratchet winch rams, treadmill drivers, water wheel drivers or gang
operated rams. The first modern steam pile driving machine was
invented and introduced by Nasmyth in 1845 designed as a drop I
hammer for wood piles which was then modified into a handle I
single acting hammer. At present, piles are driven into the ground I
by means of a hammer or a vibratory generator. The hammer I
t
operates between a pair of parallel guide suspended from a standard i
lifting crane. The bottom of the guides connected at the base of 1
the crane boom by means of a horizontal member called spotter. i
The spotter is adjustable to permit a plumb position of driving i
piles and the hammer is axially guided by steel rail which was 1
incorporated in the guides. 1
1
120
{
1
I
TABLE 6-6 PROPERTIES OF SELECTED IMPACT PILE HAMMERS
Stroke Weight
Blows at Rated Striking
Rated Energy Make Model Typea
Per Energy Parts
Joules ft·lb Minuteb (em.) (Kg.)
9,844 7,260 Vulcan 2 s 70 73 1,363
1,186 8,750 MKTC 983 DB 145 42 727
1,776 13,100 MKT
1083 DB 105 47 1,363
20,340 15,000 Vulcan 1 s 60 90 2,272
20,475 15,100 Vulcan 50C OF 120 38 2,272
21,696 16,000 MKT DE-20 DE 48 243 909
24,679 18,200 Link-Belt 440 DE 86-90 90 1,818
25,967 19,150 MKT 118 DE 95 47 2,272
26.442 19;500 Raymond 65C OF 100-110 40 2,954
26,442 19,500 Vulcan 06 s 60 90 2.954
30,374 22,400 MKT OE-30 DE 48 243 1,272
30,510 22,500 Delmag D-12 DE 42-60 243 1,250
33,052 24,375 Vulcan 0 s so 97 3,408
33,086 24,400 Kobe K13 DE 45-60 259 1,304
33,154 24,450 Vulcan soc OF 111 40 3,636
-----
35,256 26,000 Vulcan 08 s 50 97 3,636
35,662 26,300 Link-Belt 520 DE 80-84 110 2.304
43,392 32,000 MKT OE-40 DE 48 243 1,818
44,070 32,500 MKT SlO s 55 97 4,545
44,070 32,500 Vulcan 010 s 50 97 4,545
44,070 32,500 Raymond 00 s 50 97 4,545
48,816 36,000 Vulcan 140C OF 103 38 6,363
53,833 39,700 Del mag D-22 DE 42-60 97 5,681
55,053 40,600 Raymond 000
s 50 243 2 204
56,002 41,300 Kobe K-22 DE 45-60 259 2,204
56,952 42,000 Vulcan 014 s 60 90 6,363
66,105 48,750. Vulcan 016 s 60 90 7,385
S a • single-acting steam; DB= double acting steam;
OF • differential Acting steam; DE= diesel.
b = after development of significant driving resistance.
c =for many-years known as McKiernan-Terry.
121
The different types of driving equipment are:
1. Drop hammer or impact hammer
2. Air or Steam hammer
a. Single acting hammer
b. Double acti ng hammer
3. Differential acting hammer
4. Diesel hammer
Drop Hammer - usually falling on the fresh concrete as in the
installation of franki pile (Figure 6-10)
Air or su-n Hammer - operates by litting .a- ram by air or
steam pressure then allowed to fall by gravity with or without the
pressure of air or steam. If the fall is due to gravity alone the
hammer is classified as Single Acting.
If air or steam pressure supports the downward fall, the ham-
mer is said to be DoW,Ie Acting or differential depending upon t he
detail of the construction.
122
DieseJ Hammer- are of two types:
a. Open ended
b. Closed ended
Open Ended Type - the ram fall s by gravity and lifted by
the explosion of fuel and compressed gas in the chamber
between ~ h   bottom of the ram and tt:le anvil block at the
housing base.
Closed Ended Hammer - the housing forms a bounce
chamber where air is compressed by the rising ram, the com·
pressed air then acts as spring that control the rise of the ram
and thereby shorten the stroke, the stored energy returns the
ram to downward stroke.
Too. high pressure will cause the hammer to jump off the
pile, such behavior is known as racking which usually cause
damage to the equipment.
The weight of the ram including its height of' fall plus
other informations regarding the different types of drivng
equipment are shown on Table 6-6.
a IIIIILI:• KTM ITUM
., .... _.
..   ....... e.tt
CUs.tiO.
Ol' r.tt HIEAO
Pit,.£ tVSMM*
OP f 10trfAl.
IJ 011••111010 DIIIIL M-·
Figure 6- 13
TABLE 6- 7 CUSTOMARY RANGE OF WORKING LOADS
IN DRIVING PILES
Type of Pile
Timber 8 fnches or 20 em. tip diameter
Concrete precast or prestressed
10 in. - 25 em. diameter
18 in.- 45 em. diameter
Steel Pile or shell, concrete filled
not mandril driven
10314" x .188 pipe
1()34" x .250 pipe
10¥4" X .250 pipe
123/4' x .250 pi pe
14 x .312 pipe.
16 x .375 pipe
Steel H section
HP lO.x 12
HP 12 X 53
HP .. 14 x 89
HP 14 X 117
. Load in tons
15-20
25 - 60.
60-200
30'7 50
45 - 70
50-80
60- 90
100-200
100-120
50- 70
so- ·go
100- 150
150-200
123
6-20 PILE SPACING
The efficiency of the pile in serving the purpose for which it
was intended should be maximized not only through proper selec·
tion of the types and length, the correct type of driving hammer
nor the right way of driving application but also the spacing which
also plays an important role in the efficient performance of the pile
in supporting superstructural load. ·
A. The effect of too close pile spacing are:
1. Creation of large horizontal pressures in driving
particularly on a relatively uncompressible underground layer
which sometimes cause damage to t he piles being. driven or
that has already been driven. .
2. The carrying capacity of the soil where the group
of piles acts may be less than the whole sum of the fractional
capacities of the soil that encloses the individual piles if too
closely spaced to each other.
B. The effect of wider spacing of piles:.
1. Wider spacing has the tendency of readily permit-
ting the latter piles in group to penetrate the same depth of
the first pile which in effect gives uniform bearing and settle-
ment.
2. Wider spacing of piles reduce heaving and tension
damage including the possibility of crushing the outer surface
of the piles.
3. The value of the group may be increased and the
piles serves efficiently if spacing is increased.
Piles intended to serve a marine structure which are exposed
to receive wave action should be spaced at a minimum of 5 times
its diameter apart to 'reduce countercurrent, whirlpool and abrasion.
6- 21 DRIVING OF PILES THROUGH AN OBSTRUCTION
In case of obstruction met during the pile driving such as
boulders, rocks or thin stone strata, an advance rod sounding jets
or diamond drill rigs is advanced before driving wood piles.
124
Pilot pile is also used before driving timber or concrete pile, an
beam, H pile or mandrell is used for this purpose. Spudding is
also applied by raising and lowering the piles with heavy precast
piles every after little driving progress.
There are several methods applied in placing piles such as;
1. By driving 7. Washing O!-!t
2. Jetting 8. Sand pumping
3. Boring 9. Blowing out
4. Ramming 10. Coring
5. Jacking 11. Drilling
6. Pulling Down 12. Explosive
,:
6- 22 CAUSES OF PILE DEFLECTION IN DRIVING
In the process of driving piles, deflection cannot be avoided
which causes the pile to penetrate the soil out of plumb. Deflec-
tion of piles during the process of driving maybe brought about by
the following: '
L Piles may glance-off to an obstruction or hit a scoping bed
rocks.
2. In soft clay, piles tend to bend toward previously installed
close-by piles due to the soil softening from remoulding during the
driving .
. 3. Bowing of the jet pipe caused by the weight of the hose
that causes piles in jetting group to penetrate out of plumb.
4. The lower portion of a batter piles sometimes tend to sag
and cau.ses curvature.
6- 23 SETTLEMENT OF FOUNDATION
The different causes of settlement due to loads imposed on the
soils are:
1. Soil bearing capacity failure including partial failure or
creep.
2. Failure or deflection of the foundation structure.
3. Shear distortion of the soil
4. Compression of the soil.
125
Other factors that contribute to the settlement or movement
of foundati.on are:
1. Subsidence due to mines or caves beneath the surface
2. Subsidence due to underground erosion
3. Landslide and creep of the underground
4. Vibration and shock of loose cohesionless soils
5. Lowering of the water table
6. Soil shrinkage by dessication or exhaustion or increase of
soli mixture
7. Lack of lateral support in excavations
8. Heave or swell - slow movement due to horizontal dis-
placement of soil vein or stratum
9. Chemical Action·- this includes decay of materials
The settlement caused by these factors are considered as in-
directly related to the superstructure load imposed on the soil.
6-24 FAILURE OF PILE FOUNDATiON
. .
The failure of the pile foundation may result from any of the
following causes:
1. Lack of adequate boring
2. Inaccurate soil classification
3. Soft strata under tip of pile
~   Inadequate driving formula (wrong data)
5. Improper size of hammer cause insufficient penetration,
too light or damaged if too heavy
6. Misinterpretation of load
7. Damaged of encased piles
8. Buckling of piles
9. Breaking of piles
10. Vibration that cause'lateral or vertical movement
11. Flowing strata caused by adjacent excavation or bank
sloughing
12. Tension failure of concrete pile for lack of reinforcement
13. Eccentricity due to bowing or falling out of plumb
14. Decay due to lower ground water level
15. Insect and marine borer attack and corrosion
16. Disintegration of concrete due to poor quality of concrete
126
or reactive aggregate
17. Collapse of the thin shell of the piles
18. Overweight due to earthfill.
REMEDIES:
1. Early repair such as encasement or replacement
2. Removal of partial load
3. Underpinning
6-25 GRILLAGE 'FOOTING
The early attempt to increase the area of footings and to mini·
mize the load was made possible through the introduction of gril-
lage footing to replace the oldest way of building foundation by
the use of masonry structure made out from various sizes of stones
joined by mortar. With the advent of reinforced concrete at the
early part of 1900, grillage footing became obsolete. Almost all
constructions are now dominated by the use of the new materials.
JC
Wf'
GRILLAGE fOOTING
Figure 6-14
12·7
CHAPTER f
SOIL TEST
UNDERGROUND EXPLORATION
Foundation design is primarily based from the result of sub-
surface investigation. The Engineer who has to make the design
must have a reasonably accurate conception of the physical pro--
perties and arrangement of the underlaying soil. The most suitable
method under a wide variety of soil conditions is by drilling a hole
into the ground and extracting samples for identification or testing.
The investigation of the underlaying materials as to its consistency
or relative density of the deposit could be made by penetration
test or other methods which do not require sampling.
7-1 AUGER BORING
The simplest device for boring a hole in the ground is the
Auger. The two varieties of hand auger commonly used for soil
investigations are the helical auger and the I wan or post hole auger.
A portable power driven helical augers are available from 8 to
30 em. oftenly used for making deeper holes .
..
7- 2 WASH BORING
Figure 7-1
IWAI&OR POST
HOL£ AUG£R
The methods applied in wash boring is to drive a piece of
metal tube of 5 to 10 em. diameter to a depth of 1.50 to 3.00 m.,
128
the tube or casing is cleared out by a chopping bit fastened to the
lower portion of the wash pipe inserted inside the tube or casing.
Water is forced down through the wash pipe by means of a high
velocity pump to rinse the fragments of soil through the annular
space between the tube and the wash pipe. This method is similar
to the process of installing an underground water pump where the
pipe is cleaned by wash pipe and water. ·
7- 3 HOLLOW STEM.AUGER BORING
A truck mounted driving rigs turn the auger into the soil
rapidly to a depth of more than 60 meters using continuous flights
of auger with hollow stem where sampling tools are operated.
Auger with 6 or 8 em. diameter are commonly used.
II.I.IGER SMAFT
SAhiPLEIIt
ROD

\LEGS OF PIPE
CHOPPH4G BIT
2 REPL ACEO BY
SAMPLING SPOON
HOLLOW- STERN AUGER I PLI!O WHilE ADVANCING
AUGER.2 PLU<I liE MOVED 1>"0   ltiSER1ED WASH 80RtN G
i'O GET SAio'Pt.E Of SOIL.
Figure 7- 2 F1gure 7- 3
7-4 ROTARY DRILliNG
Is the most rapid method for penetrating highly resistant
materials such as rocks, clay or even sand. The rotary boring dia-
meter ranges from 5 em. to 20 em. (2 to 8 inches).
1.29
t4rf4f'
: : . ~ : ~ ~ . }   ~ ~ , . ~
Fiqure 7- 4
7- 5 PERCUSSION DRILLING
Percussion drilling is sometimes called cable tool drilling used
when wash boring or auger boring could not penetrate exception-
ally hard strata of soil or rocks.
7- 6 PENETROMETER
A device used to investigate and measure the consistency of
cohesive deposit or relative density of cohesionless strata without
the necessity of drilling and getting samples. If the penetrometer is
pushed steady into the soil, the procedure is called Static penetra·
tion test, when driven into the soil it is called Dynamic Penetration
Test.
Static Penetration test is preferred for cohesive soil while
Dynamic penetration test is good for very hard deposits. Both
give satisfactory result for cohesionless soil. Standard penetration
test is the most widely used in the United States; it is done by
dropping a 60 kg. hammer into a drill rod from a height of . 70 m.,
the number of blows to make a penetration of 30 em. is regarded
as the penetration resistance.
7- 7 DUTCH CONE PENETRATION
A 600 cone with a base area of 10 sq. em. is attached to the
bottom of a rod protected by a casing, at a rate of 2 em. per
second, the cone is pushed by the rod into the ground, the cone is
slightly. larger than the pipe to minimize friction. Another method
130
of soil testing by means of a cone penetrometer is by driving a
drop hammer into the ground with constant height of fall, the
number of blows per 30 em. penetration of the point is con·
tinuously recorded and when the point reaches its final depth.
the pipe is withdrawn and the cone is left at the bottom of the
hole. The dutch cone penetration test is the most rapid and eco·
nomical method being adopted recently.
  ~ o
tASIN(i
Figure 7-5
COIIt
7- 8 VANE SHEAR TEST
The vane aparatus for shear testing clay soils in place consist
of four vertical rectangular blades bolted at right angles to a v e r ~
tical shaft. The vane is pushed into the soil and then twisted until
the soil is ruptured in a cylindrical form, shear strength is com-
puted from the maximum moment needed to rapture the soil
and the dimension of the soil cylinder.
Figure 7-6
131
7- 9 STANDARD LOAD TEST
The Building Code on load test so provides:
"Where the bearing capacity of the soil is not definitely
known or is in question, the Building Official may require
load tests or other adequate proof as to the permissible safe
bearing capacity, at that particular location. To determine
the safe bearing capacity of the soil, It maybe tested by
loading an area not less than .18 sq. m. (2 square ft.) to not
less than twice the maximum bearing capacity desired for use.
Such load shall be sustained by the soil until no a(jdltional
settlement takes place for a period of not less than 48 hours
in order that such desired bearing. capacity may be used.
Examination of sub-soil conditions may be required when
deemed necessary."
The load test procedures will be as follows:
1. Dug to the dep1 r of soi'l to be tested usually the proposed
footing level. ·
2 . . The pit width should be at least 5 times the plate width.
3. The square plate with a general d.imension of .30 x .60 m
is set on a levelled bottom of the pit.
4. Place the load on top of the plate by a platform loaded
with concrete blocks, cement or jacking with a calibrated hydra-
ulic jack against a beam properly anchored down the earth.
5. Measure the settlement by the level instrument or by a
micrometer dial gage mounted on a support independent of the
loading system.
6. Apply the load to an increment of about one tenth the
estimated failure load· or f the proposed design load until com-
plete bearing capacity failure or twice the design load is reached.
7. Each · increment is maintained constant which settlement
readings are made at regular but increasing interval such .as 1, 2, 5,
10, 20, 40, and 80 minutes. ·
8. The load test result express only the short term loading
of the model and not necessarily the long term loading of a full
sized footing. Extrapolation is necessary in order to be able to
use the data for design.
The results found in the load test requi re careful interpretation
for it may in some instances be· misleading specially if the subsoil
132
is not uniform for a considerable depth below the base of t.he pro-
posed foundation.
Figure 7·· 7
In determining the dimension required for a foundation, it is the
designers responsibility and duty to ascertain first the allowable
bearing capacity of the soil. The local Building Code authorities
should be consulted of the allowable bearing capacities to be
adopted in design. In the absence of such information, boring or
load test is necessary. Table 7·1 is presented for reference pur-
poses.
TABLE 7- 1 ALLOWABLE BEARING CAPACITY OF
VARIOUS SOILS
Underground Kg. per pounds per ton per kilopascal!
classification sq.m. sq. ft. sq. ft. k Pa
A.lluvial soil 4,891 1.000 1k 54
Sof clay 9,782 2,000 1 107
Firm Clay 19,564 4,000 2 215
Wet sand 19,564 4,000 2 215
Sand and Clay mixed 19,564 4,000 2 215
Firm Dry sand 29,345 6,000 3 322
Coarse dry sand 39,128 8,000 4 430
Gravel 58,690 12,000
1
6 644
Gravel & sand well
cemented 78,256 16,000 8 860
Hardpan or Hard shale 97,818 20,000 10 1,073
Medium Rock 195,636 40,000 20
2,146
Rock under Caisons 244,545 50,000 25 2,681
Hard Rock 782,545 160.000 80 8,580
133
CHAPTER 8
POST AND COLUMN
8-1 DEFINITION
Post"" Refers to a piece of timber of either cylindrical, square
or other geometrical cross section placed vertically to support a
building; a compression vertical member not continuous from
story to story is also called post.
Column = Refers to a vertical structure used to support a
building made of stone, concrete, steel or the combination of the
above materials.
Story = Is the space in a building between floor levels or
between a floor and a roof above.
8- 2 WOODEN POST
Unlike other parts of the building that could be easily replacea,
wooden post shall be selected out from the best quality of lumber
under the classification of the first or second group for strength
and durability. Treated lumber is also used as wooden post in the
absence of hardwood lumber.
134
Wood post are erected in the following manner:
1. After dressing the wood post, the bottom portion is
evenly cut with the atd of the steel square.
2. A charcoal or chalk mark is established along the face
length of the post connecting the opposite end. This
marking will serve as the reference line for checking its
vertical position.
3. From the bottom of the post, indicate -the distance
where the girder and girts will be attached and make
the necessary dap before its erection.
4. The post could be erected manually with the aid of
2 x 3 lumber braces or by the use of rope and pulley
anchored on a jump-pole.
5. Check the vertical position of the post on two sides by
the aid of plumb-bob. Have it braced on four sides and
~   i l the wooden post temporarily to the post strap.
6. With the use of boring tools. dril1 a hole across the two
straps and have it bolted to its positions.
...
I
I L j· I
'- -· -_I
ol EltlCTION OF WOOO POST
Figure 8-1
- -·
P ...
. __ .. ..._.....  
· fi:of>• M
Bof Clomp
' I
r·Jt j_ ·1
1-- --- ·l
bl CORRECTING TNE 8E ND
POST
TABLE 8- 1 DIMENSION OF WOODEN POSTS OR SUPORTALES
Maximum Maximum Maximum Required Maximum
Types of Building Height of Height Spacing Finished Size of
1st Floor Total (m) of Post (m) Suportales
1 storey shed 4.00 3.50 10 X lOcm ·
1 storey shed 3.00 4.00 lOx lOcm
1 storey shed 5.00 4.00 12.5 x 12.5 em
1 storey house or
chalet l.OOm 5.50 3.60 12.5 x 12.5 em
2 storey house or 6.00 3.00 12.5 x 12.5 em
2 storey house 4.50m 7.00 4.00 12.0 x 15.0 em
2 storey house 5.00m 8.00 4.50 17.5 x 17.5 em
2 storey house .9.00 4.50 20.0 x 20.0 em
'11i:
Logs or tree trunk supportales may be utilized as post in its
indigenous traditional type of construction, provided, that they
are of the sizes and spacing capable to sustain vertical loading
equivalent to the loading capacity of the posts and spacing as pro-
vided for on Table 8-1.
COMMENTS:
Bent post could be corrected in the process of construction,
but no att6mpt should be made to correct the bent unless proper
bracing and adequate support be made first, otherwise, the found-
ation pedestal might break-up during the operation. The usual
failure of this nature is the crushing of the pedestal brought
about by the twisting of the wrought iron post strap. ·
At present, the trend is to avoid the use of wooden post in
building construction under the following considerations:
1. Reinforced concrete column appears to be cheaper and
durable.than the wood post.
2. Commercial lumber nowadays are taken from young
trees thereby producing inferior quality of lumber.
3. Hardwood is scarce and could hardly be found in big
lumber or sawmills. ·
4. The cracks between the wooden post and the concrete
wall is inevitable aside from its prominence on the wall
· finished.
5. Wooden post is susceptible to decay brought about by
moisture insect, worms, termites and the like.
8- 3 REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMN
Reinforced concrete is at preseRt the most popular and widely
used materials for column of buildings instead of wooden post
regardless of its size or height.
136
Reinforced concrete columns are classified as:
1. Short Column = When the unsupported height is not
greater than ten times the shortest lateral dimension of the
cross sect ion.
2. long Column = When the unsupported height is more
than ten times the shortest lateral dimension of the cross
section.
Columns are classified according to the types of reinforcement
used:
1. Tied Column
2. Spiral Column
3. Composite Column
4. Combined Column
5. Lally Column
!--Lateral
t1es
Tied Column Spiral Column Composite Column Combined Column
Figure 8 ·.2
8- 4 TIED COLUMN
T.ied column· has reinforcement consisting of vertical or longi-
tudinal bars held in position by lateral reinforcement called lateral
ties. The vertical. reinforcement shall consist of at least 4 bars
with a manimum diameter of No.5 or 16 mm steel bars.
Lateral ties= The ACI Code so provides:
"All non-prestressed bars for tied column shall be enclosed
by lateral ties of at least No. 3 in size for lon9.itudinal bars No.
10 or smaller and at least No. 4 in size for No. 11, 14 and 18
and bundled longitudinal bars. The spacing of the ties shall not
exceed 16 longitudinal bar diameter, 48 tie bar diameter or the
least dimension of the column".
The Code is specific that 13/8") or 10 mm diameter steel bar
shall be used as lateral ties for a column reinforced with 32 mm or
smaller longitudinal bars. Likewise, 12 mm steel bar shall be used
as lateral ties for column with longitudinal reinforc'3ment having
a diameter from 36 to 57 mm including those longitudinal bun-
dled bars.
137·
The spacing of the lateral ties of a tied column is governed by
three factors:
1. Should not be more than 16 times the diameter of the
longitudinal or main reinforcing bar.
2. Should not be more than 48 times the diameter of the
lateral ties.
3. Not more than the shortest dimension (side) of the column.
To find the spacing of lateral ties required for a tied column,
the following illustration is presented:
Hlustration:
Determine the spacing of the lateral ties for a tied column
as shown on Figure 8 - 3.
0
-lG,.m
- ---IDN•m
~ . 2 0       ~
.fO
IQ.,..rn ...J
\
'"'·
Figure 8-3
Solution:
a. The diameter of the longitudinal bar is (3/4"1 or 20 mm
The diameter of the lateral ties is (3/8") or 10 mm
b. Multiply: 16 x 20 mm = 32 cm ·
c. Multiply: 48 x 10 mm ::= 48 em
d. The shortest side of column = 30 em
From the result·of the above computation, it could be readily
seen that the least value found Is 30 em. therefore, the spacing of
the lateral ties will be af 30 centimeters on center.
When there are more than 4· vertical bars in a tied column,
additional ties shaU be provided in order to hold the longitudinal
bars firmly to its designed position. The Code further states:
138
"the ties shall be so arranged that every corner and the
alternate longitudinal bar shall have lateral support provided
by the corner of the tie having an inclined angle of not more
than 135 degrees and no bar shall be farther apart than 15 em
clear on either side from such a laterally supported bar."
[g] J[: J: ll
111 ACI Coot .
II. II ( ] J
Figure 8-4
Ratio 1nd Limitation = The size and number of
steel bars to be plac,ed in a tied column is governed by the pro-
porti on of its cross secti onal area to the gross area of the column.
"The cross sectional area of the vertical reinforcement
shall not be less than .01 nor more than .08 times the gross
area of the column section. ••
Illustration:
Find the .mm1mum and maximum steel bats that could be
placed in a tied column having a cross sectional dimension of
(10" x 12") or 25 x 30 em.
Solution:
D
... ,. .. -...
I{) · 29 Mt'l"'l
   
MINIMUM REINFORCHIIEI/T
Figure 8-5
A - Minimwn Reinforcement:
a. Solvo for the cross sectional area of the column,
25 x 30 = 750 sq em
(10" x 12""' 120 sq in)
139
b. Solve for the minimum area of the vertical re-
inforcement.
.01 x 750 = 7.5 sq. em.
{.01 x 120 = 1.2 sq. in.)
c. Convert this area to the size and number of steel
bars by the aid of Table 5 -I. 9
Area of 4 pes. No. 5 (16 mm) bar = 8.04 sq. em.
(Area of 4 pes No. 5 (5/8") bar = 1. 24 sq. in.
8 Maxim lilt Reinforcement:
a. .08 x 750 = 60 sq. em.
(.08 x 120 = 9.6 sq. in.)
b. Table 5-2 shows that:
(English) 10 pes No. 9 bars gross area= 10.0 sq. in
8 pes. No. 10 bars gross area= 10.12 sq. in.
Metric: 10 pes. 28 mm gross area = 61.6 sq. em.
8 pes. 32 mm grons area = 64.3 sq. em.
From the result of the above illustration, it appears that the
minimum steel bars that could be placed in a 25 x 30 em. column
are 4 pes 16 mm steel bars. Likewise, the maximum reinforcing
bars that could be placed therein are ei'ther 10 pes 28 mm or 8
pes 32 mm diameter. The above example shows how to determine
the least and the most number of bars that could be placed in a
tied column.
Bundled Bars - Difficul ties had been encountered in placing
concrete inside the forms congested with steel bars. A col umn
that is heavily loaded with reinforcement has this serious problem
when large number of steel bars are positioned and held individual-
ly by lateral t ies. Bundled bars are sometimes employed consisting
of 2 to 4 bars tied in direct contact with each other to serve or act
as one unit reinforcement placed at the corner of the l ateral ties.
· ~ •   L I   ••u
Figure 8 · 6
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9

