1st Semester

Time: Three hours Answer any five questions. 1. a) Design a 2-tape Turing Machine which given a number in unary on one tape will write a 0 or 1 on the other tape according as the given number is divisible by 2 or not. Full Marks: 100

b) Design a Turing Machine which will print the binary representation of a number given in unary 8+12 2. a) Consider a Turing Machine with a 2-way infinite tape which contains the symbol ‘a’ in exactly one of its tape cell, all other cells containing blanks only. The R/W head of the Turing Machine may be on any arbitrary cell of its tape at the beginning. Construct a nondeterministic Turing Machine which will halt with its R/w head resting on the cell containing the symbol ‘a’. b) Construct a deterministic Turing Machine for the same problem. 10+10 [ Turn Over]

(2) 3. a) Prove that every type 1 language is recursive.

b) Prove that every language that may be described by a grammar, is also accepted by a Turing Machine. 6+14 4. a) Prove that a language L is recursive if and only if L and its complement L are both recursively enumerable.

b) Prove that the union of two recursive languages is also recursive. 10+10 5. a) Prove that for each Turing Machine with 1-way infinite tape, there exists an equivalent one which never hangs.

b) Prove that each recursively enumerable language may be described by a grammar. 6+14 6. a) Prove that for each k-tape Turing Machine, there exists an equivalent one with single tape.

b) Calculate the time complexity of the equivalent single tape Turing Machine in terms of those of the k-tape machine. 14+6 7. a) Prove that for each nondeterministic Turing Machine, there exists an equivalent deterministic one.

b) Explain how it may be ensured that if the nondeterministic machine rejects a string always without infinite looping, the equivalent deterministic machine will also reject this string by getting blocked. 14+6

(3) 8. a) Explain the construction of a Universal Turing Machine and its importance.

b) Explain how it is detected if a number represents a deterministic Turing Machine. c) Explain how symbol replacements are made during the simulation of a move, accommodating the difference in the length of encoded symbols. 8+8+4


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