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TheMOSCapacitor

Dr.RamaKomaragiri
DepartmentofECE
NITCalicut
rama@nitc.ac.in
Overview
1. MOScapacitordefinitionandfundamentals
2. Electrostaticsqualitativeandquantitative
3. ChargesinaMOSstructure
4. CVcharacteristicsandexplanation
5. CVcurvesasananalyzingtool
6. Summary
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 2
Introduction
MetalOxideSemiconductorFieldEffectTransistor
Conceivedinthethirties
Developedforpracticaluseinthesixties
Invadedourdailylivesintheseventiesandeighties
MuchofwhatisreferredtoasHighTechwouldnotbepossibleifitwere
notforthisdevice
Determinestheweightofcellphonesaswellastheclockfrequencyand
heatsinkdimensionsofCPUs
DigitalandAnalogapplications
Powerdevices....
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 3
Introduction
CellularPhone:
approx.10
9
.MOSFETs
determiningpowerconsumption
weightandstandbytime
4GDRAM:
approx.10
10
MOSFETs/chip
determiningclockfrequency(access
time)andpowerconsumption
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 4
MOS Capacitor
MOSFETs
Dr.RamaKomaragiri 5
CrosssectionofaCMOS
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 6
CMOS:ComplimentaryMetalOxideSemiconductorFET
SchematicrepresentationofaMOScapacitor
MOScapacitordefinition
MOScapacitororsimplyMOSCisa
2terminaldevice
AcronymforMetalOxideSemiconductorCapacitor(MOSC)
Ingeneral,thisisaMetalInsulatorSemiconductor(MIS)structure
MOScapacitorisalsocalledasMOSdiode
BasicstructureofaMOScapacitoris:
athinlayerofinsulatorsandwichedbetweenasemiconductor
substrateandametallicfieldplate
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 7
MOScapacitordefinition
InaMOScapacitor
Insulatorlayerisgenerallymadeupofsilicondioxide(SiO
2
)also
calledasoxide
Substrateisgenerallymadeupofsilicon,alsocalledasbulk
Metallicfieldiscalledgate,generallymadeupofmetalorheavily
dopedpolycrystallinesilicon
Twotypesofsubstratesarepossible
NtypesubstrateresultsinnMOSC orapMOSFET
PtypesubstrateresultsinpMOSC oranMOSFET
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 8
Substratedopingconcentration:N
sub
,N
s
(cm
3
)
Insulatorthickness:t
ox
(inmornm)
Oxidesemiconductorinterfaceisalsocalledas
Surfaceorinterface
(a) (b) (c) (d)
Individualbanddiagramsof(a)Metal(b)Insulator(c)Semiconductorand(d)band
bendingofasemiconductor
QualitativetreatmentEnergybanddiagram
MOScapacitorElectrostatics
Surfaceinducedbanddiagramsforindividual
componentsofaMOScapacitor
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 9
Definitions
Vacuumlevel(E
0
) denotestheminimumenergythatan
electronmustpossesstocompletelyfreeitselffromthe
material.
Metalworkfunction(|
M
or |
G
) istheenergydifference
betweenthevacuumlevelandFermilevel.
Electronaffinity(_) istheenergydifferencebetweenvacuum
levelandtheconductionbandedgeatthesurface.
_ isusedinsteadof(E
0
E
F
)because(E
0
E
F
)isnotaconstant.
(E
c
E
F
)
FB
istheenergydifferenceintheflatband(FB)orfield
freeportionofthesemiconductor.
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 10
MaterialProperties
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 11
Property Value
Energygap 1.12eV
Intrinsiccarrierconcentration 10
10
cm
3
Electronaffinity 4.05eV
Dielectricconstant 11.7
Breakdown field 310
5
V/cm
Silicon
Property Value
Energygap 9eV
Electronaffinity 1eV
Dielectricconstant 3.9
Breakdown field 10
7
V/cm
Silicondioxide
Ag Al Au Cr Mg Ni
Work function(eV) 4.3 4.1 4.8 4.25 3.7 4.5
IdealMOSCapacitoratEquilibrium
ToformaconceptualMOSzerobiasbanddiagram
firstmetalandsemiconductorblocksarebroughttogetherand
allowedtoequilibrate
Forthesystemtobeinequilibrium,TheFermilevelsmustbealigned
atsamelevel
Fixesaconditionthatthe|
M
and|
S
shouldbeatsamelevel,where|
S
isworkfunctionofthesemiconductor
Followingassumptionaremade:
Noworkfunctiondifferencebetweengateandsemiconductor
Oxideisideal
Interfacesareideal
Substrateisntypewithadopingconcentration(N
D
)
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 12
E
V
E
i
E
C
E
Fs
|
M
'
M
|
_
_
_
i
E
0
E
Fm
EquilibriumenergybanddiagramofaMOScapacitor
Banddiagram: Fermi
levelsarealigned
M O S
x
Q
G
=0
Q
S
=0
Charge
Position
ChargedistributioninaMOScapacitor
IdealMOSCapacitoratEquilibrium
Chargedistribution:Astherearenocharges
insidetheidealMOSC,thechargedistribution
appearswithinthemetalandsemiconductor
neartheinterfacewiththeoxide.
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 13
EffectofAppliedBias
NormaloperatingconditionofaMOSC
Backside(semiconductorside)isgrounded
Apotential(V
G
),ad.c biasisappliedtothegate
(metalside)
WithV
G
=0semiconductorFermilevelremains
unaffectedbybiasunderstaticbiasing
conditionszerocurrentshouldflow
Asinpn junction,theappliedbiasseparates
FermienergiesattwoendsbyqV
G
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 14
E
F
(metal)E
F
(semiconductor)=qV
G
EffectofAppliedBias
IfV
G
>0Fermilevelonsemiconductorside
movesup
IfV
G
<0Fermilevelonsemiconductormoves
down
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 15
Banddiagram(MOSCapacitorinaccumulationregion)
IdealMOSCapacitor:V
G
=0
Specificbiasingregions
ApplyV
G
>0forntypeMOSCapacitor
E
FM
goesdownrelativetoE
FS
Electronconcentrationincreasesasoneapproachesthe
oxidesemiconductorinterface
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 16
IdealMOSCapacitor:V
G
=0
ForV
G
>0fornMOS capacitor,biasingregionisaccumulation
V
G
>0keepsapositivechargeonMOSCgate
Tobalancethegatecharge,negativelychargedelectronsareattracted
towardsoxideinterface
Electronconcentrationincreasesasoneapproachestheoxide
semiconductorinterface
ConductionbandmovesmoreclosetotheFermilevel(comparedtobulk)
majoritycarrierconcentrationisgreateratoxideinterfacethaninbulk
Gatecharge(Q
G
)ispositive
Chargeinsemiconductorisnegative
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 17
ChargedistributioninanMOS
capacitorinaccumulation
M O S
x
Q
G
Q
S
Charge
Position
BanddiagramofanMOS capacitorbiasedindepletion
IdealMOSCapacitor:V
G
=0
ApplyV
G
<0(smallnegative)forntypeMOScapacitor
E
FM
raisesuprelativetoE
FS
Asmallnegativeslopingofenergybandsinoxideandsemiconductor
ConductionbandmovesawayfromtheFermilevelattheoxide
semiconductorinterface
Surfaceelectronconcentrationdecreases
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 18
IdealMOSCapacitor:V
G
=0
ApplyV
G
<0(smallnegative)forntypeMOScapacitor
Inchargepointofview,
NegativeV
G
repelselectronsfromtheoxidesemiconductorinterface
Positivechargesareexposed electronconcentrationislessthan
dopingconcentration
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 19
Asmobilechargesarereduced
(depleted),thisisconditionis
calledasdepletion.
ChargedistributioninannMOS
capacitorindepletion
IdealMOSCapacitor:V
G
=0
Decreasingfurther(V
G
<0)forntypeMOScapacitor
Causesdepletionregionwidthtoincrease
AsV
G
furtherdecreases,theintrinsicFermilevelbendsmeetsextrinsic
Fermilevelatthesurface
FurtherdecrementinV
G
causesholeconcentrationatsurface(p
s
)to
increase
FurtherdecrementinV
G
surfaceholeconcentration(p
s
)becomesequal
tothebulkelectronconcentration(N
D
)
Atthisbiascondition
Thegatebias(V
G
)atwhichsurfaceholeconcentration(p
s
)isequalto
thebulkelectronconcentration(N
D
)iscalledasthresholdvoltage(V
T
)
Atonsetofinversion,
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 20
( ) ( ) ( )
2
i i F i
E surface E bulk E E bulk = (

