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Phn loi v Phn loi v Phn loi v Phn loi v P PP Phng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 hng

hng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 Tp 1 Tp 1 Tp 1 Tp 1 Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on


" "" "C CC C n nn n c cc c b bb b t tt th hh h n nn ng gg g m mm mi ii in nn nh hh h " "" " P PP Pa aa ag gg ge ee e - -- - 1 11 1 - -- -

O THNH PHN CU TO NGUYN T
Nguyn t l ht v cng nh, trung ha v in, cu to nn nguyn t ha hc, ng thi cu
to nn cht.
Nguyn t gm ht nhn v v nguyn t
Ht nhn: nm gia nguyn t, mang in tch dng, to nn t cc ht proton v ntron.
V nguyn t: cha electron, mang in tch m.
Vy nguyn t c cu thnh t 3 loi ht c bn l proton
( )
p , ntron
( )
n v electron
( )
e .
Khi lng v in tch ca cc ht p, n, e:
Ht Khi lng in tch

Proton ( ) ( )

27
p
m 1, 6726.10 kg hay 1 u

=
( )

19
p p
q 1, 602.10 C hay q 1

= =

Ntron ( ) ( )

27
n
m 1, 6748.10 kg hay 1 u

=
n
q 0 =

(khng mang in)

Electron ( ) ( )

31 4
9,1095.10 kg hay 5, 5.10 u


( )

19
p p
q 1, 602.10 C hay q 1

= =

O HT NHN
Gi Z l s proton c trong ht nhn th in tch ht nhn l Z+, s in tch ht nhn l Z.
Z cng c gi l s hiu nguyn t.
Mt khc nguyn t trung ha v in nn s p = s e hay Z E = .
Do , trong nguyn t: s p = s e = s in tch ht nhn = s hiu nguyn t = Z.
S khi ht nhn
( )
A : l tng s proton
( )
Z v ntron
( )
N c trong ht nhn: A Z N = .
Khi lng nguyn t tnh theo u (tc nguyn t khi) v mt tr s xem nh xp x s khi.
K hiu nguyn t:
Z
A
X vi
X :
Z E :
A Z N :
'
1
1
1
1
=
!
1
1
= 1
1
+

Thng thng, vi 82 nguyn t u ca bng h thng tun hon
( )
Z 82 th
N
1 1, 524
Z
.
Nguyn t ha hc: l tp hp cc nguyn t c cng in tch ht nhn (ngha l cng s proton,
cng s electron).
ng v: l nhng nguyn t c cng s proton nhng khc nhau v s ntron, do s khi
khc nhau (cng p khc n).
Nguyn t khi trung bnh
( )
M :
Hu ht cc nguyn t ha hc l hn hp ca nhiu ng v vi t l % s nguyn t xc nh
nn nguyn t khi ca nguyn t (ghi trong bng h thng tun hon) l nguyn t khi
trung bnh ca nguyn t.


A = hay
a.A b.B ...
A
100

=
Tng khi lng cc nguyn t
Tng s nguyn t
Chng




































1 11 1
CU TO NGUYN T CU TO NGUYN T CU TO NGUYN T CU TO NGUYN T
l k hiu nguyn t ha hc.
s hiu nguyn t hay s proton.
s khi.
Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t


P PP Pa aa ag gg ge ee e - -- - 2 22 2 - -- - " "" "A AA Al ll ll ll l t tt th hh he ee e f ff fl ll lo oo ow ww we ee er rr r o oo of ff f t tt to oo om mm mo oo or rr rr rr ro oo ow ww w a aa ar rr re ee e i ii in nn n t tt th hh he ee e s ss se ee ee ee ek kk ks ss s o oo of ff f t tt to oo od dd da aa ay yy y " "" "








