Allowable Load on a Tied Column - All parts of building
structures are. designed to carry load or resist forces classified ac·
cording to the manner how it was designed. Tied column design
could either be under designed, over designed or standard designed
which connotes unsafe, costly or safe respectively. The design of a
column shall be sufficiently strong to carry a super imposed load
which is referred to as the allowable load.
These tables are presented with the end view that it could be
of help in some ways to the reader in determining or checking the
column size and the steel bars required to support a given load.
The use of these tables will shorten the time and lessen the efforts
to be exerted _on the mathematical processes involved using various
formula.
The special features offered by the tables are:
1. How to determine the size of the tied column and the
quantity of the steel ban required to carry a given load.
2. To check the strength of a tied column if its size and rein·
forcements are either adequate, less or excessive to what is needed.
The principal consideration involved in the design of structure
are: cost and strength. The term cost is academic and easily under·
stood because anything that involves money be it in the form of
income or expenses is everyone's concern and it is where human
interest comes in.
· Failure of tied Column -Tied column failure is by crushing
and shearing outward along an enclined plane where vertical bars
fail by buckling outward between lateral ties. The failure of a tied
column is said to be abrupt and complete and is considered to be
more disastrous than the failure of a single beam or girder in the
same floor.
PAII.UR! 01' A T If D COLIIIIIN
Figure 8-7
The design of a structure should be strong and safe to both life
and property but economical in the sense that the sizes and ma-
terials specif ied are just enough to resist all kinds of stresses im-
posed on it.
In using these tables, the following illustrations are presented.
PROBLEM:
Determine the size of a tied column having an unsupported
length of 9 feet and the reinforcement required to support an
axial load of lOO,OQO pounds (100 kips) with the following speci-
fications: .
F'c = 3,000 psi
Fs = 20,000 psi
SOLUTION:
1. Assume a column size, say 10" x 12'' having· a cross sec-
tionai area of 120 sq. inches.
2. Referring to Table 8-2, the load carried by the concrete
under the column F'c 3,000 is 65 kips.
3. Substract: 100 kips less 65 kips= 35 kips.
35 kips is the excess load to be carried by the concrete,
which is then to be carried by the steel bars. With the aid
of Table 8-3,
4. Under the column of Fs = 20,000 psi, 19 kips and 77 kips
are 1he values of minimum and maximum load of bars that
are allowed on a 10" x 12" cross sectional dimension of
tied column.
5. It will be noted that since 35 kips fall within the limit of
19 and 77 kips, the assumed column size is acceptable.
6. Referring to Table 8-3 under the column of Fs 20,000 psi
it shows that:
a. 4 pes. No. 7 bars could support 38 kips or
b .. 8 pes No. 5 bars could support 40 kips
Either of these arrangement will be acceptable being slightly
greater than 35 kips. However, the limitation for bar spacing as
explained in. Chapter 3 shall be observed. In this particular case,
values found on (b) is preferred.
I
1.44
Figure 8-8
  o n ~ i o n to Metric MaaiUre = Table 8-2 and 8-3 were repro-
duced from ACI Reinforced Concrete Design Handbook. Values
are of the old English measure including the computation of the
example problem.
The valtAes from the table together with the illustration could
be easily converted to the new Sl system of measure with the aid
of the conversion factor presented below. Consequently, it was
not changed abruptly - specially at this time of transition from
English to Metric system because, it would be difficult for one to
adjust if the figures were completely changed with a new one he
Is not so familiar with.
'Problem :
Convert to Metric equivalent the values on Table 8·2 and 8-3
as used in the illustration presented and the result with the aid of
the following conversion factor :
Multiply
pounds per square inch (psi) x
pounds per square inch (psi) x
pounds of force x
pounds x
.inch X
kips x
by
0.704
6.895
4.448
.4545
2.54
454.5
to get
kg.jsquare em.
kilopascals
newtons
kilograms (kg.)
centimeters
kilograms
145
Construction Method of 1 Tied Column:
There are three methods presented in the construction of a
tied column for a small and medium reinforced concrete cons-
truction.
1. Block laying of walls after the concreting of the columns
2. Concreting of the column before the block laying of the
walls.
3. Simultaneous concreting of the columns and walls.
Tied column vertical reinforcements are anchored on the
footing by means of steel dowels tied to the footing reinforce-
ments or, the main reinforcements Itself attached to the footing
reinforcement followed by the pouring of concrete.
Sometimes the concreting of the footing is simultaneous with
the pouring of the column, depending upon the specifications and
methods being adopted by the Engineer or construction supervi-
sor. The construction of a tied column under the first method of
"block laying after the concreting of the column" shall be as
follows:
. Step 1 = construct the scaffoldings that will support the
column reinforcement to its vertical position. Usually there are
4 pes. of lumber vertically installed around the column provided
by horizontal braces spaced at 1.00 m elevation.
Step 2 = lransfer the markings and reference line of the build·
ing from the batter board to the lower and upper horizontal mem-
ber of the scaffolding. Check the vertical projection of these mark-
ings by the use of the plumb bob.
Step 3 = .Provide a temporary horizontal wood brace above
and below the scaffolding inserting it across the reinforcement to
hold the bars to its vertical position. The idea of inserting the
brace across the reinforcement is to give way to the installation of
the column forms.
Step 4 = Ascertain the vertical position of the reinforcement
in the row of several column In both directions, then install the
small sides of the forms in opposite direction and insure its vertical
position.
1.46
Figure8-9
Step 5 = Do not cover the forms until after the following
accessories have been verified from the plan and installed if there is:
a. Downspout
b. Electrical conduit & utility o x e ~
c. Standpipe or fire hydrant
d. Plu.mbing and water line
e. Telephone line
f. Burglar alarm line
g. Intercom and door bell I ine
h. Steel dowels for wall doors etc.
Step 6 = In the final covering of the forms. see to it that the
wider cover is provided with charcoal mark and nails to serve as
guide in ascertaining the column size and in fixing the form to its
vertical position. Remove all dirt and debris before closing the
form.
Step 7 = Do not leave the column forms until it is firmly set
and completely supported. Most of the bulging failure of forms are
due to negligence and the inherited manana attitude.
Step 8 = Before concreting have the work inspected by the
authorized inspector or supervisors. Usually this is done before the
closing of the forms giving the inspector the access to see the sizes
and arrangement of the reinforcing bars.
The construction of columns under the second condition of
"Concreting the Columns after the Blod< Laying of the Walls" are
as follows:
Step 1 = The wall footing construction includes the installa-
tion of the vertical reinforcement of the wall. Block laying follows
immediately the concreting of the wall footing to save cement
mortar.
Step 2 = The space altoted for the column reinforcement is left
vacant in the process of block laying.
Step 3 = Install the pipes for downspout, conduits, utility
boxes and others.
Step 4 = Clear the column space with sawdust, earth, dlrts,
debris and wash thoroughly before installing the column forms.
Step 5 = Install the forms enclosing the column reinforcement,
check the allignment and vertical position, have it properly braced
or cross-tied with galvanized wire or machine bolts then pouring of
concrete mixture could follow.
Comments:
Figure8-10
COitCitiT••• 01' c:o1.11•" '""Ill 1\.0c:ll
LAYIU
1. This type of construction requires only two pieces of forms
to cover each column, the, reinforcement being flanked on two
sides by the hollow block walls.
2. The bond between the wall and the column will be strong.
er, unlike when it was connected by mortar in the process of block
laying. Cracks between this joint will be unlikely to appear on the
surface.
148
3. Horizontal bars used in the block laying were laid conti·
nuous across the column reinforcement. This process minimizes
the horizontal overlapping splices and consequently, eliminate the
use of horizontal dowels supposed to be inserted across the
column in preparation for the wall construction if column con·
creting is ahead of the block laying.
4. The columns will not be much affected by shocks or
vibrations caused by removing the forms because the column is
laterally supported by the hollow block walls. Likewise, the work
is easy, fast and economical less the destruction of the forms, lum-
ber braces, waste of nails and labor aside from the handy handling
of transferring and re-installing of the forms.
5. Not all columns fall under this condition, because there are
also independent columns that are free from the wall layout of
which the previous methods discussed shall apply.
The methods of construction under the third condition of
simultaneous pouring of column and walls in one setting of mixing.
could only be made possible if the concrete mixture for both
columns and walls are of the same proportions. On the other hand,
if the proportion of concrete differs from one another, one must
be ahead of the other and it is preferred to give the column such
priority which in effect the method falls under the first condition.
8- 5 SPIRAL COLUMN
- Spiral column is the term given where a circular concrete core
is enclosed by spirals with vertical or longitudinal bars. The verti-
cal reinforcement is provided with evenly spaced continuous
spiral held firmly in position by at least three vertial bar spacers.
The column reinforcement is also protected by a concrete cover-
ing cast monolithically with the core. Comparatively, this type of
column is stronger than the tied column and is preferred for a
slender (long) column in carrying heavy load.
When .a load is imposed on a cylindrical column, a lateral
pressure is exerted at the confining materials which eventually
causes hoop tension in the spiral, a closely spaced spiral confining
the concrete and vertical bars counteracts the lateral expansion
while the concrete in the core increases its carrying capacity: The
sign of failure of a spiral column is advanced by the shell (pro-
tective covering} spall off due to excessive load, but failure of the
column occurs only when the spirals yield or burst. Unlike the tied
149
column that fails abruptly, the spiral column with heavy spirals
shows a gradual and ductile failure.
-=.:::::.··
~ 3 ~ ........ Spiral-
.':'== e
. ~ J: ,,-...., ......... .._._
Figure 8-11
Spiral Reinforcement Umltatlon and Spacing = For cast in
place construction, spiral reinforcement shall have a minimum dia-
meter of 10 mm. and that the dear spacing between the spirals
shall not be more than 7.5 em. or less than 2.5 em. The longi-
tudinal reinforcement area to the gross column area shall not be
less than .01 nor more than .08 and that the minimum number of
vertical bars shall not be less than 6 pes. of 16 mm bar diameter.
l.SO
*Section 7.12.2 of the ACI Building Code specifies "Spi-
ral reinforcement for compression members shall consist of
evenly spaced continuous spiral held   l r m ~ y in place and true
to line by vertical spacers. At least two spacers shall be used
for spirals less than .50 m. diameter, three for spirals .50 to
.75 meter in diameter and four spirals for more than .75 m
diameter. When bigger size of .steel bar is used for spiral such as
16 mm or larger, three spacers shall be used for a spiral having
.60 m or less in diameter and four spacers to a spiral having
more than .60 m diameter .•. The spirals shall be protected
from distortion due to h.andling and placing from the designed
dimension."
*note: conversion of measures from English to Metric were
supplied.
Spiral Anchorage and Splicing= .. The anchorage of spiral re-
inforcement shall be provided by one and a half extra turn of
spiral bar or wire at each end of the spiral unit. When splicers
are necessary for special bars it shall be tension lap splices
with 48 bar diameters as minimum but in no case shall be less
than 30 em. or weld.
The reinforcing spiral shalt extend from the floor level in
any story or from the top of the footing to the level of the
lowe.st horizontal reinforcement in the slab, drop panel or
beam above. Where beams or brackets are not present on all
sides of the column, ties shall extend above the terminal of the
spiral to the bottom of the slab or drop panel. In a column
with a capital, the spiral shall extend to a plane at which the
diameter or width of the capital is twice that of the column."
Problem:
Determine the size of a short spiral column and the steel re-
inforcement required to carry an axial load of 200,000 pounds
when fc = 3,000 psi; fs "" 20,000 psi using cold drawn wire for ~  
spiral reinforcement and there will be - 1112 inches concrete pro-
tection .
. Solution:
1. Assume a circular column say 15 inches diameter .
2. The column load is 200,000 pounds or 200 kips.
3. Table 8-4 under round columns; load on concrete fc =
3,000 shows that a 15 inches diameter concrete carries
119 kips_
4. Subtracting 119 from 200 kips, the excess load on con-
crete is= 81 kips to be carried by the steel bars.
5. Referring to Table 8-4 the load on bars under fs = 20,000
psi are 35 kips minimum and 187 kips maximum since the
excess load is 81 k ips which falls between the minimum
and maximum value, the assumed column size of 15 inches
is acceptable. '
6. Referring to Table 8-5 under "Rail or Hard Rail" fs ==
20,000 psi, seven pieces of No. 7 bars carries 84 kips load.
7. Table 8-6 .. shows that 11 inches core diameter col umn
could accomodate 8 pieces No. 7 steel bars; therefore, the
7 pieces of No. 7 found on step 6 is satisfactory.
8. Referring to Table 8-7 under ·•cold drawn 1 1/2., concrete
protect ion" and 15 inches column size; 3/ 8" spiral shatl be
spaced at 2 inches pitch.
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Ex«eise Probl.-n:
Solve the above problem as illustrated in Metric Measure {SI)
using the following conversion factor:
Multiply
psi
psi
pounds
pounds of force
inch
kips
by
X 0.704
)( 6.895
)( .4545
X 4.448
)( 2.54
X 454.5
to get
kg/cm
2
kPa
kg.
N
em
kg.
*Note: for more conversion factor see appendices.
The preparation of the spiral reinforcement is very much dif·
ferent from that of the tied column reinforcement because the
former requires the skill and technique of making the spiral in
accurate measurement to a required diameter. It is suggested that
the spiral are bent continuously around a circular pattern disregard-
ing momentarily the pitch. The spiral will just be adjusted to the
specified distance or pitch by stretching the spring gradually
upward during the tying or assembling stage.
8- 6 COMPOSITE COLUMN
Composite column is another type of column where structural
steel column is embedded into the concrete core of a spiral col-
umn.
The work involved under this type of column is similar to that
of a spiral column after the structural steel have been set to its
position.
8- 7 COMBINED COLUMN
A column with structural steel encased in concrete of at least
7 em. thick reinforced with wire mess surrounding the column at
a distance of 3 centimeters inside the outer surface of the concrete
covering.
159
<.\\
IT

~  
Figure 8-12
COMS\JilEtl COLUMN
Figure 8-13
The construction processes of a combined cofumn calls for the
installation of the structural steel as the main reinforcement,
followed by the attachment of the wire mess covering. The wire
mess serves as the holder ribs of the encased concrete. Usually the
wire mess is attached to the structural steel by weld. The form
makes no different with that of the previous methods discussed
for tied and spiral column.
160
8- 8 LALLY COLUMN
lafly column is a fabricated post made of steel pipe provided
with a plain flat steel bars or plate which hold a girder, girts or
beam. The steel pipe is sometimes filled with grout ·or concrete
for additional strength and protection from rust or corrosion.
IJI)HM-- B•am
-eo\t
J/61Jli-- W·I · S-tr41p
    'P14lte
'f'ootin.9
Figure 8-14
161
CHAPTER 9
PLATFORM- FLOOR STRUCTURE
9- 1 WOOD FLOOR SYSTEM
Floor framing rs that platform structure of the building sus-
pended by posts, columns, walls and beams. Wood, being the basic
construction materials, with the development of machineries and
sawmills advanced the knowledge and methods of construction
that skeleton frame type was introduced taking full advantages of
the different sizes of lumber that could be interchangeably made
into framing purposes .
The design of a platform - floor system depends upon the
following considerations:
1. Live Load
2. Dead Load
3. Types of materials to be used
4. Sizes of the structural members.
5. Spacing of the structural members
6. Span of the supports.
Live Load - Refers to those movable loads imposed on the
floor such as people, furniture and the like.
. Dead Load - Refers to the static load such as the weight of
the construction materials which generally carry the live toad.
Types of Materials to be used- The choice from the various
construction materials available such as lumber, concrete, steel
etc.
The sizes and spacing of the structwal members depends upon
its strength and capability to carry the load at a certain spacing.
Span of the supports- pertains to the distances between the
posts, columns or supporting   l l s ~
The platform-floor framing structure is classified into the
following types:
a) The Plank and beam floor type
b) The panefized - floor system
c) The conventional floor framing system.
162
•) I'LAMI( en .. 8f:AN
Figure 9 -1
  .
Among the three different types of floor framing system, the
conventional type is the most popular and widely used because of
economy, simplicity and ease of work.
The different parts of a platform floor system are:
1. Girder 6. Trimmer
2. Sill 7. Tail Beam
3. Floor Joists 8. Ledger Strip
4. Bridging 9. Draftstop Plate
5. Header 1 0. Floor'ing
Girder: -Is a principal beam extending from wall-to wall of a
building supporting the floor joists or floor beams. Others define
girders as the major horizontal support members upon which the
floor system is laid. Girders may either be:.
a) Solid
b) Built-up
163
.... _
.... _
Figure 9-2
Sill: - That part of the side of a house that rests horizontally
upon the foundation. Sill is further defined as those wood m   m ~
bers fastened with anchor bolts to the foundation walls.
Floor Joists: -Are those parts of the _floor system placed on
the girders where the floor boards are fastened. Joists are usually
nailed on the girders at a distance from 30 to 35 em. on center
rigidly secured by bridging to prevent from wagging sideways.
164
Figure 9 - 4
Tail ben, Ledger strip, Dr.tbtop Plate
Figure 9-5
Header end Trimmer: - Header is a short transverse j oist that
supports the end of the cut·off joist at a stair well hole. Trimmer
is a supporting joist which carries an end portion of a header.
Figure 9-6
Fl ooring: - The Tongue and Groove which are popularly
known as T & -G is generally speci f ied for wood f looring. The
T & G board thickness is either t t \ 2 em. or (1") 2.5 em. with
varying width. that ranges from 7 em. to 15 em. {3 - 6") and the
length from (8. to 20') 2.50 to 6.00 m. long.
Figure 9-7
"REINFORCED CONCRETE FLOOR SYSTEM:"
9 - 2 BEAM
Beam is a structural member that supports the t ransverse load
which usuall y rest on supports at its end.
Girder - is the term appl ied t o a beam that supports one or
more smaller beam.
Beams are clasified as:
a} Simple Beam
b) Cont inuous Beam
c) Semi-Conti nuous Beam
165
Simple Beam: Refers to the beam having a single span support-
ed at its end without a restraint at the support. Simple beam is
sometimes called as simply supported beam. Restraint means a
rigid connection or anchorage at the support.
Continuous Beam:- Is a term applied to a beam that r&st on
more than two supports.
tlfTIRICHI II'AJI
lltettrolnt
•ncttara ••
tOft SPAN
COIITIIIUOUS II Alo
Figure 9 -a
Uf\tUCr••""
o.-ctt•r•t•
Semi-Continous Beam: - Refers to a beam with two spans
with or without restraint at the two extreme ends.
   

$111PI.f 8£AIII Oft liM•
"W suP,.o•no
UAIII
111111 COIITIIIUOVI IIAM
Figure 9-9
Cantilever Beam:- Is supported on one end and t he other end
projecting 'beyond the support or wall.

Figure 9 -10
T - Beam: -.When floor slabs and beams. are' poured simul-
. taneously producing a monolithic structure where the portion of
the slab at both sides Of the beam serves as flanges of the T-Beam.
The beam below the slab serves as the web member and is some·
called stem.
166
INTEO!tA'tfl> I>ESIO!t
OF T•BEAM
_FionQ"--,
_,!.
I ~  
W•t> or S?•tn
Figure 9 ·11
""
~



~

ill
BASIS 01' TORTIONAL SEC-
TION PROPER'tiES AND
TYPIC A\. 1\E INI'ORCEMENT
~ I
Shear: - Is the effect of external forces that acts upon the
structure causi_ng the adjacent sections of a member to slip at each ·
other.
Strength- Is the cohesive power of the materials that resist an
attempt to pull it apart in the direction of its fiber.
Ultimate Strength:- Is the maximum unit of stress developed
at any time before rupture.
Moment:- Is the tendency of a force to cause rotations about
a certain point or axis. ,
Strain: ~ Is a kind of alteration or deformation produced by
the stresses.
Stress: - Is an internal action set up between the adjacent
molecule of the body when acted upon by forces. or combination
of forces, which produces strain. Stress refers to the pressure of
load, weight and some other adverse forces or influences.
9-3 RELATION BETWEEN THE MATERIALS AND STRUC·
TURE
Building structure has to be distinguished from building ma·
terials. The combination of different building materi.als that make
it into' a building part is called building structure. The building
material in its raw form or unit has nothing to do with the strength
or participation in supporting nor resisting the load unless utilized
to be a member of the structure. The utilization of the different
materials in the structure has their own purpose ot service in
counteracting the different forces affecting the structure. '
167
Thaf is where design comes in to determine their sizes, quan·
tity, quality, spacing, proportions, mixture etc.
Although the subjer.t matter in dealing with stresses, moments,
compression torsion and the like are beyond the scope of this
subject, it Is considered important to discuss the topicbrieflyto
orient the reader and the beginner builders of the rudimentary
knowledge on how these terms influence the principle of designing
structure. Likewise, the reacting b'ehaviour of the structure when
different forces are applied on it are relevant in the knowledge of
building construction. ·
The DIFFERENT KINOS OF STRESSES THAT MAY ACT
ON THE STRUCTURE ARE:
1. Compressive stresses
2. Tension (Tensile) Stress
3. Shear Stress and Strain
4. Torsional Stress and Strain
Figure 9-12
Stresses on structures are usually brought about by load whictr
are classified into three categories:
a) Dead Load:-
Dead LOads are those loads that are distributed or concen-
trated, which are fixed in position throughout the lifetime of the
structure such as the weight of the structure itself.
168
The dead load on a beam are also categorized Into two:
1. Concentrated Load
2. Distributed Load
b) Live Load: - · •
Live toad refers to the occupancy load which is either partially
or fully in place or may not be present at all.
c) Environmental Load:-
Environmental load consist of wind pressure and suctions,
earthquake loads rainwater on flat roof, snow and forces caused
by temperature differentials.
Figure 9-13
9-4 BEHAVIOR Of BEAM UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF
. . .
LOAD
A homogeneous concrete beam even if free from carrying live
or concentrated loads has to carry its own weight classified as a
distributed load. The gravitational effect of its own weight will
cause the structure to sag or bend downward between its support
as shown on the following illustrations:
                                  .. -· .. _ TI
. u .·
          __ .. _ --1 r · ·------- 1 r
Figure 9-14
169
Bending Moment: - Moment is the tendency of a force to
cause rotation about a certain point or axis. Bending moment are
· of two different types. the Positive bending and the Negative
bending. The positive bending exists when the beam bends down·
ward between its supports where the upper portion of a beam
. above the neutral axis is compressed while the lower portion is
stretched at the opposite directions. The Negative bending mo·
ments exist when the beam is bending above the supports com·
pressing the lower part of the beam below the neutral axis and
stretching the upper portion of the structure .
......... ..... ft.
Figure 9· 15
9- 5 REINFORCEMENT OF CONCRETE BEAM
It could be clearly seen from the behavior of concrete beam
under the influence of load that the structure reacts correspond-
ingly with the kind of interacting forces applied on it such as, the
positive and negative bending which may cause its failure or
collapse. It is under this principle that concrete beam has to be
provided with reinforcement in order to prevent rupture of the
fibers under stress.
170
1...om;r ~     t e as a homogeneous material is said to be strong in
supporting compression load but weak in resisting tension forces.
Steel on the otherhand, possesses the strength qual ity to resist
both compression and tension forces. The combination of con-
crete and steel producing "Reinforced Concrete" offers the solu-
tion to the problem. The principl e behind the design of reinforced
concrete is to avail of the strength of concrete in its capacity to
carry the compression load and the steel to resist tension loads or
·•
forces. When the area of the concrete and steel are just enough to
carry the compression and tension forces simultaneously, the de-
sign is called "Balance Reinforcement or Bal ance Beam". The
.buil ding Code on balanced reinforcement so provides that · the
cross sectional area of steel reinforcement shall be equal to .005
times the cross sectional product of the width and the depth of
the beam. Thus -
"Find the cross sectional area of steel bars required for a
beam having a cross sectional dimension of 25 x 40 em. in
order t o be considered as a balanced beam.
. .
As = .005 X 25 X 40
= 5 sq. em
This is the minimum requi red area of steel bars in a 25 x 40
conc·ret e beam to be considered as "Balanced Beam"
Figure 9· 16 .. , ·
9 - 6 THE COMPRESSION AND TENSION IN A BEAM
From Figure 9-15 the depth of the beam is divided at the
center by a horizontal line called the Neutral Axis (NA). The
portion above the axis at the support or column is under tension
while the lower part is under compression.
171
Likewise, the lower portion of the beam that tends to bend down-
ward between the support is under tension while the upper part is
·under compression. With the principle that concrete is to carry the
compression load while the steel is to resist the tension forces,
steel bars are placed in the portion of the beam where tension
stresses developed.
For positive bending the steel bars are placed at the lower
portion of the beam. Whereas, in those areas where negative
moment occurs the reinforcements are placed on the upper
portion. To do these, there are two methods that may be em-
ployed. ·
[[]]
ill
....
•teel btrt • fO ••vN4rMt fiJI' ....... ¥. ·"· A•••tl'4 ••tat Ia ..... .
•••• •••t,.,,,.. e4oot       •"•"••"'•"' •• ••••• .. *'141'• a .. .-
Figure 9
1. Bent Reinforcing Bars: Reinforcing bars are bent up on or
near the inflection points and are extended at the top of the beam
across the support towards the adjacent span. lnfltction points
refers to the porticm of a beam where bending moment changes
from positive to negative. This is usually located at a distance of
about t to t length of beam from the face of the support.
2. No Bent Ban: -When bars are not bent, an additional
straight reinforcing bars are placed on the top of the beam across
the supports extended to the required length usually a distance
about i the beam span length from the face of the support,
other straight additional bars are also placed at the bottom cen-
ter of the beam span where positive moment deveJops.

Under the first method, the advantage of the bend bars is its
function to resist the diagonal tension and shear which are usually
counteracted by the stirrups or web reinforcement. On the other
hand, the second method offers ease in the fabrication and install·
ation of reinforcing bars unlike the former that inconvenience are
usually encountered in the fabrication of bent bars and the   i f f i ~
culties of repair when cut or bent Incorrectly.
9-7 SPACING OF REINFORCING BARS IN BEAM:
Reinforcing bars are. placed accurately and properly secured in
position with the use of concrete or metal chairs, spacers, or
bolsters. If the beam design calls for a bent up bars, it is desirable
to use an even number of bars for the main reinforcement. The
idea is when other bars are bent at the inflection points of span,
there will be remaining straight bars at the bottom continued at
the supports where stirrups are tied up to their designed positions.
The minimum clear distance between the main reinforcing bars
should not be less than (1"} 2.5 em. nor less than 1 1 times the
maximum size of the gravel.
TABLE 9 -1 MAXIMUM NUMBER AND SIZES OF BARS
IN BEAM
2-*11
3-*9
4-*6
Figure 9-18
3-'*11
4-f9
. 5-'*6 .
6-.. 4
173
The measurement given under this table has considered the
allowance of 4 em. ( llk"} protective covering of steel bars from
outside of the reinforcement on both sides of the beam including
the allowance for 10 mm ( i ) stirrups. The table also shows
the maximum sizes of bars for ct given beam width. When two or
more layers are required. the dear distance between layers of
bars shall not be less than 3 em. placing the uppper layer directly
above those at the   o t ~ o m layer.
9- 8 SPLICING, HOOKS AND BENDS
The ACI Code on splicing, hooks and bends of reinforcement
states, "Splice of reinforcement shall be made only as required or
permitted on the design drawing or in the specifications or as
authorized by the Engineer".
1. Lap splices shall not be used for bars larger than No. 11 or
35 mm bars ( ll p ) .
. 2. Lap splices of bundled bars shall. be based on the lap splice
length required for individual bars of the same size as the bar
spliced and such individual splicing within the bundle shall not
overlap each other.
3. Welded splices er other positive connection may be used.
A full welded splice is one in which the bars are butted and
welded to develop tension or compression of at least 125 per
cent of th:e specified yield strength of the bars.
4. If the splices of joints under maximum stress could not be
avoided. it should be staggered.
Hook and bend refers to "Standard Hook" accomplished by a
semicircular plus an extension of at least four bar diameters but
not less than (2lfz") 6.5 em. at the free end of the bar or a 90
degrees turn plus an extension of at least 12 bar diameters at the
free end of the bar.
The maximum IJend diameter (other than strirrups and tie
hooks} should not be less than the value given on Table 5·7.
Stirrups and hook bend shall not be less than 4 em. for No. 3
bars; 5 em. for No. 4 bars and 6.5 em. for No. 5 bars.
174
Bars shall be bent cold, unless otherwise permitted by the
Engineer. No bars partially embeoded in concrete shall be field
bend, except as shown on the plans,   or permitted by the
Engineer.
J
) ______ ,
. ,-
Figure 9-19
9-9 STEEL BARS CUT OFF AND BEND POINT
It is a common practice to cut off bars where they are no
longer required to resist tension stresses or in the case of a con-
tinuous beam to bend-up some of the bottom steel bars usually
at 45 degrees to provide tension reinforcement at. the top of the
beam over the supports.
The ACI code so provides; ;;Every bar should be continued at
least a distance equal to the. effective depth of the beam or 12 bar
diameter which ever is larger beyond the point at which it is
theorftically no longer required to resist streS$. The Code further
states: uAt least 1 of the positive moment steeel 7' in conti-.
nuous span must be continued uninterrupted along the same face
of the beam with a distance of at least (6") 15 em into the sup-
ports. At least l of the total reinforcement provided for nega·
tive moment at the must be extended beyond the ex·
treme position of the point of inflection, with a distance not /eS$
.than h of the clear span or depth of the beam or 12 bar dia-
meter whichever is greater. "
175
r; 1
L
ll
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I
I.
fl__
J
3
I)
\
\::
7
J
1
t
i. I
_£,
..J....
).. 4
I. I
...
St"l bart. arranttment to cou"Wid th•   •nd nt9dive
moment in bottm. adopt d5ffMenl errtf\ttmtnt as
.nown on !>-4.
Figure 9-20
9- 10 BEAMS REINFORCED FOR COMPRESSION
When Architectural conditions limit the cross sectional
mension of the beam, it might be possible that the area of the
concrete that will resist the comJ'ression load becomes smaller ·
and insufficient. Under this situat•on, steel reinforcement is
substituted in place of the concrete area deficiency to supple·
ment the in counteracting compression stresses. This
type of beam is called .. Double Reinforced Beam" where stir-
rups or ties are used to hold the reinforcement together in posi-
tion spaced not further apart than 16 times bar diameter or 48
tie diameter. ·
If compression bars are used in a flexural member, care should
be exercised to ensure these bars from buckling outward spalling
off the outer concrete when under load. The reinforcing bars
should be properly anchored in the same manner as the compres-
sive bar·s in column are anchored by lateral ties. Such ties must be
used throughout the distance where the compression reinforce-
ment is required.
176
f.-
T
+

\t·

d

r!-•
l--6=-l
Double Rtlnforcement
Figure  
9- 11 WEB REINFORCEMENT
Web reinforcement Is the same as the strirrups used in the
beam to hold the reinforcement in its designed position. The web
reinforcement is not only intended to hold the reinforcement and
provide lateral support but also serves to resist- diagonal tension
and counteract the shear action on the structure. The vertical
stirrups should encircle the main reinforcement and hook bent
with a diameter not less than 5 times the diameter of the stirrups
at its end and secured prop.erly to prevent slipping of the main
reinforcement in·ihe  
U-stirrups
Closed stirrups
Figure 9-22
9- 12 TORSION IN REINFORCED CONCRETE MEMBER
To resist torsion, the structure must consist of longitudinal
reinforcing bars provided with closely spaced stirrups. The U-
Strirrups commonly used for transverse shear reinforcement are
not suitable for torsional reinforcement, instead, a lateral ties
used in column is being employed as stirrups which is effective In
counteracting torsional stresses. Good anchorage is by hooking the
stirrups bar end around the longitudinal or main reinforcement.
If flanges of a T·Beam are included in the computation of
torsional strength, a supplementary slab reinforcement should be
provided. The main reinforcement should be well-distributed
around the perimeter of the cross-section to control cracking.
Spacing must not exceed (12") 30 em apart. Bars should not be
less than No. 3 in size and at least one bar must be placed in each
corner of the stirrups.
177
 
Figure 9-23
9- 13 T-BEAM DESIGN & LIMITATION
The ACI Code on T·Beam design specifies that:
1. The effective flange width shall not exceed {. the span
length of the beam.
2. The overhang width on either side of the web shall not ·
exceeed 8 times the thickness of the slab or
1
12 the clear distance of
the next beam.
3. For beams with only one flange at the side, the effective
overhang flange width shall not exceed ! of the span length of
the beam or 6 times the thi ckness of the slab or! the dear distance
to the next beam.
4. The principal reinforcement in the slab (T·Beam flange)
is parallel with the beam; transverse reinforcement is necessary
for the slab. The reinforcement spacing shall not exc'eed 5 times
the thickness of the slab nor (18") 45 em. This is not applicable
to a rib in a ribbed f l oor construction.
9- 14 OTHER CAUSES OF BEAM FAILURE:
The fail ure of a beam is not only due to shear, the positive
or negative which was alreadyexplained but also includes
bond. Failure in bond means the slipping of the steel bar rein.·
forcement inside the concrete when load is applied on the struct·
ure. lt is due to this problem that deformed steel bars were manu·
factured in order to give a strong bond or contact between the
steel and concrete.
178
COMMENTS AND OBSERVATION
The use of a relatively high or low strength concrete or steel
depends upon the cost, availability of materials, importlf1ct of
special · requirements such as minimum sizes of the members
structure and concern for deflection and crack w i   t h ~
High strength concrete is attained by increasing the amount of
cement in a mixture. Cement nowadays is considered expensive
aside from several ingredient to be mixed such as, sand and gravel
which in some areas, prices are so high and prohibitive that the
cost of concrete increases substantially with the desire. to attain
high strength concrete. On the otherhand, high strength steel are
produced either metallurgically or by cold working available at a
slight increase of cost. The present trend of building construction
i s to use reinforcements having an increased strength of (60,000
psi) 413,700 kilopascal while concrete on the otherhand will not
likely change from the present allowable strength of (3,000 psi to
5,000 psi) 20,680 to 34,4 75 kPa. Consequently. labor plays an im·
portant role in the cost of the building construction wherein the
work for ·concreting should be compared with the cost of the work
for the fabrication and instailation of steel bars. Records show
that concreting including its preparation cost is substantially high-
er than that of steel construction.
9 -15 REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB:
Reinforced concrete floor slabs are classified into the follow-
ing types:
1. One way solid slab and beam
2. Two-way. solid slab beam
3. Ribbed floors
4. Flat slab or girderless floors solid or ribbed
Each type of the floor system has its own advan·tages in appl i·
cation depending upon the following factors:
1. Spacing of the columns
2. The magnitude. of the loads to be supported
3. Length of the span
4. The cost of the construction
\79
One way sllb: - One way slab is the common type of rein-
forced concrete floor system made of solid slab supported by two
parallel beams. The floor slab is known as one way solid slab, be-
cause the reinforcements runs only at one direction, that is from
beam to beam. The one way slab is comparatively economical for
a medium and heavy live loads on short spans ranging from 2.00
to 3.50 meters long. Although the reinforcement is said to be
running in one direction, additional reinforcements are also
placed in the slab parallel with the beams perpendicular -with the
main reinforcements called "temperature. reinforcement". Usually
No. 3 steel bar is used to counteract the effect of shrinkage and
changes in temperature. It also distributes possible concentration
of loads over a larger area.
Unlike beams and girders, floor slab needs no web reinforce-
ment or stirrups. In the case of heavy load where the sheari ng
stresses maybe greater than the allowable values, the depth of the
stab is increased.
180
Plan
One way s!ab reinforcement
Figure 9-24
TABLE 9-2 MINIMUM SLAB THICKNESS
Simply supported
One End continuous
Both Ends Continuous
Cantilever
1/ 20
1/ 24
1/ 28
1/ 10
Illustration;
A fully continuous slab is supported by a beam spaced at 12'
or 3.60 meters. Determine the minimum thickness of the slab.
Solution: (English)
Metric Sl:
1,2 ft. = 144 inches
t = .1M_= 5 inches
28
Figure 9 -25'
Span of the slab = 360 em.
t = 3..6.0.. = 12.8 em.
28
Temperature and Shrinkage Reinforcement:- One way floor
and roof slab are reinforced f or shrinkage and temperature bars
installed at right angle with the main reinforcements. The Code so
provides; "that in no case shall these reinforcements be plaCed
farther apart than 5 times the slab thickness or more than 18" or
45cm.
Table 9-3 SHRINKAGE AND TEMPERATURE REINFORCE·
' MENT
Mintmum Ratio of Retnforcement Areas to Concrete Areas
Slabs where plain bars are used ....... . ........ 0.0025
Slabs where deformed bars are used ....... ... : . 0.0020
Slabs where wire fabric is used
having welded intersections not
farther apart in the direction of
stress than 30 em. . ..... . .. ...•.•..•.... 0.0018
In using this table, the following illustration is presented:
181
Problem:
. A concrete floor slab having a thickness of (4") lO·cm. is to be
p.ovided with No. 3 deformed bars for shrinkage and temperature
reinforcement. Determine the spacing· required.
Solution:
1. Find the cross sectional area of a {12") 30 em. strip of the
slab (used in designing slab)
10 x 30 = 300 sq. em.
2. Referring to Table 9-5 using deformed bars, the value is
0.0020 x 300 = .6 sq. em. This is the required area of
• steel bars per strip of slab.
3. From Table 5-:9 the area of No.3 steel bars or 10 mm dia-
meter is .7854 sq. em. or 78.54 mm2
.7854 x 30 em.
:::: 39.27 say 39 em.
Therefore: No. 3 bars or 10 mm diameter will be used as
temperature bars spaced at 39 em. on center.
One way concrete slab is designed by making . an imaginary
strip of 12 inches or 30 em. wide perpendicular with the beam
that supports the floor. This imaginary strip is considered as a
beam, hence, the design steps and method for rectangular   e ~ m is
applied where the width is equal to 30 em. and the depth is the
thickness of the slab. The depth of the fl9or is purely dependent
upon the span length and the magnitude of the superimposed load.
182
Plan
(lookil!( up)
Seam
Figure 9 ·- 26
Placement of Ban in One way Slab- The bending moment at
the center of a fully cont inuous slab is equal. Therefore, there
should be the same quantity of steel reinforcements at each point.
In attaining the same amount of steel bars that will resist posi-
tive and negative bending of the slab, steel reinforcement are bent-
up alternately at the inflection point equal to point of the
span from the face of the beam extended over the sup.port to t
  of the adjacent spans.
The remaining unbent bars are placed at the bottom of the
slab extended at least 15 em. into the slab support or continued
for several spans. For an end-span, the slab is considered as semi-
continuous and that the bending moment i s greater. Some designs
provide an additionaL 200Jo reinforcement placed between bent bars
across the supporting beam. The reinforcing bars are then hooked
at the top of the termination end.
Figure 9-27
T¥fO Way Slab - Slabs which· are supported on four sides
where the f loc;>r panel i s nearly square is generalfy economical to
employ the two directions of reinforcing bars placed at right
angle with each other. This type of reinforcement will transmit the
loads to the four sides supporting beams or walls.
The code specifies that .thickness of the slab shall not be less
than 4 inches or 10 em. nor less than the perimeter of the slab
divided by 180. The spacing of the reinforcement shall not be
more than 3 times the slab thickness and the ratio of reinforce-
ment shall be at least .0025.
183
Construction Joints: The ACI Code on construction joints
so provides:
1. Joints not indicated on the plans shall be so made and
located as not to impair significantly the strength of the structure.
Where a joint is to be made, the surface of the concrete shall be
thoroughly cleaned and all laitance and standing water removed.
Vertical joints shall also be thoroughly wetted and coated with
neat cement grout immediately before placing of new concrete.
2. A delay of at least until the concrete ir columns and walls
is no longer plastic must occur before casting or erecting beams,
girders, or slabs supported thereon. Beams, girders, brackets.
column capitals, and haunches shall be considered as part of the
floor system and shall be placed monolithically therewith.
3. Construction joints in floors' shall be located near the
middle of the spans of the slabs, beams, or girders, unless a beam
intersects a girder at this point, in which case the joints in the
girders shall be offset a distance equal to twice the width of the.
beam. Provision shall be made for . transfer of shear and other
forces the construction joints.
Placement of Steel Bars - Where no   bars are used in the
slab reinforcements, straight bars are used for both the top and
the bottom reinforcements. The bottom bars are extended at least
15 em. into the supporting beams or walls. The top bars are ex-
tended to t point of the adjacent panels. Top bars for discon-
tinuous floor edges shall be hooked. (See Table 9 · 5).
184
_jl
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Ill
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Figure 9 • 28
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-
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-
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-
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It
TABLE 9 -4 MINIMUM LENGTH OF SLAB
...