| | | |
d bulk
kT bulk E E
i
kT E surfce E
i s
N n e n e n p
i F F i
= = = =
/ ) ( / ) (
IdealMOSCapacitor:V
G
=0
MOScapacitorissaidtobeatonsetofinversionwhenV
G
=V
T
TheregioninwhichthesurfacecarriersareformediscalledasInversion
layer
Anyincrement(magnitude)ingatebiasafterV
T
resultsmorenumberof
carriersthatsurfacethaninbulk
V
T
isnegativefornMOS capacitor
V
T
ispositiveforapMOS capacitor
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 21
BanddiagramofanMOS capacitorbiasedat
onsetofinversion
IdealMOSCapacitor:V
G
=0
InaMOScapacitorbiasedatonsetofinversion(V
G
=V
T
)
Thedepletionregionreachesitsmaximumvalue
Surfaceholeconcentrationanddepletionchargesbalancethegatecharge
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 22
ChargedistributioninanMOS capacitor
biasedatonsetofinversion
IdealMOSCapacitor:V
G
=0
DecreasingV
G
further(V
G
<V
T
)forntypeMOS
capacitor(increasingmagnitude)
Bandbendingisverystrong
Voltagedropacrossthesiliconreachesitslimitingvalue
(twicethebulkpotential)
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 23
BanddiagramofnMOS capacitorbiasedininversion
IdealMOSCapacitor:V
G
=0
DecreasingV
G
further(V
G
<V
T
)forntypeMOScapacitor
(increasingmagnitude)
Surfaceholeconcentrationincreases
Surfacebehavesmoreptype
Conductivityofsurfaceregionincreases
Biasingconditioniscalledinversion
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 24
ChargedistributioninanMOS capacitorbiased
ininversion
V
G
V
G
0
V
T
V
T
INV
INV
DEPL
ACC
ACC
DEPL
ntype
ptype
Comparisonofbiasingregions:IdealMOS
Capacitor
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 25
Summary:Banddiagramsandchargedistribution
Energyband
diagramsand
chargedensity
diagramsdescribing
nMOS capacitor
variousbiasing
conditions
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 26
Energybanddiagramsandchargedensitydiagramsdescribing
MOScapacitorinptypeSi
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 27
x
Semiconductor
|
s
Oxide
0
q|
q|
F
0
Bulk
E
c
E
i
E
F
E
v
Graphicaldefinitionof|,|
S
,and
,
|
F
( ) ( ) ( ) | | x E bulk E x
i i
q
=
1
|
( ) ( ) | | surface E bulk E
i i
q
s
=
1
|
Electrostatics SurfacePotential
TocalculateSurface
potential(|
s
)
definedas,| evaluatedat
oxidesemiconductor
interface.
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 28
( ) | |
F i
q
F
E bulk E =
1
|
( ) /
...............
i F
E bulk E kT
bulk i a a d
p n e N if N N
(