Trong :
A : l nguyn t khi trung bnh ca nguyn t
( )
.v.C .
A, B,... : l nguyn t khi cc ng v (tnh bng .v.C v bng s khi cc ng v).
a, b,... : l t l % s nguyn t cc ng v tng ng.
O V NGUYN T
Electron chuyn ng xung quanh ht nhn vi tc rt ln, to nn mt vng khng gian
mang in tch m, gi l "my" electron. Mt in tch ca my electron khng u. Vng c
mt in tch ln nht (tc l xc xut c mt electron nhiu nht) c gi l obitan.
Ty thuc vo mc nng lng m cc electron phn v nguyn t c phn thnh cc lp,
phn lp.
Lp electron: gm nhng electron c mc nng lng bng nhau hoc xp x nhau.
T gn ht nhn ra ngoi, cc lp electron c ghi bng s 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, ...... hay bng ch
ci hoa tng ng K, L, M, N, O, ......
Phn lp: gm nhng electron c mc nng lng bng nhau c k hiu l s, p, d, f, ......
S phn lp c trong mt lp bng s th t ca lp (tc lp th n c n phn lp).
Lp
( )
K n 1 = c mt phn lp: 1s .
Lp
( )
L n 2 = c hai phn lp: 2s, 2p.
Lp
( )
M n 3 = c ba phn lp: 3s, 3p, 3f .
K hiu lp (n) 1 2 3 4
Tn ca lp electron K L M N
S electron ti a 2 8 18 32
S phn lp 1 2 3 4
K hiu phn lp 1s 2s, 2p 3s, 3p, 3d 4s, 4p, 4d, 4f
S electron ti a
lp v phn lp
2 2, 6
8
2, 6, 10
18
2, 6, 10, 14
32


S obitan trong mt phn lp
Phn lp s c mt obitan (hnh cu)
Phn lp p c ba obitan Pz, Py, Pz c dng
hnh s 8 ni, nh hng theo trc x, y, z.
Phn lp d c nm obitan.
Phn lp f c by obitan.
Phn lp n c n
2
obitan.
Qui tc phn b electron nguyn t Cu hnh electron
Nguyn l bn vng: trng thi c bn, trong
nguyn t, cc electron chim ln lt cc obitan
c mc nng lng t thp n cao.

z
y
x
z
y
x
z
y
x
z
y
x
Trt t cc mc nng lng t thp n cao l

2 2 6 2 6 2 10 6 2 10 6 2 14 10 6 2 2
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s 4d 5p 6s 4f 5d 6p 7s 5s ...
Cch nh trt t cc mc nng lng t thp n cao theo quy tc Klescoski:
"c cc mi tn theo chiu t trn xung v t gc n ngn".
Phn loi v Phn loi v Phn loi v Phn loi v P PP Phng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 Tp 1 Tp 1 Tp 1 Tp 1 Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on


" "" "C CC C n nn n c cc c b bb b t tt th hh h n nn ng gg g m mm mi ii in nn nh hh h " "" " P PP Pa aa ag gg ge ee e - -- - 3 33 3 - -- -









































Lp 1
( )
K :
2
1s

Lp 2
( )
L :
2
2s
6
2p

Lp 3
( )
M :
2
3s
6
3p
10
3d

Lp 4
( )
N :
2
4s
6
4p
10
4d
14
4f

Lp 5
( )
O :
2
5s
6
5p
10
5d
14
5f
.
Lp 6
( )
P :
2
6s
6
6p
10
6d
14
6f
.
Lp 7
( )
Q :
2
7s
6
7p
10
7d
14
7f
.
Nguyn l Hund: " Trong cng mt phn lp, cc electron s phn b trn cc obitan sao cho
tng s electron c thn l ln nht (v chng c chiu t quay ging nhau)".
Th d:
( )
2 2 3
N Z 7 : 1s 2s 2p = .
S phn b cc electron trn obitan:


Vit cu hnh electron: l biu din s phn b electron trn cc phn lp thuc cc lp khc
nhau.
Mt s lu cn nh
T nguyn t th 21 tr i, do cu hnh electron khng trng vi mc nng lng, nn mun vit
ng cu hnh electron, trc ht vit s phn b electron theo mc nng lng, sau sp xp
li theo cc lp t trong ra ngoi.
Th d: Vit cu hnh electron ca nguyn t st
( )
Fe Z 26 = .
Theo mc nng lng:
( )
2 2 6 2 6 2 6
Fe Z 26 : 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d = .
Cu hnh electron:
( )
2 2 6 2 6 6 2
Fe Z 26 : 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s = .
Mt s trng hp c bit cc nguyn t nhm VIB v IB:
Dng
( )

4 2
n 1 d ns



( )

5 1
n 1 d ns .
Th d: Vit cu hnh electron ca
( )
Cr Z 24 =
Theo mc nng lng:
( )
2 2 6 2 6 2 4
Cr Z 24 : 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d = .
Theo cu hnh electron:
( )
2 2 6 2 6 4 2
Cr Z 24 : 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s = .
Chuyn v cu hnh electron ng nht:
( )
2 2 6 2 6 5 1
Cr Z 24 : 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s = .
Dng
( )
9 2
n 1 d ns



( )
0 1
n 1 d ns
1
.
Th d: Vit cu hnh electron ca
( )
Cu Z 29 = .
Nguyn l Pauli: "Mi obitan ch
cha ti a 2 electron v 2
electron ny c chiu t quay
ngc nhau".
Vy lp th n cha ti a 2n
2

electron.