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d
Cll:
Flemoindlr
' /
'
..
...
....
7 ·-;lt-·_j
z

e
so

d
..
Re"'oinder
iJ.
t-6"
.. .
3 Moa. 3 Max.
looc spon-1.
. r
Cleor span -.t n
fl
t e
foee of support foce ol support

* Bent lxlrs at utttior supports
mcrr bt UHd if o .-wol
onol71is IS.I!IGde
til ARK
1
BAR LENGTH FI!OM fACE OF $l$'PORT
MINIMUM LENGTH MAXIIIUM U:HGTH
o. I b I e I I

f I a
lENGTH
OJ4/n lozo/n lo22l
0
02o.t.Jo2t1/.,
Figure 9-29
185
9 -16 RIBBED FLOOR SLAB - Ribbed floor slab is generally
an economical type of floor construction but is applicable only to
medium span length with light or medium load unlike the one way
or two way slabs that could carry h e   v ~ loads.
A ribbed floor slab consists of small adjacent T-Beam wherein
the open spaces between the ribs are filled by clay tiles, gypsum
t iles or steel forms. The t iles are general ly 30 x 90 em. with depth
of 10, 15, 20r 25, 30and 40 em. placed at 40 em. on center making
the ribs 10 em. wide.
The concrete surface layer placed on top of the tiles ranges
from 5 to 6.5 em. think. The reinforcement of a ribbed floor sys-
tem consist of two bars placed at the lower part of the rib where
one is bent and the other rem'ained straight, or sometimes, straight
hars are placed at the top and bottom of the rib, Temperature bars
are either No. 2 bars or 6 mm. or wire mesh which runs at right an
. gle with the ribs.
Figure 9-30
Gypsum Tile Filler - This is a lightweight material for the
floor which also provides a flush ceiling finish · The common width
is (9") 23 em alt hough some other sizes are available. Gypsum t iles
are placed at .60 m. on center forming a ri b or web of 13 em.
wide. On the r;ontrary if 30 em. blocks are used, they are also
installed at 40 em. from the center same as that of clay tiles, pro-
viding 10 em. wide ribs. The Code specifies that the maximum
span of ribbed floor slab should not be more than 24 times the
total depth of slab and rib combined. ·
186
B
Section A-A
Section B-B
Plan
Figure 9-31
Metal Tile Filler: - Are generally in the form of domes en-
closed on four sides, this is sometimes called as "tin pan" cons-
truction. The metal forms are .90 Ill. long with various depth from
.15, .20, .25 and .35m depth placed at the center to make a rib
from 10 to 17 em. wide at the layout portion. The form widths
are either .50 m or . 75 m. The .50 m forms are placed at .• 63 m. on
center making a rib of 13 em. at the bottom.
The metal forms maybe removed or left in place. The layer of
concrete placed on top of the metal forms ranges from 5 to 7 em.
thick.
Steel pen
 
Section
Figure 9 • 32
Flat Slab- Flat slab floor is a rectangular slab directly support-
ed by columns without beams or girders. The slab is either uni·
for'm in thickness or provided with. square symmetrical area di-
rectly above the column reinforced with bars running in two
directions. The increased area directly above the column is called
drop panet or simply drop. On the other hand, a flared head is
· employed in the construction of a flat-slab floor making a capital
of the column .
187
When the column design is not provided with capitals, a straight
flat underneath is provided in the slab throughout the system,
which is called flat plata construction.
Section
r---------------------l
Plan

        =Sectlon==;-A-A
Aan .w .W
Figure 9-33
The flat slab floor system is generally economical not only in
terms of materials as well as labor and is even the most suitable
type of construction for industrial buildings having a wider live
load and also for building in which the use of capitals are not otr
jectionable. ·
The advantages of the flat floor slab are:
1. Simplified formwork
2. Better light in the absence of beam and girder.
3. Advantage in height for a clear story heights.
4. Uniform surface for suspended water sprinkler system.
5. Piping and shafting
6. Absence of sharp cor·ners
7. Better resistance to fire.
188
9-17 THE ACI ON CONCRETE JOIST FLOOR
CONSTRUCTION
The American Concrete Institute on concrete joist floor cons-
truction so provides:
1. The joist ribs shall be at least 4 in. or 10 em. wide, spaced
not more than . 75 m clear,   n ~ a depth not more than 3 i times
their minimum width.
2. Ribbed slab construction shall conform to the limitations
as provided for by the above thickness and spacing and the arrange-
ment to span in one direction or two orthogopal directions. Other-
wise, it shall be designed as slabs and beams.
3. When permanent burned clay or concrete tile fillers of ma-
terial having a unit compressive strength at least equal to that spe-
cified strength of the concrete in the joists are used, the vertical
shells of the fillers in contact with the joists may be included in
the calculations involving shear or negative bending moment. No
other portion of the fillers may be included in the design calcula·
tions.
4. The thickness of the concrete slab over the permanent
fillers shall not be less than 4 em .. nor Less than rl- o'f the clear
distance between joists. In one-way system reinforcement shall be
provided in the slab at right angles to the joists.
5. Where removable forms or fillers not complying with the
provision· of No. 3 as stated above are used, the thickness of the
concrete slab shall not be less than -frz of the clear distance
between joists and in no case be less than 5 centimeters. Such
slab shall be reinforced at right angles to the joists with at least
the amount of reinforcement required for f lexure.
6. Where the slab contains conduits or pipes, the thickness
shall not be less than 2.5 em. plus the total overall depth .of
such conduits or pipes at any point. Such conduits or pipes shall
be so located as not to impair significantly the strength .of the
construct ion.
189
CHAPTER 10
S T E E L F R A M t·N G
10 -1 INTRODUCTION
Prefabrication of construction parts and the methods of erect-
ing and assembling to their designed form is not new in the field
of construction. Prefabrication of parts has originated as early as
the time of the Greek and Egyptian Architecture manifested in
the remains of the famous Parthenon of Greece and the Pyramid
of Egypt. The great Parthenon of the Greeks were built of post
and lintel . type of which solid marbles were made into cylindrical
form provided with enthasis and capitals plus other articulate
mouldings of various forms and designs. The entablature made
out from solid stone marbles enriched with carvings and decora-
tions were done first before .they were placed on top of the post.
Such fraction is similar to the modern day beam. On the other-
hand the pyramid of Egypt was built out from solid blocks of
stones which were fabricated off-site and assembled to its pre-
sent form.
Hannibal in his wars with the Romans carried along pre-
fabricated huts across the alps. The army uses prefabricated and
portable barracks and small field hospital as early as 1880 and
throughout the century from World War I to World War II. Pre-
fabricated constructions, became more popular not only for the
buildings but also for bridges that could be assembl ed and erected
in a couple ·of days.
As builders became more aware. of the value of time, the use
. of prefabricated building parts gained wide acceptance. Success-
ful companies in the field of construction produced factory made
homes relying on the conventional framing methods applying the
technique of mass production aimed at minimizing custom job
work without sacrificing the quality of thework. The recent pre-
fabricated construction of exper imental houses sponsored by the
National Association of Home Builders include:
. 1. Pre·cut steel post, beam and foundation system.
190
2. Combination of sheating and siding finished with poly-
vinyl flouride film .
• 3. Vinyl finished interior wallboard
4. Combination of sub-flooring completely finished at the
factory.
5. Reinforced plastic shower stalls and roofing coated with
hy.palan that are fastened to raft ers by a concealed nailing
strip.
Fabricate - means 1o put together. The combination of pre
to fabricate simply means that the parts of the structure are
assembled or put together before the erection.
Structural steel members in various shapes and sizes are avail-
able not only in its raw or unit form but also available in pre-
fabricated form to any sizes, shapes, or spans required by the
designs.
10-2 STRUCTURAL SHAPES
The most common shapes of structural steel used in building
construction are the Ameri can Standard forms such as:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Square Bars
Round Bars
Plate Bars
Angle Bars
Channels
0
n
w
ROUND SQUARE
6.
1-Beam
7. Tee Beam
8. H-Column
9. Wide Flanges
10. Zee
*' . i •&&·••
L [
Pl.ATE
ANGULAR CHANNEL
IT H I Z
I-SEAM TEE
H-COLUMN WIDE FLANGE ZEE
STRUCTURAL SHAPE
Figure 10- 1
191
Sections or Shapes: - Is the product of rolled mill used as
structural steel members represented by the shapes of their cross-
sections.
Regular Sections: - Refers to those commonty used with
higher demand.
Special Sections: - Are those frequently used and rolled only
upon demand or special  
PLATES AND BARS:
The plates and bars are generally available in various sizes
specified under ASTM A 7 or ASTM A36 for buildings and bridges.
Flat Steel is generally for structural use classified as:
a) Bars:
1. 15 em. (6") or less in width with 0.51 em. thickness
2. 15 em. to 20 em. width by .58 em. thick
b) Plates:
1. Over 20 em. wide by .58 em. thickness
2. Over 1.20 m. wide by .46 em. thick or more
STEEL BARS:
Steel bars are those specified at ( t) .64 em. wide by (1/8")
.32 em. thick which are the common practice. Plates on the other
hand. the preferred width and thickness are as follows:
1. Thickness: ( -f2 ) .8 up to ( t ) 12 mm.
( fe ) 1.6 mm up to over 12 mm to
5 em.
( f ) 6 mm. to over 15 em.
ANGLE BARS:
Angle bars are either :
1. Equal legs
2. Unequal legs
The Angle bar is designated as L such as
. :
L 10 x 10 x 12mm for angles of equal legs
L 15 x 10 x 12mm for angles of unequal legs
192
LL
tc} Equal leas tb) Unequal legs
ANGLES
Figure 10 • 2
STANDARD CHANNEL
The standard channel has the shape of unsymmetrical balance
consisting of ·two flanges on one side. It therefore requires lateral
support to prevent its tendency to   The standard channels
are generally used as elements of built-up sections for columns and
are also suitable for framing around floor openings, spandrels, and
lintels attributed to the absence of flange on the other side. The
channel section is identified as C 15 x 20 which means that the
channel has a depth of 20 em. and weights 15 kg. per meter length.
(e) (d)
STANDARD CHANNEL
Figure 10 • 3
WIDE FLANGE
Wide flange sections are designated as W 12 x 24 which means
that the flange has a depth of 24 em. and it weighs 12 kg. per
meter length. All wide flange sections are generally with paraUet
face flange except those with 5% slope inside face produced by
Betlehem Steel Company. Comparatively. wide flange sections
are more efficient than Standard I Beam with respect to bending
resistance.
193
t r l ~ - ~ l       l   i i     - - - - ~ ~
W It!
WI DE-FLANGE SECTIONS
Figure 10-4
STANDARD I-BEAM
The use of 1-Beam as a column is uneconomical, because the
whirl or revolving action of the structure about an axis through
the centroid parallel to the web of the 1-Beam is comparatively
small.
H·BEARING PILES
STANDARD I-BEAM
Figure 10-5
H·Bearing piles although suitable for pile driving on deep exca-
vations is much more suitable than the 1-Beam for columns.
194
(f)
H-COLUMN
Figure 10- 6
ZEE SECTIONS
The Zee section is another structural form in a,letter Z which
is not frequently used in building construction except on the
fabrication of steel windows and other frames.
TTI
Structural tee
Tees
Tee
Figure 10- 7
10-3 STRUCTURALSTEEL
Zee
lee
The early structural steel grade was mostly focused on the
ASTM A7 which concurrently is no longer considered as the basic
structural steel after the introduction of new types of structural
grade such as ASTM A36. However, the Code so provides that
structural steel t o be used in the construction shall conform to
any of the following specifications:
1. For steel bridges and buildings ASTM A7
2. Structural steel for welding ASTM A373
· 3. Structural steel ASTM A36
4. High strength structural steel ASTM A440
5. High strength low alloy structural manganese vanadium
steel ASTM A441 .
6. High strengt.h low alloy structural steel ASTM A242
The ASTM A36 is stronger with higher yielding point t han the
ASTM A7. The carbon content of ASTM A36 had been reduced
to improve weldabiljty,   l ~ h o u g h it could be connected by means
of bolts and rivets.
10-4 HIGH STRENGTH STEEL
. The three high-strength steels are the ASTM A440, ASTM
A441 and ASTM · A242 which are of greater strength and higher
resistance to atmospheric corrosion.
195
The ASTM A440 is generally used in riveted and bolted cons--
truction . . It is not recommended by the AISC for welding connect-
ion. The ASTM A441 is suitable for welding connection and is
widely used in building constructions, because of its superiority in
quality, high resistance to corrosion and higher strength but lighter
in weight.
10-5 RIVETS AND BOLTS
The rivets and bolts used in building construct ion are of three
grades:
1. ASTM A141 structural rivet steel
2. ASTM Al95 high strength structural rivet steel
3. ASTM A406 high strength structural alloy rivet steel
Festanen is the term used for both rivets and bolts. The three
methods adopted in connecting structural steels ere rivets, bolts
and welds. The choice of any of the. above mtthods depends
upon the condition of fabrication and e'rtctlon, dttlll of arrange
ment and condition of service
10-6 RIVETING PROCEDURES
1. The steel metal to be connected are drilled and securely
held in such a manner that their holes are perfectly aligned.
2. Heated r ivets are inserted into the holes and a  
tool is pressed against the rivet head.
3. The projecting shank is then covered by the power riveter
which delivers rapid blows f il ling the hole, deforming the shank
and forming the head.
Since the rivets are heated when inserted into the hole, shrink-
age will occur on cooling that the two connected plates will be
drawn tightly together by the rivets. The size of the rivets depends
upon the types of work, the thickness of the materials to be con-
nected and the strength to be transmitted across the joints. The
most commonly used rivets are ( ! ) 19 mm diameter and
( t ) 22 mm. However, It is suggested that only one size of rivet
should be used.
196
TABLE 10-1 CONVENTIONAL SIGNS FOR RIVETS
t111o111tlveta
Floldlt""""
..
CountMWunk
I
Cof.&cdlett:UM Fl,.tt ... ..atof'
..
...
11
Cottn.tettunlf
f)
Not over f t.t«b
i' &'14 f" Rlwto
*""' CIIIIIIH'd
i! RMts 8.nd ov•r
"
"'
!

'5
s: l:r·
sl
...

u :ol
d
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.u

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••
10-7 CONDITIONS FOR PUNCHING AND ORI LLING
1. tf the thickness of the plate is not bigger than the dia·
meter of the rivets plus ( } ) 3 mm, the hole may be punch.
2. The hole should be ( h ) l.S mm bigger than the dia·
meter of the rivets or the bolts for ease in inserting the bolts and
to avoid damages of the threads.
3. The materials adjacent to the holes are usually damaged
by the punching of the structural steel. Therefore, it is necessary
that the hole of the punch plate should be 3 mm greater than the
diamater of the rivet or bolt, thus punching 22 mm hole for. a
19 mm rivet or 25 mm for a 19 mm rivets are recommended.
4. All rivets shall be hot power driven, heated to a tempera·
ture not more than 1()650C and in no case shall be driven below
5370 c.
Rivet joint may fail in any among the following conditions:
1. By shearing of the rivets
2. By crushing of the rivet or metal on which it bear.
3. By tension in the sections of the connected members
4. By tearing at the edge ..
GAGE LINE: - Is the line parallel with the length of a member
wherein the rivets are placed, or the· normal distance between the
gage line and the edge of a member
197
-S-1
I
Figure 10-8
b = t + 1 ~  
Min. = 2"
TABLE 10· 2 GAGE DIMENSIONS FOR ANGLES
(Centimeters)
Leg 20 18 15 13 10 9 8 6
g 11.5 10 9 7.5
6.5
5
4.5 3.5
gi
7.5 6.5 5.5 5
92
7.5 7.5 6.5 4.5
PITCH OF RIVETS:
5
3
The Pitch of rivet is the center to center distance between ad-
jacent rivets whether they fall on the same different I ines. The
accepted minimum pitch between the center of rivet holes shall
not be less than 9 em. for ( 1 ") 25 mm rivets; 7 em. for 22 mm;
6 em for 19 mm rivets; and 5 em. for 16 rivets. Pitch should not
be less than 3 times the diameter of the rivets.
Figure 10 - 8a
198.
TABLE 10 • 3 MINIMUM PITCH TO MAINTAIN 3 DfAMETE RS
CENTER TO CENTER OF RIVETS
Diameter DISTANCE, g, centimeters em
of Rivet M 2.5 - 3 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 7 7.5
mm.
16mm 5 4 3.5 3 1.5 0
22mm 6 5 5 4 3.5 2.5 0
22mm 6.5 6.5 6 5.5 5 4.5 3.5 2
25mm 7.5 7.5 7 6.5 6.5 6 5 4 3 0
EDGE DISTANCE OF RIVETS:
Rivets or bolts placed so close to the edge of the pJate have the
tendency to tear the adjacent thin metal. A standard' specification
requires a minimum edge distance of holes as shown on the follow-
ing Table 10-4. The maximum distance from the center of any
rivet or bolt to the nearest edge shall be 12 times the thickness of
the plate but shall not exceed 15 em.
STITCH RIVETS.
Truss members are usually built up of two angles provided
with gusset plate that separate the two angles. These angles act as
·one unit by the use of rivets connecting the members placed at
intervals between the ends of the members. This is called sti1Ch ·
rivets.
TABLE 10 • 4 MINIMUM E[)GE DISTANCE FOR HOLES
Rivet or Bolt
Diameter
(m.m.)
16mm
19mm
22mm
25mm
Minimum Edge Dist,ance for
Punched, Reamed or Drilled Holes
(Centimeters}
At rolled Edges of
At Sheared Edges Plates, Shapes or Bars
3
3.5
4
4.5
or Gas Cut Edges
2.5
2.5
3
3.5
199
10-8 BOLTS
Bolts used t o connect structur.al steel are either common bolts
or high strength bolts. '
Common bolts are not permitted in some Codes for building
construction for more than a prescribed height but rather limited
to field connections or to work of less importance not subject to
shock or vibration and those buildings containing machineries or
rolling loads that will cause loosening of the nuts which will subs-
tantially reduce the strength of the connections.
High Strength Bolts: - Are usually made of ASTM A325
steel which have been used for years in bui lding construction. High
strength bolts provide a resisting force. by friction between the
contacting surfaces of the plates, eliminating bending, shearing or
bearing stresses on the bolts. Bolts and rivets are called "fasteners:· :
Bolts are called "threaded fatteners".
Bearing Type Connection: - Where the end of the plates are •
in bearing against rivets and the shank of the rivets that resist
shear.
Friction Type Connection: When high strength bolts are used.
tensile stresses are set up in the shank of the bolts and the frict ion
between the plates which resist the tension and compression load.
TABLE 10-5 HIGH-STRENGTH BOLT TENSION
Nominal
Bolt Diameter
in mm.
16 mm
19mm
22mm
25 mm
Minimum Bolt Tension
Klg. Newton
8,727
12,900
16,380
21.470
85,400
126,320
160, 350
210,160
10-9 CONNECTIONS OF STRUCTURAL MEMBERS
1. The Column Base Plate:- Spreads the column load over
the foundation in various sizes where the length in meter and
thickness of 2 mm increments. Rolled steel gearing plates should
200
be in absolute contact for proper ' distribution of load. Plates ot
more than 5 mm to 10 mm thick maybe straightened by pressing
or planning.
· Steel column should be properly anchored to the foundation
by steel bolts which passes through the plates and angles riveted
or welded to the flange of the column. Angles are sometimes
omitted for light columns, instead, the base plate is secured to the
column by means of fillet wel<1,. . ·
I
I
.
 
I
b.
,·1.
,,
Welded connection for columns and base plates, the a(lgles are
shopwelded to the column and field welded to the base plate.
'
Figure 10- 9
· 2. Column Splices: - Are usually made at 60 em. or more
above the floor levels. Splices are generally made by riveting or
welding splice plates of 10 to 12 mm thickness to the flanges of
the columns. The splice plates does not resist compression load
but only serves to hold the column sections in the right position.
Where the upper column is smaller in width than the supporting
. column, filler plates are used. If the difference in width is so great,
a horizontal plate is used instead. ·
201
.
;:
:1
tl
.... : ...
+ll+
± - ~ L -  
+!!+
... :: ...
... :: ...
II
II
II
..
(aJ
(b)
_ii_
+il ...
... : ....
+It+
II
+U+
--... - -
+:: ...
+!! ...
... ...
. :;
+::+
ii
.
(c)
II
II
II
.. ~ I
• ' .
!
I"""""
-
I
!
I
I
_.
.
~ ..
~ ..
J..4.
· ~
i_
• <I!·
_._
T! T
I
!
. I
!
-
i
i -•
I I
(d)
(e)
(f)
I
(a) The splice plates are not design to resist compressive stresses
but only to hold the column sections in position. (b} and (c} A
horizontal plate is used to attain a full bearing area between the
column. (d) to (g) Auxilliary plates and angles are shop welded to
the column then bolted in the field before making the permanent
welds.
Figure 10-10
I
3. Beam Bearing Plate: - Beams to rest on masonry watls or
pier usually are provided with bearing plates to provide an angle
bearing area and to attain a uniform distribution of the beam load.
The bearing pcates are usually not riveted nor welded to the beam
flange.
202
I .
Figure 10-11
4. Beam Connections to Columns: - Beams connected to
columns has a great variety of condittons using rivets or weld an-
chorage. For large beams, seat connections with stiffeners are
commonly employer! which usually consists of shelf angle and
single or double angles. The filler should be the same in thickness
as the shelf angle. The top angle, or clip angle is used only to hold
the beam in its right position but not to assist in transferring the
beam load to the column.
. !
..
I
I
i v
I. ~ t H   B
M I C&J I (c)
t ~ rr1r r ~
oo w m
Figure 10-12
5. Seat Connection without stiffeners maybe used for beam
with smaller reactions.
203 .
t:;..
:r
t:...
lol lbl
(<}
(d) (•) lfl ~
(a), (b), .and (<:) Seated connections consist of a shelf angle filler
and single or double stiffener angles. The top angle or clip angle
only serve to hold the beam In position and does not help in tran,.
fering the load to the column. (d), (e) and (f) Beams for smaller
react ions. (g) A welded stiffened s e   t e ~ beam connection to
column.
Figure 10 • 13
6. a.m to Girder Connections: -The methods commonly
adopted in connecting beams to girders is by attaching two angles
to the web of the beam connected either by rivets, bolts or weld.
GJ rn urn aJ
~ w
(a} Framing beam to a girder (b) Weld replace rivets or bolts in
securing the connection angles to the web of girder (c) Connection
angles welded to both beam and girder. '
Figure 10- 14
7. Rivetlld Framing: -The different types of riveted framing
are:
·a) When a beam is supported by another by placing on top of
it, rivets or bolts are used just to hold the beam.
'
I
I
I
I
I
I
. I
T ;
- .
Figure 10- 15
b) Frame connections using connecting angles commonly
used for beams and girders.
Figure 10 • 16
c) A seated connection without stiffener but only top
or side angles are used.
d) Flush top refers to the connections of two beams where
the upper surface. of the top are of the same level. This
could be done by cuttfng away a portion of the upper
flange known as coping or blocking.
                 
-------
1 lo I

205
COMMENT:
fill er Bea"' Or a llped
to Avoi d Cop lnq
Figure 10- 1/
Coping or blocking method. is not a good practice, since it in-
volves additional expenses besides the reduction of the material
which may affect the strength of the beam.
10 • 10 PLATE GIRDERS
When a rolled steel sections are inadequate to meet the span
requirements built-up section plate or box girder is the solution. A
plate girder is a beam made up of steel plates and angles either
riveted or welded together forming an 1-section. When the web of I
section consists of two separated steel plates, the structure is
called box girder.
BOX GIRDER
BUILT UP PLATE GIRDER
Figure 10- 18
The axial vertical plate is called the "web plaW". Flange angles
are placed at the top and at bottom of the web plate secured
by rivets. One or more plates are riveted to the outstanding legs of
the flange angle called mvar pletes and a stiffener of angle
section riveted to its side to prevent buckling of the web plates.
In welded plate girders, the flange angles are omitted since
the cover plate could be connected directly to the vertical plate.
The three principles involved In making built-up plates are:
1. Web plate is to resist shearing stresses
2. The flange made-up angles cover plates and t of the web
area, wil l resi st tension and compre$sion stresses due to
bending.
3. The stiffeners serves to prevent buck ling of the web plates.
BUILT u·p SECTIONS
Figure 10 · 19
10-11 WEB PLATES AND INTERMEDIATE STIFFENERS
The Code specifies a minimum thickness of web plate to be
10 mm for interior and 6 mm for exterior locations. In addition,
plate dirder web's thickness should not be less than

of the
unsupported distance between the f lange angles. If full allowance
bending stress in the flange is used, the web plate thickness
should not be less than
 
of the unsupported distance: This
requirement apply to ASTM A36 steel. The intermediate stiffness
that prevent buckling is usually 6 x 6 em. x 6 mm angles placed
in pair at each end of the girder then at a distance not to exceed.
85 em as f irst pair of intermediate stiffness then at 2.25 m. there-
after.
207
m
..... ·ec- plate$
=. ~ - -   - - 1 .. 1
c.. piMn - ·-·
STIFFENERS BEARING PLATE
Figure 10- 20
An Open web Steel Joist is considered lightweight structure to
support floor and panels between main supports.
I--- '""'i
I
l;i
.
I !i
.
j::
.,
..
TfL PLAN
STEEL BEAM SUPPORTING STEEL JOIST
Figure lO- 21
208
Y. • rivets
 
~ · holes
~ ~ auuet plates
All lln&les ion& less back to beck
W.b memben 2 L 2 x 2 x Y..
Pur1ins 9 [ 13.4
209
210
WE \..t>€0 CONIU C T IONS
'o\IE.l.l>EO EN1> JOINTS
ENO JOINT WITHOUT SHOE .ANGLIES
OI!SIGN OF £NO J "OINT
WITH SHOE ANGLE·
10- 21 ROOF TRUSSES
Roof trusses is the most economical structure to cover a build-
ing having a wide span of supporting columns or walls. A truss is a
structural frame generally supported only at both ends by col-
umns, beams, or walls.
The different types of trusses are:
1. King post truss 7. Single span fink truss
2. Simple fh1k truss 8. Clipped truss
3. 'Fink truss 9. Rigid frame open-web clear
span truss
4. Howe truss
10. Rigid frame clear span
5. Pratt truss
11. Single span slope beam
6. Fan Truss ·
12. Continuous Seam
~ ~
SIMPLE FllfK TIIUSS KIKG POST TIIUSII
"OWE TRUSS PRATT TRUSS
FAll TRUSS fiKK TRUSS
THR£E·IUN6£ ~   l A M E
Figure 10- 22
21l
PURLINS:
Purlins is a beam placed on top of the rafters or top chord that
extends from truss to truss which carry and transfer the roof load
to the truss at the panel points.
Roof Panel: - Refers to the roof portion that Hes between
two adjacent joints of the upper chord, in short, roof panel is
that portion of the roof supported by each purl ins.
Sag rods: - Refers to a steel bar usually of 16 mm or 19 mm
diameter rod attached at the center or endpoints of the span of the
purlins. Sag rod is secured to the purl ins over the line of the ridge
truss usually placed at 7 em. below the top flange of the purl ins.
Root ?a"nal
 
Figure 10 - 23
10-13 WELDED CONNECTIONS
The advantages of using welded connections are:
1. Minimal noise in the erection of structure
2. Savings on labor and materials
3: Rigidity of frame
4. Easy to correct new work to existing structure and also its
repair.
5. Simplicity of design
212
Arc Welding:- Although arc and gas welding are permitted in
the connection of structural steel members, arc welding is the one
most preferred.
Penebatlon: - Is the term used to indicate the depth from the
original surface of the base metal to the point ·at which fusion
ceases.
Partial penetration: - is the failure of the weld metal and base
metal to fuse at the root of the weld.
Welded Joints:- Are classified into three:
1. Butt joint
2. Tee Joint
3. Lap Joint
The selection of the type of weld to be employed depends
upon the magnitude of the load requirements, the manner in
which it is applied, and the cost of the preparation and welding
operation.
The weld that is commonly used in building construction is
the fillet weld which is somewhat triangular in cross section form·
ed between the intersecting surfaces of the joined members. The
minimum effective length of a fillet weld shall not be less than 4
times the weld size. The 5 mm fillet weld is considered the mini-
mum size and an 8 mm weld is the most economical size that ·
could be made by one pass of the electrode. A small size conti·
nuous weld is more economical than a bigger discontinuous weld.
Large size fillet ~ l d requires two or more passes of the electrode.
f I +f I tf I t
(o) Squar• JI'OOVO joitlt (b) Sifl&le·vetlf'OC)Vtl joint (el Double-vee POCM joint
f
~   ~ ~
(dl Sinlle bevel·- jllint ld Square 1M joint m Double beveiltOO\Ie joint
f I ~ ~ f . • f f 9 f
(81 Sinale fillet lap joint fill Doubtt fitfet ''"joint til Sin.lt-U groove joint
WELC SYMBOLS 8 C:ONNECT10NS
Figure 10 • 24
213
Shop Weld: - Where the structural members are welded in
the shop before delivering at the site.
Field Welding: - Welding done during t he erection of the
structural members.
Plug and Slot Welds: - In connecting two overlapping plates
by means of welding, holes are made in one of the two plates
then plug and slot welds are made at the entire area of the hole or
slot. The maximum and minimum diameters of the plug and slots
including its length are shown on the following illustration:
Note:
.a. ........ . . . . ,.,., ....
... •
  • D-ljMtotl llltt-
L ·thl ' t tl'tl:/'.i tl t I, ED 'I
I
I
I
t
. t
I
I D
[gar
! . l_l
t•J {<)
PLUG AI'I O SLOT WELOS
Figure 10- 25
Since there is no st andard welding connections formulated for
beams, the designer has to make the selection of the type of weld
which according to his judgement will be most practical and eco-
nomical. Welding may be done either by shop weld, field welding
or both upon the discretion of the designer.
TABLE 10-6 BASIC WELD SYMBOLS
Plug
Groove or 8 utt
Back Fillet or
SqiJare Bevel u J AireY
f1lre
Slot
v
8e¥el
CJ
II v v
y
v
''
lr
SUPPLEMENTARY WELD SYMBOLS
Weld aU
Contour
Around
Field Weld
Flush Convex
0