= = >>
( )
i
a
n
N
q
kT
F
ln = |
( )
i
d
n
N
q
kT
F
ln = |
Electrostatics SurfaceCharge
|
F
isdefinedas
Foranondegenerateptypesubstrate,
Thus,foraptypesemiconductor,
Similarly,forantypesubstrate,
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 29
NatureofSurfacePotential
With|
F
>0foraptypesemiconductor,the
semiconductoris
accumulatedif|
S
<0
Flatbandif |
S
=0
depletedif0<|
S
<2|
F
invertedif|
S
>2|
F
Atdepletioninversiontransitionpoint|
S
=2|
F
Forantypesemiconductor,theinequalities
aremerelyreversed.
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 30
RealMOSDiode:Metal(poly)SiSiO
2
MOS
ItisassumedthatMOScapacitorisideal.
Assumedthattheu
M
=u
S
,i.e.thebandsareflatwhenno
voltageisapplied.
Assumedthattheoxideandoxidesemiconductor
interfacearefreeofcharges.
Inreality,assumptionsdonotholdgoodinan
actualMOSdevice
deviationsfromtheidealcasereal
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 31
RealMOSDiode:Metal(poly)SiSiO
2
MOS
WorkfunctionsofgateandsemiconductorareNOTthesame
Oxidesarenotperfect
Trapped,interface,mobilecharges
Tunneling
AllofthesewilleffecttheCVcharacteristicandthreshold
voltage
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 32
Metalsemiconductorworkfunctiondifference
ideal
Whenu
M
=u
S
,theFermilevelisalignedbeforewemakethe
device
WhenMOSstructureismade,thebandremainsflatatV
G
=0.
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 33
u
MS
=u
M
u
S
=0
Flatbandcondition
Metalsemiconductorworkfunctiondifference
real
u
M
dependsonthegatematerial
Example:u
M
(Al)~ 4.1eV,u
M
(Au)~ 5.1eV
ForPolysilicongate,dependsondopingconcentration
n
+
polysiliconq|
s
=4.05eV
p
+
polysiliconq|
s
=5.17eV
u
S
dependsonthesemiconductordoping
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 34
So,u
MS
=u
M
u
S
= 0
inarealdevice.
( )
S C F
FB
q q E E _ u = +
Banddiagramforu
MS
=u
M
u
S
= 0
ActualbandalignmentbeforemakingtheMOSCstructurelooks
asshownforAlSi(p)
Togetflatbandconditionapplyagatevoltage=u
MS
/q
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 35
E
FS
E
FM
O M S
u
M
u
S
_
M=Al E
FS
S
E
FM
Al
E
F
qu
M
_
i
Oxide
E
v
E
F
E
c
E
i
qu
S
q_
Si
Energybanddiagramforisolatedcomponents
Semiconductor
Metal
qu
S
=q_+(E
C
E
F
)
FB
NonIdealMOS:WorkFunction
Difference
ConsideranAlSiO
2
(ptype)Sisystem
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 36
Bandbendingduetoworkfunction
difference
ms FB
V | =
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 37
WorkFunctionDifference
Semiconductorworkfunction(qu
s
)isthe
differencebetweenvacuumandFermilevel
Gateworkfunction(qu
M
)isthegatematerial
workfunction
qu
MS
=q(u
M
u
s
)
qu
MS
variesoverawiderangedependingon
substratedopingandgatematerialchoice
Flatbandvoltage(V
FB
):avoltageatwhichthereis
noelectricalchargeinthesemiconductor
novoltagedropacrosssemiconductor
Inbanddiagramtheenergybandsofthe
semiconductorareflat(horizontal).
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 38
EnergybanddiagramwithV
G
=0
ForV
G
=0,invokingequilibriumbanddiagram
E
FM
andE
FS
tobelinedupinequilibrium
Vacuumlevelsbendandafieldisdevelopedinthe
oxide.
Bandbendingoccursattheoxidesemiconductor
interface.
Thebandsbendby|
MS
.
Bandbendingduetoworkfunction
difference
InarealMOSstructure,itismorelikelythatthe
differencebetweenFermilevelandvacuumlevelislikely
tobenotequal.
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 39
( )
M s C F
FB
q q q E E _ u = u = +
( )
M ox C F S
FB
Semiconductor Side
Metal Side
q E E q q | _
'
u u
'
+ A = +


( )
bi S ox MS
V q q | | = + A = u where
( ) ( )
1
' '
MS M S M C F q
FB
E E _
(
'
=
(

u u u

u
TheresultofworkfunctiondifferencecanbecorrectedinV
G
(foraptypesubstrate)as
( ) ( )
1
MS M S M C F q
FB
E E _ u u
(
=
(

u
( ) ( )
ln
2
D
i
g N
kT
C F q n
FB
n typesubstrate
E
E E

( ) ( )
ln
2
A
i
g N
kT
C F q n
FB
p typesubstrate
E
E E

= +

Bandbendingduetoworkfunctiondifference
takingthemetaltobethezeropotentialreferencepoint,
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 40
( ) ( )
G G MS FB
real V ideal V q V = u =
PolysilicongateMOS
Moderndaydevicesgenerallyuseheavilydopedpolysiliconasthe
gatematerial.
Forp
+
polysilicongate,E
FM
canbeassumedtobeatE
V
.
Forn
+
polysilicongate,E
FM
canbeassumedtobeatE
C
.
Question:Ifthesubstrateisintrinsicsilicon,andthegatematerial
isp
+
polysilicon,calculateu
MS
.
u
MS
=E
g
/2=0.56eV
Whatisthevoltagethathastobeappliedtothegatetogetflat
bandcondition?
V
G
=0.56eV/q =0.56V
Question:Ifthesubstrateisn
+
silicon,andthegatematerialisp
+

polysilicon,calculateu
MS
.
u
MS
=+1.12eV
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 41
+ + + + + +

Na
+
K
+
Mobileioncharges
Interfacetrappedcharges
Fixedcharge
+ + +

Oxidetrappedcharges
NatureandlocationofchargecentersinthermallygrownSiSiO
2
structures
Oxidecharges
Nonidealityofoxidecauseschargesintheoxide.
Theseoxideschargesaremainlycategorizedinto
fourtypes:
1. Mobileions
2. Fixedcharges
3. Interfacialtraps
4. Inducedcharges
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 42
( ) ( ) ( )
1 ox
o ox
ox
ox
t
d
ox ox ox dx
x
E x E t x dx
|
c c

