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Tham quan nh my bia Bch ng

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TRNG I HC S PHM K THUT Tp HCM
Khoa cng ngh ha hc v thc phm
------ooo-------

BO CO THAM QUAN NHN THC
TI: TNG QUAN V BIA



GVHD:
SV thc hin:
MSSV:
Lp:


Tp HCM, ngy 10 thng 08 nm 2012
Tham quan nh my bia Bch ng

GVHD: Nguyn Thanh Hi Page 2

MC LC
1. Gii thiu v nh bia Bch ng ...............................................................................3
2. Tng quan v bia ........................................................................................................3
2.1 Khi nim .............................................................................................................3
2.2 Phn loi...............................................................................................................4
3. Gi tr dinh dng v li ch ca bia ..........................................................................7
4. Quy trnh cng ngh....................................................................................................8
4.1 Thuyt minh v cng trnh cng ngh ................................................................8
4.1.1 Phn xng nu .....................................................................................8
4.1.2 Phn xng ln men ..............................................................................15
4.1.3 Phn xng chit ....................................................................................17
5. Cc ch tiu nh gi cht lng bia ............................................................................19
5.1 Cc ch tiu nh gi cht lng bia hi ............................................................19
5.1.1 Cc ch tiu nh lng, bao b ..............................................................19
5.1.2 Ch tiu v thnh phn ha hc ..............................................................20
5.1.3 Ch tiu v thnh phn dinh dng ........................................................20
5.1.4 Ch tiu v cm quan...............................................................................20
5.1.5 Ch tiu v VSV ......................................................................................21
5.1.6 Ch tiu v cht c hi v ph gia ..........................................................21
6. Kt lun ........................................................................................................................22
Ti liu tham kho

Tham quan nh my bia Bch ng

GVHD: Nguyn Thanh Hi Page 3

1. Gii thiu v nh my bia Bch ng
Tn doanh nghip: Cng ty TNHH SX & TM Bch ng
Tn giao dch:sale@bachdangbrewery.com
a ch:Nh my bia Bch ng-V Vn Bch-Tn Thnh ng-C Chi-TP.HCM
in thoi:083.8943522-083.7977329-Ph trch KD0904.424.799(Mr.Thng)-
009777.13456(Mr.Bn).
Qu trnh hnh thnh v pht trin: Cng ty c thnh lp nm 1989.Nh my 14.000m
2

ta lc trn khu t 30.00 m
2
.Dy chuyn sn xut tin tin theo cng nc c. L cng ty hng
u cung ng trong lnh vc Bia Ti vi hng trm im bn hng trong thnh ph HCM v
cc tnh ph cn. Cc sn phm ca cng ty gm:Bia chai, bia lon, bia hi, bia ti....Sn phm
bia ti Bch ng dn khng nh c v tr ca mnh trong ng o ngi tiu dng vi
phng chm:
Cht lng to nn s thnh vng"
"Cht lng to nn s khc bit
Cng sut sn xut: 25 triu lt/nm.
2. Tng quan v bia
2.1. Khi nim
Bia l mt loi nc ung cha cn c sn xut bng qu trnh ln men ca ng l lng
trong mi trng lng v n khng c chng ct sau khi ln men. Ni mt cch khc, bia l
loi nc gii kht c cn thp, bt mn xp v c hng v c trng ca hoa houblon. c
bit CO
2
ha tan trong bia c tc dng gii nhit nhanh, h tr cho qu trnh tiu ha, ngoi ra
trong bia cn cha mt lng vitamin kh phong ph (ch yu l vitamin nhm B nh vitamin
B1, B2, PP. . .). Nh nhng u im ny, bia c s dng rng ri hu ht cc nc trn th
gii vi sn lng ngy cng tng. i vi nc ta bia tr thnh loi ung quen thuc vi
Tham quan nh my bia Bch ng

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sn lng ngy cng tng v tr ngnh cng nghip mi nhn trong ngnh cng nghip nc
ta.
2.2 Phn loi bia
Cn c vo cng ngh men c hai loi bia chnh l Ale v Lager
Ale: Ale l bt k loi bia no c sn xut bng ln men ni, v n thng thng c ln men
nhit cao hn so vi bia lager (15-23
o
c). Cc men bia ale cc nhit ny to ra mt
lng ng k cc ester , cc hng liu th cp v cc sn phm to mi khc,v kt qu l bia
to ra c mi v ca hoa hay qu tng t (nhng khng ch c th) nh to, l, da ,c, c kh,
chui mn hay mn kh. Cc khc bit v kiu gia cc loi ale l nhiu hn so vi cc loi
lager, v nhiu loi bia ale rt kh phn loi chng.
Lager: Lager l loi bia c tiu th nhiu nht trn th gii. Chng c ngun gc t vng
Trung u, c tn gi ny l t lagern ("lu tr") trong ting c. Men bia lager l loi ln men
chm, thng thng c ln men nhit 7-12C (45-55F) ("pha ln men"), v sau c
ln men th cp lu 0-4C (30-40F) ("pha lager ha"). Trong giai on ln men th cp, lager
c lm trong v chn. Cc iu kin lnh cng kim ch vic sn xut t nhin cc ester v cc
ph phm khc, to ra hng v "kh v lnh hn" ca bia.