-
,.............,
2U
CHAPTER 11
TIMBER ROOF FRAMING
11- L INTRODUCTION
The e   r l ~ age constructions of house framing were built subs-
tantially strong and durable. Construction of houses by our. fore·
fathers have strictly observed the principle of durability and last-
ing quality of the materials. Only selected wood were used in the
construction.
Lately, the introduction of power tools, machines and saw·
mil-ls plus human greed has ruthlessly abused and destructed our
forests that the present construction has already precluded such
way of construction. Houses were built totally disregarding its
lasting quality, classification of lumber and its particular use in the
construction are no longer observed, the age of the tree. its falling
season including the proper drying and seasoning are totally dis-
regarded.
If builders are to be blamed, more so with the homeowners
who could not meet the expenses of a first class construction.
Nobody would like to own a house ·built from materials of poor
quality, but quality demands substantial appropriation that only
few could afford.
Under the present trend where house rental increases at an
average of 10 percent every year ,prospective homeowners are being
forced to embrace the neck-deep agony and burden of long term
installments. To a family of average or below average income, a
house and lot is considered as a fulfillment of their aspiration
regardless of its quality and cost. Unfortunately, that fancy
house beautifully painted, deteriorate faster than the 20 to 25
year term to pay the monthly amortization of the loan.
Numerous homeowners were disappointed when their dream
house were blown up by typhoon because of poor quality and
under sized lumber used in the construction of the roof framing.
To· those who are planning to construct or own a house, it
would be better to reduce the floor area of the house rather than
. sacrifice the quality through the substitution of cheaper and poor
quality materials. It is therefore important to select good quality
of lumber for your house framework.
215
11 - 2 TYPES OF ROOF
There are several forms of roof and numerous variety of shapes
that one has to be familiar with:
1. Shed or Lean-to Roof 8. Gambrel Roof
2. Gable or Pitch Roof 9. Ogee Roof
3. Saw Tooth Roof 1 0. Mansard Roof
4. Double Gable Roof 11. French or Concave Mansard
Roof
5. Hip Roof 12. Conical Roof or Sphire
6. Hip and Vall ey Roof 13. Dome
7. Pyramid Roof 14. Butterfly Roof
Shed or Lean-to Roof- Is considered as the simplest form of
roof consisting of one single slope.
SH£1> OR LEA II - TO
Figure 11 - 1
Gable or Pitch Roof- The most common type and economic-
al form of roof made of triangular sections consisting of two
stapes meeting at the center of the ridge forming a gable.
GAll£
Figure 11 • 2
Saw Tooth Roof- Is the development of the shed made into
a series of lean-to roof covering one building. This is commonly .
used on factories where extra light is required through the window
on the vertical side.
216
$Alii l'OOTH
Figurell-3
Double Gable Roof: -Is a modification of a gabfe or a hip and
valley roof.
Figure 11· 4
Hip Roof: - Is also a common form used in modern houses
having straight sides all sloping toward the center of the building
terminating at the ridge.
HIP 11001'
Figure 11 • 5
Hip and Valley Roof:- ls a combination of a hip roof and an
intersecting gable roof forming aT or L shape.d building. This type
. of roof form however, has a variety of modification which are not
illustrated.
217
1+1" 4110 VAI.I.I't
Figure 11-6
Pyramid Roof: ts a modification of the hlp roof wherein the
four straight sides are sloping towards the center terminating at a
point.
P'tltAMtO
Figure 11 · 7
Gambrel Roof:- Is a modification of the gable roof with each
side having two slopes.
Figure 11-8
OGEE Roof: - Is a Pyramid form having steep sides sloping
to the center.
Figure 11 • 9
218 .
Mansard Roof: - Where the sides of the roof slope steeply
from each side of the building towards the center forming a flat
deck on top.
MAII$AIIO
Figure 11 • 10
French or Concave Mansard Roof: - Is a modification of the
Manzard Roof where the sides are concave.
Dome: -is a hemispherical form of roof usually used on ob-
servatories.
Conical Roof or Sphire: - Is a steep roof of circular section
that tapers uniformly from the circular base to a central point.
FR£NCH OR COMCAVE
MAMSARD ROOF
Figure 11 • 11
Figure 11 · 13
DOME
Figure 11 • 12 .
219
Butterfly Roof: - Is 1 two shed roof where the slope meet at
the center of the building.
IUTTEit,LY
Figure 11 • 14
11 • 3 TYPES OF ROOF FRAME
The three types of roof frame commonly used are:
1. Rafters Type
2. Truss Type
3. Laminated Type
The various kinds of rafters for roof construction are:
1. Common Rafters
2. Hip Rafters
3. Valley Rafters
4. Octagon Rafters
5. Jack Rafters
Common. Rafters: - Are rafters extended at right angles from
the plate or girts to the r i ~ g e   ·
-Uf'IOI
Figure 11 • 15
220
Hip Raften: -Are rafters laid diagonally from the corner of a
plate or girts to the ridge.
Valley Raftan:- Rafters placed diagonally from the plate or
girts at the intersection of gable extension with the main roo"f.
Jack Rafters: -Any rafter which does not extend from the
plate or girts to the ridge.
Jack rafters are classified Into:
1. Hip Jacks
2. Valley Jacks
3. Cripple Jacks
Jack rafters framed between hip rafters and girts are called
Hip Jacks. The frame betwMn the ridge and valley rafters are
called Valley Jacka, while those frames between the hip and the
valtey rafters are called Cripple Jacka.
Figure 11 • 16
Octagonal Raflars: - Are rafters placed on an octagonal
shaped plate at the central apex or ridge pole.
221
O C T   G O H   ~ RAFTERS
Figure 11 - 17
Trust: -Truss is a built-up frame commonly employed on a
long span roof unsupported by intermediate columns or partitions.
Truss is a design of a series of triangles used to distribute load,
stiffen the structure and flexibility for the interior spacing as welt
as strength and rigidity.
The different types of trusses are:
a) Light trusses {trussed rafters)
1. Pitched Truss 6. l! story frame
2. Howe Truss 7. Utility
3. Scissors Truss 8. Flat
4. Raised Chord Truss 9. Bowstring
5. Sawtooth Truss
b) Heavy Trusses
1. Howe Trusses 6. Cambered Fink
2. Belgian Truss 7. Saw Tooth
3. Fink Truss 8. Flat Pratt
4. Pratt Truss 9. Flat Howe
5. Scissors Truss 10. Warren
Gir1J- Is that structural member that supports the rafters or
trusses of the building.
Collar a..n - The ties between rafters on opposite sides of
the roof.
. LIGHT TRUSSES

 
HOWE
SCISSORS
IIAIS£0 CKOIIO
IJliLl TY
80WSTRIIIQ
HEAVY TRUSSES

9.00-2..,.0Qm .•
MOW£ TIIIISS at:LGIAM

9 .00- 11· 0011\ . ...
I' I IIX PRATT

7.so-2.o.oom.

CAMBER£0 FIMK
WAitllt:M FLAT HOWE
-s.oo-ta.oom.
9 .00
SAWTOOTH
Figure 11 18
FLAT I'll AT T
223
Purlins - The structural member placed on top of a rafter or
top chord of a truss that supports the roof sheating.
Span
2.00
3.00
3.50
4.50
. 5.00
Note:
TABLE 11·1 PURLINS SIZE AND SPACING
Size
Length
of Roofing
Spacing
of Purlinslm}
2X3
2X4
2X6
2X6
2X8
6'
7'
8'
9'
10 •
12'
.75
.60
.70
.60
.67
.67
TABLE 11-2 PURUNS SPACING IN METER
Length of Roofing Distance of End
· sheet Purlins Lap
1.50 .60 .30
2.00 .57 .30
2.50 .55 .30
3.00 .68 .30
  ~ M ~
4.00 .62 .30
4.50 .60 .30
5.00 .67 .30
5.50 .65 .30
6.00 .63 .30
The phasing- out of the English measure might affect the
present commercial width and length of the roofing materials
particularly the G.l. Sheets which are common and popularly
used in most construction work.
224
It is most likely that the length will be made to an increment of
.50m of which corrugated G.l. sheet will start from 1.50m to
6.00m long or more.
Consequently, this new length will govern the spacing of the·
purlins. Table 11-2 is presented in anticipation of the new spacing
of the purlins if roofing sheets are manufactured in accordance
with the new Sl measure.
11 - 4 TIMBER FRAMING FASTENERS:
Nails -There are numerous variety of nails to meet the needs
of all kinds of constructin. They maybe clamped wit. : respect to
shape. Nails are either cut or wire. Cut nails are rectangular in
shape directly cut from a metal strip, likewise, wire nails ~ r   com-
mon nails with circular cross sect ion which are cut directly from
wire.
With respect to service, nails are classified as common, flooring,
finishing, roofing, boat etc. Fasteners for timber framing usually
specify the use of common nails.
TABLE 11-3 COMMON NAILS FOR TIMBER FRAMING
.Desig"lat ion
6 d
10 d
20 d
30 d
40 d
50 d
60 d
Length (em.)
5.0
7.5
10.0
11.5
12.5
14.0
15.0
Lateral
Diameter (mm) , Resistance per
nail (kg.)
.29 24
.37 40'
.52 45 - 75
.56 68 - 88
.65 80 - 102
.66 113 - 121
.72 100 - 146
If nails are driven parallel with the grain, the lateral resistance
should be decreased by 25 to 33o/o.
Wood Screw - Are used to avoid splitting and injury to the
wood and to obtain better fitting and ease of disassembling when
necessary.
225
Screw should not be spaced less than 3 em. across the grain
and not less t han 5 em. parallel with the grain. For hard wood,
spacing should not be less than 4 em and 6 em respectively.
TABLE 11-4 SAFE LATERAL RESISTANCE·OF SCREW
Gage of Screw
•6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
Safe Lateral
Diameter (mm) Resistance per screw (kg.)
3.5 37
4.1 50
4.8 71
5.5 93
6.1 116
6.8 143
7.5 173
8.1 205
8.8 . 239
9.5 278
10.0 318
Lag Screw - Is used in fastening large pieces of t imber under
heavy stresses. The diameter of the lag screw vary from 6 mm to
25 mm and the length from 4 em. to 30 em. Lag screw is pre-
ferred where bolts are difficult to install.
drift bolts
CJ=;=Ot
. bolts
Figure 11- 19
Bolts -Are the rnost popular for fastening timber joints with
small or big stresses. Bolts in roof framing are classified as:
1. Common, Ordinary or Machine Bolts
2. Drift Bolts
3. Strap Bolts
.4. U-Bolts
5. Eye Bolts
226.
Drift Bolts and Dowels - Is a round or square iron or steel
with or without lead or point of specified length. Drift bolt is
driven into the hole of the timber with a diameter 80% smaller
than the bolts and the minimum diameter is 20 mm. This will
prevent the lateral .movement and separation parallel with the
axis. On the other hand. a dowel, which is thicker and shorter
than the drift bolt only prevents lateral displacement of the con
nected parts. Dowel is either iron or wood pin extended but
not through the members of the structure to be connected.
The disadvantages of dowels ara:
1. It does not provide a rigid joint
2. It is totally damaged if repair calls for defective lumber.
3. It is hard to replace.
Wooden Key - Is made of a piece of hard wood, rectangular
in cross section inserted between two lapping pieces of lumber
intended to prevent sliding of the adjacent members.
The keys are parallel or inclined as shown In the following
figures.
Inclined Key
Pins
Figure.ll-20
Split Ring
Shear Pins
m
LIJ
Shear Pins may be of hard wood, steel bars or G.J. Pipes.
227
..
1. (O$t 1ron robbed 4. Cost iron O.G. woshtr5
2. Mall eable i ron washers 5. Bevelled cost iron washers
3. Square steel plate washers
6. Circulor pressed steel
Figure 11-21
Plate washers are used under the head and nuts of the bolts
to prevent the heads and nuts from damaging the timber when
tightening the bolts. The washer al so provide sufficient bearing
area. The thickness of the washer should not be less than 1Jz of
the bolts's diameter plus 1.5 mm.
TABLE 11-S* BOLTS AND WASHERS THICKNESS AND
NlT lURING AREA NET BEARING
SIZEOF BOLTS DIA OF WASHERS THICKNESS AREA
Inches mm Inches mm Inches mm in'
cm2
!
12 2 15.0
A
12 3.78 24.3
a
16
3
/.5
e
16 6.76 :34.6
i
19 3 ! 8.0

19 7.86 50.6
25
4
10.0
A
22 11.79 76.0
IA
28 4 .11.5
1 A 28
]4.91 96.0
1,
5
 
1 l 32 18.41 118.5

38 6 ]5.0
1 i 38 26.50 171.0
* Materials ore wrought iron (W. I.l and Steel Rod
11- 5 INTERMEDIATE JOINTS
Joints must be within the center lines of the member meeting
on a common point so as to prevent rotation at the joints.
As much as possible, wood joint should not be used to coun·
ter act tension forces, unless, steel strap,     plates with bolts
are employed.
For structure with smaller stresses, wood connections shall
be provided with dapplng or notching the strut to the adjoining
member using dowels, lag screw or nails to keep the member in
the design position. On the otherhand, for structure with large
stresses, metal bear ing plate, or casting side plates, bolted con·
nect ions or bearing shall be-specified.
228
Pocket jolntt that collect moisture should be avoided, all
joints 1h1ll be kept aligned as simple as possi ble for ease in the
carJ)4tntry work.
IIOTCHINO or 0APPING
8\JTT B\.OCIC
Figure 11-22
When. a strut is at right angle with the top chord, 1·19 mm.
dowel or 16 mm. lag screw is employed to hold the strut in
place. When the strut carries large stresses, the following joints
can be used.
L Butt Block or Angle Block.
2. Steel S-shaped Bearing Plate
3. Cast Iron angle solid bearing block
4. Cast Iron angle bearing block with a web
Butt Block - Is made of hard wood wit.h the same thickness
as the top chord. The length of the block should be adjusted to
fit all possible conditions and interference with other connect ions.
Steel S-sheped Bearing Plate - The bearing plate should be
the same width as the top chord.
ST[EL   PLAf£
\•. •
, .
Figure ll-23
229
C•t Iron Solid Bearing Block - The bearing -block is solid and
covers the whole width of the top chord casted at holes not less
than 16 mm thick provided with a lug into the top chord.
C. I . SOl.lO 8EARII'IG BLOCK
Figure 1 1 -25
Cast Iron Angle Bearing Block with a Web - Should have a
minimum thickness of 25 mm.
C.l . AMGLE 8EARII'IG &LOCK WITH A WEI
Figt,Jre 11-26
Center Joint of Howe Truss- This type of joint is provided
with a butt or angle bl ock at the center intermediate joint.
Bull or
Angle 8 \ocll .
Figure 11- 27
Peak Joint- Has various types depending upon the design as
shown under tf1e following illustrations: ·
230

with collar plate
11 - 6 END JOINTS
hollow cast
solid cast Iron block I ron block is used
Figure 11-28
There are five typas of end joints
1. Pinning the top chord into the bottom chord.
2. Notching the top chord i nto the lower chord with bolts.
3. Using bent strap or shoe plate with lugs or flats.
4. Using the side plat es with flats or tables.
5. Using malleable cast iron shoe.
1. Pinning the top chord into ·the bottom chord is the
simplest form of end joints employed on small structure.
. Bottom Chord
Machine. 'aoH"-
flg.fl-27
2. Notching the top chord into the lower dtord with bolts
are of the following types:
{1) Notching with bolts.
231
8 OIIOift Chord
2, Notching with bolts with wood key
3. By the use of bent strap with lugs or flats.
4. By the use of steeel side plate with flats or tabl es riveted
to the plates.
Figure 11-SO
232
5. By using Malleable cast iron shoe
Figure 11-31
11 - 7. SPLICING:
Splicing is the process of joining two pieces of timber in their
longitudinal direction in order to transmit stresses from one
membef to another. Splicing are of three different ways:
1. By Lapping
2. Fishing
3. Scarfing
Lapping- Is simply by joining one. member on the other.
Fishing - Is by joining two ends with the use of two side
blocks sometimes called splice pads.
Scarfing- Is by cutting away the opposite sides of two mem·
bers then lapped to obtain a continuous piece of uniform
thickness.
The common types of splicing tension memben are:
1. Bolted wooden fish plate splice
2. Bolted steel fish plate
3. Wooden tabled fish plate splice
4. Shear pin splice
5. Steel tabled fish plate
6. Tension bar splice
7. Timber connector splice
233
BOLTED WOODEN FISH PLATE SHEAR PIN SPLICE
BOLTED STEEL FISH PLATE STEEL TAB.LEO FISH PLATE
1 :: ~ ~ ~ ~ : 1 ~
llt ... :tJ =+ ll
WOODEN TABLED FISl11'LATE TIMBER CONNECTOR SPL\CE
A
g.
....!L:
<
..... _.
2
~
~
d
4 II
~ -.....
~
..d...
2.
....   ..... _.d.__ ... ..,, I 1   ~ .I
BUTT JOINT HALF LAP 08Lf0UE ICARF.
SPLICING COMPRESSION MEMBER
Figaue 11-32
234
11-8 OLUED LAMINATED LUMBER
Structurally glued laminated wood is a stress rated product of
timber produced in laminating plant from selected wood securely
laminated and bonded together with adhesive. The grain of the
wood are mostly longitudinally parallel with each other forming
any length and bent to curved shapes during the process of gluing
the lamination. Thickness should not exceed 5 tm. net. When
bending radius that is too sharp to permit the use of 5 em. thick
lamination, a nominal thickness of 2.5 em. lumber is usually used.
the various forms of laminated structures are:
1. A-Frame 7. Tudor Three Hinged Arc
2. Gothic 8. Single Tapered Straight
3. Parabolic 9. Double Tapered Straight
4. Radial 10. Double Tapered Curve
5. Three Centered 11. Pitched
6. Straight 12. Double Tapered Pitched
13. Curved
GOTHIC   UCII.
r:
1
n
ST U I GHT OOUet.£ TA'EUO • $TAAIOT
tltACtAL.
Figure .11-36
23.5
WOODEN HOWE ROOF TRUSSES
(sizes of members)
TABLE 11-6 4 PANELS
TRUSS TOP CHORD BOTTOM CHORD DIAG. VERTICAL
SPACING T.C. B.C. A 8 c
in meters
5M SPAN
1.50 3x4 Jx4 2x2 12 mm 12 mm
2.00 3x5 3x4 2x2 12mm 12 mm
2.50 3x5 3x5 2x3
12mm 16 mm
3.00 3x6 3x5 2x3 12 mm 16mm
6M SPAN
2.00 3 x 6 3x5 2x3 12 rnm 12mm
2.50 3x6 3x5 2x3 12 mrn 16 mm
3.00 3 x6 3x6 2x3 12mm 16mm
3.50 3x8 3x6 3x3 12mm 16mm
7M SPAN
2.50 3x8 3x6 2x3 12mm 16mm
3.00 3x8 3x6 3x3 12mm l.6mm
3.50 3x8 3x6 3x3 12mm 19mm
4.00 . 3x8 3x6 3x3 12mm 19mm
236
TABLE 11·7 6 PANELS
TRUSS TOP BOTTOM DIAGONAL VERTICAL
SPACING CHORD A B
c D E
in meters
mm
mm mm
2.50 3x8 3x6 2x3 3x3 12 12 19
3.00 3x8 3x6 2x 3 3x3 12 12 19
3.50
3x8 3x8 2x3 3x3 12 12 22
4.00 3x8
3x8 2x3 .3x 3 12 12 22
9M
SPAN .
3.00 3x8 3x6 2x3 3x3 12 12 19
3.50
3x8 3x8 3x3 12 mm 12
12 .
22
4.00
3x8 3x8 3x3 3x3 12 12 25
4.50
3x8 3x8 3x3 3x3 12 12 25
10M SPAN
3.00
3x8 3x8 3x3 3x3 12 12 19
3.50 3x8 3x8 3 X 3. 3x3 12 12 22
4.50
4x8 4x8 3x3 3x3 12 16
22.
237
TABLE 11-8 B PANELS
TRUSS
TOP
BOTTOM
DIAGONAL
VERTICAL
SPACING CHORD CHORD DIAMETER mm
in meters A B c X
y
z 0
12M SPAN
4.00 4x8 4x8
3x3 3x3 3x4 12
16 19 28
4.50 6x6 6x6 3x4 3x4 4x4 12
16 19 28
5.00 6x8 6x6 3'x4 3x4 4x4 12
16 19 31
5.50 6x8 6x6 3x4 3x4 4x4 12 16 22 31
13M SPAN
4.00 4x8 4x8
3x3 3x3 3x4 12
Hi 19 28
4.50 6x8 6x6 3x4 3x4 4x4 12
16 19 28
5.00 6x8 6x8
3x4 3x4 4x4 12 16 22 31
5.50 6x8 6x8
3x4 3x4 4x4 12
16 22 31
14M SPAN
4.00 6x8 6x6
.3 X 3 3 X 3 3x4 12 16 19 28
4.50 6x8 6x8
3x4 3x4 4x4 12
16 19 31
5.00 6x8. 6x8
3x4 3x4 4x4 12 16 22 31
5.50 6x8 6x8
3x4 3x4 4x4 16 19 22 41
238
TABLE 11· 9
2 PANELS
TRUSS TOP BOTTOM DIAGONAL VERTICAL
SPACING CHORD CHORD A X
y
in meters Diameter
1 .. 50 3x5 3x5 2 X 3 2x3 12mm
2.00 3x6 3x5 2x3 2x3 12mm
2.50 3x6 3x5 3X'3 3x3 12mm
TABLE 11-10 3 PANELS
TRUSS TOP
BOT:T'OM
DIAGONAL VERTICAL
SPACING CHORD
CHORD A
B
X
y
z
(in meters) Diameter
4M SPAN
1.50 3..x4 3x4 2x3 2x 3 2x3 12mm 12mm
2.00 3x5 3x4 2x3 2x3 2x3 12 12
2.50 3x5 3x4 2x3 2x3 2x3 12 12
5M SPAN
2.00 3x6 3x5 2x3 2x3 2x3 12mm 12 m!_n
2.50 3x6 3x5 2x3 2x3 2x3 12 12
3.00 3x6 3x5 2x3 2x3 2x3 12 12
239
TABLE 11 • 11
4PANELS
Truss Top Bottom
DIAGONAL VERTICAL
Spaci ng Chord
Chord
in met ers
A B
c
0 X
y
z
Diameter
mm
. 6M
SP AN
2.00 3x6 3x5
2x3
2x3
  x ~
3x3 12 12 12
2.50 3x6 3x5
2x3
2x3 3x3 3x3 12 12 16
3.00 3x6 3x6
2x3
3x3 3x3 3x3 12
12 16
7 M
SP AN
~ ·
2.50 3x6
3x6
3x3
3x3
3x4
3x3
12
12 16
3.00
3x8
3x8
3x3
3x3
3x4
3x3 12
12 16
3.50
3x8
3x8
3x3
3x4
3x4
3x4
12
16 19
2.4 0
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m

.
.
.
,

 

CHAPTER 12
ROOF AND ROOFING MATERIALS
12- 1 ROOFING MATERIALS
The term roof used here means the top covering of a building
that serves as a protective covering from the weather. Likewise.
roofing materials refers to the kind of materials used in the cons-
truction of the roof.
There are numerous forms of roofing which are classified
according to the materials used:
l. Fiber
5. Tiles
2. Wood
6. Reinforced Concrete
3. Metal
7. Plastics
4. Slate
8. Fiberglass
A Ftblr Roofing- Is a cheap kind of materials used for roofing
made out of tar felt or other materials, available in rolls made in
several varieties. Fiber roofing is laid on·an undersurface made of
tongue and groove (T & G) wood board preferably well-seasoned
or kiln-dried to prevent warping and splitting of wood due to
alternating temperature that causes tearing of the fiber.
Laying Procedure - The laying procedures in fastening fiber
roofing sheets are as follows:
a. Lay the T & G board on the roof frame as undersheating
well fastened by 8d common wi re nails.
b. Mark the roofing surface with chalkline to insure a unt-
form laps and parallel widths in laying the fiber .materials.
c. Use galvanized nails with large head but short enough to
avoid penetration on the undersurface board.
d. Provide 15 em overlap and have it cemented. with coal
tar.
e. Do not pull a strip of roofing paper after it was unrolled
straight at the start of the work.
B Canvas Roofing - Is extensively used for deck roofing of
boats, cars, garage or shed etc. Canvas are usually treated .with
242
linseed oil and followed with a ~ o   t of paint 1fter laying or
maybe retreated with linseed oil after laying then fQIIowed by
paint.
Laying Procedure: -
1. Before laying, canvas should be dampened and drawn
evenly taut, raw edges are concealed and nailed with
2 em galvanized or copper tacks spaced at 2 em. apart.
2. One way of treating canvas is to apply a heavy coat of
raw linseed oil and allow to saturate, while it is still wet,
sprinkle all over with calci ned plaster of paris evenly
spread with brush, thus removing superf uous plaster This
procedure prevents the contraction and expansion of the
canvas and at the same time increase the wear resistance
and provide a durable base for paint.
C - Wood Shing1es: - Is not popular and is not being used in
the Philippines although wood of the best quality are found in· the
entire archipelago. ·
D - Slate Roofing: - Is not recommended on roof of wooden
houses, because any vibration will readily crack off the shingles
if nailed rigidly or cemented ..
E - Metal Roofing: - The materials used under this category
are classified as follows:
1. Galvanized Iron
2. Aluminum
3. Tin {Terne .Plate)
4. Titanium Copper Zinc
Alloy
5. Copper
6. Copper Bearing Steel
7. Stainless Steel
8. Lead with 4% to 6% anti-
mony
12-2 GALVANIZED IRON SHEETS
Galvanized iron roofing is either plain or corrugated. The
thickness are measured in terms of "Gauge" from numbers 14 to
30. The sheet becomes thinner as the gauge number increases. for
instance. gauge 20 is thinner than gauge 18. The prices of G.l.
sheets varies per unit length depending upon the thickness.
The gauge number 26 is the most commonly use<.l for roof ing
243
1
although No. 24 is sometimes specified by those who could afford
the cost.
Statisticelly, most of the technocrats and laymen coosumers
have inadequate knowledge of how to dJstlnguish the difference
in thickness of G. I. sheets between the consecutive gauges 'kay, 24,
25, 26. to 30 which is difficult even with the aid of a caliper since
thickness will be measured in terms of hundreths or thouunths
of a centimeter. This is a matter of interest that one should kndW
in buying G. I. sheet because ~   is most likety to happen that one is
g;ven gauge 28 or 30 instead of the gauge 26 that was ordered and
bought from the supplier. Be it accidentally or Intentionally done,
it is to the disadvantage of the buyer In terms of cost and quality
of the materials.
The only way by which one could be sure of the right quaHty
required is by ' weight measure of the sheets which is presented in
the following Table. It would be logical to pay higher and obtain
the right gauge than pay lower without knowing that a thinner and
poorer quality. roofing sheet is obtained.
Corrupted G.l. Sheet:
Figure 12- 1
Among the metal roofing enumerated, galvanized iron sheet is
the most popular and commonly specified considering the advan-
tages that it offers to the builders and homeowners.
The standard commercial size width is (32" ) .80m with length
that ranges from (5 to 12') ' 1.50 to 3.60 m. Longer spans are also
available through special order and arrangement. Corrugated G.l.
sheet' is the most common and extensively used roofing materials
for residential, commercial; religious as well as industrial buildings.
The popularity of galvanized roofing is brought about by the ad-
vantages it offers such as cost. availability, durability and ease
of installation.·
T
A
B
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1
2
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1

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7
3

 

 