' '
= =
}
( )
1
0
( )
o o
ox x
x
o
t t
ox ox o ox o x x
x
t E t x dx dx
c c
|
' '
A =
} }
( )
1
0
si
ox x
x
o
o
o
ox
t
ox s ox
t E x x dx
c
c c c
| A =
}
Oxidecharges
Duetothechargesintheoxidethereexistsa
field,givenby
and
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 43

ox
(x)
x=t
ox
x=0
x
M S O
Distributionofchargesinaoxide
Interfaceandoxidecharges
Fortheidealdevice,wehaveassumedthatthe
oxideandtheinterfaceisdevoidofanyexcess
charges.Thisisnottrueinpractice.
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 44
Si
++++++++++++++++++
++
+
Na
+
Na
+
Q
IT
Q
F
Q
in
Q
M Assumethatallthesechargesare
situatedclosetotheinterfaceon
theoxideside(eventhoughthey
arent)andtheirconcentrationis~
Q
i
Coulombs/cm
2
.
Q
i
=netinterfacechargesinC/cm
2
Effectofinterfacecharges,Q
i
(C/cm
2
)
Interfacecharge
#
Q
i
intheoxide(assumedpositive)will
inducesomenegativecharges(Q
i
/cm
2
)inthe
semiconductor.
Theeffectissimilartothatofapplyingapositivegatevoltage
tothegate
Thenegativechargesinthesemiconductorcausesbandbending
Togetflatbandcondition,anegativevoltageneedstoneappliedto
thegate
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 45
Voltagetobeappliedtothe
gatetogetflatbandcondition
0 ox i
ox
ox ox
where
Q
C
C t
c c
= =
#
: Q
i
isusuallypositive(butcanbebothpositiveornegativeingeneral).
Mainlyalkaliions(mainlyNa
+
)beingtheculpritinmostcases
Introducedthroughfabricationsteps
Chargedensityispositiondependent
Maximumthreatwhenatoxidesemiconductorinterface
If
ion
(x)isionicchargedistribution,then
ShiftinV
G
is
( )
0
x
M ion
o
Q x dx
}
Mobileions
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 46
( ) ( )
( )
( )
0 1
0
0
ox
o ox
t
t
ion
M M
t
G ion M
ox
ox
ion
ox
ox
x x dx
Q
C
t x dx
V mobileions x x dx
c c

A = =
}
}
}
( )
( )
0
0
ox
t
o
i
x
on
t
M
ox
ion
x x dx
t x dx


}
}
Thepositiondependenceofoxidechargesismainlyfrom
mobileions
Assumingpositionindependenceof
ion
,theshiftinAV
G
can
be
maximumwhenchargecentersareatoxidesemiconductorinterface
minimum(AV
G
=0)whenchargecentersareatgateoxideinterface
nMOSFET ismosteffected(sincetypicalV
G
ispositive,charge
positionismorelikelytowardsinterface)
pMOSFET isleasteffected(sincetypicalV
G
isnegative,charge
positionismorelikelytowardsgateoxideinterface)
Mobileions
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 47
ThefixedoxidechargeisduetothebondbreakingofSiinorderto
proceedforoxidation.
Modeledasadeltafunctiondistributionpositionedattheoxide
semiconductorinterface.
Thefixedchargeisindependentofoxidethickness
Independentofsemiconductortypeandtypeofdoping
Thechargedistributionisgivenby
ShiftinV
G
isgivenby
( )
( )
ox F o
x Q x o =
( arg )
F
ox
Q
G
C
V Fixedch e A =
Fixedoxidecharge
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 48
EffectofFixedOxideCharges
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 49
VariesasafunctionoftheSiorientation;largeston
{111}surfacesandsmalleston{100}surfaces.
Q
f
<111>:Q
f
<110>:Q
f
<100>=3:2:1
SinceQ
f
issmalleston{100}plane,mostpreferable
planeot makeaMOSFET
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 50
Fixedoxidecharge
Energylevelsthatliebetweenthevalanceand
conductionbands.
Complexinnature
Alsocalledasstates
Ifthestatesaredonorlikeinnature,
positivelychargedwhenempty
neutraliftheyarefilledwithanelectron
TheshiftinV
G
isgivenby
( )
( )
int
IT S
ox
Q
G
C
V erfacial traps
|
A =
Interfacialtraps
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 51
Interfacialtraps
Interfacestates/traps:allowedenergystatesfound
betweenE
C
andE
V
Chargecanflowbetweenthesemiconductorand
interfacestates,(incontrasttothefixedoxidecharges).
Netchargeininterfacestatesisafunctionofpositionof
Fermilevelinthebandgap
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 52
Interfacialtraps
netnegativetrappedchargeinacceptorstates
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 53
netpositivetrappedchargeindonorstates
Interfacetrappedcharge(state)Q
it
Energyofinterfacestates arewithinthebandgap,
Dependingonbias,Q
it
canbepositive,negativeor
neutral,(i.e.statescanbefilledwithelectronsorholes)
Q
it
originatefromstructuraldefectsrelatedtothe
oxidationprocess,metallicimpurities,andbond
breakingprocesses(danglingbondSi).
SameoriginasQ
f
,highQ
f
alwaysmeanshighQ
it
54 Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor
Interfacetrappedcharge(state)Q
it
Lowtemperaturehydrogen
(forminggas,10%H
2
+
90%N
2
)annealat400450
o
C
aftermetallizationprocess
effectivelyneutralizesmost
interfacetrappedcharges.
55 Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor
Oxidetrappedcharge(state)Q
ot
Oxidetrappedcharges(Q
ot
)maybepositiveornegative,duetoholesor
electronsbeingtrappedinthebulkoftheoxide.
ItiscausedbybrokenSiO,SiHorSiOHbonds,duetoionizationirradiation
andotherenergeticprocessesduringevaporation(generatexrayfore
beamevaporation),sputtering(plasma),RIEandionimplantation.
Theycanbeannealedoutbylowtemperature(300
o
C)treatmentinH
2
or
inertgas.
1000
o
Cdryoxidationimprovesoxidestructureandmakeitlesssusceptible
toirradiation.
OxidecanalsobeprotectedfromirradiationbycoveringwithAl
2
O
3
and
Si
3
N
4
thatareresistanttoirradiation.
Q
ot
receivedmoreattentioninrecentyearsbecause,asthedeviceshrinks,
theelectricfieldwithintheoxideisincreased.Thehighfieldmaycause
electronstoinjecttothetrapsintheoxide(chargetrapping),whichshifts
thethresholdvoltage.
56 Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor
Inducedchargesare
createdbyradiationeffects
chargecentersarecreatedwhenadeviceis
exposedtohighstrengthradiation
Inducedcharges
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 57
Effectsofworkfunctiondifferenceand
interfacecharges
Considertheeffectsofworkfunctiondifference
andtheinterfacecharges
banddiagrammaynotbeflatevenwhenV
G
=0
Correctionneedstobeappliedtothethreshold
voltage(similartothatofu
MS
)
earlierassumingidealMOSconditions.
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 58
i
FB MS
ox
arg
1
Duetowork function
Dueto
Difference
OxideCh es
Q
V
q C
| |
= u +
|
\ .