Hnh 1. Loi bia Lager
Tham quan nh my bia Bch ng

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Theo phong th v thi quen n ung ca ngi Vit th nc ta hu nh ch dng men chm,
to bia c cn thp (5%), v tnh ph bin ca Lager (ln men chm) trn th gii cng ln
hn Ale (ln men ni). Cn nhng ni khc trn th gii, v d Bc u th li chung bia Ale.
Ni chung ty nhu cu khch hng tng vng m ngi ta sn xut.
Cn c vo nguyn liu th c hai loi chnh l bia vng (Pale Lager) v bia en
(Dark beer).
Bia vng c t l hoa bia (houblon) nhiu hn, trong khi bia en c thnh phn la mch nhiu
hn v li l loi la mch c sy kh cho c mu en (cn gi l carafamalt).V nguyn liu,
bia vng dng nguyn liu mch nha c sy bng coke v l loi bia ph bin nht trn th
gii, da theo cng ngh ca bia lager Pilsner Bohemia, Sc. Cc nhn hiu nh Pilsner,
Heineken (chu u) hay Budweiser, Miller, Coor (ba hng ln nht M) u thuc loi ny. Bia
en c trn thm mt t mch nha en v c th mt s cht pha mu khc nh caramen. Mt
s loi bia en c gi l porter hay stout s dng mch nha en rang. Mt s loi khc nh
bia en Guinness s dng han ton la mch rang thay v mch nha.Bia en ph bin Ailen,
Anh. Qu trnh bia en s i hi nhiu calo hn l cc loi bia khc v chng cng chuyn
ha nhiu cht chng xy ha t la m v ng cc hn. Chnh c im ny to s khc bit v
tnh cht sn phm: bia en c cht m cao hn, bia vng nhiu vitamin (B2, B6 v B9) hn.
Bia ti ung ngon nht nhit 12
0
C. Nu bia ngui i qu nhit ny, bia en ung vn
cn v ngt, trong khi bia vng li ng. Khi nu bia vng, ngi ta thng cho th liu vo (ch
yu l go) tng mi v c trng cho bia v gim gi thnh sn phm. Sn xut bia en li
khng cho th liu, nhng do cc loi ng cha c chuyn ha hon ton nn lm cho bia
en c v ngt thm c bit.
D bia vng vn l sn phm truyn thng, nhng bia en ang mang li cht snh iu cho
ngi tiu dng, thm ch tr thnh u th cho nhng thng hiu mi tham gia th trng. Gn
nh cc nh hng bia ti hin nay nh Hoa Vin, Lion, Big Man u c bia en phc v theo
hai trng phi: c v Tip (tc Tip Khc c). Khc bit v tn gi Tip hay c ch yu l
do dy chuyn sn xut v nguyn liu nhp t nc .
Tham quan nh my bia Bch ng

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Cn c vo cng ngh th c bia ti (Draught beer), bia hi (cask beer), bia chai,
bia lon.
Cc loi bia khc nhau do cng ngh.V c bn, nguyn liu lm bia hi, bia chai hay bia ti
u ging nhau gm: La mch mc mm, sy kh, hoa hc nng... Nhng Vit Nam do gi
nhp la mch t, nn vic pha trn ng knh hoc mm thc l iu khng th trnh khi,
nh vy bia s khng thun khit bng dng hon ton la mch.
Vi bia chai, v c trng l phi ng hn bia hi, bia ti v bo qun lu hn, nn hm lng
cht th ban u nhiu hn bia hi, bia ti khong 0,5%, hm lng hoa houblon nhiu hn
khong 30%. Qu trnh ln men ca bia chai lu hn bia hi. Bia chai ln men chnh khong 7 -
8 ngy, ln men ph khong 4 ngy, ri lc cc tp cht (cc nm bia), lm lnh ri np C0
2

bo qun bia tt. Cn bia hi, bia ti th lng ng t hn khong 2%, lng cn t hn
khong 1,5% v qu trnh ln men nhanh hn, ch khong 8 ngy.
Bia hi sau khi ln men khng lc cc nm men nh bia chai m cho vo cc thng cha c
lm sch bng kh nn, nc thng, nc nng (80
o
C), dung dch xt (2 - 3%) v c thanh
trng bng hi nng (khong 135
o
C), sau c lm lnh bng COVnPalatino2.
Cn bia ti quy trnh gn ging bia hi, nhng khc ch ln men nhit cao hn, m c
hn, v lc ht cc nm men, do khng c vi sinh vt, tp cht v c rt thng bia ri
ung lun, nn rt mt. Qu trnh ln men di, ngn ny khng nh hng ti cht lng bia m
nh hng ti thi gian bo qun. Bi l, bia ti, bia hi thng s dng 1 - 2 ngy, cn bia
chai dng vi thng.
c bit hin nay, bia ti Halida DraughtMaster c cha trong bom bia cu to bng
nha PET cao cp, gi nhit rt tt nn c th m bo cht lng bia kh lu. Hn th bom PET
ch c s dng mt ln sau phi loi b v khng th ti s dng nn tnh m bo v sinh
an ton thc phm tuyt i cao.
Ngoi ra, khi ung bia ti bn c th d dng phn bit bia c cht lng tt v v sinh vi
bia khng m bo v sinh. Trc tin, bia ti c mu vng ng l bia ngon. Khi bn rt ra cc
nu l bia ngon th lp tc s c bt ln tn chy ln, bt chy ln cao th tan rt chm, c th
ni trn mt t 4 n 5 pht, khi bt ngoi tan m bn thnh cc vn thy bt bm vo. Nht
Tham quan nh my bia Bch ng