/
Plain G ~ l   Sheet:
Plain G.l. sheet commercial standard size is (36" x 8 ft.} .90
x 2.40 m. long; other sizes could be obtained through special order.
Plain G. I. sheet is also used for roofing, gutters, flashing, ridge, hip
and valley rolls, downspout, and straps for rivetting and many
more under the tinsmlthing field, to be discussed in the succeding
part of this chapter.
12-3 CORRUGATED G. I. ROOFING FASTENERS
Corrugated G.t. Sheets are fastened to the purlins either by:
1. Rivetting
2. Nailing
Riveting: - In the process of riveting, what is required are
plain G .I. straps, G .I. rivets, lead washers and G.l . washers. The G.l.
strap is folded 3 em at one end then a hole is punched therein
using a nail set with one rivet and G.l. washer inserted inside the
hole of the strap then punched to hold in position.
In the process of the final riveting, two tinsmiths do the job,
one underneath the roof and the other on top of the roof who
does the punching setting in the lead washers on the rivets followed
by the G. I. washer then the final riveting by the use of ball hammer.
The straps are then nailed on the purl ins for final anchorage of the
roofing sheets.
Figure 12-2
Nailing)- Fastening of G.i. sheets by nail is the simplest and'
most economical method where G. I. roofings are anchored to the
• purlins by the use of Roof Nails and a pair of G.l. and lead washer.
246
12-4 ADVANTAGESANDDISADVANTAGESOFG.l. RIVETS
Adv1nt1ge1:
1. Rigidity - The entire roofing acts as one solid covering
on top of the roof frame with all parts connected by rivets and
washers.
2. flexibility - The anchorage on the purlins by G.l.
straps allow free movement of the materials brought about by
the thermal expansion and contraction.
Disadvantages:
1. Expensive - due to the various accessories involved
aside from the high cost of labor
2. Difficulty of repair or replacement of defective parts
which include dismantling of the ceiling underneath to give
access to the tinsmithing activities.
3. Statistically, ' roof damage caused by typhoon are
mostly of the rivetted types. Any portion of the roof tha.t
fails and give way during typhoon is subjected to maximum
exposure to wind pressure. Other parts of the roof structure are
affected that usually results to a total destruction of the
entire roof including the roof framework.
12-5 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF G.l. NAILS
Advantages:
1. Economical because only nail and washers are involved.
G.l. straps are totally eliminated and the labor cost is substan·
tially small.
2. Easy to repair or replace aefective parts without neces·
sarily affecting other parts of the building. ·
· 3. Failure of roof in case of typhoon will 1'\0t result to
total damage of the entire roof and framing structure because
roofing sheets usually blows up one at a time without being
rotted entirely affecting the whole structure. Roofing sheets
blown up by wind will not be totally damaged and could be
returned to its original position immediately after the calamity.
?47
DisadvantageS - :
1. Wat'er might leak into the nails if not provided with
roof cement during the fastening operation or when not pro·
perly driven down to attain rigid anchorage onthe purlins.
2. Loose nalls allow roof-play and movement which
usually invite water to penetrate into the holes. This usually
happens if nails missed the purlins and not corrected at once.
12-6 TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS:
1. Corrugated G. I. sheets shall extend not less than 8 em
beyond the outer face of the facia board.
2. Nails or Rivets shall be spaced at every other corruga-
tion along the gutter line, end lapping joints, ridge, hip and
valley rolls. Other' s at every after two corrugations.
3. Nails shall be driven enough to hold the sheet firm to
the purlins. too tight might deform the corrugation: too loose
will cause movement that might cause water to leak. Avoid
· mishitting the purlins in driving nails. Always provide string
across the laid roofing sheet to insure the center fastening of
• nails to the purlins. ·
4. Always provide with string along the gutter I ine where
to start the laying of roofing sheets to avoid misallignment of
corrugation of the. succeeding sheets.
Figure 12
Lapping: - In laying corrugated G. I. roofing sheets, there are
two kinds of lapping involved:
248
1. Side Lapping which is either ll/2 or 21/z corrugations
2. End Lappmg which ranges from 20 em to 30 em de-
pending upon the slope of the roof and the number of sheet in
a longitudinal row. As previously mentioned, the side lapping
is also affected by the above factors but the plan and specifi-
cations shall govern.
CommiM:
Different menufacturers of corrugated G. I. sheet has their own
standard mould of corrugations that differ from each other. It is
therefore suggested that In specifying or buying roofing sheets
always specify one brand throughout to avoid misalignment of
corrugations and unfitted end joints of the roof.
TABLE 12- 2 ROOF ACCESSORIES AND NUMBER
PER Kl LOG RAM
MATERIALS NUMBER OF PIECES
Galvanized Roofing Nails 102
Lead Washers 75
Galvanized Washers 126
Galvanized Rivets 180
,.. Quantity may vary a .little for different brand
TABLE 12-3 SIZES OF G.l. STRAP
Size of PurHns
{In) {em.)
2x2 5x8
2 X 4 5 X 10
2 X 5 5 X 12
2 X 6 5 X 15
12- 7 PLAIN G.l. SHEET
Strap Dimensions
(em)
2.5 X 23
2.5 X 25
2.5 X 28
2.5 X 30
Plain G.l. sheet has numerous uses In roof construction aside
from the countless projects of tinsmithlng work. in building
construction, plain G. I. sheet could be used as:
1. Gutter 6. Anchor Strap
2. Flashing 7. Downspout
3. Ridge rolf 8. Roofing
4. Hip Roll 9. Water Proofing-sheating
5. Valley Roll
249
Roof Gutter:
Roof gutter using galvanized sheet usually specify gauge
No. 24. Gutter is either concealed or exposed type In various
forms and designs. It runs level in appearance but should be sloped
at 5 mm per meter run for effective drainage. G. I. gutter as much
as possible should be free from stagnant water and shaH be well
maintained with paint or rust protective coating.
- Outl e r$
Pur lin 5 ---\-W\l..f.......,-"
- r o.ci a
Ex posed type Concealed type
Figure 12-4
Flashing:
Flashing makes intersections and other exposed parts of
the house watertight. It provides a smooth boarder line giving
beauty to the structure considering the unlimited variety of designs.
f
Ploin G.l.  
oc i o
f
oot
Figure 12-5
Ridge and Hip Roll .
Ridge and hip rolls are unlikely to leak because of the slope
that water tends to slide down. Because of its prominency in the
structure, it is important to have it well done.
Figure 12-6 ·
250
Valley Roll
It is always concealed underneath between the intersecting
angles of the roof. The design is limited to a semi-circular. U   ~ h a p e
or square type. This portion of the roof needs careful attentcon as
the gutter to avoid overflow or leak of water that create trouble
and embarassment.
.
Figure 12- 7
Downspout:
Downspout conveys the water from the gutter down to the
storm drain. Spout is either circular, square or rectangular cross
section or othl:!r geometrical form to suit the taste of the designer.
The size and location of the downspout is sometimes o matter
of hit and miss discretion of the builder. He would not usually
waste time to determine the accumulated rain water in the roof,
its flow inside the gutter and the required size of the downspout
th<,tt will convey the water down the drainage system. The most
common size of G.l downspout being used is the (2 .. x4") 5 x 10
em ready made commercial standard.
For residential work allow 6 square centimeters downspout
for every 10 square meter roof area with a minimun spacing of 6
meters apart and a maximum distance of 15 meters.
Comments and Observation:
In the field of actual construction work, it will be noted
that after the roof tinsmithing job, there are so many wastes of
scrap G. I. sheets. These are the result of indiscriminate and careless
cutting of plain G.l. sheet by the tinsmith due to lack
251
of foresight and planning of the work. These waste could have
been avoided if the cutting process were done from the largest to
the smallest piece of the accessories. The procedures and manner
of cutting G. I. sheet shall be as follows:
1. Prepare and cut into actuat sizes the gutter, hip valley
and ridge roll in accordance with the plan including the number of
pieces needed. Install them to their positions.
2. Layout the corrugated roof and make the necessary
diagonal cutting if there is any along the hip and valley roll.
3. Prepare and cut the flashing into 1ctual sizes and have
it moulded to its design form. Include in this preparation the cut
for the proposed downspout.
4. All the excesses from the above cuttingshal l be made
into small straps for riveting. Should it be inadequate, additional
cutting could be made out from the stock of plain G.l. sheets. This
will avoid excess or scrap galvanized sheet after the tinsmithing job .
. 12-8 FLAT, STANDING SEAM AND BATTEN ROOFING
The materials which are usually used for this type of roofing
are:
1. Copper bearing steel
2. Lead with 4% to 6% antimony
3. Tin (Tierne Plate)
4 . . Titanium Copper
5. Galvantzed sheet
6. Stainless Steel
SLOPE OF ROOF
Gauge 24
Gauge 19-20
Gauge 28
Gauge 24-25
Gauge 26
Gauge· 28-30
flat s..n of Flat lock -The minimum slope should be 5 em.
per meter run.
Standing Seam - The minimum slope should be 15 em. per
meter run.
A good pitch of the roof is advisable to prevent accumulation
of water and dirt in shallow puddl es.
252
Flat Seam:
The roofing sheets are fastened to the sheating board by cleats
providing 3 pieces for every sheet. Two pieces along the larger side
and one on the shorter side. Fasten two pieces of 2.5 em. barbed
wire nails to each cleat. The cross beams are locked together and
soaked well with solder. ·
The sheets are edged 1 em. fastened to the roof with cleats
spaced at 20 em ·apart. The cleats are then locked into the seam
and fastened to the roof with nails to each cleats.
( )
      ~
Figure 12-8
Standing Sen Tin Roof:
The tin sheets are laid on a tongue and groove sheating or
underface board, well seasoned. dry lumber. narrow widths, free
from holes and should be even in thickness. A new tin sheet should
not be laid over otd tin sheet, rotten shingles or tar roof.
The sheets of this type of roofing are assembled together in
long length at the top. The cross seams are locked together and
are well-soldered. The sheets are laid and fastened with cleats
spaced at 30 em apart. One edge of the sheet is turned-up to 3 em
at right angle and the cleats are installed. The adjoining edge of the
next coarse is turned up 4 em and locked together: then turned
over and flattened to a round edge. Solder should sweat into all
seams and joints.
Roof sheets should be painted underneath before it is laid on
the roof sheating board. After laying, clean the surface then apply
.the first coat of pafnt. The second coat may be applied after two
weeks followed by a third coat after one year.
253
Figure 12-9
Batten Roofing:
Is made of plain sheets laid on a tongue and groove board, well-
seasoned, thoroughly over-lap and j oint to each other.
Figure 12 - 10
254
12-9 CLAV TILE ROOFING:
The different types of clay tile roofings art:
l. Spanish Type
2. Straight Barrel Mission Type
3. Roman Type
4. Greek Type
5. English lnterloc.king Tiles
6. , French Tiles
7. Shingle Flat Tiles
ePANI.H
  I ~ •COYtON
l'"t\..1'
,_, D.C •ND DECK •CCYJOf'lil
Figure 12- 11
ftOWA ...
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INT.IItt.OCKINO T•\.. &
2.55
256
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ITMIERED LAYJNQ
lAYING Ol' IIIEilft
NOTI TH£ GAN 8ET'Wfi I ll
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prepainted steel roofing and welling
»'17110.-!C:...-
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ALLOIWAILILOAO CAI'ACITY fOR CONTINUOU$ '"AHI
1100 I OliO 1200 131i0
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1860 1100 1960
8 ... 8.8 &.3 4.2 3.4 :u 2.3 2.0
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Figure 12·13
2100
1.7
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1.1
257
CREST fASTENING TO Tllo!etA:
-
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lold kPo 8.14 4.S1 3.4S 2.73 2.21 1.83 1.54 1.31 1.13 0.98 o.ee
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Figure 12-:-14
/
258
CHAPTER 13
STAIRS
13-1 INTRODUCTION
Not all carpenters possess the skill in building stairs. To those
who have tried to make one have found it to be an art in itself.
Many have tried but were frustrated, some made it successful,
and others won't dare being afraid of the circumstances involved
in case of error. ·
Dif f iculties wi ll be encount ered in trying to frame-up a stair-
way if one does not know the uses and manipulation of t he "Steel
Square". The Steel Square plays a major role in stairway framing,
know it s functions and a satisfactory result wi ll be obtained.
Before one makes an attempt to build a stairway, it is impor·
tant to know and be familiar with the terms used in stair design.
13 - 2 DEFINITIONS:
Beluster - A small post supporting the handrail or a coping.
Bal,ustnde- A series or row of balusters joined by a handrail
or coping as the parapet of a balcony.
Bearen - A support"_for winders wedged into the walls secured ·
by the stringers. ·
Carriage - That portion which supports the steps of a wooden
stairs.
Close String- A staircase without open newel in a dog stairs.
Cockel Stair- Is a term given to'a winding staircase.
Circular Stair - A staircase with steps wif"!ding in a circle or
cylinder.
Curve out- A concave curve on the face of a front string.
Curtail Step - The first step by which a stair i s ascended,
t erminating at the end in a f orm of a scroll following
the plan of a ·handrail. .
Elliptical . Stairs - Those ·elliptical in plan where each tread
assembly converging in an elliptical ring in plan.
Face Mould- A section produced on any enclined plane ver-
tically over a curved plan of a handrail. '
Flight of Stairs - Is the series of steps leading from one land·
ing to another.
Front String: - The string on the si de of stairs where the hand-
rail i s placed.
259
Fillet - Is a band fastened to the face of a front string below
the curve and extending the width of a tread.
Flyers- Steps in a flight that are parallel with each other.
Geometrical Stain- Is a flight of a stair supported by the wall
at the end of the steps.
Half Space - The Interval between two flights of steps in
staircase. ·
- A rail running parallel with the inclinat ion of the
. stairs that holds the baluster.
Hollow Newel - An opening in the middle of the staircase as
distinguished from solid newel wherein the ends of
steps are attached.
Ho .. ing - The notches in the string board of a stair for the
reception of stairs.
Knee- Is the convex bend at the back of the handrail.
Unding - Is that horizontal floor as resting place in a flight.
. Newel - The central .column where the steps of a circular
staircase wind.
··"Nosing - The front edge of the step that project beyond
t he riser.
Pitching Piece - A horizontal member one end is wedged into
the wall at the top of the flight of stairs that supports
the upper end of the rough stringer.
Pitch - The angle of inclination of the horizontal of the
stairs.
Ramp - A slope surface that rises and twists simultaneously.
Rise- The height of a flight of stairs frorn landing to landing.
The height between successive treads or stairs.
Riser- The vertical face of a stair step.
Run - The horizontal distance from the first to the last riser
of a stair flight.
  The angle formed by a stairway.
Stain - The steps wherein t o ascend or descend from one
storey t o another.
Staircase- Is the whole set of stairs; the structure containi ng
a flight of stairs.
Stair Builders Trusss - Crossed beams which support the
landing of a stair.
Stair Clip - A metal . clip used to hold a stair carpet in place.
260
llllrhlld - The initial stair at the top of 1 fUght of stair or
staircase.
· ltllr Headroom - The clear vertical height measured from the
nosing of a stair tread to any overhead. obstruction.
8tllr Turret - A building containing a winding stair
usually fills it entirely; A stair enclosure which pro-
jects beyond the building roof.
Stair well - The vertiCal shaft which contains a staircase.
Stn1ight flight of stairs - One having the steps parallel and
at right angle to the strings.
Steps- The assembly consisting of a tread and a riser.
Step - Stair unit which consists of one tread and one riser.
Scroll or wrtail l1lp - The bottom step with the front end
s1oped to receive.
String - The part of a flight of st<:tirs which forms its ceiling
or soffit.
String Board - The board next to the well hole which receives
the ends of the steps.
Soffit- The underneath of an arch or moulding.
T,_ - The horizontal part of. a step Including the nosing.
T,_. length - The dimension of a tread measured perpendi·
cular to the normal line of travel on a stair. · ·
Treld Plate - A metal fabricated floor plate.
Treed Return - In an open stair, the continuation of the hori-
zontal rounded edge of the tread beyond the stair
 
Treed run- The horizontal distance between two consecutive
risers or. on an open riser stair, the horizontal distance
between nosings or the outer edges of successive treads
all measured perpendicular to the front edges of the
nosing or tread.
Treed Width - The dimensions of a tread plus the projection
of the nosing if any.
Will String - The board placed against the wall to receive the
end of the step.
Well- The place occupied by the flight of stairs.
W•l Hole- The opening In floor at the top of a flight or stairs.
Well Staircase - A winding staircase enclosed by walls re-
sembling a well.
Wind .. - Steps not parallel with each other.
W.Nth- The whole of a helically curved hand rail.
261
fl.OOR
CE ll.. l NG
262
:II
0
0
cr
Q
"'
r
lllf ll. HOL E
RUN OF ST(P
SHP
1\\JN
Figure 13· 1
13-3 LAYINGOUTOFSTAIRS
The method of laying out stairs are:
1. Determine the clear height of the rise in meter. Ordinarily,
the rise per step is 17 to 18 em and the minimum tread width is
25 em.
2. Divide the rise (height in meter} by .17 or .18 to deter-
mine the number of steps.
3. Divide the run distance in meter by .25 or .30m ,
4. If the result.found in step 3 is less than the number found
in step 2, the run length has to be extended.
5. There should be no fractional value of a riser. Shoutd there
be from the result of step 2, adjust the fractional value in equal
proportion to the number of riser height, but in no case shall the
rise per step be greater than 19 em or less than 17 c.m otherwise,
the stairs will not be an ideal one.
It is important to make a cross sectional sketch of a stair
before making the final plan layout indicating the number of
steps to avoid adjustments of the run during the actual
construction. ·
I o.oe"'.
----------- ...
  l ~ o r 11u/
Agure 13-2
13-4 LAYING OUT THE STRINGER

..
------ ___ 3·ii
After determining the number of tread and the height per rise
of the steps follow the actual marking on the stringer by the aid
. of the steel square.
263
the length of the stringer could be determined by either the
use of the Pythagorian Formula L = rise
2
+ run
2
or by actual
measurement using a meter rule or taptr;
Figure 13 - 3
TABLE   3 ~   HEIGHT OF ·RISE AND LENGHT OF RUN
FOR A GIVEN NUMBER OF STEP
···----
Number Height of Rise
Length ()f Run
of Step
(in m.) (In m.)
Riser
Tread
--·-·-····· .. . -.
4 .68 .72 1.00 1.20
5.
.85 .90 1.25 1.50
6 1.02 1.08 1.50 1.80
7 1.19 1.26 1.75 2.10
8 1.36 1.44 2.00 2.40
9 1.53 1.62 2.25 2.70
10 1.70 1.80 2.50 3.00
u
1.87 1.98 2.75 3.30
12 2;04 2.16 3.00 3.60
13 2.21 2.34 3.25 3.90
14 2.38 2.52 3.50 4.20
15 2.55 2.70 3.75 4.50
16
. 2.72
2.88 4.00 4.80
17 2.89 3.06 4.25 5.10
18 3.06 3.24 4.50 5.40
19 3.23 3.42 4.75 5.70
20 3.40 3.60 5.00 6.00
26.4
13-5 TYPE OF STRINGERS
Thero are several forms of stringers ·classified according to the
method of attaching the risers and the treads.
l. Cut ·
2. Cleated
3. Built-up
4. Rabbeted (Housed)
Cut Stringer - Are popularly employed in most modern and
contemporary house design.
Cleated Stringer- Is used for a very rough work.
Built·up Stringer - Is employed on the wi<le stairs that re-
quires a center stringer.
CUT STRING£R
CLEAT£0 STIWHitlt
8lO C Ita Cllt fr<ONI
o11tal O• atrlntor
8Uit.T·UP $"ff11HGER
Figure 13·4
265
Rabbeted Stringer - Is adopted on a fine work and usually
made at the mill. The risers and treads are held in the rabbets by
wedges set in by glue.
Figure 13·5
13- 6 HANDRAIL AND BALUSTERS
Handrail and balusters have multiplicity of dtslgn and forms
made of either wood or metal or the combination of both. In
either type and forms the best is prefabricated on tho mill or metal
craft for precision of the work to be assembled on site. Handrails
that presents difficulty to the carpenter is the curved portion
located at the end and the change of flight. These p<lrticular parts
should be prepared in the woodcraft or mill where band saw and
jig saw are best used to form the wreath or ramp. During the
early days when labor \Vas cheap, handrail and curves were ela·
borately made. but the present trend is toward a straight line plain
and simple curve but beautifully made.
It is impori:ant to select the materials for handrail from
straight grained wood thoroughly dried or kiln dried free from
defects.
13-7 REINFORCED CONCRETE STAIRWAYS
The simplest form of reinforced concrete stairway is the
inclined slab supported at the end by beams provided with steps
on Its uppper surface. Under this type. steel reinforcements are
placed only in one direction the length of the slab. A trans-
verse steel consisting of one bar per tread is   to assist in
the distribution of the load and at the same instance serve as a
temperature reinforcement. As much as possible, the unsupported
span of a stair slab shall be reasonably short and no·break in the
flight between floors and intermediate beams supported by the
266
structural framework of the building shall be provided. Likewise,
if the stair between floor is divided into two or more flights, the
intermediate beams should be used to support the intermediate
landing.
Where conditions permit, the intermediate slab maybe sup-
ported directly by the walls of the building. .
The Building Code on stairs so requires that · the maximum
distance from the   point in the floor area to stairway,
the minimum width, the maximum height of any straight flight,
the maximum rise of a single step, the minimum distance of the
run between the vertical faces of the consecutive steps and the
' required relation of the rise and run shall be designed to give
safety and convenience in climbing.
The Code further specifies:
1) The minimum width of any stair slab and the minimum
dimensions of any landing should be about 1.10 m.
2) The maximum rise of a stair step is usually specified as
about 18 em. A rise less than 16 em. is general! not considered
satisfactory.
3) The minimum tread width exclusive of the nosing is
25cm.
4) The maximum height of a straight flight between landing
is generally 3.60 m. except those serving as an exit from place of
assembly where a maximum height of 2.40 m. is normally spe·
cified.
5) The number of stairway is governed by the number of
probable occupants per floor, width of stairway and the building
floor area. The distance from any point in an open floor area to
the nearest stairway shall not exceed 30 meters and that the
corresponding distance along corridors in a particular area shall
not exceed 38 meters.
6) The combined width of all the stairway in any floor shall
accommodate at one time the total number of persons occupying
the largest floor area under the condition that person for each
.33 sq. m. floor area on the landing and halls within the stairway
enclosure.
7) In buildings of more than 12 meters height and in all
· mercantile buildings regardless of height, the required stairways
267
must be completely enclosed by fireproof partitjons and at least
one stajrway shall continue to the roof.
The actual construction of stairways are usually boilt after the
completion of the main structural framework in which case re-
cesses should be left on the beam to support the stair slab inclu-
ding the provision of dowels in preparation for the necessary
anchorage. The steps of the stairways are usually poured mono-
l ithically with the floor slab. '
Construction of reinforced concrete stairway is done from an
actual pattern made of plywood or other forms fixed on the site
to a rigid position supported by scaffolding or staging •

268
CHAPTER 14
PRECAST AND PRESTRESSED
CONSTRUCTION
14 - 1 .INTRODUCTION
The introduction of precast-concrete construction was brought
about by building costs that has considerably increased faster than
most industrial products that are affected by the large amount of
on-site labor il1volved in the traditional methods of construction.
The demand for skilled workers on on-site building cons--
truction is increasingly outrunning the supply. The answer to
these problems· were brought about by the industrialization of
construction and substitution of site labor by factory produced
precast concrete structure which has rapidly developed and gained
importance.
The advantages of precast construction are achieved by mass-
production of standardized and repetitive units. less labor cost per
piece due to mechanized series of productions, use of unskilled
labor, less construction time, better quality control and higher
strength of concrete and construction free from the effects of
weather conditions.
14-2 TYPES OF PRECAST STRUCTURE
Wall Panels - This type of precast structure has numerous
designs depending upon the architectural. requirements. The
common. shapes produced for one to four story high structures
are sections having a width up to 2.40 m. They are used as curtain
walls attached to columns and beams or sometimes as bearing
walls.
The different types of wall panels are:
1. Flat Type 3. Ribbed Type
2. Double Tee Tyoe 4. Window or Mullion Type
To improve the t h   r m ~ t insulation of the panel, foam glass,
glass fiber or expanded plastic is inserted between two layers of
lightweight concrete adequately bonded interconnecting the two
layers to act as one unit. Stresses in handling and erection of the
·member is more than that of the finished field structure, hence,
control of cracking is of great importance.
269
'
+a+ewi
'I''P
2
Figure 14-1
3 ·
14- 3 ROOF AND FLOOR MEMBERS
Roof and f loor members are made in wide variety to suit
the different conditions such as span, magnitude of load, fire
ratings and appearance.
1.11 0-2. 40111 .
•  
.eo·.• "' ·
.2)
Flat slab Hollow Double Tee Single Tee
Figure 14-2
Flat Slab - Is usually 10 em thick but sometimes as thin as
7 em when used on a continuous several span having a width that
ranges from 1.20 m to 2.40 m with a length up to 11.00 meters.
270
Hollow Plink - Is a lightweight member that covers a longer
span made by extrusion Jn speciat machine with a thickness that
ranges from 10 em to 20 em and the width ranges from .60 to
1.20 m used on roof having a span from 5.00 m to 10.00 m and
also on floor with 3.50 to 7.00 m span which could be augmented
to 9.00 m when 5 em topping is applied to act monolithically
with the hollow plank.
Double Tee- Are the most widely used shapes for longer
span having a depth from 4.00 to 6.50 m generally used on roof
having a span up to 18 m when a topping of at least 5 .em is
applied to act monolithically with the precast members. It could
be used on floor to a span up to 15 meters depending upon the
load and deflection ·requirements.
Single Tee - Are used for roofing having a span up to 30
meters and more. The flange of the Tee constitute the floor or
roof slab.
14- 4 PRECAST BEAMS
The shape of precast beams depends upon the manner of
framing. The various shapes are:
1. Rectangular Beam - Where the floor and roof members
are supported on top of the beam.
2. Ledger Beam - Is designed to reduce the height of the
floor and roof construction.
3. L·a.m - To provide bearing, the beam is designed in
a form of L. ;
4. AASHTO Bridge Girder - Named after the American
Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.
Figure 14-3
271
·14- 5 PRECAST COLUMN
Precast column sizes are from .30 x .30m to .60 x .60 meters.
In a multi-story construction, the columns are made continuous
up to four stories wherein corbels are used to provide bearing for
the beam. Tee column is sometimes used to support directly
double Tee floor members without tlie use of intermediate
members.
Column· base c onne c t i ons
.Preca31 Columnr..
Corbel
column
Figure 14- 4
Corbel
14 - 6 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
The early concept of prestressing was suggested by P.H.
Jackson and G.R. Steiner of USA, J. Manli of Austria and J.
Koenen of Germany between the year 1886 and 1908. The use
of high strength steel wss through the suggestion of F Von Em-
perger of Austria in 1923 followed by R.H. Dell of USA who
proposed full prestressing to eliminate cracks completely but their
ideas only ended on papers.
The practical development of prestressed concrete was accre-
dited to E. Freesivet and Y. Guyon of France, E. Hoyer of
Germany and G. Magnet of Belgium.
In 1923 W.H. Hewitt has originated the circular prestressing of
cylindrical tank and pipes followed by the important contribu-
tions made by T. Y. Lin in the design of many types of prestressed
concrete structure in the United States since the year 1950.
272
14- 7 PRESTRESSING OF CONCRETE
There are several methods employed in applying prestressed
force to a concrete beam;
1. Precompressing Method - Is a proce$s of using jacks
reacting against abutment.
 
Figure
2. Self-Contained Method - The process is done by tying the
jack base together with wires or cables located on each side of
the beam. Usually the wires and cables are pressed through a
hollow conduit embedded in the concrete beam, One end of the
tendon is anchored and forces are applied at the other end. After
attaining the desired prestress force. the tendon is then ·wedged
against the concrete, removing the jack equipment.
Figure
3. Bond Friction ·- The prestressing s;rands are stretched
between massive abutment prior to casting of concrete in the
beam· forms. After the concrete has gained sufficient strength,
the jacks are then released transferring the prestressed force to
·the concrete by bond and friction along the strands.
27.3
t
4. . Th.,aJ Prestressing -The steel is preheated by means of
electric power which are anchored against the opposite end of the
concrete beam. The cooling process produces prestress force
through restrained contraction.
· Anchorooe
O..m-=:, CGIMe= ~  
~ ; - - ~ - - - - - - - - s ;
Figure 14-7 '
5. Volumetric Expansion - The use of expanding cement
restrained by the steel strand or by a fixed abutments produces
prestressed force.
The Self Contained and the Bond and Friction methods can
generally be .classified as pre-tensioning or post-tensioning sys-
tem. These methods can be applied to mass production of casting
several meters long of structure and cutting the individual beam.
or post to the desired length out from the. long casting.
The .failure of early attempt In prestressing concrete was due
to the use of ordinary steel having low prestress strength capa·
bility which was rapidly lost due to shrinkage and creep in the
concrete.
Prestressing of concrete could be effective when a very high
strength steel are used. Experiments show that high strength has
only about 15% stress loss as compared to 100% loss in a beam
using ordinary steel. Prestressing steel is usually in the forrn of
individual wire strand cable made up of seven wires and alloy
steel bars.
t.HE CAUSES OF PRESTRESS LOSSES ARE:
1. Slip at Anchorage
2. Elastic shortening of concrete
3. Creep of concrete
4. Shrinkage of Concrete
5. Relaxation of steel stress
6. Frictional foss due to intended or unintended curvature
in the tendons.
27<4
14- 8 CONCRETE FOR PRESTRESSING
Concrete of higher compressive strength Is ultd for prestressed
structures. Most of the prestressed construction specify a com·
pressive strenath of concrete between (4,000 to 6,000 psi)
280-4.'?2   of the following advantages that it offers.
a) High strength concrete has a higher moduius of elasticity.
It minimize the reduction of prestress loss.
b) Increasing the compressive strength of the concrete meets
the problem of high bearing stresses at the ends of post and beam
where the prestressing force is transferred from the tendon to the
anchorage dowels which directly bears against the concrete.
c} High strength concrete develops stronger bond prestresses
to pretensioning construction.
d) High strength concrete gives higher strength to precast
construction when curing is carefully controlled.
14- 9 SHAPE OF PRESTRESSED STRUCTURE
The common shapes .of prestressed structural members are:
1. Double TEE - Is considered as the most widely used
section for prestressed construction with a flat surface having a
width that ranges from 1.20 to 2.40 'meters wide. The thickness
depends upon the requirements while the span can extend up to
18 meters.
iT
Figure 14·9
2. Single TEE - Is normally used for longer span up to 36
·meters with heavier loads. ·
275
cg
Figure 14-10
3. f·Sectlon -· Is widely used for bridges. roof, girders up to
36 meters span.
Figure 14-11
4, Channel Slab- Is used for floors in the intermediate span.
lf: : : : : : : : : { { :   : : : : : ~
. . .
. · ·:-
. .
. ·.·
Figure 14-12
5. BoK Girder - Is used on bridges of intermediate and
major span.
Figure 14-13
276
lnwr1ed T• s.:tion - Provides a bearing ledge to carry the
precut deck members having a perpendiculer direction of span.
Figure 14-14
TABLE 14-1 AREAS, STRENGTH AND INITIAL TENSIONING
LOAD FOR PRESTRESSING STEEL
   
'
Ultimate lr.iliol
,...,il,
NorniMl •trtrt{,tll ltlllicm
• diomtlcr, or to,

0.70A_./,.,
Tw• /,... bi ill. in.' lip• kip•
Gr-M•25o 250 0.250 0.0356 8.9 &.2
MYeD-wire 0.313 0.0578 14.5 1Q. 2
mud 0.375 0.0799 20.0 u..o .
0.437
. .
0.1089 27 .2 19 . 0
0.500 O.IU8 36. 0 25.2
Gr-270 270 0.250 0.0356 9.6 6.7
MVIlfl·wire 0 313 0.0578 15. 6 10.9
etrand 0.375 0.0799 21 .6 15.1
0.437 0. 1089 29 .4 20.6
0.500 0. 1(38 38.8 . 27.2
Strea--reliend 250 0. 192 0.0290 7. 25 5. 08
10lid wire 235 0.276 0.0598 14 . 05 9.84
AJloy•teel 145 0.750 0. 442 64 46
baN <recular >
0.875 0.601 87 61
1.000 0.7M 114 80
1.125 0.994 Iff 101
1.250 1.227 178 125
1.375 1. 485' 215 15f
AUDy«eel 1&0 0. 7.5(1 0 ... 2 71 50
ban (•peeial) 0.875 0 .601 67
1.000 0. 785 126 88
1.125 0 .994 159 111
1.250 1.:127. 196 137
1.375 1.485 238 167
-
277
. ,
, .......
SJ
NOIIIillll NOI'Irinal Nomillal Nominzl. Nominal Nominal
Bar diuwtet,
.,..,
wcitht, diameter. 111ea, mass,
tile In la
3
lb/fl mm mm' ki/m
l .0.37.5 O.t1 0.376 9.S2.S 71 O.S60
.. ... 0.20 0.668 12.700 129 0.994
'
G.W 0.31 1.043 13.87.5 200 U.52
6
0.7,. 0.44 1.»2 19.050 2&t 2.23.5
7 011.5 0.60 2.044 22.223 387 3.042
I 1.000 0.79 2.670 25.400 SIO 3.973
'
I.IZI LOO

2!.651 645 .5,060
to 1.270 1.27 4.303 32.251 119 6,-404
II 1.410 1.$6 .5..313 3.5.814 1,()06 7.907
14
U'J
2.25 7.65G 43.00';' 1,452 11.385
II 2.m 4.00 13.600 .57.328 2,-'111 20.2'"1
WlnnW.-a
U.S. Cutonwy Sl
w.-osize Nomistal Nominal NOC!Iint.' Jl:ominal Nominal N0t11inal
diameter,
area.
wcjpt, dialheter,
area.
mAll.
s-odt Deformed in
mz
lb/ft mm
mmz
kt/m
Wll Dll 0/slS 0.310 1.0$4 15.951 200.0 1.'69
W10 D.JO 0.618 O.JOO I.C)lO 15.(6'1 193.6 !JIB
W'lll DJ:8 0.597 0.280 o.m 1.5.164 110.7 1.417
W26 D26 0.57.5 0.260 0.934
)4 .. 60$
167.7 1.)90
wu Dl4 0.553 . 0.240 0.816 14.046
,,.. ..
1.214
W22
022 0 . .529 0.220 0.748 13.437 141.9 1.11J
W20 Dlll 0.504 0.200 0.680 12.802 129.0 1.012
WII 018 0.478 0.180 6.612 12.141 116.1 0.911
W16 Dl6 OASI 0.160 0 . .544 11.45.5 103.2 0.810
Wl4 014 0.422 0.140 0.476 10.719 9().) 0.108
Wll 012 0.390 0.120 6.408 9.906 n.4 0.607
Wit Dll 0.3?4 0.110 0.374 9 . .500 7t.O 0.$57
WIO.S . 0.366 0.10.5 0.357 9.296 67.7 o.m
WIG DID 0.3.56 0.100 0.)40
9.042 64 . .5
W5U 0.348 0.051.5 0.323 8.8)9 61.J 0.4111
W9 DP 0..338 0.0510 o .. J06. 8.58.5 .58.1 6.4.55
Wl • .5 o.m o.oas 0.219 8.3.57 .s4A 0.430
WI Dl 0.319 0.080 o.m 8. 103
"·'
0.40.5
wu O.l09 0.01.5 0.25.5 7.849 ...... 0.380
·W? rY1 0.298 0.0'10 0.238 7 • .569 4.5.2 O.J.s4
W6...5 0.288 0.06.5 0.221 7.31$ 41.9 0.)29
W6 ' D6 0.276 0.060 O.:!IW 7.010 38.7 0.304
WH 0.264 0.0.5.5 0.187 6.706 35.5 0.278
w'
m 0.2-'l 0.050 0.110 6.401 32.3 0.253
0.240 0.04, 0.1$3 6.096 29.0