Flatbandvoltageisdefinedas
Theshiftinthresholdvoltageisgivenby
V
TReal
V
TIdeal
=V
FB
( )
0
IT S
F M M
ox o
ox
x
S
Q
Q Q
FB MS C
C C G
V V
|

|
|
=
= =
Flatbandvoltage
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 59
( )
( )
0
0
ox
t
o
i
x
on
t
M
ox
ion
x x dx
t x dx


}
}
( )
( )
Re
S
IT S
F M M
G G al GIdeal
ox ox
same
ox
Q
Q Q
MS C
C C
V V V
|
|

| A = =
Workfunctiondifference
FixedOxideCharges
Interfacestates
Mobileions
0 ox
ox
ox
C
t
c c
=
ShiftinV
G
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 60
Oxidecharges
Duetotheworkfunctiondifference
ShiftinV
GReal
dueto|
MS
isconstant
simpleandpredictable
incapableofdeviceinstability
Duetooxidecharges,
ShiftinV
GReal
dueto
ox
ispositiondependent
hencevariable
shiftinV
G
dueto
ox
isnotpredictable
cancausedeviceinstability
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 61
Asoxideisaninsulator,withappliedbias,a
chargeresidesoneithersideofoxide.Thisis
behaveslikeacapacitance.
Ana.c signalisappliedoverad.c gatebias
Thisisadifferentialcapacitancemeasurement
HowCVcurveistraced?
Thechargevariationismeasured,whenthed.c
biasissystematicallychangedfromaccumulation
throughdepletiontoinversion.
CapacitanceVoltagecharacteristics
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 62
( )
o ox
o
A
ox G
x
C acc C
c c
~ =
a.c chargefluctuationsofMOSCinaccumulationregion
Accumulationregion
Onlycarriersinaccumulationregionaremajority
carriers
applieda.c signaleitheraddsorsubtractsachargeAQ
MOSCislikeanordinaryparallelplatecapacitorin
accumulationregion
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 63
a.c chargefluctuationsofMOSCindepletionregion
Depletionregion
MOSischaracterizedbyQongateand+Qindepletionlayer
Withappliedbias,thedepletionwidthchangesinstantaneously,
thuschangingchargeprofileinsemiconductor
Thisislikeanextracapacitanceinseries
Frequencyisdidntgotanyeffecttothedepletionlayerwidthfor
anyappliedfrequency
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 64
o ox
ox
d
o s
A
ox
t
A
s x
C
C
c c
c c
=
=
Oxidecapacitance
Semiconductorcapacitance
1
( )
ox s ox
ox s
C C C
C C
G
x
ox
t
s o
d
x
C depl
c
c
+
+
= =
Depletionregion
Thedepletioncapacitanceisgivenby
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 65
( )
( )
2
2
1 1
o GB FB
s
d GB ox
ox s
x
a
V C
X t
q
V
V
N
| |
| |
|
= +
|
|
\ .
\ .


Inversionregion
Thed.c widthofdepletionlayerismaximum(x
dmax
)
Thea.c depletionwidthfluctuates
Twocasescanbeanalyzedininversionregion
Duetotheworkfunctiondifference
case(i)fore0
case(ii)fore
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 66
C
G
(inv)=C
ox
fore0
Inversionregion(fore0)
Minoritycarrierscanbeannihilatedorcreated(followapplieda.c
voltage)
Chargebeingaddedordeleted
Inversionregionscreensthegatecharge
Depletionwidthreachesitsmaximumvalueandthecapacitanceis
C
ox
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 67
a.c chargefluctuationsofMOSCininversionregionfore0
( )
ox s
ox s
C C
G
C C
C inv
+
=
max
1
( )
ox
x
ox
d
t
s ox
G
C
C inv for
c
c
e
+
=
Inversionregion(fore)
Forhighfrequencies,theremovaloradditionofminority
carriersisnotpossible
Depletionwidthismaximumandisconstant
SoC
G
(inv)
e
= C
ox
//C(depl)
minimum
isaconstant
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 68
a.c chargefluctuationsofMOSCininversion
regionfore
o
V
G
V
ox
C
C
+
=
1
2
2
2
s ox
ox o
q t
V
c
o
c c
=
Inversionregion(fore)
TheHFgatecapacitancecanbewrittenas
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 69
CVcharacteristicsofanMOSC
CVcharacteristicsasadiagnostictool
ThemeasuredMOScapacitance(calledgate
capacitance)varieswiththeappliedgatevoltage
Averypowerfuldiagnostictoolforidentifyingany
deviationsfromtheidealinbothoxideandsemiconductor
RoutinelymonitoredduringMMOSdevicefabrication
Parametersthatcanbedetermined:
t
ox
,V
FB
,V
T
,Substratedopingtype,N
sub
,VTadjust
implantconcentration,u
M
,Q
M
,Q
F
,Q
it

Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 70
CVCharacteristics:DeterminingQ
F
MeasureCVcharacteristicsandestimateV
FB
.LettheV
FB
in
thiscasebeV
FB
(0)andestimateu
MS
.
Voltagetemperaturestress(largenegativeV
G
andhigh
Temperature)
Mobileionsmovetowardsthegateoxideinterface
Removethebias,cooltheMOSstructurerapidlyandestimate
V
FB
(negativestress)
Asallthemobilechargesareatgateoxideinterface,theeffectof
mobilechargesonV
FB
iszero(
M
=0).
DifferencebetweenV
FB
(0),V
FB
(negativestress)approximatelyresults
inQ
F
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 71
CVCharacteristics:DeterminingQ
M
Voltagetemperaturestress(largenegativeV
G
andhighTemperature)
Mobileionsmovetowardsthegateoxideinterface
Removethebias,cooltheMOSstructurerapidlyandestimate
V
FB
(negativestress)
Asallthemobilechargesareatinterface,theeffectofmobilechargeson
V
FB
iszero(
M
=0).
Voltagetemperaturestress(largepositiveV
G
andhighTemperature)
Removethebias,cooltheMOSstructurerapidlyandestimate
V
FB
(positivestress)
Asallthemobilechargesareatoxidesemiconductorinterface,theeffectof
mobilechargesonV
FB
ismaximum(
M
=1).
DifferencebetweenV
FB
(negativestress),V
FB
(positivestress)approximately
resultsinQ
M
ThismethodresultsinaverageQ
M
ratherthanQ
M
distribution
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 72
CVCharacteristics:DeterminingQ
F
,Q
M
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 73
CVCharacteristics:DeterminingQ
it
CVcurvesbecomeStretchedinthepresence
ofinterfacetrappedcharges
Theamountofsmearingoutdetermines
densityofinterfacestates
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 74
a ideal
b lateralshift Qoxide,u
ms
c distortedbyQ
IT
CVCharacteristics:Summary
smearingoutintheexperimentalCVcurveindicatesthepresenceof
interfacestates
parallelshiftindicatesthepresenceoffixedoxideormobilecharge
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 75
NonIdealMOScapacitorCVcurves
WorkfunctiondifferenceandoxidechargesshiftCVcurvein
voltagefromidealcase
CVshiftchangesthresholdvoltage
Mobileionicchargescanchangethresholdvoltageasa
functionoftime reliabilityproblems
InterfaceTrappedChargedistortsCVcurve frequency
dependentcapacitance
InterfacestatedensitycanbereducedbyHannealinginSi
SiO
2
Othergateinsulatormaterialstendtohavemuchhigher
interfacestatedensities(e.g.:Highkgatematerials)
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 76
Charges
Idealoxide(Nocharge/currentinoxide)
Chargeongate=inducedsurfacechargein
semiconductor
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 77
M n A S
Q Q qN W Q = + =
PtypesemiconductorV
appl
=0
Conventionforptype: positiveifbandsbenddown
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 78
IdealMOSdiode ptype
CBmovestowardsE
F
if >0nincreases
VBmovesawayfromE
F
if >0pdecreases
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 79
( )/ ( )/ /
0 0
'
i F i F
E E kT E q E kT q kT
p i i p p
n n e n e n e n e
|
= = = =
|
= = e p e p p
p
kT q
p p 0
/
0
kT
q
|
n
p
=Numberofelectrons(subscriptpindicatesthatthe
semiconductorisptype)
n
p0
=Numberofelectronsinaptypesubstrateatthermal
equilibrium
p
p
=Numberofholes(subscriptpindicatesthatthesemiconductorisptype)
p
p0
=Numberofholesinaptypesubstrateatthermalequilibrium=N
A
2
0
i
p
A
n
n
N
=
IdealMOSdiode ptype
Atthesemiconductorsurface, =
s
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 80
s
e n n
p s
|
=
0
s
e p p
p s
|
=
0

s
issurfacepotential

B
isbulkpotential
Surfacecarrierconcentration

s
<0 accumulationofholes

s
=0 flatband

B
>
s
>0 depletionofholes

s
=
B
intrinsicconcentrationn
s
=p
s
=n
i

s
>
B
Inversion(moreelectronsthanholes)
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 81
s
e n n
p s
|
=
0
s
e p p
p s
|
=
0
E
C
E
F
Tofind,Efield,Capacitance
SolvePoissonsequationtogetelectricfield(E),
potentialbasedonchargedensitydistribution(one
dimension)
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 82
s

c
V E =
) ( ) (
p p A D
n p N N q x + =
+
in1D
d
dx

c
E
=
d
dx

E =
2
2
s
d d
dx dx

c
E = =
Tofind,Efield,Capacitance
Awayfromthesurface, =0
and
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 83
0 0 p p A D
p n N N =
+
| |
= e n e p n p
p p p p 0 0
( )
2
0 0
2
( 1) ( 1)
p p
s
d q
p e n e
dx
| |

c

=
SolvePoissonsequation:
( ) ) 1 ( ) 1 (
0 0
2
2

c
=

| |
e n e p
q
dx
d
p p
s
( )
2
0 0
2
( 1) ( 1)
p p
s
d q
E p e n e
dx
dE
d
| |

c

= =
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 84
E
d
dx

=
2
2
d dE dE d dE
E
dx dx d dx d


| |
= = =
|
\ .
SolvePoissonsequation
Evaluatetheintegralbyparts
LHSissimilarto
RHSissimilarto
EvaluateexpressionforEfield(d/dx):
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 85
dx
d
x
x
xdx
x

=
}
=
0
2
2
} }
|
x x
x
dx dx e
0 0
,
( ) ( )
(

| + | + |
.
|

\
|
c
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
| |
1 1
2
0
0 0
2
2
e
p
n
e
qp
q
kT
E
p
p
s
p
field
SolvePoissonsEquation
( ) ( )
2
1
0
0
0
0
1 1 ,
(

| + | + =
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
| |
e
p
n
e
p
n
F
p
p
p
p
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 86
+for >0and for <0
>0
E>0
E<0
<0
DefineDebyeLength(L
D
)andadimensionlesspotential(F)
|
c

0
2
0 p
s
p
s
D
qp q p
kT
L
Electricfieldinsemiconductorcanberewrittenas
0
0
,
2
p
field
p
D
n
kT
E F
p
qL
|
| |
=
|
|
\ .
( ) ( )
1
2
0
0
1 1
2
S s
p
s s s
p
D
n
kT
Q e e
p
qL
| |
| |

(
= + +
(
(

SemiconductorCharge
UseGaussLawto
findsurfacecharge
perunitarea
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 87
0
0
,
2
p
s s S s
p
D
n
kT
Q E F
p
qL
c |
| |
= =
|
|
\ .