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l nu ung bia trong cc ri m bt vn bm vo cc th cht lng bia l tt. Ngc li, nu
bt to, chng tan, khng dnh vo thnh cc th bia y cht lng km.
Mt im c o na ca bia ti l khng th rt vo trong cc ung bia bn v mt v sinh
nh cc bia hy cn vng m v bia s hon ton khng c bt, cc cc ung bia ti phi c
ra sch v t trong ngn lnh cho ti khi s dng th mi c th gi nguyn c v ngon v
mu sc cng nh bt bia.

Thng bia ti

Bia ti ng chai

Bia ti Klsch ca vng Kln (c) hng t vi
Tham quan nh my bia Bch ng

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Nng cn ca bia thng dao ng t 3% ti 30% Trong bia chai nng cn l
5%, bia ti khong 4% v bia hi khong 3 - 3,5%, lng ng trong bia chai cng
cao hn bia ti v bia hi khong 1%, nn nu s dng nhiu trong thi gian ngn c
th lm cho ta au u.. Hu ht bia chai c cn khong 5-6% nhng cc loi bia nng
thng c cn 9-11% (gn tng ng ru vang). C nhng th ung ging bia
nhng khng c cn. M cn thy ph bin nhiu loi Lite Beer l cc th bia c
cn thp hn mt cht v hm lng calore th thp hn ng k so vi bia thng thng.

3. Gi tr dinh dng v li ch ca bia
ng l bia ging nh bt k ung c cn khc nh ru vang v ru mnh, u c li
cho sc khe mt mc nht nh no v nu ung vi lng va phi.
Theo mt s nghin cu, trung bnh tiu th cht c cn c th ci thin tim mch do
n lm tng mc cholesterol "tt" HDL v gim nguy c au tim gn 30%. Tuy
nhin, nu ung qu nhiu c th c tc dng ngc li l tng nguy c t vong qua
bnh tim.
Bia c cha vitamin B6 v folate c th gip ngn chn vic xy dng homocysteine
(mt loi axit amin do c th sn xut) trong mu. Mc homocysteine cao c th
lm hng cc mch mu dn n bnh tim mch, thm ch dn ti nguy c nhi mu
c tim.
Ngoi ra cn c mt s bng chng cho thy cht cn c th lm tng nhy ca
insulin, do , lm gim nguy c bnh tiu ng.
Mt nghin cu ng trn Tp ch Dch t hc ca M pht hin ra rng nguy c si
thn gim 40% nhng ngi trung nin ung mt lng cn va phi so vi
nhng ngi khng ung ru bia. Tuy nhin, kt qu c th thnh phn no to nn
tc dng ny.
Mt nghin cu c cng b trn Tp ch ca Hip hi Y khoa M bo co rng
ngi ln (trn tui 65) ngi ung 1-6 cc bia ru c cn mt tun s c nguy
c mt tr nh thp hn so vi khng ung hoc ung ru nng. Tng t nh vy,
Tham quan nh my bia Bch ng

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mt bo co trong tp ch Hip hi Tim mch M cho thy, ph n ung mt cht
bia s gip chc nng thn tt hn.
Cc thnh phn c bn to thnh bia cng c mt cht dinh dng. Hoa bia, men bia
v cc loi ng cc cung cp carbohydrate, mt lng nh vitamin B v kali.
4. Quy trnh cng ngh












4.1. Thuyt minh quy trnh cng ngh
4.1.1. Phn xng nu
Nguyn liu ( malt /go ).
Go: ch l nguyn liu ph (chim 30%), nguyn liu dng thay th nhm gim
gi thnh sn phm. Go c mua t go n bnh thng, em nghin nt sau
Malt + Go
Lm sch
Nghin
Lc
ng ho
Nu
Ni un si
Ni lng
Lm lnh
Houblon, ph gia
B hm
Ni ch
Chit lon
Thanh trng
ng np
Dn nhn
Sn phm
Ln men
Lc bia
Hnh 2: Quy trnh sn xut bia Bch ng

Tham quan nh my bia Bch ng

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say mn dng tm v c a vo ni go. ni go, go dng tm c ho tan
bng nc 77
0
C v hn hp c h ho 100
0
C. Trong qu trnh h ho c b
sung thm mt s ho cht nh: CaCl
2
, CaSO
4
nhm mc ch cung cp Ca
2+

phc v cho qu trnh ng ho sau ny v c b sung thm 1 loi enzym chng
chy c tn thng mi l Termamyl pha long dung dch, chng trng chy ni
v enzym ny phi l enzym chu nhit cao.
Malt : tn gi ca ng cc ny mm (i mch, tiu mch, ht go, thc go, thc
mm).