W.f
1)1
  O.Oo6t 0.136 5.115 25.8
0.2(\"
-·-· - -· ... - .
278
TABLF. .14 2
MIT AI. RIINPORCIMINT
w. ...........
U.S.cutc.mary Sl
'WIIIId Dll.ll No111inaJ NOIII6MI
N-l"'l
No111inaJ Nominal No111inal
diuwler,

......
dilflleter lttl,
IIIUS.
SIIIOOth Deformed in ia
1
"''"
111111
.nunz
q.lm
W3 . .5 Ull 0.0» Ul9 .5.)59 22.6 0.177
W.l O. I.M 0.0)0 0. 102 4.9S)
,,_.
0. 152
W2.9 0. 192 O.Gl!J 0.0!11 4.877 18.7 0. 146
W2..5 0.178 0,025 o.oas 4 .. '21 · 16.1 0.127
W2 0. 159 0.020 0.061
4,0)9
12.9 0.101
W\.4 O.tl.5 0.014 OJNt .}.429 9.0 0.073
..... ........
U.S.. cullloaWy Sl
NCIGiiul Nominal NoaUu1 NoaUMI NonriJIII NCIIIIiaal
diMietef, II'U,
  ditalctec. area. ......
Type ill in
1
lb/fl
mm mm'
q.t,.
Seveo-win
0.250 . 0.4)6
0.12 6.3-'0 %3.2 t .l19
strand o.m O.OSI 0.10 7.9-'0 37.4
u•
(Onldc HO) 0.37.5 o.oao o:21 9 • .525 .51.6 0.402
0.431 0.101 0.)7 11. 125 69.7 0 • .5.51
o.soo· 0.144 OAt 12J'il0 92.9 o.m
uoo 0.216 0.74 U.240 IJU UOJ
Seven-wire o.:m 0.01.5 0.29 9.52.5 .54.8 O . .Ul
$1Jaftd 0.4l8 0.11.5 0.40 11.125 74.2 0 . .59.5
(Grade 2?0} • 0.15) 0 . .5.} 12.700 98.7 0.789
0.600 0.215 0.74 15.2«1 ll8.7 1.101
Prnttetatftl 0.192 0.029 0.098 4.877 18.7 0.146
wire 0.196
0.0)0 0. 10 4.978 19.4 0.149
0.2'0 0.049 0.17 6.)$0 :H.6 0.25)
0.%76 0.060 0.20 7.010 31.7 0.2518
PrestreHU.. l
0.44 1.$0 19.0$0 283.9 2.231
lws
7
0.60 2.04 22.22.5 )17.1 ),0)6

(smooth) I 0.78 2.67 2.5.-Q} -'03.2 J.m !
,,
0.99
).)1 21.$7.5 631.7 '-030
I! 1.23 4. 17 31.750 79).5 6.206
,,
l ,q .5.0.5 34.925 954.1 7 • .51.5
Prestressina 0.21 0.98 1.5.875 110.6 1.4.18
bus 0.42 1.49 19.0-'0 271.0 2.217
((lefonntd) I 0.15 3.01 2.5.400 548.4 4AO
IJ 1.25 4.39 31.7-'0 106 • .5 6.535
tl 1..56 .5 • .56 34.92.5 1006 . .5 8.274
279
14- 10 ·. METAL REINFORCEMENT:
The ACI Code-on metal reinforcement for prestressed con
crete so provides: "Wire and strand for tendons in prestressed
concrete shall. conform to the specifications for Uncoated
Seven·Wire Stress-Relieved Strand for prest ressed concrete" ·
(ASTM A416) or specifications for Uncoated Stress--Relieved
Wire for Prestressed Concrete" ASTM A421). Strand or wire
not specifically itemized in ASTM A416 or A421 may be
used provided that they conform to the minium requirements
of these specifications and have no properties which make
them less satisfactory than those listed in ASTM A416 or
A421."
"High strength alloy steel bars for post tensioning tendons
shall be proof·stressed during manufacture to 85 percent of
the minimum guaranteed tensile strength. After proof -stressing,
bars shall be subj ected to a stress relieving heat treatment to
produce the prescribed physical properties. After processing,
the physical properties of the bars when tested on full sections,
shall conform to the following minimum properties:
Yield strength (0.2 percent offset) .
Elongation at rupture in 20 diameters:
Reduction of Area at rupture:·
0.85%
4%
200/o
Minimum Bonded reinforcement requirements - "Some
bonded reinforcement shall be provided in the precompressed
tensi on zone of flexural members where the prestressing steel is
unbonded. Such bonded reinforcement shall be distributed uni-·
formly over the tension zone near the extreme tension fiber.
The minimum amount of bonded reinforcement As in beams
and one-way slabs shall be
or As = 0. 004A
whichever is larger, where A '"' area of that part of t he cross
section between the flexural tension face and the center of gravity
of the gross section and Nc = ~   n s i l   force in the concrete under
load of D + 1.2L and fv shall nqt exceed 60,ooo· psi or 413700
kPa."
280
End region•- "Reinforcement shall be provided when re-
quired in the anchorage zone to resist bursting, h()rizontal split·
ting, and spalling forces induced by the tendon anchorages.
Regions of abrupt change in section shall be adequately reinforced.
End blocks shall be provided when required for end bearing
or for distribution of concentrated prestressing forces.
Post-tensioning anchorages and the supporting concrete shall
be designed to support the maximum jacking load at the concrete
strength at time of prestressing and the end anchorage region shalt
be designed to develop the guaranteed ultimate tensile strength of
the tendons ...
Continuous beans- "Shall be designed for adequate strength
and satisfactory behavior. Behavior shall be determined by elastic
analysis, taking into account the reactions, moments, shears, and
axial forces produced by prestressing, the effects of temperature,
creep, shrinkage, axial deformation, restrain of attached structural
elements, and foundation settlement."
Compression members-Combined axial load and bending-
.. Pr.estressed concrete members under combined axial load and
bending,With or without nonprest.ressed reinforcement, shall be
proportioned by the strength design methods for members
without prestressing. The effects of prestress, shrinkage. and creep
shall also be included. The miniumum amounts of reinforcement
specified may be waived where average prestress is over 225 psi or
1551 kPa and a structural analysis shows adequate strength and
stability.
Lateral reinforcement excapt for walls ...... All prestressing steel
shall be enclosed by spirals or closed lateral ties at least 10 mm
diameter in size. The spacing of the ties shall not exceed 48 times
the tie diameters, o.r the least dimension of the column. Ties shall
be located vertically not more ttian one-half a tie spacing above
the floor or footing, and shall be spaced as provided herein to not
more than one-half a tie spacing below the lowest horizontal
reinforcement in the slab or drop panel above. Where beams or
brackets provide enClosure on all sides of the column, the ties
may be terminated not more than 7cm below the lowest rein·
forcement in such beams or brackets.
281
Corrosion protection for unbonded tendons - "Unbonded
tendons shal l be completely coated with suitable material to in5Ure
corrosion protection. Wrapping must be continuous over the entire
zone to be unbonded, and shall prevent intrusion or cement paste
or the loss of coating materials during casting operations."
"Burning or welding operations in the vicinity of prestressing
steel shall be carefully performed so that the prestressing steel
shall not be subject to excessive temperatures, welding sparks or
ground currents."
14 - 11 GROUT FOR BONDED TENDONS
The ACI code on grout for bonded tendons specif ies:
"Grout shall consist of portland cement and potable water.,
or portland cement, sand and potable water. Suitable admixtures
known to have no injurious effects on the steel or the concrete
may be used to ·increase workability and to reduce bleeding and
shrinkage. Calcium chloride shall not be used.
Sand i f used shall conform to Specifications for Aggregate for
Masonry Mortar except that gradation may be modified as neces-
sary to obtain increased workabil it y.
The proportioning of the grouting materials shall be based on
the results of the tests on fresh and hardened grout prior to
beginning work. The water content shall be minimum necessary
for proper placement but in no case be more than 50% the content
of cement by weight. Grout shall be mixed in a high speed mecha-
nical mixer and then passed through a strainer into pumping
equipment which provides for recirculation. The temperature of
members at the time of grollting must be above 32° C and shall be
maintained at this temperature f or at least 48 hours."
Ducts for grouted or unbonded tendons shall be mortar·
tight and nonreactive with concrete, tendons or the filler ma-
terials. To facilitate grout injection, the inside diameter of the
ducts shall be at least 7 mm larger than the diameter of the post-
tensioning tendon o.r large enough to produce an internal area at
least twice the gross area of the prestressing steel.
282
14- 12 MEASUREMENT OF PRESTRI.INQ PORCE
Prestressing force could be determined by:
1. Measuring the tendon elongation.
2. Either by checking jack pressure on a calibrated gage or
load cell or by the use of a calibrated dynamometer.
The cause of any· difference in determining the force which
exceed 5 percent could be ascertained and corrected. The elonga-
tion requirements shall be taken from the average load elongation
curves for the steel used. Where force trasmission from the bulk·
heads of the pretensioning bed to the concrete is made by flame
cutting the steel, the cutting points and cutting sequence shall be
predetermined to avoid undesired temporary stresses. Exposed
strands are cut near the member to minimize shock to the con-
crete. The total loss of prestress due to unreplaced broken tendons
shall not exceed 2 percent of the total prestress.
14- 13 POST TENSIONING ACHORAGE
The ACI Code on post tensioning anchorages and couplers so
provides:
.. Anchorages for unbonded tendons and couplers shall develop
the specified ultimate capacity of the tendons without exceeding
anticipated set. Anchorages for bonded tendons shall develop at
least 90 percent of the specified ultimate capacity of the tendons,
when tested in an unbonded:condition, without exceeding anticipa-
ted set. However, 100 percent of the spec1fied ultimate capacity
of the tendons are bonded in the member. Coupler shall be placed
in areas approved by the Engineer ond enclosed in housings long
enough to permit the necessary movements. Anchorage and end
fittings shall be permanently protected against corrosion.
The anchor   ~ t t i n g s for unbonded tendons shall be capable
of transferring to the concrete a load equal to the capacity of
the tendon under both static and cyclic loading conditions.
283
CHAPTER 1 S
FORM ,SCAFFOLDING &·STAGING
15-1 FORM
Form is a temporary boarding, sheating or pans used to
produce the desired shape and size of concrete. Forms are es
sential requirement in concrete construction. Structural members
of a building are built-up into its specified dimensions by the
use of forms that serves as mould for the mixed concrete.
Concrete mixture is generally semi-fluid that reproduces the
shape of anything into which it is poured'. Forms should be
watertight, rigid, and strong enough to sustain the weight of
concrete. It should be simple and economically designed to be
removed easily and reassembled without damage to themselves
or to the concrete.
The factors considered in the selection of forms are:
1. Cost of materials
2. The construction and assembling cost
3. The number of times it could be used.
4. Strength and resistance to pressure and the tear and wear.
Wood board and Plywood forms
Wood is the most common andwidely used forms in minor or
major constructions. The introduction and satisfactory result
brought about by plywood forms almost absolutely resulted in
the limited used of tongue and groove (T & G) wood board due
to the following advantages offered by the laminated wood board.
l. Plywood as form is generally economical both in materials
and labor. .
2. Plywood has plain, even surface with uniform thickness.
3. It offers fitted joints, eliminate dressing. planing of the
surface which is normal to wooden board forms.
4. The laminated cross-grained of plywood has made the
board stronger and free from warping.
5. Plywood is light-weight, handy and fast to work on.
6. Produce · smooth finishe of concrete that sometimes
need little or no plastering at all.
284
Mml Forms-· Metal forms are seldom uMd In building cons-
truction becauM of the varied designs and shapes of the structures.
Althouoh metal forms are extensively used on road construction,
It Is also adopted on precast and prestressing plant 11 mould for
tho• flat and wider m   m ~ r s such as floor slabt, wells, beams,
columns and those that require mass produCtion with similar
dimensions that calls for a repetitive use. Metal forms are generally
made out of G. l. sheet. or black iron sheet, supported by flat and
angle bars designed to be assembled and · Jacked by means of
clamp, bolts and nuts etc.
15 - 2 CONSTRUCTION OF FORMS
Concrete weighs about 2,200 to 2,400 kg./m
3
Forms shall be
guarded against bulging and sagging failure that occur during
the process of pouring. Smatl cracks develop between joints
that gradually wi.dens and cause deforma.tion of the structure
that reduce the desired strength. Forms shall be substantially
strong to resist the weight and horizontal pressure of fresh
concrete. The thickness of the form and the sizes of the frame and
ribs depends upon t he nature of the structure t o be supported
classified as small, medium or massive structure.
Ordinarily, small structure consisting of smal l footings,
columns and beam for one or two story building wherein (3/16)
- 6 mm. thick plywood is satisfactorily used supported by 2 x 2
wood frame and ribs.
Medium size cons1:ructions are those having concrete column,
beams, and concrete floor slab generally of 2 to 3 story high.
Forms are made out of (lf• or lfz) 6 or 12 mm thick plywood is
employed as form supported by 2 x 2 and 2 x 3 wood f r ~ m  
and ribs.
Those construction having massive structures uses forms
of various thickness th!tt range from 6 mm to 19 mm thick
pl ywood ('I• to 314") support.ed by lumber of sizes from 2 x 2
to 2 x 4. The design of the forms depends upon the degree of
the work and specifications as to whet thickness is to be used
for a certain structure including its frame and sizes. or dimen-
. sions of supports.
285
The term Cost being the principal consideration i n buildi ng
construction connotes that all phases of the work shall be prog-
rammed to contribute to the reduction of cost without sacrificing
the strength and quality of the work. Form is not an exception to
' this objective,more so that it falls under the category of the major
item in building construction that requires substantial appropria-
tion. Form requires frame and ribs. 2 x 2 lumber is widel y used
for this purpose regardless of the classification of the structure be
it small, medium or massive. The resisting capability of the form
depends upon the manner how it will be supported by the frame-
work called scaffolding or staging which will be discussed later.
There are two types of framing adopted in ma'king plywood
form: the longitudinal and the perpendicular rib type. So far, the
most economical and preferred one is the longitudinal type
because the cutting of lumber is controlled minimizing short
pieces and preserving the length for future use. On the contrary.
the perpendicular rib type cutting of lumber into short pieces
could not be avoided. After the femoval of forms, they finally
become waste to be turned into firewood.
perpendicular ribs
Plywood torms -
- -2" 2 Frome-
Longitudinal ribs
Figure 15-1
Column forms - Square and rectangular column forms consist
of two pieces having the same width with that of one side of the
col umn placed opposite to each other which will be closed with
another pair of form having wider width usually 10 em. wider
than the former. Circular column has only two pieces of semi-
circular forms usually made of metal sheet supported by wood
frame. Forms for column of various geometrical cross sectional
shape are cut according to de-sign.
286
Opposltt form tu••d
'-. In riQtlt po•ltton
-.... foiiOWid bY tl\t
col/'er
Square Circular
<;n
   
, .. /
Metol "heet
·Wood frome
Figure 15·2

Beam Forms - The form of a beam consist of one bottom
forn1 having a width of 10 to 15 em. wider than the beam width
and a pair of side forms having a width equal the depth of the
beam.

r
') .
: ' '
1 r
I I '
"' ll} "' .·
1: t :;1-=r:]
Co)
(o.) BoHoM form -the sne is .
wi d1h of beam pi 4 in. or
. 10111. .   :·
(b} cover   qHer .,
stttiftO the reinforeemenl. beom .
It's widfh i$ e quo I tne deptll form .J
of tile beam.
Figure 15-3
<
15- 3 ERECTION AND SECURING OF FORMS
Forms are properly secured in position by means of cleats,
braces. twisted tie ·wire, bolts, clamps or nails. Ordinarily for
small structure, forms are erected and secured by means of
common wire nails not totally driven down leaving a protroding
head for pulling off. by the aid of hammer or wrecking bar. Some-
times this method is not sufficient when the structure is massive
· that the employment of those above mentioned accessories are
necessary to prevent bulging or sagging of the forms.
297
When tie wire is used, they are twisted to tighten the forms
and the projecting end are cut when forms are taken down
leaving the other portion of the wire embedded inside the con-
crete. If bolts are used, they maybe greased before the con-
creting so that they could be driven out of the concrete easiiy
when forms are removed. After 24 hours from the time of
pouring, the bond of concrete around the bolts are disturbed
by merely tapping them with hammer, so that it could be easily
withdrawn when forms are removed.
15-4 .WALL FORMS
· Wall forms above the ground or f loor level is usually in pair
strong enough to resist the lateral pressure of concrete. Wall forms
should be guarded against bulging which is the usual failure, the
most effective way of securing wall form is the use of bolts and
knots.
Wall are classified as:
1. Continuous
2. Full Unit
3. Layer Unit
a) Continuous
b) Sectional
The layer unit is considered economical as far as the form is
concerned, because the same forms are being used on different
section although there is delay in the progress of the work and
extra cost of labor.
15 - 5 GREASING OF FORMS
The purpose of greasing the form is to make the wood water
proof, thus preventing absorption of water in the concrete which
causes swelling and warping. Grease also prevents adherence of
    to the pores of the wood.
Crude oil is the cheapest and most satisfactory materials for
this purpose. The oil is mixed with No. 40 motor oil proportioned
at 1:3 mixture varying according to the temperature where more
oil is necessary on warm wuther. Greasing of form should not be
done after the steel bars have been:set to its position.
288
. 15- 6 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS BETWEEN THE T & G
AND PLYWOOD AS FORM
This comparative anatysls was made in 1982 when the price of
V.. x 4 ' x 8' plywood cost .,.45.00; lb." ·thick at while
T & G lumber cost per board foot. The analysis could be
usefu I even If ttle prices change at any time because prices wiU
definitely increase but the quantity of the materials herein pre-
sented wilt remain constant. Hence, this will serve as· a guide in
determining the recent cost of materials which will be used as
forms in your construction whichever is less in cost.
PLYWOOD FORM T 8t G LUMBER FORM
a) Thickness -liz (12 mm) a) Thickness :Y." (19 mm)
Width- 4' {1.20 m) effective width - 3Yz"
Length - 8' (2.40 m) ( 9 em)
Length - 8' (2.40 m)
Effective Number of board ft.
coverage- 2 .. 88 sq. m. equivalent to 2.88 sq. m.
area of plywood is 40 bd. ft.
b) Cost: b) Cost:
Y, plywood@ .,.85.00
40 bd. ft@     .
48 in. ft. 2 x 2 lumber 52 in. ft. 2 x 2 lumber
Fig15-4 Fig 15-41
c) 93 pes 1" cwnaiJ @ .15 o.c. c)
10-4 .. (10 em.) cw nail
151 pes 2 •. (5 em.) cw nail
18 pes 4" (10 em.) cw nail
d) Labor: !-carpenter to
do the assembling In 1 hr.
d) Labor: 2-carpenters to
assemble In 2 hours/ with
fitted T & G joir.ts.
289
·'
It will be noted that lk" (12 mm) thick plywood used
although 114" (6 mm) thick plywood cold beusedfor the purpose
by adding 4 pes 2 x 2 lumber of 2.40 m (8' ) long, making the ribs
closer at 15 em. o.c.
Comparatively, the cost of plywood form is much lower than
that of the T & G ·board as presented .in the above tabulation
using one board plywood. If the construction requires hundreds of
plywood form how much would you save from the difference
in cost?
15-7 SCAFFOLDING AND STAGING
Scaffolding - Is a temporary structure of wooden and
planks providing platform for working men to stand on while
erecting or repairing the building. It is further defined as a tempo-
rary framework for other purposes.
Staging - Is a more substantial framework progressively  
up as tall buildings rise up. The term staging is applied because
it is built-up in stages one story at a t ime. ·
Numerous accidents in building construction happened be-
cause of faulty construction or ihsufficient supports. One tragic
incident that happened very recently at the Film Palace in Metro
Manila where several lives including the supervising Engineer · ·
were burried in cement and rubbles whenthe forms and staging
swayed and rammed down in total collapse. ·
Scaffolding or staging is not as· simple as others think of it.
It requires special attention, training and experienced men to do
the work. The design and construction of these structure should
be done by knowledgeable men specially trained and experienced
in the field.
Accordingly, the primary cause of accidents and failure of
framework is brought about by the use of inferior lumber, inade-
quate supports and braces, nails and others for economy sake.
Definitely, out lumber has no place in scaffolding .or staging '
work if the builder is aware of the value of life and property
involved in building construction.
Comment11nd Observ1tlon:
1, Lumber intended for temporary structure to support
heavy load concrete shall be selected from straight grain, free
from shakes or knots and other defects. ·
2. Economizing through inadequate supply of materials
will endanger the construction work, aside from the increase of
labor cost. Adjustment, reworking of forms and its transfer from
one place to another causes delay of the construction and des-
truction of the forms. The recycling of nails is another factor
contributory to the delay, cost and waste of materials and some-
times causes failure of the framework.
3. Actual cost records of professional builders and con·
tractors show that sufficient supply of framework materials
increases the work's efficiency considering the time involved.
4. A carpenter who have started working from the first
working day of the week expect to return to his family with
his weekly salary. If the materials on the job site are inadequate
which he believes will only last for 2 to 3 days, foot dragging
work will be applied so that they may work for a week out of the
materials available. On the contrary, if the construction materials
are sufficient the workers are inspired and the work will be lively.
5. The idea of laying off some workers for the reason of lack
of materials may only create demoralization amo'ng the group.
Efficiency is affected because ·they are not sure of their work
tenure for they might be the next to be laid off anytime for
the same reason.
6. Lumber used for scaffolding or staging should not be
considered as waste of construCtion. Some could be used on
other parts of the building such as joists, studs, nailing strips
etc. The excess has resaleable value which could be derived
through public auction sale.
Different parts of staging or scaffolding
a) Vertical Supporters
b) FoOting Base (as need arises)
c) Ho.rizontal Braces
d) Block or Wedge support
e) Nails
291 .
The 2 x 2 lumber ( 5 x 5 em. ) is the most abused size ot
lumber in the construction of forms, scaffolding or staging al-
though 1 x 2 also serves as supplementary braces for parts with
less stresses.
2 x 3 and 2 x 4 lumber are also commonly used where massive
and heavy load are to be supported. These sizes are usually used
with care and leniency because of its cost and the future plan for
its reuse on other parts of the building. When and where to use
the above dimensions for scaffolding is a matter of consideration
depending upon the kind of structure to be supported.
Generally. the 2 x 2 rough lumber of -good quality can be
used as scaffolding or staging for all types of building construct·
ion. Its strength and capability to support concrete mixture
depends upon the distances and spacing of the vertical. hori· -
zontal and diagonal braces. The employment of 2 x 3 and 2 x 4
lumber is inevitable where heavy load, height of the structure
and spacing of vertical support is a matter of consideration. The
combination therefore of the three sizes is ideal and satisfactory
for falsework in building construction.
Vertical Supporters- Usually there are ·4 pes. for each column
to hold the forms rigidly to. its vertical position. The spacing is
usually from 1.00 m. to 1.50 m. or more depending upon the size
of the column. The spacing of the vertical supporter shall be ...
governed or adjusted to the commercial length of lumber of even ·- ·
length in feet, or, at the intervals of .50 m. which will be the new
measure to be adopted under the Sl system.
Horizontal Braces- The horizontal braces should be equally
spaced between floor height. Ordinarily, the floor height is
3.00 m. hence the horizontal braces of staging should be limited
to 1.00 m. or more depending upon the size of the lumber.
Diagonal Braces- The triangle is the most rigid connections
to be applied in framework structure. As much as possible. dia--
gonal braces should be extended from the floor to the upper most
of horizontal member of the framework in cross or opposite
direction.
292
15-8 STAGING FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAM
AND IILOOR SLAB
Concrete beams are flanked by series of vertical supporters
spaced at proportional distances between columns. These vertical
supporters are placed in line with the column supporter in both
perpendicular directions. Normally they are spaced at a distance
not less than 1.00 m. apart. The horizontal braces follows that.
established spacing in the column vertical supporter.
The Concrete floor slab vertical supporters will just follow
the line and flanking ofthat column and beam framework inclu-
ding ·the horizontal and diagonal braces.
The staging framework as much as possible shall be so ar-
ranged that all vertical and horizontal members should be in line
in aU directions. This will facilitate the movement of the workers
and the transfer of materials and tools including the ease of
checking and verifying the vertical and horizontal position of t   ~
structure and the rigidity of the framework.
Figure 15-5
The design of formwork includes the following considerations:
1. The rate and method of placing concrete.
2. Construction loads, including vertical, horizontal and
impact loads.
3. Special form requirements necessary for the construction
of shells, folded plates, domes, architectural concrete, or similar
types of elements.
The forms for prestressed members shall be constructed to
allow movement of the member without damage during the appli·
cation of the prestressing force.
Construction loads exceeding the dead load plus the live load
should not be allowed to be supported on any unshored portion of
the structure under construction. Likewise, no construction load
shall be supported on, nor any shoring removed from any part
· of the structure under construction except when that structure
in combination with the remaining framing system has sufficient
strength to support safely its own weight and the loads placed
thereon. .•
The removal of forms shall be done in such a manner as to
insure the complete safety of the structure. When the structure
as a whole is adequately supported by shores, the removable
floor forms, beam and girder sides, column forms, and similar
vertical forms . may be removed after 24 hours, provided, that
the concrete is sufficiently strong not to be damaged or injured.
The supports of prestressed members may be removed when
sufficient prestressing has been applied to enable them to carry
their own load and other anticipated construction loads.
· 15-9 CONDUITS AND PIPES EMBEDDED IN CONCRETE
Electric conduits and other pipes to be incorporated in the
concrete structures shall not with their fittings, displace. more
than 4 percent of the area of the cross section of a column on
which stress is calculated or which is required for fire protection.
Sleeves, conduits, or other pipes passing through · floors,
walls, or beams shall be of the size and in such location as not to
impair significantly the strength of the structure. Such sleeves.
conduits, or pipes may be considered as replacing structurally in
compression the displaced concrete, provided that they are no.t
.. ex,posed to rusting or other deterioration. are of uncoated or
galvanized iron or steel not thinner than standard Schedule 40
steel pipe having a nominal inside diameter not over 5 em and
are spaced not less than three diameters on centers. Embedded-
pipes or conduits, other than those merely passing through, shall
not be larger in outside dimension than one third the thickness
of the slab. wall or beam In which they are embedded. nor shaU
they be spaced closer than three diameters or widths on center,.
nor so located as to Impair significantty the strength ·of the
construc:tion.
Sleeves, pipes, or conduits of any material not harmful to
concrete maybe embedded in the concrete pr-ovided they are
not considered as to replace the displaced concrete. Aluminum
pipes or conduits shall not be embedded in structural concrete
unless effectively coated to prevent aluminum·concrete reaction
or electrolythic action between aluminum and steel.
Pipes which will contain liquid, gas or vapor may be embedded
in structural concrete under the following considerations:
a) Pipes and fittings shall.be.designed to resist -the effects of
the material pressure and temperature· that will pass-
through.
b) Pipes and fittings shall be tested as a unit for leaks imme-
diately prior to the concreting' The testing pressure above
atmospheric pressure shall be 50 percent in excess of the
pressure to which the pipe and fitting may be subjected.
The minimum testing pressure shall not be less than 1000
kPa. above atmospheric pressure held for 4 hours with no
drop in pressure except that which may be caused by · · ·
air temperature.
c) The temperature of the liquid, gas or vapor that will pass
the pipe shall not exceed 132° C.
d) The maximum pressure to which any piping or fittings
shall be subjected shall be 1380 kPa above atmospheric
pressure.
e) Pipes carrying liquid, gas, or vapor. except water not ex·
ceeding 72° C nor 340 kPa pressure, is to be placed in the
pipes only after the concrete has attained its designed
strength. ·
f)· In solid slabs, the piping if not intended for radiant heating
or snow melting, should be placed between. the top and
bottom reinforcement.
g) The concrete covering of the pipes and fittings shall be not.
less than 38 mm for concrete surface   x p o s ~ to the wea-
ther or in contact with the ground, nor 20 mm for
295
concrete surface not directly to the ground or
weather.
h) The piping .,d fitting connections shall be assembled by
means of welding, brazing,. sokler-sweating, or other
equally satisfactory method. Screw connections shall be
prohibited.
The piping system shall be fabricated in such a manner that
no cutting bending or displacement of the reinforcement from
its proper loc1tion is required.
296
  broe•• IIPIII OJ .
or too m. ern. 'aj:loel ftQ
Figure 5-6
16-1 HOIST
CHAPTER
IIJISTING EQUIPMENT
AND POWE·R TOOLS
16
Hoist is defined as an equipment used to raise or lower heavy
articles. In building construction, some form of hoist is almost
necessary in placing structural members such as beams, girders,
wall frames, slabs, roof trusses and others. Accordingly, hoisting
equipment functions effectively through gearing reduction bet-
ween the· l oad and the joint at which the power is applied. ·
There are several forms of hoist employed by builders which
are classified as:
1. With respect to the lifting materials:
a. Rope b. Steel Cable c. Chain
2. With respect to the kmd of gearing:
a. Pulley (block and fall) c. Spur gear and drum
b. Differential d. Mounted crane
16-2 DEFINITIONS:
The ropes and cordage mechanism falls within the sailor's pro-
"ince that nautical terminologies are inevitably used under this
topic such as:
Bend - is the fastening of the rope to one another or to a ring,
thimble, etc.
Belay- to make fast the end of a tackle fall at the conclusion
of a hoisting operation.
Bight- is the loose part of a rope between two fixed ends.
Haul ·- to heave or pull on a rope.
Hitch - fastening of a rope simply by winding it without
knotting around some object.
Knot- The process of fastening one part of a rope to another
part of the same by interlocking then drawing the
loops tight.
Lay- is to twist strands together as in making a rope.
Make fast- securing the loose end of a rope to some fixed ob-
ject.
297
Mll'line Spike- a long tappered steel used to unlay or separate
the rope strands for splicing.
Percllled - to wrap with canvas, cloth or leather to resist
chafing.
Seize- lashing a rope permanently with a small chord.
Sen;e - to lash with a chord, wounding tightly and conti-
nuously around the object.
Splice - To connect rope's ends .together by unlaying each
strands then plaiting both up together making one con-
tinuous rope.
Strand- Two or more layers of yarns twisted together.
T .. t-Stretched or drawn tight.
Yarn- fibers twisted together.
16-3 KNOTTING AND HITCHING
The use of rope as hoisting medium is considered as part of
bui.lding construction which could not be avoided in lifting ma.
terials or structural members specially in multi-storey building
construction.   only few i f not all of the working crews
know the art of tying, knotting and hitching of rope which every-
one should learn. Some accidents that happened in building cons-
truction are caused by fallen objects due to faulty and Inadequate
l;<nowledge of rope cordage principles such
(1) Crowning of rope end
{2) Whipping the rope end
1
'
Fig.-16·1 16-2
298
bight
Fig. 16 • 3
loop or turn
Fig. 16-4
Cat's Paw
Fig. 16-5
Running Bowline
round turn .
299
Fig. 16·6
Blackw,fl Hitch
. . Fig. 1&-7
Anchor bend or Fi sherman's bend Fig. 16-8
Combined Timber and Half hitrh
Fig. 16-9
Taut line or Rolling hitch
300
Fig. lG.lO
Sheepshank-used for shortening a rope
Fig 16-11
Slip knot
Fit. 16-12
301
302.
Fig. 16-13 Bowline Knot
II
Fig. 16-14 Eight Knot
HAlf WITCH
Till• i• temporory OM oot
ver ••e111e • • •  
Figure 16-15 Half Hitch
--- Wrong Way
Ri Qhl Way-
TWO HALl" HI TCH
Fig. 16-16
Two Half Hitch
Fig. 16-17
Bowl ine on a Bight
Fig. 16· 18
Scaffold Hitch
303
16 - 4 PULLEYS
Pulley is a mechanical device used for lifting heavy weights.
The combination of ropes and pulleys to gain mechanical advantage
in lifting a load is called block and tackle.
Block and Tackle Worm Gear Hoist
Differential Hoist
Chain Block
Fig.   ~   9
304
Snatch Blocks
I ron Sheave Blocks
Wooden Blocks
Fig. 16-20
305
16 • 5 CIRCULAR SAW
Circular Saw is a steel disc provided with teeth designed to
revolve on a shaft at a high rate of speed. The speed of the saw is
measured either by the number of revolution per minute (rpm) or
the number of meter traveled by the run per minute.
Light portable mills run approximately 450 to 650 rpm. The
high speed steam fed mills run about 600 to 900 rpm, and the
I .
small circular table saws by hand fed runs about 2000 to 3000
rpm.
In mills wher& power is   it is not advisable to have
more than one tooth every 25 mm of the saw diameter. The
fewer the teeth in the saw the less power it requires to rotate.
However. small saws requires more teeth to equalize the strain.
For hardwood and soaked lumber, it is more effective to
increase the speed rather than increase the number of teeth. More
teeth means finer dust which could easily packs between the saw
and the wood.
Fig. 1S.21
16- 1
REVOLUTION OF CIRCULAR SAWS·
(For tangential or rim speed of 3,000 meter per minute}
Diameter Revolutions Diameter Revolutions
em per minute em per minute
20 4600 100 980
25 3920 110 890
30 3260 120 815
40
2450.
130 750
50 1960 140 700
60 1630 150 640
70 1400 160 600
80 1225 170 560
90 1080 180 530
Kinds of Saw and their Uses- The circular saw is used to cut
lumber to length and width as required in the construction. It also
cut rabbets grooves, dadoes and tenons. The saw cuts under the
principle of continuous set cutting of wedges. The different kinds
of saw are:
1. Crosscut Saw - has greater number of teeth designed for
cutting across the grain. It will heat fast if used for ripping
because of the greater number of teeth in contact with
the wood. Overheating the teeth of the saw blade causes
warping and wabbling run making an inaccurate cut.
2. Ripsaw - Is designed to cut along the direction of the
grain.
3. Combination Rip and Crosscut Blade- is a combination
of crosscut tooth and a rip tooth to cut wood across the
grain, diagonal to the grain or with the grain. It is consi·
dered as a fast cutting saw but produces a very rough cut.
4. Carbide Tipped Blades- Are made for both cross-cutting
and ripping. This type of saws are used on hard board,
laminates and .other materials where a regular saw would
become dull quickly.
307
5. Safe Edge Blade - is a control led-cut saw blade with a
fewer number of teeth and requ ires less power to run. It is
considerably quite in operation.
6. Moulding Head and Cutters - has a replaceable blade of
various type of moulding heads that could be assembled or
disassembled quickly.
7. Dado Blade Set -· is used to cut grooves (dado and rabbets
from 3 mm to 25 mm width regardless of the grain direc·
tions.
Form of Teeth -r- The success and failure of t he circular saw
depends upon the hook or pitth, depth, size and shape of the gul·
lets . . Too little hook causes tearing and scraping instead of cutting.
The teeth becomes dull quickly and the severe strain in the gullets
stretches the rim and requires more power to force the saw through
the lumber. On the otherhand, too much hook weakens the tooth
and make it liable to break or dodge.
A satisfactory performance of a hook could be attained if the
base of the tooth are rounded-off into a round gullet providing
enough space to carry out sawdust leaving a strong base for the
tooth.
308
TIIO IIOtt Ia Wiele arul •tr0119 w.n IOIIIIded
to loovo • • 911llot .Rownded •ullete
••olll pocllll'lt. ol Mwd•et .
Strolgllt teeth cut l'lord ond dull  
Sharp OIHJies in the illroot cau•ts crocl<l at 11\e 01>lleta.
Deep oftd 1\0trow gvlleh cau•• w•l1oino and cllo'HII\O ottow<lnt.
Figure 16·22
Selection of Blade - Circular saws are selected according to
the type and number of teeth, the gauge thickness of the blade,
the arbor hole diameter and the grade of the steel from which they
are manufactured. ·
It should be remembered that the more teeth in contact with
the wood the more power is required to rotate the saw to its speci-
fied round per minute. When the blade of the saw is exposed more
on the surface of the lumber being cut, the greater the danger to
the operator. The safety rule of 3 mm to 6 mm projection above
the board should be strictly observed when the saw is not covered
by a guard.
TABLE 16- 2 BLADES FOR CIRCULAR SAW
Crosscut Combination Rip Easy Cut Saws
saws Ripsaws & Crosscut saws Carbide Tip
Diameter No. of No. of No. of No. of
em Gauge Teeth Gauge Teeth Gauge Teeth Gauge Teeth
15 18 100 18 36 18 44 14 8
17 18 110 18 36 18 44 14 8
20 18 100 18 36 18 44 14 8
22 16 100 16
.36
16 44 14 8
25 16 100 16 36 16 44 13 8
30 14
10.0
14 36 14 44 13 12
35 14 100 14 36 14 44 12 12
40 14 100 14 36 13 44 12 12
45 13 100 13 ·36 12 44
50 13 80 13 36
55 12 70 12 36
60 11 70 11 36
65 10 70
70 10 70
75 10 70 10 36
309
16 - 6 RADIAL ARM SAW
Radial arm saw is a power driven rotary cutting tool. It is a
refinement of the overhead swing saw. The saw arbor and the
motor unit are attached to a pivoting yoke riding on a track with a
radial arm adjustabl e for height and radius angle.
The.circular cutter revolves at a speed between 3500 to 3600
rpm used to cut lumber to length and. width. It is also used
making grooves, dadoes and tenons.
•     ..... lAW
Figure 16-2 3
TABLE 16-3 RADIAL ARM SAW CUTS
Blade Size Depth of Cut Length of Crosscut
em em em
20 5 29
22 6 30 -38
25 7.5 30 - 40
30
8--9
36
35 12 45 - 60
40 10-12 48- 78
45 15 Depends on
50 17 lenth of arm
310
16-7
PORTABLE ELECTRIC SAW
Portable electric saw is also a power driven rotary cutting tool
provided with toothed circular blade. The blade revolves at an
arbor speed between 3200 and 4500 rmp. depending upon the
machine.
The portable electric saw is a handy power tools for construe·
tion work. It is very effective tool in fhe construction of framEr
work, roof framing job particularly on angular cuts for stair jacks
and truss members. The saws are classified according to blade size
which could be available in 15 em, 18 em, 20 em and 22 em mo·
dels.
The Capacity of the saw to cut are as follows:
a. A 15 em saw will cut to a depth of 47 mm
b. An 18 em saw will cut to a depth of 63 mm
c. A 20 em saw will cut to a depth of 70 mm
d. A 22 em will cut to a depth of 82 mm
PORTABLE ll.ECTRIC SAW
16-8 PORTABLE ELECTRIC DRILL
Portable electric drill is a motorized rotary driving tool. It
operates from a small high-speed electric motor with gear.reduc-
tion driving devices. Usually, electric drills are designed with a
pistol shaped housing for holding drill shanks up to a diameter of
10 mm with handle. for heavy duty work up to .12 mm diameter.
31l
Electric drill is used to drive all types of rotary cutting tools
in the construction work. Special attachments could be used as
driving unit for sanding, polishing and grinding as well as for cir·
cular and jigsaws. Some drills have a. variable speed unit attached
to the trigger switch to give a speed from 0 to 2250 rpm.
Figure 16- 25
TABLE 16 ...- 4 ELECTRIC DRILL SIZ!=:S AND SPLEDS
6 .mm (1/4) -Speeds to 2000- 2450- 5000 rpm.
8 mm (5/16)- Speeds to·lOOO rpm.
10 mm (3/8")- Speeds to 750- 1000 rpm.
12 mm (liz") -Speeds to 450- 750 rpm.
16 mm (5/8")- Speeds to 300 rpm:
19 mm (3/4") -Speeds to 250 rpm.
25 mm (1") -·speeds to 200 rpm.
16-9 DRILL PRESS
Drill Press is also a power driven rotary driving tool for driving
drills, bits, plug cutters, and many auxiliary attachments such as
mortise chisels, grinding wheels, and shaper cutters. The speed of
the drill press vary from 300 to 700 rpm. The speed is controlled
by shifting the drive belt on a set of con.e pulleys which operates
on the principle of the wheel and axle.
With the various attachments it could be utilized as a sander,
planer; shaper, router and mortiser. The table sizes are : 25 x 25
em: 25 x 35·cm; and 28 x 40 ern.
3l2
Figure 16 - 2G
16- 10 PORTABLE ELECTRIC SABER SAW
The portable electric saber saw is sometimes called bayonet
saw, classified as power driven reciprocating cutting tool. It is
driven by a high-speed electric· motor and has a mechanism for
changi ng rotary to reciprocating mot ion. This is a heavy duty type
all purpose saw design for construction work. It holds a saber
blade from 8 em to 30 em length and cuts flush to a vertical or
horizontal surface. Originally, saber saw·was designed only to cut
wood, but because of its performance versatility with variable speed
adjustments are now being used on metal, plastic lami nates and
composi tion materials. The saw could start from the center of the
materials without the necessity of advanci ng a pilot hole drilled
on it.
PORTABLE ELEC TRIC   SAW
Figure 16 - ·27
313
16-11
BAND SAW
Band saw is a power-driven endless toothed band cutting tools.
Band saw is more extensively used and preferred than the circular
saw for heavy duty work. The preference of band saw was brought
about by the saving in wood due to the lesser amount of cut away
in the sawing operation.
Band saw is described as a thin strip of tempered flexible steel
belt with rip teeth filed on one edge and run around two pulleys at
a speed from 900 to 1500 meters per minute or 600.to 1200
wheel round per minute (rpm). the saw cuts under the principle of
continuous set of cutting wedges.
The saw is used to cut curves, ripping, and cross cutting avail-
able in the following wheel s i ~ e s   30, 35, 40, 45, 60, 75, 90 and
100 centimeters diameter. The blade widths ranges from 3mm,
5mm, 6mm, lOmm, 12mm, 16mm and 20mm. The motor is usually
of liz to 3 horsepower rated at 1720 rpm 60 cycle either single or
three phase electrical power supply.
Y'HROAT PUll
TAIL£
BAND SAW
Figure 16 -'28
3l4
How to determine the length of the Band Saw blade:.
1. Measure the center distance between the two wheels.
2. Use Formula (R
1
x 3.1416) + (R:l· x 3.1416-t- (2+ C)
= Length ·
Figure 16- 29
The two types of Band Saw teeth are:
1. Regular standard rip shaped tooth
2. Raker tooth
Figure 16-30
TABLE 16-5
Width in mm
5
SKIP TOOTH BLADE SIZE
6
10
13
19
25
Gauge
23
23
23
23
21
20
Teeth per em
1.5
1.5 to 2.5
1 to 1.5
1 to 1.5
1
1 to 1.5
315
TABLE 16-6 REGULAR RIP TOOTH BLADE SIZE
Width mm
3
5
6
8
10
13
19
25
Gauge
25
21
22
25
21
22
25
21
20
21
22
25
20
22
25
19
25
19-22
No. of Teeth
per em.
2.5
1 to 2
2-2.5
2-2.5
1-2
1.5-2.5
2 -·· 2.5
1 -- 1.5
1
1-2
1.5-2
2-2.5
l-1.5
1.5-2
2-2.5
1
1.5-2
1-2
TABLE 16- 7 SAW BLADE WIDTH FOR CUTTING CURVES
316
Width of Saw Blade
mm
3
5
6
10
13
16
Minimum
Diameter of Circle
mm
25
38
50
63
76
89
16- 12 SINGLE SURFACE PLANER
Single Surface Planer rs a power driven rotating edge-cutting
tool. The full-width knives are set equidistant along the circum-
ference of the cutter head which rotates at a speed 3600 to 7200
rpm. The knife cuts under the principle of a continuous set of
cutting wedges.
Figure 16- 31
16-:- 13 PORTABLE SANDERS
Portable sander is a power driven abrading tool classified into
three types: ·
1. On the Belt Sander, a coated abrasive belt is run over a
· pad guided by an idler and driving drum
2. On the disk sander - a coated abrasive disk rotates on a
motor spindle.
3. On Finish Sanders - a coated abrasive strip fitted over a
pressure pad is powered in an orbital or inl ine oscillating
motion.
Fi gure 16- 32
317
Disk Sander - is on rough sanding for fast removal of the stock.
Finish Sander= has two different sanding motions:
a. Orbital motion sander used to finish sanding with fast cir-
cular pattern.
b. lnline sander's cutting action is back and forth in a straight
line .which is ideal for the final sanding of wood surfaces,
leaving no sanding marks on the surface.
16-14 PORTABLE HAND ROUTER
Portable hand router is a power driven rotary shaping tool that
revolves at a spindle speed of 5,000 to 27,000 rpm. shaping under
the principle of a continuous set of cutting wedges. Hand Router
is used to cut moldings. rout cut grains for inlay and cut dove-
tails.
3.18
a
r:7
llnft4in!l