AccumulationtodepletiontostrongInversion
(n
p0
/p
p0
)=e
2|
B
isverysmallthusthefirsttermcan
beneglectedfor<0
For<0,e
|()
(= e
|()
)terminFdominates
exponentialdependency
For>0andsmall,+\| terminFdominates
For>0,andgetslarger,
secondexponentialgetsbigas(n
p0
/p
p0
) e

=e
2|
B
+
increasesanddominates
Exponentialdependency

S
> 2
B
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 88
( ) ( )
2
1
0
0
0
0
1 1 ,
(

| + | + =
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
| |
e
p
n
e
p
n
F
p
p
p
p
0
0 0
1
p
A
B
i
p p
p
N kT
ln ln
q n
p n

|
| |
| |
| |
|
= =
|
|
|
\ .
\ .
\ .
Charges
Idealoxide(Nocharge/currentinoxide)
Chargeongate=inducedsurfacechargein
semiconductor
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 89
M n A S
Q Q qN W Q = + =
Indepletionregion
Electricfieldisgivenby
ConsideringapMOS(similarargumentshold
fornMOS)
ispositive
n
p0
/p
p0
isnegligible
Attemperatures(comparabletothatofroom
temperature),alltermsexcept| arenegligible
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 90
( ) ( )
(

| + | + |
.
|

\
|
c
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
| |
1 1
2
0
0 0
2
2
e
p
n
e
qp
q
kT
E
p
p
s
p
field
Indepletionregion
Thuselectricfieldcanbesimplified
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 91
( ) ( )
(

| + | + |
.
|

\
|
c
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
| |
1 1
2
0
0 0
2
2
e
p
n
e
qp
q
kT
E
p
p
s
p
field
2
0
2
2
2
A
s
p
field
s
qN
qp
kT
E
q
E
|
|
c

c
| |
| |
=
|
|
\ .
\ .
| |
=
|
\ .
1 kT
q |
| |
=
|
\ .
0 p A
p N =
Indepletionregion
Thepotentialdistributionisgivenby
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 92
2
1
s
dmax
x
x

|

|
=
|
\ .
( )
2
2
s
dmax B
A
x
qN
c
=
A
B sub
i
N kT
ln
q n
|
| |
| |

|
|
\ .
\ .
=
ElectricFieldDistribution
Electricfieldvarieslinearlyinsemiconductor
Electricfieldisconstantinoxide(insulator)
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 93
2 2
1
A A
s
s s dmax
qN qN
E
x
x

c c
| | | |
= =
| |
| |
|
\ \ . \ . .
2
1
s
dmax
x
x

|

|
=
|
\ .
Attheoxide(insulator)semiconductor
boundary,theelectricfieldis
discontinuousdueto
(i) Q
n
(ii) Differentdielectricconstants
Electric Field
Thedimensionlesspotentialisgivenby
DefineU=|,U
S
=|
S
,andU
B
= |
B
Substituting,
ExactSolution
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 94
|
c

0
2
0 p
s
p
s
D
qp q p
kT
L
( ) ( )
2
1
0
0
0
0
1 1 ,
(

| + | + =
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
| |
e
p
n
e
p
n
F
p
p
p
p
( )
( ) ( )
1
2
1 1
B B
U U U U
e U e U F U e e

(
+ +

=
0 2
0
B
p
p
n
e
p
|
=
0
0
,
2
p
B
D p
n
d kT
F
dx qL p


| |
=
|
|
\ .
( )
S
U D
U
dU x
F U L
=
}
ExactSolution
Solvingforchargedensity
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 95
( ) ( )
1 1
B B
U U U U
i
e e qn e e

(
=

( )
'
',
S
U
U B D
dU x
F U U L
=
}
( )
2
1
dmax
s
x
x
x

|

|
=
|
\ .
( )
2 2
s B
dmax
A
qN
x
c
=
A
B
i
N kT
ln
q n

| |
| |
=
|
|
\ .
\ .
( ) ( )
1 1
B B
i
qn e e e e
| | | |


(
=

ExactSolution:Proceduretoestimate
FixV
G
,so
s
isknown
Regionofoperationisfixed(inversion,accumulation,
depletion)

s
isknownso (x)isdetermined
ExpresstheequationforFindifferentialform
Set(x=0)=
S
i.e.=
S
atx
1
=0
ChooseAx
Applydifferentialformfor
i+1
repeatedlytodetermine
(x).
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 96
( )
,

B
S
D
F
x
L

| A = A
( ) ( )
( )
1 1
,

B
S i i i i
D
F
x x
L

|
+ +
=

1if 0
1if 0
S S
S S


= >
= <
N
A
= 1.67 x 10
15
cm
-3
x
0
~L
D
.factor
ExactSolution
FixV
G
,so
s
isknown
isknownasfunctionofx
Estimate
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 97
|
c

0
2
0 p
s
p
s
D
qp q p
kT
L
( )
0
1

inv
x
q
x
o
+

~x
dmax
/2
~t
inv
LookatEffectivechargewidth
Initially,afastincreasingchannelpotentialdropsacrossincreasing
depletionwidth
Eventually,aconstantpotentialdropsacrossadecreasinginversion
layerwidth,sofieldkeepsincreasingandthusmatchesincreasing
fieldinoxide
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 98
ThresholdVoltageforStrongInversion
TotalvoltageacrossMOSstructure=voltage
acrossdielectricplus
s
( ) 2
S
T ox S B
ox
Q
V strong inversion V
C
= + = +
dmax
2 ( )
( ) 2 (2 )
s s
S A A s A B
A
inv
Q Strong Inversion qN x qN qN
qN
c
c = = =
2 (2 )
2
s A B
T B
ox
qN
V
C
c
= +
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 99
BeforeInversion
Afterinversionthereisadiscontinuityindisplacementfield
duetosurfaceQ
inv
BoundaryCondition
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 100
2
ox s
ox si
dmax
ox
V
x
t

c c
| |
|
\ .
=
( )
2 (2 )
2
2
B
ox si ox
d
s A B
ma
o
x
x
thres
qN
hold C
x
V
C

c
c
| |
|
=
|
|
\
=
.
2 (2 )
2
s A B
T B
ox
qN
V
C
c
= +

ox

s
LocalPotentialvsGatevoltage
Initially,allvoltagedropsacrosschannel(bluecurve).AboveV
T
,
channelpotentialstayspinnedto2
B
,varyingonlylogarithmically,
sothatmostofthegatevoltagedropsacrosstheoxide(redcurve).
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 101
( )
1
2
2
2
s B s ox A
G FB s s
ox si
t kTN
e V V
|
c
|
c c