Hnh 3: Sn xut malt t i mch
Tham quan nh my bia Bch ng

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Hnh 4: i mch 2 hng



Hnh 5: Ht i mch
Bng thnh phn ha hc ca ht i mch v Malt (Tnh theo phn trm trng lng
cht kh)

Tham quan nh my bia Bch ng

GVHD: Nguyn Thanh Hi Page 12


Lm sch: tch b rm r, sn , kim loi, ng thi nh lng cho mi m nu vi t
l mt go 3 malt.Malt v go t sil c a vo sng tch tp cht (sng i lu) v
qua phu nh h thng sng rung, tp cht c gi li trn sng v c loi b ra
ngoi. Sau , malt v go c a xung my tch sn, tch cc tp cht. mi
ca ra ca sng rung v my tch sn u c b tr nam chm ht kim loi.

Nghin

Mc ch: ph v cu trc tinh bt ca ht, nghin ht thnh nhiu mnh nh
tng b mt tip xc vi nc, gip cho s xm nhp ca nc vo cc thnh
phn ni nh nhanh hn, thc y qu trnh h ha v cc qu trnh thy phn
khc nhanh v trit hn.
Nguyn tc chung cho ch nghin :
Tham quan nh my bia Bch ng

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+ i vi go: do go cha qua ny mm nn cu trc tinh bt cn nguyn
vn.Mt khc h thng enzyme amylase v protease c trong ngo rt ngho
likhng c hot ha nn chng kh b thy phn. Do go phi c nghin
cng mn cng tt, kh nng tip xc gia c cht v enzyme cng cao, hiu qu
thy phn cng trit .
+ i vi malt: ngoi vic quan tm n kch thc ca bt nghin th
nguynca v tru cng rt c quan tm. Nu nghin th th c li cho vic lc
b malt. Lc ny lp v tru cng ng vai tr l lp vt liu lc rt tt. Nhng
nu nghin qu th th ng ha s khng hon ton. Ngc li nu nghin
qu mn th v tru s b nt, khng to c xp cao, b mt lp lc d b bt
kn, kh nng lc km. Ngoi ra khi nghin qu mn th trong qu trnh nu v
lc,cc cht trong v tru s chit vo dch nha (tannin, polyphenol, lignin . . .)
nh hng xu n cht lng ca bia thnh phm.
Giai on nu (H ha)
Nu go: h ha v dch ha tinh bt hon ton gip qu trnh ng ha d dng v nhanh
chng.
Qu trnh nu din ra qua 4 giai on:
+ Giai on 72
0
C (ln 1): Khi nhit tng ln 72
o
C gi 10 pht to iu kin ti thch cho
enzyme -amylase hot ng thy phn tinh bt thnh dextrin v glucose, lm gim nht ca
dch cho. Giai on ny c gi l giai on dch ha s b.
+ Giai on 83
o
C: nng nhit ca khi cho ln 83
o
C trong 5 pht h ha s b tinh bt,
gip qu trnh thy phn nhanh hn. giai on ny nht tng nhanh v gi l giai on h
ha s b.
+ Giai on 72
o
C (ln 2): thm nc h nhit ca khi cho xung 72
o
C gi trong 20pht,
sau thm 20kg malt lt cn li vo tip tc thc hin qu trnh dch ha ln 2
+ Giai on un si: un si dch cho ln 100
o
C gi khong 20pht nhm s dng tc ng vt
l ca qu trnh si ph v trit cc cu trc tinh bt cn st li h ha hon ton tinh bt,
Tham quan nh my bia Bch ng

GVHD: Nguyn Thanh Hi Page 14

to iu kin thun li khi hi cho qua ni malt qu trnh dch ha v ng ha din ra d
dng v nhanh chng.
Nu malt: thc hin qu trnh m ha v ng ha cung cp nguyn liu cho qu trnh ln
men.
Qu trnh nu malt din ra qua 3 giai on:
+ Giai on 50
o
C: nhit 50
o
C gi trong 5pht thc hin qu trnh m ha. Sau b
sung acid lactic to pH thch hp cho qu trnh thy phn v b sung CaCl
2
gip n nh h
enzyme amylase.
+ Giai on 65
o
C : tin hnh hi cho bng cch bm dch cho bn ni go sang ni malt. Khi
bm b sung thm 4-5hl nc nhit t 65
o
C. Khi t 65
o
C gi trong 5 pht to iu
kin thch hp cho enzyme -amylase hot ng, thc hin qu trnh ng ha bin tinh bt
thnh ng.
+ Giai on 75
o
C: nng nhit ln 75
o
C v gi trong 20pht to iu kin cho enzyme -
amylase hot ng thy phn phn tinh bt cn li qu trnh ng ha din ra hon ton.
nht ca dch ng ha giai on ny gim i mt cch nhanh chng. Sau nng nhit
ca dch ng ha ln 76
o
C, b tr lng nhit mt i trong khi bm dch ng ha qua
my lc, nhm duy tr nhit thch hp cho qu trnh lc l 75
o
C.
Giai on lc: mc ch l tch pha lng khi pha rn, tch cc phn t khng tan v
cc phn kt ta trong qu trnh un si ra khi dch ng.
Qu trnh lc din ra qua hai bc :
Bc 1: Lc tch dch ng. u tin dch cho malt c bm vo
ng ng chung ca cc khung ri chuyn vo cc bun hp c to
nn bi hai lp li lc, p lc lc c to ra do bm kh nn vo cc
khong khng ca cc bn , lm khung cao su cng ln. Nc nha chy
qua li lc v theo cc rnh trn b mt ca cc bn, chy n ng
ng chung ca khung ri chy vo ni ch.
Tham quan nh my bia Bch ng