Figure 16-3 7
. Shapes and uses of power router bits.
16-15 WOOD LATHE
Wood lathe is classified as powered rotary driving tool. The
lathe is used to rotate the materials for shaping, sanding or polish-
ing. It is also used as a holding jig for flut ing, reading, and drilling
holes. ·
the usual capacity of the lathe are:
1. 22 em swing- 75 ern   e t ~ n centers.
2. 27 em swing- 90 em between centters
3, 30 em swing - 90 em between centers
4. 35 em swing 90 em between centers.
The speed of the belt driven lathe is maintained by step or
~ o n e pulleys which operate on the principle of the wheel and axle.
When the driving pulley is smaller than the driven pulley the
speed is reduced; Likewise, when the driven pulley is smaller than
the driving pulley, the speed is increased. The speed of the lathe
maybe regulated between 300 to 3600 rpm.
Figure 16- 34
319
1. Gouge = Is used in roughing out cylinders and in turning
concave surfaces on spindles. The blade is concave-convex in cross
section with a rounded bevelled cutting edge. The common size are:
10 mm; 12mm and 20 mm.
2. Skew Chisel = Is a flat turning chisel used in smoothing
cylinders rounding edges and in making V and shoulder cuts. It
can be used for shearing or scraping wood. The common sizes of
skew chisels are: 6 mm, 12 mm and 25 mm.
3. The Roundnose = Is a flat scraping chisel used in roughing .
and shaping concave surfaces. The end is rounded with a single
bevel of about JOO. The common sizes are 3mm, 6mm, 12mm,
and 25 mm.
4. Squarenose == Is a flat scraping chisel used to make flat,
straight cuts. It appears like a standard wood chisel in shape but
has a thicker and longer blade. The end is square and has a single
bevel.
5. Diamond Point = Is a flat scraping chisel used to make V
cuts. The point cutting edges is beveled at 300. The common sizes
are: 12mm
6. Parting   o ~ "' Is a scrapln9 chisel used to make deep, nar-
row cuts and a deep cuts for sizl"9 when shaping profiles. The
common sizes are 3mm and 5mm.
S c ew Roun dllasP.
Squvreoose
Oiamooa Patn l Pari ing
TURNING CHtSE LS
Figure 16 - 35
·320
16- 16 TRUCK MOUNTED CRANE
A machine used for lifting or lowering a load and moving it
horizontally in which the hoisting mechanism is an integral part of
the machine: classified by mounting by boom configuration and
by lifting capacity.
Fig. 1&- 36
16- 17 TOWER CRANE:
A type of crane consisting of a fi xed vertical mast which is
topped by a rotating boom, equiped with a winch for hoisting and
lowering loads and placing them at any location within the dia-
meter of the boom.
t ~ r   r o n e
Figure 16·37
.321
322
APPENDICES
323
Appendix 1
Mllltipla•..d

s,mbols
1 000 000 000 000 - to•a tera T
1 00() 000 000 - 10
9
gig a G
r ooo ooo ... to• mega M*
1 000 = JOl kilo k*
100 = 10
1
hKtO h
10 = 10 deka da
0.1 • to-•
deci d
0.01 ...  

centi c*
0.001- 10-l
milli
m*
o.ooo 001 = to-• micro lA*
o.ooo ooo 001 = ro-
9
nano n
0.000 000000 001 • to-u pi co p
0.000 000 000 000 001 • 10-u femto f
o.ooo ooo ooo ooo ooo 001 - to-'' atto a
• Mosc commonly used
Common EqulvaJents and Conversions
commcm
J inch
I foot
I yard
1 mile
1 square inch
1 square foot
1 square yard
I acre
I cubic inch
I cubic foot
1 cubic yard
1 quart
I gallon
1 0\ince(avdp)
1 pound (avdp)
t honepower
1 millimeter
1 mete.-
1 meter
I kilometer
1 sq centimeter
1 sq meter
= 25 millimeters
= 0.3meter
= 0.9meter
· • 1.6 kilometers
= 6;5 sq centimeters
.;, 0.09 sq meter
== 0 .8 sq meter
::: 0.4 hectaret
= 16 cu centimeters
= 0.03 cubic meter
= 0.8 cubic meter
= 1 Utert
= 0.004 cubic meter
a 28grams
• 0.45 kHqvam
= 0..75 kilowatt
= 0.04inch
.. 3.3feet
"'l.t yard&
... 0.6mile
= 0.165Q inch
= II sq feet
325
.326
1 sq meter
·.1 hectaret
1 cu centimeter
1 cu meter
1 cu meter
·1tttert
"' 1.2 sq yards
., 2.5acres
= 0.06 cu inch
= 3Scufeet
= 1.3 cu yards
= 1 quart
= 250 gallons 1 cu meter
1gram
1 kilosram
I kilowatt
= 0.035 ounces (avdp)
= 2.2 pounds(avdp)
= 1.3 horsepower
t common term not used in Sl
Conversions accurate to p4rts per million
inches x 25.4* = millimeters
feet x 0.3048* =meters
yards x 0.9144* =meters
miles x 1.609 34 = kilometers
square inches x 6.4516* = sq centimeters
square fl!et x 0.092 903 0 = sqmeters
square yards x 0.836127 = sq meters
acres x 0.404' 686 ==hectares
cubic inches x 16.3871 = cu centimt!ters
cubicfeet x 0.028 316 8
= .cumeter•
cubic yards x 0.764 555 = cumeten
quarts {liquid) x 0.946 353 =liters
gallons x 0.003 785 41 == cumeters
. ounces(avdp) x 28.3495
= grams
pounds (avdp) x 0.453 592 =kilograms
horsepower x 0.745 700 = kilowa.tts
mmimeters )( 0.039 370 1 =inches
meters x 3.280 84 =feet
meters x 1.093 61 ""yards
kilometers x 0.621 371 =miles
sq centimeters x 0.155 000 = sqinches
sq meters x 10.7639 =sqft
sq meters x. 1.195 99 = sqyards
hectares x 2.471 05 = sqacres
cu centimeters x 0.061 023 7 = cuinches
cu meters x 35.3147 = cuft
cu meters x 1.307 95 = cuyards
liters x 1 J557 = quarts (liquid)
cu meters·'x 264.172
=gallons
grams x 0.03.5 274 0 = ounces (avdp)
kilograms x 2.204 62 = pounds(avdp)
kilowatts x 1.341 02 = horsepower
• exact
App.ndix 2 - Typlcol ........... .
acre • • . • • • • • . . • • . • • . • no authorized abbreviation
atmc:.pMns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . • . . atm
British theimaJ uniu ....................... Btu
British thermal uniu per hour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Btuh
cubic feet . . • • • . • • . • . • • . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . • . . • . . . ft
3
cubic feet per minute • . . • . . . • . . • • . . . • . • • • ft
3
/min
cubic feet per second ................ ..
1
•••• ft
3
/s
cubic inches • . . • . • • • . • . . . . • • . • . . • • • • . • • . . . • . in'
cilbic mete-rs • . . • • . • . • . . . . . . . . . • . • . . • • • • . . • . • m,
cubic millimeters ............... ; . • . • •.. • . . • mmJ
cubic yards •........•.. ; • ·. • • . • . . . . . . . . . . • . . . yd'
feet . • . . • . . • . . • • . • • . . . . • . . . . . . . • • . . . . • . . . • • . . • ft
feet of water . . . . . . . . . . . • • . • . . • . . . . . . . • • . • ft H20
feet per second . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ftls
foot·pounds of force • . . . • . . . .. . • . . . . . • . . . • . lbflft
pitons ..................................... gal
pllons per hour . • • . • . . • . • • . . • . . . . . . . . . • • . . gallb
pllons per minute . • . • . . • . . . . • ... . . . . . . . . gal/min
p-ams •••.•••.••..••.••.•..•..••••.••.•••.••.•• g
grams per square meter ............... • • . • . rJm2
hecta:J.es • • . . • • . • • . • • . • . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . • • . . . . • ha
  .................... ·. . • . . . • . • . . . • • • hp
inches .....•••.• ,. .•.••••..............•.•••.• in
inches of mercury . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . • . . . . .. • in Hg
inches of water .. • .. .. . . .. .. .. . .. .. • .. .. . in H20
joules· .............................. • •...••....••. J
kiloc:alories . . . . . . .. . .. • • . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • • . kcal
kilogra. ms .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ·. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kg
kilograms per cubic meter . . . . • . . . . . . . . • . . • ksfm
3
kilograms per second •..•...• ; ......•• ; . • . . • kgls
kilograms per square meter • • . . . . • . . . . . . . . kgfmt
kilojoules • . • . • • . • • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,. . . . . • . kJ
kilojoules per cubic meter . . . • . . . . . • • . • • . . • k.Jim'
kilojoules per kilogram .•..•..•....•.•.. . . kJ/kg
kilometeri ..•.••..•••••.•.•• ·. . • • . . . . . • . . . . . . km
kilometers J)ef hour .••.•.•••.•...••. · • • .. . . . .
kilonewtons ...• · ............... ; • • . . • . . . . . . . kN
kiloa>ascals •..•. · .•. · ..•. ; .... .•.............. · kPa
'327
3.28
kilowatts . ... .............. .. .... ............ l(W
kilowatt· hours ........ ........... ... ..... kWh
. liten ... .. ................... ! ..... .... ..... .. . ·. • . I
liters per $econd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lis
liters per minute ........... : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I/ min
megajoules ............................... .. MJ
mepnewtons ......................... : . . . . MN
      . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MPa
meters ............. .. ........ . .............. m
meters per second . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mls
miles . . ..... . ....... . .. no abbreviation in metric
miles per hour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . milelh
millimeters ..... ... ...... .. ..... ... .. · ...... mm
millimeters of mercury .................. mm Hg
newtons .......................... . .......... N
ounces .... .... .... .... .... .... .... ..... ... .. oz
ounces per square foot ... ... .. , . . . . . . . . . . . . oz/ft
1
pounds ...... .. ............ . ............... .. lb
pounds of force ...... .. . . .... ... . .... ... .... , lbf
pounds of force per square foot •.. ... ·. . . . . . . lbflfta
pounds per. cubic foot ..... :. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . JblftJ
pounds per second . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lbls
square feet .... . ................. : . . . . . . . . . . . ft1
square inches ......................... ·. . . . . . in
2
square kilometers ......................... . km
1
square mete.rs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . m2
square miles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . miJe2
square millimeters . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . mm2
watts ............................... ......... W
watts per square meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wlm'
yards .. .... ................................. yd
Appendix 3 - UMfwl coav..-. foctort: AlphoMtin4
Multiply by
1cres . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . • . . .. 0.<4047 ....... hectares
lcres ..........•............ : . 4,047 . . . . . . . . square meters
1tmospheres .................. 33.93 ........ feet of water
ltmospheres ................... 29.92 ........ inches of men:ury
ltmospheres ...•...•.......... 760.0 ........ millimetersofmercury
ltmospheres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.058 . . . . . . . . tons per square foot
thermal .......... 1.055 .•.... . : .joules
[Jritish thermal units •......... 0.2520 .....•. kilocalories
1Jritish thermal units ....•..... 1.055 .•.••. ,; . kilojoules
iJritish thermal units per hour .. 0;2929 ..•... ·.watts
[Jritish thermal units per pound . 2.326 .......
1
• kilojoules per kilogram
:ubic feet ..................... 0.02832 ...... cubic meters
:ubic feet .............. ...... 7.481 . .. . . . . gallons
:ubic feet ..................... 28.32 . • .. . .. . liters
:ubic feet .... , ................ 29.92 ........ quarts
:ubic feet per minute .......... 0.4719 ....... liters per second
:ubic feet per second .......... 0.02832 . . . . . . cubic meters per second
:ubic inches ................... 16.39 ........ cubic centimeters
:ubic inches ...............•... 16,387 ....... cubic millimeters
:ubic meters .................. 35.32 ........ cubic feet
:ubic meters .................. 1.308 • • .. • .. . cubic yards
:ubic millimeters .............. 0.00006102 or
(6.102 x   . cubic inches
:ubic yards ................... 0.7646 ....... cubic meters
eet ...........•.....•..•.•.... 0.3048 ....... meters
eet ....•...•.............. · ..... 304.8 ........ millimeters
eet per second ................ 0.3048 .•....• meters per second
of force ............ 1.356 ...•.... joules
oot-pounds of force per second . 1.356 ...•.... watts
:allons (liquid) ........•....... 0.003785 ..... cubic meters
:allons ....................... 3.785 ........ liters
:allons per hour ............... 0.001052 ..... liters per second
:allons per rninute ............. 0.002228 ..... cubic feet per second
:allons per minute ............. 0.06308 ....•. liters per second
:rams ........................ 0.03527 ..... · . ounces (avoirdupois)
;rams per square meter ........ 0.003l78 ..... ounces per square foot
;rams per square meter ........ 0.02949 ...... ounces per square yard
1ectares ...................... 2.471 .. ..... acres
torsepower ...... ............ 0.7460 ....... kilowatts

Multiply
by
to gt!t
horsepower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 746 ....... watts
inches ............. . ...... 25.4 ...... millimeters
inches of mercury . ........ 0.03342 . : .    
inches of mercury . . . . . . . . . 1.133 ..... feet of water
inches or mercury . . . . . . . . 345.3 .. ... kilograms per square
meter
inches of mercury (60° F) ... 3,377 . . . . newtons per square
meter
inches of mercury ......... 0.4912 .•. . pounda per square inch
inches of water ............ 0.002458 .. atmospheres
inches of water . . . . . . . . . . . 0.07355 ... inches of mercury
inches of water ........... . 25.40 . . ... kilograms per square
meter
inches of water . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.03613 . . . pounda per square inch
in<:hes of water (60° F) .... .. 248.8 ..... newtons per square meter
joules ..................... 0.7376 .... foot-pounds offorce
kilocalories · ............... 3.968 ..... British thermal units
kilocalories .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . 4.190 ..... joules
kilograms ................. 2.205 ..... pounds
kilograms per cubic meter .. 0.06243 .. ·. pounds per cubic foot
kilograms per cubic meter .. 1.686 ..... pounds per cubic yard
lcilograms per second ...... 2'.205 ..... pounds per second
kilograms per square meter . 0.00009678 . atmospheres
kilograms per square meter . 0.003281 . . feet of water
kilograms per square meter . 0.002896 . inches of mercury
kilograms per square meter . . 0.2048 .... pounds per square foot
kilograms per square meter . 0.001422 .. pounds per square inch
kilojoules ................. 0.9478 .. .. British thermal units
kilojoules per cubic meter 0.02684 British thermal units per
cubic foot
kilojoules per kilogram ... · 0.4299 .... British thermal units per
pound
kilometers ................ 0.6214 .... miles
kilometers per hour ..... .. · 0.62 t 4 · · ·. miles per hour
kilonewtons . . . . . . . . . . . . . · 0.10036 · ·. tons of force
kilonewtons . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224.8 · · · . pounds of force
kilopascats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.89 ····.pounds offorce per
Square foot
330
kilowatts .. .. ............. 1.341 ..... ·horsepower
kilowatt-hours .... . ....... 3.6 . . .... . . megajoules
liters · ...... ... . .. . .. ...... 0.03532 ... cubic feet
liters ..... ....... . . . .. .... 61.02 ..... cubic inches
liters ............. ...... .. 0.2642 .... gallons
liters . .. .. . ........... . ... 2.113 ..... pints
liters .. .... ............... 1.057 ..... quarts
liters per minute .......... O.OOOS886 . cubic feet per second
liters per second ..... . . ... . 2.119 .. . .. cubicfeet per minute
liters per second ...... ..... 951.0 . .. .. gallons per hour
liters per second ....... .... 15.85 ..... gallons per minute
mega joules .. . ............ 0.2778 .... kilowatt-hours
meganewtons ............. 100.36 .... tons offorce
mega pascals .............. J 45.04 . . .. . pounds offorce per
square inch
megapascais ... · . · · · · · · · · . 9 .324 . . . . tons of force per square
foot
mega pascals .... · ... · · · · · . 0.06475 ... tons of force per square
inch
meters . . .................. 3.281 ..... feel
meters .................... 1.094 ... . . yards
meters per se'cond . . . . . . . . 2 .23 7 miles per hour
miles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 .609 . . . kilometers
miles per hour . ·. . . . . . . . . . · 1 :609 . kilometers pe.r hour
miles per hour . . . . . . . . . . . · 0.4470 .... meters per second
miJiiliters . ............... 0.06102 ... cubic inches
milliliters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.03520 .. . fiuid ounces
millimeters .... ....... . ... 0.0394 ... . inches
·millimeters of mercury ... 133.3 ..... newtons per square meter
million gallons. per day .. .. 0.005262 .. cubic meters per second
newtons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.2248 .... pounds of force
ounces (avoirdupois) . . . . . . 28.35 ..... grams
ounces (fluid) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28.41 ..... milliliters
o u   ~ s per square foot . . . . 305. J 5 .... grams per square meter
o u ~ s per square yard .... 33.91 ... . grams per square meter
pounds . ................. 0 .4535 .... kilograms
pounds of force . . . . . . . . . . 4.448 . .... newtons
pounds offeree per square . 4 7.88 ..... pascals
foot
331
pounds of force per square indt .. 6.895 . . . . . kilograms per second
pounds per cubic foot ... .. .. ... 16.02 .. . .. kilogJ"ams per square
meter
pounds per cubic yard ... . .. .. . 0.5933 . . .. . k.ilopascals
pounds per second .. ·. . . . . . . . . . 0.4535 .. : ... kilograms per cubic
meter
pounds per square foot ......... 4.882 ...... kilogr ams per cubic
meter
quarts ... .. .. ... .. .... . .... .... 0.0009463 . . . cubic meters
s q u   ~ feet ............ . ....... 0.0929 . . . .. square meters
square inches .. ... .. .. .... . ... 645.2 . ... . . square millimeters
square kilometers ............. 0.3861 ..... square miles
square meters .. ... . .... ... •. . . 10.76 . ... .. square feet
square meters ................. 1.196 ...... q u   r e yards
square miles . . . . .. ... .. .. ... .. 2.590 . ... .. square kilometers
square millimeters ............ 0.00155 .. . . square inches
square yards . .. .•........... .. 0.8361 ... .. square meters
tons of force . . ... . ............. 9.964 ...... kilonewtons
tons of force per square foot •. .. 107.25 ... .. kilopascals
tons of force per square inch .... IS .44 ...... mega pascals
torr (millimeters of
mercury at 0° C) ..... . ....... 133.3
watts . . .... .. ... .. .... .. .. . ... 3.412
watts . . ... •... .. . .. ... .. · .. .. 0.7376
yards
. ... .. ... .. .. ... .. .. ... .. 0.3170
watts per square meter ... . · · .. 0.9144
332
..... . newtons per square
meter
...... British thermal unit!
per hour
. . . . . foot-pounds of fcM-ce
per second
. .. . . . British thermal units
per square foot
... ; . . meters
............. Applicatloa ....
ArtuCAn<* 110,
rnrncrTTTJ
UfUIUC Qll 'nE FIIILIPPllii!S
IIIIIlSTIY Qll PUILIC 1IOUS
m:rcs at ,. llliU>OO amCIAL