+ +
(

= +
ChargevsLocalPotential
Beyondthreshold,allchargegoestoinversionlayer
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 102
( )
1
2
2
2
s B
S si A s
kTN e Q
|
c |

= +
(

InversionChargevsGatevoltage
ExponentofalogarithmgivesalinearvariationofQ
inv
withV
G
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 103
( )
( )
2
, 2 ~log
s B
s B G T
e V V Q
|


( )
inv ox G T
C V V Q =
WhyitisC
ox
?
Capacitance
For
s
=0(FlatBand):
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 104
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
(


|
.
|

\
|
+
c
=
c
c
=
| |
0
0
0
0
,
1 1
2
p
p
S
p
p
D
S S
D
p
n
F
e
p
n
e
L
Q
C
s s
D
S
D
L
band flat C
c
= ) _ (
Expandexponentials..
........
! 3 ! 2
1
3 2
+ + + + =
x x
x e
x
Capacitanceofwholestructure
Twocapacitorsinseries:
C
ox
insulator
C
D
Depletion
1 1 1
ox D
C C C
= +
OR
ox D
ox D
C C
C
C C
=
+
ox
x
ox
o
C
t
c

Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 105


t
ox
CapacitancevsVoltage
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 106
FlatBandCapacitance
Negativevoltage=accumulation C~C
ox
Zerovoltage FlatBand
i
D
s
i
s i
D i s
D
s i
D i FB
L d
L d
L d
C C C c
c
c
+
=
c c
c + c
=
c
+
c
= + =
1 1 1 1 1
FB
C C V = = = 0 0
D
i
FB
L d
C
s
i
c
c
+
c
=
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 107
CVCharacteristics
Asvoltageisincreased,Cgoesthroughminimum(weak
inversion)whered/dQ isfairlyflat
Cwillincreasewithonsetofstronginversion
CapacitanceisanACmeasurement
OnlyincreaseswhenACperiodlongwithrespectto
minoritycarrierlifetime
Athighfrequency,carrierscantkeepup dontsee
increasedcapacitancewithvoltage
ForSiMOS,highfrequency=10100Hz
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 108
CVCurves IdealMOSCapacitor
'
min
dmax
i
s
i
C
d x
c
c
c
=
+
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 109
Question
Ifonecantgenerateminoritycarriersfast
enough(>1kHz)howcanaMOScapacitor
canoperategateattodaysclockfrequencyof
GHz?
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 110
Whatistheoriginofelectronsintheinversion
layer?
Diffusionfromtheptypesubstrate?
Diffusionofminoritycarrierelectronstakeslong
timetobuilduptheinversionlayercharge
currentdensityof electronsflowingtothe
interfaceiscurrentacrossareversebiased
junction
Electronsintheinversionlayer
2
2
n
n i
A dmax
A
m
D
qn
N x
J =
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 111
time,requiredbythefluxofcarrierstobuild
upaninversionchargeisincreaseinthe
charge,q
n
,dividedbyJ
n
sois
Electronsintheinversionlayer
n
n
q
J
t =
A
( )
n ox GB T
q C v V A A =
( )
max
2
n ox A d
GB T
n i n
q C N x
v V
J qn D
t =
A
= A
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 112
Electronsintheinversionlayer
UsingN
A
=10
15
cm
3
,t
ox
=3nm,D
n
=35cm
2
/V,
(v
GB
V
T
)=0.5V
C
ox
=1.1510
6
F/cm
2
x
d,max
=8.810
5
cm
10hr!
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 113
3terminalMOSC
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 114
Therearemanyelectronshere
andtheydon'thavefartogoonce
thebarrierislowered.
Electronsintheinversionlayer
UsingN
A
=10
15
cm
3
,t
ox
=3nm,D
n
=35cm
2
/V,
(v
GB
V
T
)=0.5V10hr!
Whatisthesourceofelectrons?
Notthroughdiffusion
Considerathirdterminal
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 115
Electronsintheinversionlayer
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 116
Asthesurfacepotentialisincreased
Potentialenergybarrierbetweentheadjacentn+
regionandtheregionunderthegateisreduced
forelectrons
Readilyflow(diffuseinweakinversion,anddrift
anddiffuseinstronginversion)intothechannel
Thusnoneedtodiffusethroughthedepletion
region
3TerminalMOSdevice
MOSCapacitor
117
a)V
CB
V
SB
=0
b)V
CB
V
SB
>0
atsameV
GS
:
depletionlayerchargeisincreased
inversionlayerchargeisdecreased
increasedsmallsignalcapacitance
athighfrequencies
Introducinganadditionalsourceterminal
Dr.RamaKomaragiri
3TerminalMOSdevice
MOSCapacitor 118
2 2
TH FB F F
V V ~ + + +
SB
V
extrapolatedthresholdvoltage:
0
1
2
A Si
Ox
qN
C
=
bodyeffectcoefficient:
~ 0.3 0.5V
1/2
example:
N
A
=10
17
cm
3
,V
SB
=1V AV
TH
~150mV
V
GB
>V
SB
V
GB
V
SB
p-type
V
GS
Dr.RamaKomaragiri
MOScapacitorvsMOSFET
Minoritycarriersgeneratedby
RG,overminoritycarrier
lifetime~100ms
C
inv
canbe<<C
ox
iffastgate
switching(~GHz)
Majoritycarrierspulledin
fromcontacts(fast!!)
C
inv
=C
ox
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 119
Acknowledgements
Sourcesarevarioustextbooks,lecturenotes
andseminarsthatIhavegatheredfromvarious
sources.Theactualsourcecitingisunder
process.
Somepicturesareinspiredfromsourcesand
werereproducedonmyown.
Dr.RamaKomaragiri MOSCapacitor 120