GVHD: Nguyn Thanh Hi Page 15

Bc 2: Ra b tng hiu sut trch ly, tng s khuch tn cc cht
ha tan vo dch ng. Dng nc nng 75
o
C ra b. Khng nn ra
b bng nc nng hn 75
o
C v nhit s lm v hot enzyme
amylase, ng thi cng trch ly nhiu cht ng v nhng cht ha tan
khc, gy c cho bia.
Khi lc xong ta chuyn nc nha sang ni ch, nu lng nc nha s c a sang ni
un si nc nha.
Giai on ni ch:
Sau khi lc xong a nc nha sang ni ch nhm mc ch n nh lng th
tch, ng thi gia nhit ln 95-97
o
C nhm gip cho qu trnh un si din ra nhanh hn.
Sau nc nha c bm sang ni un si, nc nha sau khi va c bm sang ni
un si s c kim tra Plato ( ng) xem c t khng (thng l 13
o
P), nu
khng t phi iu chnh lng nc cho ph hp.
Giai on ni un si:
Nc nha t ni ch c bm sang ni un si, ri nng nhit n khi nc nha bt u si, ta
cho houblon cao vo ni trch ly cht ng (houblon ha ln 1), gp phn to v ng cho bia
nn phi cho sm thi gian trch ly v houblon c -acid ng. ng thi cng cho ZnCl
2

kch thch s pht trin sinh khi ca nm men. Mc ch chnh ca qu trnh houblon ho ln
1 l:
- Trch ly cht ng, polyphenol, cc hp cht cha nit v cc thnh phn khc ca hoa
houblon vo trong dch ng.
- Lm n nh thnh phn ca dch ng, a dch ng v nng (13
o
balling), to cho bia
c mi v ca hoa houblon.
- Lm keo t phn ln protein bt n nh v cc cht khng ho tan khc ca dch ng, to
nn ta nng v lng xung y ni un si. Lm tng bn keo v thnh phn sinh hc ca
bia c n nh. Tuy nhin, nhng cht cht (tanin) khng b oxy ho cng to thnh phc vi
Tham quan nh my bia Bch ng

GVHD: Nguyn Thanh Hi Page 16

protein, tn ti trong dch ng di dng ta ngui. y chnh l nguyn nhn lm cho bia
thnh phm b c.
- V hot ton b h thng enzim v v trng dch ng to iu kin cho qu trnh ln men.
- Qu trnh un si ko di xy ra phn ng caramen, to ra mu vng c trng cho bia
vng.Tip tc cho acid lactic vo ni iu chnh pH thch hp cho qu trnh trch ly acid ng,
qu trnh keo t, ngoi ra cn to pH thch hp cho qu trnh ln men sau ny (thng pH=5,5).
Khong 50pht sau khi cho houblon cao vo (hay l 20pht trc khi kt thc qu trnh un si)
ta cho houblon vin(houblon ln 2) vo nhm mc ch trch ly tinh du thm, gp phn to mi
cho nc nha, v mi d bay hi nn cho vo gn cui ca qu trnh hn ch b bay hi.
Cui cng ta cho caramel vo t mu mong mun ca nc nha. Tip tc un si nc
nha khong 20pht trc khi cho vo thit b lng.
Hoa Houblon
4.1.2 Phn xng ln men
Lng trong
Sau khi kt thc qu trnh un si, nc nha c bm sang thng lng cn nhm mc ch tch
ta nng, cn, xc houblon lm trong nc nha khng lm nh hng n qu trnh ln men,
gp phn lm tng gi tr cm quan cho bia. Nc nha sau khi un si s c bm ngay n
thit b lng (Whirlpool). Qu trnh lng theo phng php lng xoy theo phng tip tuyn vi
thng, di p lc mnh cht lng trong thng s xoy cng bc. Lc hng tm mnh lm cho
cn tp trung vo tm thng v lng xung y. Do cc cht cn l lng c khi lng ring ln
Tham quan nh my bia Bch ng