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, IILIC).
.. ·-
r-
....__
r: ·
IICII:7
EMGIMEER

IUII7-
-
m.110.
1"""-
r·-
-

334
Appendix
IIII'Vt-1.1COF THf fi'H!I. IrPtNU
'Q1ill''flll0. ??-QQ1-S
PEPARTMENT OF PU8LIC WOAKI. TAANIPORTATIOOO ANP -IJ!IIICATIO ..
AH'I.Ic.\ T10H NO.
I I II I II
OATIOF' """LICATI()N
OFfiCI OF THE EIUILDIIIG O"ICIAL
0 ltTfUC'TIC11"V/IIIUNt(:lfJALIT'I'

SANITAI'IY"'LIMBINO PEI'IMIT
'lk .. tT NO.
II I II I
0ATI.I$SUID
NA»l OF OWNff\fAPPI.ICANT U.h NNAI , , tftiT NAMI, M,l , TAX: ACCT. NO.
ACORn' NO .• .sTAttf, t.AfiA'tOAY, CI T'f/WUWICI'AUTY TEl .. 0.
C. OCATIOHOF JHITALLATJON HO,.IT"!IT. Ml'tANQAY, C:tl'rfltN'HlCJ:ftM.ITY
11001'1 Ol ifiOilK Q AOOtTION Of' 'lfii'£CIFY)
0 NeW 4t.IJTAlLATI0N O____o•
0 R&M()VAl. Of'" 0---JJ•
Ull OR TY'I 0# OCCU,Af!C'V
D RUU)INliAL
-·- ---
0 AGAICULT\JitAL
D (.C)Wif:R:CIAl. 0 P4Jti(S, PI..AZAS, MONUMEWT6
Dlf<OVlT",._l . 0 AtelllATIONAl.
0 I"STITIJTIOIW.. 0 OTWI Jq ... lCIP't)
rtx•u .. e fO II I .. TAU. IO;
"'"
.Jrlt TJNG .u .. oo, ..... l)(ll"flft(; )0,.00 '
OTV. , •• 1'\.lftt l PlkTIJfltll r unuAu an. ftXTIJ"U FUC.TUMII ,IKNIIIIU
-
0
8
0 W•'Uf'C'-OM'
-
8
0 0 ••o•ne
-
D 0 't..00111 OflA1H
-
0 0 LAUNOAY TRAYi
--
0 D D L-AVUOittU
-
D 0
[)
DfHTAL
-
0 0 D 'C.ITOtiE.NIINtC
-
0 0 0 GAII'tUTlA
-
0 0 0 •..uuT
-
0 0 0 f LICflbC MUlTER
-
0 0 0 PtOWEJt KIAO
-
0
[)
0 "An:fii&OtLEft
-
0 D 0 WATIAiilfTt'-
-
0
[)
0 '0UNTAHI
-
D 0 0 C.AlA$i Till,
-
0 0 D IAflleiNK.
-
0 0 0 8Afi-4TU.
-
D 0 0 IOOA I'OUtfTAIN tnnr;
-
0 0 D SLOPStNK
-
0 0 0 LAIOfltATDAVIINI(
-
0 0 0 VRIN.-.L
-
0 0 0 fTCfltiUZEA
--
D D 0 AfA f;ONOITI ONt NO VI-/IT
-
0 0
[) IWI .... tiNO IIOOL
-
0 D 0 -TER
-
0 0 0 OTHCNli"£Cif"r') ---
TOl"AL 'tOTAL
0 WATER DIS'T'ft iii!JT10H SYITf:M 0 IAH'TARY IEWPI $Y$TfM 0 STOJIIM QtiAAfNAGIIYtft-111
IYITI M OP OWOIAL,:
0 SMALl..OW WlLL 0 'WA.S1'1 WAlER tiiiiE:A,...f "'T Pl,Ali T 0 SUfi .. Aet OltAtHACM
0 OIIPWtLI..II"JM,SIT 0 IEPT1C.VMH.TIIMHOFFTA .. t( 08,.,.QT(MAL.
[] WATII'I &YitiM 0 IANITA,.Y II!WIA C0Nt41CfiON 0 ,. .. n" cou•u
0 OTHI!N ----- -
CJ • SANO
"'U .. Ilf' OF JTORI'ft OP tVILQfNG TOTAL AfltA Oft
MOfiQ:li[O DAti TOTAL CDn
ITAJn' fW WITA.Ll..A TlOtrf Of' t:NJTAI.t..A'ftOfril P:
• IXNCTID OATL rRSI'AA'O &Y
OFCOIIIPUTJON
rt:AMIT II Hffii!IY (JfiiANl'to TO lilftTAU. TWI .. G
F1Jt1\lflll lNUWI.ftATlO MMltN SUIJECT TO 'n4E P-OU.OMNG. COND4·
,.,...
t . 1ltE ,.,...,..-0 I.MITAU,.AllON I HAU. 1'1 JN
wtTM "-AMM ' K.ID WUJH THiS O''lCI o\HC ' PI
.. ITY '"TH TH.I IU. nOHAL IUILCtt4G C:OOE.
:l. T)'tAT A OULY LJCIJIIIED IAHtTAI'tY P\.UM.I.fl
If TO UNOIRTME TNf
$, THAT A tERTifiCl.ATI Of t:Oall"t.E'nON OVLV IIQNID JY A.tANITAAY
t:NGINf€f'IMA*Ttf' 'WMII.A f tljl CHAAGl OF INITALLATIO" '"AU. ••
I UIMmiO frfOT lATE" 1'l4AH UYEN (7) DAVI AFTIR COW LtTION
0''tf1E UWfALloAnOH.
4. THAT A OP PIMA(. I,_IH:C'TtOH ANO A Qll'tli111C.ATI Of
OOCUf'MCY II   ,. JOft TO TKI AeTUAL Of:
r tttautL.DttrfO
HOTI•
...
' DATI
THill Pe:AMIT .. AY .. CAN(.ILUO Oft IIII VOKtO,Ufi!WAffT 10 IICJtOfrfl ac»a _. 0 , HIE "'fiiATIOft'IA\. MIIL04NGCQ011""
315
80K 3 (TO 8E A¢CCIMPLI$H(0 BY THf A€CEIVH"0. IUOOAOI'fG S!CT40NJ
 
c.
D S4HtTAI'IV' P'LUMIWG ,t.ANS. S'lCIFfCA1'10fii&S
0 B.lll Ofl WATERfAll
AISrSSlO,IIS
0 eatT IS''n ........ TU
0 OtHifiiS · - -----·-···
-
------:
-
ANOUHTOV• ASSf SSiO tV
0. " · ... UAAIIJIII
OATEPAIO
,,.oo-.••now
NO'tC-0. .tr
CHif_IF, '"0¢1Sll"fG DIYIS10 NI$ECTION TIME D.._ 'TIE T1M. OAlf ACfiOI'fiRIEMARQ MOCUS&D IJY
AtClfVINQ AND R I COIIIIOING
----·- - ·
h.INI II NO O.flAbf l
SANITARY
WE Mff'(8Y ,.,,.IX OVfll HANM fiQHI,VINO ()Y .. OC)fii_,Q,.MI'YV TO TKl iNffOAMATIOH HeAI:IHA80Vl SiTFONT'-t.
eox• •ox e

LUM"lU'If i.IIO ...   C.. RaQ Ho
liCi .. f-0 A"D U AU:O ' l ..utl a l'llCt 'leA 1'10HI
,IIIIPITNAMI ... l.CANT
AODAIS$
r-------·-. ---,--------r·- - - -1
fiUt CI"T NO OAT1 11NVI C lli'L.ACf IIIUI.O
P' . T. iJt..Mo. I DATI IS.SUto. I tLACt IUI.IfD
'
- ---- - -·----·. -·+ -----1
IIGN ... TU"E
iAMfTMY IMJtlrflt.AIIIIAI;n _R J'1.-UJIIMfiiiP. A, C. Jll),
I,..QfMGil 0,
MINT NAME
AOOitEst
f'. T. fii , NO. I OATEI.stV[O I 111''-ACI IS$U(O
t.ION4TI.PIIIS
' I
336
Appendix 6 - P...ut Appllcellea Pe,.
..., rou No. 7'1-oot·l
11-GP TIC ... ..__.
-IH·W tl -.IC. -·
GO'FICa GO' t iC IUILDI.. OPfiCIAI.
I I II I II
FENCING ftERMIT
____ ,
0- - ., ,_, .. ,,
a•-- "LOt/ttrt-
0 - Gill'\' fW UTllf UIID TAll III!Cf.IP'T
a- ... tw • ... t • IIO'T -" ., -..-,

difl ....
0-IIA-IAU
Q llC. IMIIII'-0 CIGIICIITll
C lt.C. I I (YC\,aiC -
D •.c I ITU• .. ,, ..
--··
D M I - · IIOU.OW IUICU
CIJt.C. • .. ,cd.
c Ji.c. • • - • - -·
C1 one• (-Cihl
- ...... ,. ... ,.0 _, ?0 ....

nlll1' '1111 -0 --TICIII/ - TIGII/ ·P-/ M-TIOII
• • mo TIC .. , -. ..__ -
- Itt --MOUJC•t .. 11\.U:" AIIO
 

-.: hit .... ,. II CMII:Co..t.A 011 --U OUU""•' Tl>
KC1'- - - - 0/f TIC •• ,-. COO&
337
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•••r••••
,, ..
_,.
-· -
..,
0.1. - .. ...... 10
a '-• • Mal>l
0 • • •
D -) ..
0 anciii(IPI:<.IP'YI
TOTAL: -Iiiio: CHIIP,- DIVtloCII
'""• e : ITO K --· ·- ..
TIC.,.,.,_,.,...__. ••• ,
I'MOO.Itl
NORD:
"'
OUT
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--·
_,
--- IIV.
.._
o.r.tt
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.... tt


ltiCOMIIII
tlOMTIC I Lilli GOIIP-IT¥1
ITII\ICTUIIAL
lU:cTaiC•I.
C&IH .. II
WI H[ltltv ol"ll! 01111 Mol .. .,_fltll - TO TIC
1'1111111 Atovf t(T '0.111.
_, .
IH I
....-uc:t 1 • • • • • • .I Me: .... -.
- t -.EO lUllS I_,_
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.........
I'.T.a . 110
1
OolT. ·-D I'UC.lWIIIIC ••n. car. 110. 11-D
-TIM n•
338
1'\..ACLOI-
Appendix .. 7 - Appllc.tt. for Electrial Penait Fo""
O""'TC FOAM.NO. n-MFW
0
,: H4€ PHIUPPINES
1:1 II II
Df i'AIITMENT OF PUBLIC WORK&. TAANSPORTATION ANO COMMUNICATIONS
OFf iCE OF THe BUILDING OfFICIAL
I I
DIST .. H:fiCITV/NUNIC.,Al tTY
AflilllA COOt - - - --
PERNU'T NO.
II
II I I I I
DATI Of APPLICATION
AP!"UCATION FOR
ElECTRICAl. PERMIT
OAT[ tSSUEO
.0)( 1 CTO &E PA.OFfSSION• L E'-l.tTAICAL ElECTfUCJAN IN PP:!flrtTt
...
NJ\Ml Of OWJ<E"/AI',LICANT LAST NAME. F IRn N"M • • M,t , TAX ACCT. rtn.
AOOIIE$$ MO ..  

\.OCAl,OHOF INSTAU,ATION NO .• STREET. BARANGA Y, CITY /MUNIC.,AU TY
I')OPI OF WORK a "OOITIONOP
OTHERS tSPECIFVl
a NEW
a OF a OF
0 REMOVAL OF 0 OF
0 AMNVAL aNIPECTION
IAI Oft TYP.t OP OCCUP.utCY
0 "U<OENTI"l 0 AGRICVL TVAAL
D OC*Ml"CIA<. 0 S'TfiiEET FVRNlTUAE.I..ANOSCA" NO
0 INOVt TIIUAL 0 SIGNIOARPS
0 INfTITVf iOHAL
'
0 O'TIItRSISI'ECIFVI
....... R OP OUTLtn AND IOUif'MIIfT TO H INITA"-LlO
oL....m 0 SWITCHU D cONv. OVTun
0 HLL SY'STI"M
D ILECTfliC R4 HGE:
__ ..... __
Ow/4.Ti fii HEA-rv. - - "·"---
0 AlAC(lfiO!TJOOOJNG SYST£M - - -- 0 Tll£,HONE 0 OIOTOAS
0 OT><EAS lli'ECIFYI
DATE OF PROI'OifO UTI-TEO CPST·Ot
STAAT Of- CONSTRUCTION ELICmiCAL •NSTALLATIOH
EX'ECTEO OA Tf
OF COMP\.ITJO"

.ax 2 no a& ACCCNrt.I$HIO 8Y A!CEiV1NG a AIICMDeNG SECiiONJ
UICTAteAL ,_,., .... (FIVf (&I SETS fACHJ
0 lLfCTf\ICU PLAN .. SI'ICJFJCATIONS 0 81LL l)f
O .coiTUTIMATifl 0 oTHERSIPiC.,Vt - ------ - - ---
IOJC l srEASC* WttO JtG .. I O AHO liAt.tO PLAfrtS • PICI,ICA TJOM.
ll.KTIIICAL IJ«luret:IN I ""CAIO. NO. !LECfJIIICAL t:HOIHEI RI
,,PAC REG. NO.
_.,. ILI!eTAICIAN
MAITift fLICTRfCfAN
·'
rAfNTNAME f'IUfll t HAM'e
.
AOOI'IEIIS AOOAESS
, .T.R.NO.
11MTliiSUEO .UCE IIIUEO P.T.A. NO. 1 DATE ISSUEO 1'\.ACE IS5liED
t iGNATVA£
lTAN StGNATURE

SIGNATVllf IOWNfAI
BOX S ITO 8[ ACCOM" LiSHEO•Y"'Of'IES$10t.A'- flEC'TAlCAL £flfGUIII .. IIIIAI'flft .LfCTfltCIAN ltfHIINf)
#fAM! Of' t.AIT HAMI:. F"'S'T M.t.
AODAESS NO •• STIOIIT, BAR .... GAV, atVMUN.
l-OCA Tl()flll Of WSY A UJ.T l Oft
80>< ft ITO 8E "<:00M'U$H£0 8 V OIVISI0"11UC1'100t COOICUI .. EOI
r-RUIFLOW
"0T<D• .
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OUT
CHI E.F, OJ V tStO"'I'SECTlON
OATt Ill
F'£CEJV,.,G AND RI COAOtNG
I
I:UCTAIC'IL
J
80>< 71rOt€ OIVIStOI</SECTIOHCONCEIINEDI
AMOVNTDV£ A$ SIS$« D IY
8(})( 8 ffO 8£ ACCOMPt.ISWED ev 1'Hl OfFtCtAU
&CfiOIII'fA.tN
PEIAMIT 1$ MEfll U Y GAAPII TEO TO IH&'T A. ll Ttotf fl.tC:TAICA L WI"' tHO
MO t OUiflldENT Sl.t.J(t:.T TO fwt f.-0'-C.OW...O
C0Ml)0110N$
1. THAT THf lftf$TALLAT•ON SNA\..\. 'N 'M't.,_
I
I
AWFtOV.ED fiLII"'$ F ILl:() W'tTM THIS OfFW:£ AHO COH-fQIIIIUtl't' '•
WITH THE NA'ttONAt. CODi.
t. ' THAf A OU\.Y LJCENt£tl E:LECTf'\tCAL. IHQINI.IAMASTEA •ucnu.
ClAN fE ENOAG(O fO VNOEIITAKl TMl iNII1'ALI.AfiON/c;OHITIOUC.
TION
TAX ACCT.N(I,

AOTI..,.., ..... .,.
""OCEa8V
l.       ----.-U-t-LD-,-,..-:-:0-,·-,.-C- tA_l ____ _
SHALL II(• SUe&UlTIO MOl I..J'l' lft TH.AH UYIN Cll OAVI AJTIII
-.ntOMOF Tl..atotnAU.AT-
4. lltAT A Clftfl,tCATf 0¥ 'INA«. ..... I C'tfOH AtCI A C:lATIFtc.Aft OF
OIOT1!:
IE MCUiltO rAIOI't fO T"l AaiMLQ(lC<.IIAIOCV Of' TWI
.VtiJ)tNO,
DATI
TMt$PliWIT MAY If CANCfLUD OlllllV041.(DO\III$0ANf TO SECTIO"U. a :IGlOO TMI "OiolfiOHAL IUILDINGCOM"
340
I'IIOJICl ' DAn . ---
WIAnmA =---------------
OWief"
1oUHIFT 2nd SHIFT ltd SHifT

R"'
lmUTY
 
IOUIJOMINT OI'EIIATIOtf n .. U IOU TIME
I· NO. OF HOUM
TO · FROM
TO
AC!M!JII :
IUINintDaY: NOTlO IIY:
HiOJiCT tiiOINll II
RlSJOfNT INii'ECTQft
341
,. Q - Ta•u ... .., Sidewalk .act Occupoacy
Pa,...it ForM
IIIIWI'OUI NO. 77.01H
Dotelaued
Repulollc: oftloo
MilliiCry of l'loblk Waob
OFFICE OF THE BUILDING on1ClA1.
Dittrio:I/City/NIIIUdfllllty
1\lU Code ----
TDOORARY SlDEWAut
ENCLOSURE AND OCCUPANCY PERilOT
Dote IIIIM<I
Pllmil ill putt<! 10 -------- --------- ------

Cor 1111 ond occup&M)I of d\e wilh • front.,. of .,.--------- ------
( )memund a widlh of ( ) me!enor ----------
u iDdi<:ated atlhe b1<k hcn:of at lho of --------- ------
-------· --- - for U.c ItO,. of COIUtNction mate.Ws for a period of - ------
---------:-:--< )d&yaiDcllllioe from , 19---
co , !9 ___ puiiiWit to petllno"t prt»Uiono of the Nation ol Code (I' .D. I 096)
llld llllmplerMntiq ....- 10d R plali0111,   further, ro lho foUowlnc c011ditions:
F .. :
i . The OWUf llld COIItnciOT lbll be toleiy tnpcll\llbe fO< the aafety, pco«cdiolo, l«..nty ond-
nieocc of tbc acoe..t publio: 1ft<! hil/her pc-'. lhltcl pordct, lltc work1, equipMent , iriJUIIaliolo
lOci tbc lll<e .
2. No enelolurc lblll he mode without lint prmidin& lhe required lempo,.oy sidewalk plulk which shall
be propec!y mamlllifted II aD times.
3. The end_,. thAII be mode ofwoodcll T .t(;, c.,. 26 corrupced G.l.,or any other t.intUas matetiiiJ
at lelft two me len (2 .00 M) l\illl, IOWI4 lll>llluminously paimd for the safety and COli·
....umec ofpedaatriuos. The width of !he lidewalk to be occup;ed shall be 11 indicated atlhe back <>f
thla ptrlllil. The borlzoolllloflath oflboiHICIOOUIO'I&Id plonk th.,l notexlnd beyond lhe affected
.,.., of tJoe pllllject.
4. No commen:illo91 th.U be ptintocl on, anectled to orditplayed ot tJw enclosu#.
5. nus penni! mu•t be kept at lhe jobaiw at all lime• for 1M dunlion of lhe project . l 1 may be tlllceiUd
or mabel pUCIUUII to S.Ctloos 305 10d 306 of the NatiooW. Buildln8 Code (P .D. I 096) or when
pub& IDietellar>
O. R. No.
hoo&ed:
342
Appendix 10 - Ap,ilc..._ for Mec .. •lcel Pe""&t Fol'lll
llllllllflll
OAYI 01' .... ICATtON
IIIPUIUC 01 TMIIIMIU,.._I
MlllttTIIY OP ,U8LIC 110111tl
IJ/IfiCI Of T .. eiiiUIM

....... 00111-----
,ol 1 t tl>•l ..... D .y ....0Pl...,...L -(MANICA\. lltG ... IIIt IN MtflfT I
..... 0, LAI'f ..... IJIAMI, IIU.
I I II I II I I I I I I
T"'ltAC(;.OUatf "0
--
..O .. ...... ICt"A4'fY Tl t..C:f'H()HI: It().
LOCAfiOfiiOfl JldYAt..l.6TIC*
M),, IY"'t(T. IAfiiAiitGAY. CJ.Y""""ICIPAt. ffY
 
LJ .. ...,,,_01' • U.lOI"tG "t,...,, ItO
a ......... ,.,.,u..,.tOII
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.. .,. nc coo•"·
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....... ........ ..... , ... _ .. ..
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..
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............... MAY . .. c.AIICILUOOII' AIWO.I• .. (flO ... Jla & - 0' 1"1 "&flO/ItA\ euiLO• .. (, CODI
.
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0 0Yt41ftl IPfCt,'f't
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ASS6sstOFU
---..,
MIOUNfOVf A$11$110 I Y OAU fi'AIQ
... -OCA•
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HO'rtO: ... uvY
• .,..,,
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0&11
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MICMAJiittCAL.
MIAII"'T' QUfll 11A"OIIiCi .. • • 0\Hl (OfltJ Of'Mt ''f fU fMC t•IU .... _.,tO .. AK)'VI J( r FOI'fM
-··
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fIll I I I I 1·1 I I J i) ....
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    -------------------
... l'Qitll..._tt --------------------.......

wtdlar,_..ot ________ hll_ematthe ......... ol-------
-----------------foraptriacto(llllrty(lO)<IIrt..,....
r- . !9 --to • •• __ ,._tee
,.,._.. pMilloaaot«h8 N.doMIBIIIclinteodtcP.D. 1096) liM! lit r.-.._ Jt• _,..,.. II• ..
.....
t.   a ••a.
olUio,...._..,_.. .... IIWhet ......... llllnl,.... ....... ............
••
2.  

3. s.r ......... ·--u-.-_ ..........
.. 11IIJ l*llllt ............ joWtt ... daiNiot lilt ftl'llieft ollht l"afect.lt..; ........
.,.....,.. ,._. toSeccioa lOS_. l06olUI.tt«<liMMI....._C...(P..D. JOM)or wiiM,...
......... .._..
F•: ------
O.Il.NO. ____ _
o.: _____ _
3.45
"-''t N_..,
(DIIhllllf*lj

AMCodl ---"""'""'---
'-MIIII&IImby l'lftted to ----------------------
wttll ....... _ .. -----------------------
(or die COIIIWCdclllf..,..,ol -------------- tq-IMtMIIIIIIidllwiD.
•• the ....... ol .. ,......
to pettlne11t pto¥llloM of die Mldaell lllldlfttCodt(P..D. to96)tftdlll lmple!Matint ..._lllld ...... I!JoM
... to the ,....,. coMitlalll:
I. • It •
orw tnm1 pullle .s ..,,._...,llllrd ,.,un. the_.., .........__,..,.
Ute.
'l. The ........ Ill dlellttlahef ........ ... om. .. " ••
·
l. Tht liclewllk Mil .. thetllto-" .. , .... WI)'t ................. tlw .... ...
COMtnidH 111.-folmlly wtdl the ct.lllp llldlpfCIIk:llloM of the ,optr tlldloritltt iM tllllljMt 10
lite apprM or the The ndlulof CIII'Mof .. lt!Wilnlt ........ tlllt
lie ._lh1111lte wlddl or 1M wider llldeW1IIt lllfid lllltaec:tioN..
4. The c:atd! ..... «inlets ..tlld\...., lie alftctH by the pn+octsWIIIe .......... tltld/Oit ..._.....,
w PfO!Ie' liUIMriCy et the"""" of the_,....,._, or die ,.qea.
s. A'*>!Ybty .0 leU.rinp. .. Ot 1Millllp ohll) lclnclexoept .._ .. IMIIhori:rft (or omcw .
ollly shall lie prirltect Oil« emkdded In the ,..._, .. of puWif; lt!WIIacl ........._
6. Tht worica 1111111 M dcne Uftdcr the IYpervllioe 11f 1 (.-, thia Olllee.
7. thiJpennit mud be kept at tile jobliW II el diDts for the tlumioll of It mq .._ CIIICI6d
« Jlll-t to Sectioftl30' IIICI 306 of the Nalioallluldit& COlle (P ..D. I OK) ...t .e..
•  
, .. : _____ _
O.Jt.No.
-----
r..t: ____ _
UMAGndtFN-
O.R.No. -----
li!UII6:-----
IWI'ORTANT: NOTIFY THIS OFFICE AT L!AST 24 HOURS IEfOJtf POURING Of cc:JNC:Ufl.
Appendix 13 - be...,._ •• Gtou .. Preparation Pe..at
Fona
.... ,_.Afi" 'L•Mo: e-,a c;,_. .., ........
liillillliilliil
,,,,,,,, .......... ,
"-aeo41 ------
I!XCAVAT10NAGROONDPII!PARAt'IONPawrT
......... .......
(aw-/Applbnt)
.... ..--...-...,...t ,..,.,....ol......, .......... -----------
------------------for tile -IUIIdJcn ofhllr/hlr,..,...,..
__________________ ......,.nld_ ro. 'llllldl• luldlnl
(u. .... Type  
,.,... .... Ileal ........ for .. ddt Of&e,IUb,lect to tt. ,.__ c:onclitbli:
I . Tllapmllll._ _____ tilt ,...._, ...... oltt. ,mdpll btiiUit pawtlt _., ;.-tl
•4 dtlt tbl-/q>pilclnt .-NIIn lht walk or ptqld • ilillher OWft rWI.
2. Tlla pmn1t 111C1 tt. iopoir: tbll be ... ptlt tlw jallllle •• .._for. n.t1oe flltlllproJMt.
3. AI poiiiUc t'dlllll - Ulllllill tudl • ltMSI, rlidewlib,' culle, ptlen, •leculc ,..., ,.,..., ...
-· ... •lilln, -"'·-•d d ..... !INa and 11M ... llull .. propedy P"*c:fle4 ........
_, oboWcdarl. Alfy fdlty Uld/or 11t8ity UDII,UIIfuli lie proporly _. NlloNd
to Ill ...... --.,. by tilt _,.,.,._. tulljKt to lhe ap,PfOVII ottlie luildJril Oi!ltillllld the
'""" lifthDoUin conceme4.
4. 1i. _, llid IXWittliCtot _.lie joiftdy !WpOIIIIIIIt fotlhe ..rety, ltCIIIIcy Mel --.ce
of .. .-nJ wWk .. ..,.. pe.....t, tbltd puUn, .. -"· ... the
like, AD ._..or dJicMW maeerillo f10111 IM,projtct Nil lit .,..,.,ty 11-.1 _, 6lpolr4 'If,
w ... tbll lie dJildwled dlnctly into dlliN8clllln. Pert!Mat provillou q( the NaUanlllllldlnt
CO<It (1 ,D, 1096) llhlll lit complltcl with.
S. nil pmd ._.lie_....,.. or IMOU4 Scc:tlolillOS.: J06 Old. H.riolilll.._.
Code (1' ,D, 10!16).
V..W,•to"" ,.,._..qM • ..eo,
341
111£ IWILDlNG OFFICIAL
AREA CODE NO ----
111SS IS TO CERTTFY TKAT TKE CONSTRUC'l'lON OF THE 8Utl.DJN(; COVER£0 BY IUIL.DING
PERMrT NO. ISSUED ON HAS BEEN COMPUTm
IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE APPROVED PLANS MID SPECIFICATIONS ON FILE WITH 111£ OFFICE OF
THE BUILDING OFFICIAL AND THE "NATTONAL BUIWIN(i COD£'' (I' D. 1096).
THAT ntt SAJD lnJILDINC AJ'Il)fOR STlUJCTUkE IS R£A0Y FOR FINAL DGI'ECTION FOR 111!
ISSUANCE OF THE ''CERTTFICATE OF OCCUPANCY".
NAME OF ------------
I LAsT NAME) !WIDDLE}
--------------------------------------------
_______________________________ _
US£ Ofl ME OF OCCUPANCY
DATE OF START Of CONSTRUCTION:
PROPOSED ------ACTU.\l. ---------
DATE Of CONPLETION:
EXPECTED --------------- -------------
  n"<*lf:.S
                               
EmMATEDCOSTf' ---------------------------------
.-\CltiALCOSf . f' ------------- CFOII STATlSTICAL rtJaPOSUONLY)
1) NATERIAI.S(TOTALCOST) f' -----------------------
1. CEMENT baas
2. LUMBER (cubic meUt)
3. REINfORCING BARS (q.)
4 , 1'10. Of G.l. SHEm
S. PRE-FAB STRUCTURAL STEEL{ll&t----------------
b) DIRECT LABOR (TOTAL COST) P
tiU.SOICUJOESCOMPaf$At10N WIIUHlR IY SALARY OACONT'aACT fOA PkOit:cT
AIICiffU.CT/EICGINttk DOWN TO UIORE.U .
c) R!NTAI.OFEQUIPNENT(IF ANY)
4) O'mElCOSTS P -------------------------
l"ltiJ JIICLUOU PROFESSIONAL SE:lVICE F'£E.ll, PUMits AHD OTKEJI F£ES.
AACtll'll!.CT/CJ\'IL ENGINEER·
CIM-QAII<lE OF COfiSTitUC'I'ION)
COfiPOIM£,
3.C8
If CONSTkUC1lON IS UJIID£lTAICiiN aV COHTltACT:
COI'ITRAC'TOR
Pile ltEC. 1<0. CUSS ----
TAN IIEI. C£11T. -----
ADDitESS
BIBLIOGUPBY
Audel& CUPentt-ra and Builders Guide Vot 2
A 'Udels Carpenten and Bwldera Gwde Vol. 3
A\ldels Carpenten and Buildera Guide Vol. "
Audels Car.penters and Bullder.t Guide Vol. D
Dictionary of and conatnlctiQn by C. H&rJW
P1Pe Work and Pipe Welding by L. J. Roae
Time Saver Sta.ndard.s for  
Design Data. by Jobn Haru::ock ca.lilender
Arebiteetu:ral Standards by Ramsey a.nd Sleeper
Slmpltfien Design ot Relnfoteed Concrete by Parker
Foundation Engineering by Ralph B. Peek, Walter E. H&DJOO
and '.l'bom.aa H. Tbornbum
FoWldation Engineering by Leonaa
Bnildinc Technology by Willllam J. BenJamin S&ebl
Vol. I A II
Desien of Concrete St.ructwe b7 Georse Winte-r; Art.bur H. Nlloll
Read-er's DJaest Do it Yourself
Reader's Di&e.st Grea.t Dlctiona.ey
carpentry lllu.mated
How to Do It EneydopediA: by :Mecbani:a
woocswortlng lllustmted TeclmolOSY by Hammond, Donnel17.
Hurod. Ra.;yner
Arebitecture Dra.ftlnl A Des;crt 2nd Ed1tlon b7 Donalc1 E. Hepler
and Pauli. Wallach
Building Code Requirement for Reinforced Concrete ACt Jl&-71
PBJI Steel Technical Da.ta
Etemlt Data
in Sructural Deetan b7 seaui
Steel Coutnlct.lon Jl.&nua}s AISC
Tbe Law and Rulea on Phililll)ine Jletrte S,atem
The NaUonal Bu114ing COde d tbe Phllippinea aDCl ltll
Jmplementinl Rules and Beplationa
ACI Beinto.zad Concrete Qeailn Handbook
Sim,plitted Deaip .of Stnctura.l Steel by Parker
PhJl&teel Intonnatton Jfanual

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