GVHD: Nguyn Thanh Hi Page 17

hn dung dch. Thi gian lng thng khong 20pht, nu nhanh hn s khng tch ht cn, cn
lng lu hn s sinh ra nhng cht khng cn thit nh DMS, cht ny s phn hy to ra H
2
S
gy mi thi trong qu trnh ln men, ng thi lng nhanh cng hn ch s oxy ha xy ra.
Lm lnh dch nha: a nhit dch ng v nhit thch hp cho qu trnh ln
men bia theo yu cu k thut, ng thi lm lnh nhanh trnh vi sinh vt t mi
trng nhim vo dch ng ln men.
Nc nha t thng Whirlpool c lm lnh bng thit b bn mng, vi tc nhn lm
lnh l nc lnh 2
o
C. Trong thit b ny nc nha s c lm lnh theo nguyn tc trao
i nhit, mt bn l nc nha i qua, mt bn l nc lnh 2
o
C i qua theo chiu ngc
li. Khi nc nha c lm lnh xung 7-9
o
C th ta tin hnh sc kh vo. Trn ng
nc nha lnh n tank ln men s c mt lung kh v trng sc vo nc nha nhm
cung cp lng oxy ha tan cho nc nha, thng khong 8-10mg/l vi tc 2m
3
/h.
Ln men Lc












Qu trnh ln men: c ln men chnh v ln men ph
Dch ng
men
O
2

Thng ln men
Lc
Bia trong
Hnh 3: Qui trnh ln men bia Bch ng

Tham quan nh my bia Bch ng

GVHD: Nguyn Thanh Hi Page 18

Ln men chnh: Chuyn ha hm lng ng trong nc nha thnh ru etylic, CO
2

v mt s sn phm khc nh este, aldehyd, ru bc cao, gp phn to ra hng v
c trng ca bia di tc dng ca t bo nm men.
Qu trnh ln men chnh ko di 5-7ngy, nhit 7-9
o
C, p sut P=0bar. Nm men c
cy vo cng vi nc nha.
Trc khi bm nc nha lnh vo tank, ta bm nc nng tit trng ng ng dn
nc nha vo tank ln men. Tank trc khi bm nc nha c v sinh v v trng.
ng thi trong qu trnh bm phi thng gi ui ht khng kh ra ngoi trnh s
nhim nm men di trong qu trnh ln men.
Sau khi ln men khong 10-12h tin hnh thu hi CO
2
s dng cho cc cng on
tip theo khi cn.


Ln men ph: to cho bia t chn, n nh bt, mi v cho bia, tng kh nng cm
quan cho bia, gp phn to hng v c trng cho bia.Sau khi nm men c thu hi th
tank ln men c h nhit xung 4
o
C ln men ph. Trong giai on ny, nm men
cn li mt lng nh, vn tip tc ln men lng cht ha tan cn li trong dch bia
nhng tc rt chm do nhit thp. Tuy nhin, cng nh ln men chnh, qu trnh ln
men ph cng h nhit vng trn thp hn, to iu kin cho nm men kt lng, ng
thi lng CO
2
vn c sinh ra d rt t s to dng i lu lm cho qu trnh ln men
ph cn nhiu thi gian lng. Chnh thi gian lng ko di lm cho qu trnh chn bia
c tt hn, to c bia c cht lng cao.
Qu trnh ln men chnh v ln men ph y c thc hin cng mt tank trnh
nhim vi sinh vt trn ng vn chuyn t tank ny sang tank khc, y cng l mt
ng dng cc thit b ln men hin i ca cng ty.
Lc bia: gm c lc trong v lc hp th
Lc trong: gip loi b cc cn c hc nh nm men, cn kt ta lm trong dch bia,
tng gi tr cm quan. Do s chnh lch p sut u vo v u ra ca my lc, thng p
sut u vo P
1
= 2-3bar, p sut u ra P
2
= 2-2,5bar.
Tham quan nh my bia Bch ng

GVHD: Nguyn Thanh Hi Page 19

Lc hp ph: Nhm loi b ht cc polyphenol (cht gy nhc u) lm tng gi tr
dinh dng cho bia. Ngn cn s to thnh phc protein-polyphenol trong bia, gy c
bia trong qu trnh bo qun v tn tr ti BBT.

4.2.3 Phn xng chit

S quy trnh chit bia lon









Lon c ua vo b st khong 20pht lm sch lon, tip tc qua my nc nng lm
sch st, ri qua nc m, cui cng l qua nc lnh v qua h thng sy kh.
Lon sau khi ra khi my ra tip tc i qua cc bng ti khc, cc bng ti ny s a chai ra
sch qua h thng n soi thu hi nhng lon cn bn v lon b bin dng v tip tc i qua
my chit. Bia trong c chit vo lon bng mt thit b xoay trn v tip tc c a qua h
thng ng np. Trc khi i qua h thng ng np, lon bia c sc CO
2
(ho lng) vo
to ga v ng thi qua h thng bm nc nng ui ht O
2
khng kh ra ngoi nhm dit
con men bia. Chai bia sau khi c ng np tip tc i qua h thng thanh trng. H thng
thanh trng gm c nhiu ngn, hai ngn lnh ri n hai ngn nng, tip theo l hai ngn lnh,
mi ngn nh vy c mt nhit khc nhau, nhit thp nht l 20
0
C, nhit cao nht l
67
0
C. S d nhit ln xung nh vy l gim thch nghi ca con men bia v nhit
c gi khng qu 67
0
C v nu nhit cao hn nhit ny th s to mt p sut ln trong
lon s lm v lon. Bia sau khi c thanh trng tip tc i qua b phn dn nhn v a vo kt,
My gp lon rn Ra lon (H
2
O 85
0
C) Chit ng p
ng np
Thanh trng Dn nhn Sn phm
Hnh 6: Quy trnh chit lon











Tham quan nh my bia Bch ng

GVHD: Nguyn Thanh Hi Page 20

cc kt ng xong c a vo kho. Bia ra l c nhit khong 36
0
C. phn xng chit
trong mt ca qu trnh din ra lin tc v hu nh l c kh hon ton.
Qua quy trnh trn, c mt cu hi t ra l v sao bia thanh trng m khng c tit
trng.
Nh ta bit, thanh trng l qu trnh gia nhit thc phm n 60-90C, nhm tiu dit
nhng vi sinh vt gy hi nh vi khun, virut, nm men, nm mc. n v PU th hin hiu qu
ca qu trnh thanh trng trong mt khong thi gian xc nh.
Qu trnh thanh trng gip lm gim lng vi sinh vt trong cc sn phm nh bia, nc ngt,
cc loi ung, v t s lm ko di thi gian bo qun ca thc phm. m bo cc tnh
cht cm quan ca thc phm nh mi v, hng thm, mu sc, trong th qu trnh thanh
trng phi c thc hin mt cch chnh xc. Do vy, cn thit phi xc nh c thi gian v
nhit ti thiu qu trnh thanh trng va c hiu qu tiu dit vi sinh vt, va khng to ra
cc mi v khng mong mun cho sn phm, ng thi tit kim c nng lng s dng.
Cn tit trng c gi l tin trnh x l nhit cho thc phm dng lng nh sa, bia
nhit cc cao trong thi gian cc ngn.
So vi bia thanh trng, bia tit trng c li im l khng cn s dng n t lnh tn
tr sn phm. Thm vo , bia tit trng cn th tn tr c trong thi gian vi nm nhit
bnh thng m khng cn cht bo qun.
l do tnh nng ca quy trnh ch bin v ng gi ca cng ngh tit trng, theo mt h
thng v trng khp kn. Qu trnh lm nng v lnh sn phm cc nhanh s gip tiu dit hay
lm t lit kh nng hot ng ca cc loi vi sinh vt gy thi bia.
Tuy nhin, nhng chuyn gia nu bia cho rng, tit trng l k chn vi hng v ca bia.
H khng nh phn ln hng v bia t hng hoa houblon mt i bng cch ny, t c th
nh gi rng bia ngon khng cn phi tit trng thm ch l thanh trng. Do , tuy bia tit
trng c th bo qun lu hn nhng cc nh sn xut bia vn khng a chung v n lm nh
hng n hng v vn c ca bia mi ra l.

5. Cc ch tiu nh gi cht lng ca bia
Tham quan nh my bia Bch ng

GVHD: Nguyn Thanh Hi Page 21

5.1 Cc ch tiu nh gi cht lng bia hi
5.1.2 Ch tiu v nh lng, v bao b
- Bao b : Bia hi c ng trong bock kn, chuyn dng cho sn phm bia hi. Bock c dung
tch khc nhau nh : 25 lt, 50 lt,100 lt .c lm bng cc cht liu khc nhau nhm m bo
kh nng gi nhit cho bia. Bock lm bng inox hay bng nha c lp bo n nhit tt, chu
c p sut do CO
2
gy nn, xung quanh bock c cc ai cao su khi vn chuyn trnh xy
xt, va p, chit bock theo phng php chit ng p, bock c xem nh m bo nu bock
sau mt ngy chit nhit tng khng qu 1
o
C.
- Ghi nhn : Trn mi thng bia phi c nhn cha cc thng tin sau:
+ Tn sn phm: bia hi
+ Ngy sn xut:
+ C s sn xut:
+ Thi hn s dng:
5.1.2 Ch tiu v thnh phn ho hc
Bng 1 Yu cu i vi cc ch tiu ho l
Tn ch tiu Mc
1. axit, s mililit NaOH 1 N trung ha ht 100 ml bia hi
ui ht CO
2
, khng ln hn
1,8
2. Hm lng diaxetyl, mg/l, khng ln hn 0,2
3. Hm lng etanol (cn), % (V/V) 3,6%V 0.2
4. Hm lng cht ho tan ban u

Trc khi ln men pH dch ng thng = 5,4 5,5 , sau khi ln men pH = 4,4 4,5 . Vic
tng chua c 2 l do chnh: to ra nhiu CO
2
H
2
CO
3
, nm men ph v h m mui
photphat I v mui photphat II v khi nm men s dng photpho ca 2 mui ny s to ra h
m ca mui axit hu c pH = 4,3 5,7. Nhng l do ny lm cho bia c v chua. Trong sn
xut bia, axetoin, diaxetyl, 2 - 3 butadion u c tc dng rt xu c bit l diaxetyl nn cn
gim hm lng cc cht ny. Theo cng c Quc t diaxetyl khng vt qu 0.2 mg/ml. Thc
Tham quan nh my bia Bch ng

GVHD: Nguyn Thanh Hi Page 22

t hm lng ny thng l 0,35 0,4 mg/ml, cn phi tng tr bia t nht 3 tun kh bt
diaxetyl. Diaxetyl l hp cht lng mu vng c mi hi, v ng ngt, nh hng rt ln n
thn kinh ca con ngi.
5.1.3 Ch tiu v thnh phn dinh dng
Ch tiu v thnh phn dinh dng: bia ngoi chc nng gii kht cn c gi tr dinh dng rt
cao nn vic a ra bng thnh phn dinh dng lin quan n cc nguyn liu dng ch bin
nn loi sn phm l rt quan trng.
5.1.4 Ch tiu v cm quan
Bng 2 Yu cu cm quan ca bia hi
Tn ch tiu Yu cu
1. Mu sc Mu vng rm, trong sng, ng nh.
2. Mi c trng ca bia sn xut t hoa houblon v malt i mch, khng c mi l
3. V c trng ca bia sn xut t hoa houblon v malt i mch, khng c v l
4. Bt Bt trng, mn, thi gian gi bt khong 2 - 3 pht
5. Trng thi c trng ca tng loi sn phm

Da vo mu sc, mi v v trng thi c trng ca tng loi bia m c th nh gi bia
ngon hay khng ngon. Mt sn phm bia c th l khng v thnh phn dinh dng nhng c
tnh cht cm quan tt th ngi tiu dng vn c th chp nhn. V ngc li, cc ch tiu v
ho l, dinh dng t yu cu nhng sn phm c mi l th s b loi b. V vy tnh cht cm
quan l ch tiu rt quan trng ca sn phm thc phm ni chung v ca bia ni ring.
5.1.5 Ch tiu v vi sinh vt
Bng 3. Cc ch tiu vi sinh vt ca bia hi
Tn ch tiu Gii hn ti a
1. Tng s vi sinh vt hiu kh, s khun lc trong 1 ml sn phm < 100
2. Coliforms, s vi khun trong 1 ml sn phm < 50
3. E.coli, s vi khun trong 1 ml sn phm 0
4. S.aureus, s vi khun trong 1 ml sn phm 0
Tham quan nh my bia Bch ng

GVHD: Nguyn Thanh Hi Page 23

5. Cl.perfringens, s vi khun trong 1 ml sn phm 0
6. Tng s nm men-nm mc, s khun lc trong 1 ml sn phm < 50


l vi sinh vt d b nhim trong sn xut bia khi s dng nm men ln men khng thun
khit, thit b ln men khng thanh trng....Tt c nhng vi sinh vt ny gy ng c thc phm.
5.1.6 Ch tiu v cc cht c hi v cht ph gia
- Gii hn hm lng kim loi nng : Gii hn ti a hm lng kim loi nng ca bia hi c
quy nh trong bng 4.
Bng 4 Gii hn ti a hm lng kim loi nng ca bia hi
Tn ch tiu Gii hn ti a (mg/l)
1. Asen (As) 0,1
2. Ch (Pb) 0,2
3. Thy ngn (Hg) 0,05
4. Cadimi (Cd) 1,0
5. ng (Cu) 5,0
6. Km (Zn) 2,0

6. Kt lun
Bia l ung c cn c c th gii chp nhn v a chung. Nghnh sn xut bia rt pht
trin, cho ra nhiu sn phm mang nhiu hng v khc nhau, p ng c nhu cu rt a
dng ca ngi tiu dng. T nguyn liu n cng ngh, quy trnh, cc thng s k thut nh
hng rt ln n hng v v cht lng ca bia. c tham quan nh my bia Bch ng, ti
tip cn c cc my mc, thit b, c cm quan sn phm. Nhng g c hc v i thc
t b sung nhiu kin thc b ch. Hi vng s c nhiu bui tham quan nhn thc ngha nh
th.





Tham quan nh my bia Bch ng

GVHD: Nguyn Thanh Hi Page 24

Ti liu tham kho
1. http://tailieu.vn/xem-tai-lieu/cong-nghe-san-xuat-bia.198033.html
2. http://vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bia_(%C4%91%E1%BB%93_u%E1%BB%91ng)
3. http://vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bia_t%C6%B0%C6%A1i
4. http://bee.net.vn/channel/1994/201008/Nen-uong-bia-hoi-hay-bia-chai-1764467/
5. Hong nh Ha,1998. Cng ngh sn xut Malt v bia,Nh xut bn khoa hc v k
thut
6. Nguyn Th Hin (Ch bin),2008 Khoa hc cng ngh Malt v bia,Nh xut bn khoa
hc v k thut