: 1 electron c thn.
: 2 electron ghp i.

1s
2
2s
2
2p
3

Theo mc nng lng:
( )
2 2 6 2 6 2 9
Cu Z 29 : 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d = .
Theo cu hnh electron:
( )
2 2 6 2 6 9 2
Cu Z 29 : 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s = .
Cu hnh electron ng nht:
( )
2 2 6 2 6 10 1
Cu Z 29 : 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s = .
Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t


P PP Pa aa ag gg ge ee e - -- - 4 44 4 - -- - " "" "A AA Al ll ll ll l t tt th hh he ee e f ff fl ll lo oo ow ww we ee er rr r o oo of ff f t tt to oo om mm mo oo or rr rr rr ro oo ow ww w a aa ar rr re ee e i ii in nn n t tt th hh he ee e s ss se ee ee ee ek kk ks ss s o oo of ff f t tt to oo od dd da aa ay yy y " "" "













































Dng ton 1 Dng ton 1 Dng ton 1 Dng ton 1. Tm s lng cc loi ht cu to nn nguyn t . Tm s lng cc loi ht cu to nn nguyn t . Tm s lng cc loi ht cu to nn nguyn t . Tm s lng cc loi ht cu to nn nguyn t Xc nh tn Xc nh tn Xc nh tn Xc nh tn
Phng php
Nguyn t ca mi nguyn t c mt s Z c trng, nn xc nh nguyn t, ta cn xc nh Z
thng qua vic lp v gii phng trnh v s ht.
Cn nh:
Trong nguyn t, s proton trong ht nhn = s electron trong phn v nguyn t:
P E Z = = .
Tng s ht trong nguyn t: S P E N 2Z N = = . Trong :
+ S ht mang in l: P E 2Z = .
+ S ht khng mang in l: N.

Thng thng, nu Z 82 th
N
1 1, 524
Z
v s khi A = s nguyn t khi.


Mi lin h gia lp electron ngoi cng vi loi nguyn t
Cu hnh electron
lp ngoi cng

ns
1
, ns
2
, ns
2
np
1


ns
2
np
2

ns
2
np
3
, ns
2
np
4

v ns
2
np
5

ns
2
np
6

(He: 1s
2
)
S electron lp
ngoi cng

1, 2 hoc 3

4

5, 6 hoc 7

8 (2 He)
D on loi
nguyn t
Kim loi (tr
H, He, Be)
C th l kim loi
hay phi kim
Thng l phi
kim

Kh him
Tnh cht c bn
ca nguyn t

Tnh kim loi
C th l tnh kim
loi hay phi kim
Thng c tnh
phi kim
Tng i tr
v mt ha hc

Khi nguyn t nhn thm electron s bin thnh ion m:
m
X me ion X


Cc nguyn t phi kim d nhn thm electron t c cu bn vi 8e lp ngoi cng ca kh
him cng chu k.
Th d:
( )
2 2 6 2 5
Cl Z 17 : 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p = .
( )

2 2 6 2 6
Cl
Cl 1e ion Cl : 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p Z 18

= .
Khi nguyn t nhng electron s tr thnh ion dng:
n
M ne ion M


Cc nguyn t kim loi nhm A d nhng s electron lp ngoi cng t c cu bn vng
vi 8e lp ngoi cng, ging vi kh him chu k ngay trc .
Th d:
( )



2 2 6 2 6 2 6
2 2 6 2 6 6 2
: 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d
Fe Z 26
: 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s
=

( )

2
2 2 2 6 2 6 6
Fe
Fe 2e ion Fe : 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d Z 24

= .


theo mc nng lng
theo cu hnh electron

( )

3
3 2 2 6 2 6 5
Fe
Fe 3e ion Fe : 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d Z 23

= .
Khi lng ion bng khi lng cc nguyn t tng ng
Th d:
( ) ( )
Na Na 23 .v.C ; Cl Cl 35, 5 .v.C

= = = = .
Phn loi v Phn loi v Phn loi v Phn loi v P PP Phng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 Tp 1 Tp 1 Tp 1 Tp 1 Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on


" "" "C CC C n nn n c cc c b bb b t tt th hh h n nn ng gg g m mm mi ii in nn nh hh h " "" " P PP Pa aa ag gg ge ee e - -- - 5 55 5 - -- -




Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho
Gi Z, N, E ln lt l s proton, s ntron v s electron c trong nguyn t A.
Ta c: Z E N 46 = .
Do trong mt nguyn t trung ha v in nn
( )
Z E 2Z N 46 1 = = .
Mt khc, s ht khng mang in bng
8
15
s ht mang in nn:
( ) ( )

8 8.2Z 16Z
N Z E N 2
15 15 15
= = = .
T
( ) ( )
1 , 2 Z 15 E 15 = = . Thay vo
( )
2 , ta c N 16 = .
Theo bng h thng tun hon, A l nguyn t photpho
( )
P .




Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho
Ta c tng s ht trong nguyn t: P N E 34 = .
M
( )
P E Z 2Z N 34 1 = = = .
Mt khc, s ht mang in gp 1,8333 ln s ht khng mang in nn:
( )
2Z 1, 8333N 2 = .
Thay
( )
2 vo
( )
1 , ta c: 1, 8333N N 34 N 12 Z 14 = = = .
Vy X c Z 11 = nn in tch ht nhn l 11+.
S khi ca X : A Z N 23 = = .




Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho
Ta c: P N E 58 = , m P E Z 2Z N 58 N 58 2Z = = = = .
Mt khc:
N 58 2Z
1 1, 5 1 1, 5 16, 5 Z 19, 3
Z Z

.
Do Z (s proton = s th t) l s nguyn nn Z c th nhn 1 trong cc gi tr 17; 18; 19 .
V s khi A N Z 40 = < nn:

Z 17 18 19
N 58 2Z = 24 22 20
A Z N = 41 (loi) 40 (loi) 39 (nhn)

Theo gi thit, ta chn nghim:
( )

39
19
Z 19, N 20, A 39 R : kali K = = = .






Th d 1 Th d 1 Th d 1 Th d 1. Mt nguyn t A c tng s ht l 46, s ht khng mang in bng / 8 15 s ht mang
in. Xc nh thnh phn cu to nn nguyn t A ? Gi tn A ?
Th d Th d Th d Th d 2 22 2. Cho nguyn t X c tng s ht l 34, trong s ht mang in gp 1, 8333 ln s ht
khng mang in. Tm in tch ht nhn v s khi ca X ?
Th d Th d Th d Th d 3 33 3. Cho nguyn t R c tng cc loi ht bng 58 v s khi nh hn 40. l nguyn t ca
nguyn t ca nguyn t no ?
Th d Th d Th d Th d 4 44 4. Phn t
3
MX c tng cc loi ht bng 196, trong s ht mang in nhiu hn s ht
khng mang in l 60. S ht mang in trong nguyn t M t hn s ht mang in
trong nguyn t X l 8. Xc nh M, X v cng thc phn t
3
MX ?
Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t


P PP Pa aa ag gg ge ee e - -- - 6 66 6 - -- - " "" "A AA Al ll ll ll l t tt th hh he ee e f ff fl ll lo oo ow ww we ee er rr r o oo of ff f t tt to oo om mm mo oo or rr rr rr ro oo ow ww w a aa ar rr re ee e i ii in nn n t tt th hh he ee e s ss se ee ee ee ek kk ks ss s o oo of ff f t tt to oo od dd da aa ay yy y " "" "
Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho
Gi
( )
Z, N, E Z E = ln lt l s proton, s ntron, s electron trong nguyn t X.

( )
Z', N', E' Z' E' = ln lt l s proton, s ntron, s electron trong nguyn t M.
Trong phn t
3
MX c tng cc loi ht l 196, nn:
( ) ( )
Z E N 3 Z' E' N' 196 =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2Z N 3 2Z' N' 196 2Z 6Z' N 3N' 196 1 = = .
Mt khc, trong
3
MX c s ht mang in nhiu hn s ht khng mang in l 60 nn:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Z E 3 Z' E' N 3N' 60 2Z 6Z' N 3N' 60 2
l l
= =
l l
l l
.
Ta li c s ht mang in trong nguyn t M t hn s ht mang in trong nguyn t X l 8 nn:
( )
2Z' 2Z 8 3 = .
T
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
2Z 6Z' N 3N' 196
Z' 17 2Z 6Z' 128
1 , 2 , 3 2Z 6Z' N 3N' 60
Z 13 2Z' 2Z 8
2Z' 2Z 8
'
1
=
1
' '
1 1 1 = =
1 1 1 1
=
! ! !
1 1 1 = =
1 1 1
+ 1+
= 1
1
+

Do : Z 13 M : Al = v Z' 17 M : Cl = . Vy
3
MX l
3
AlCl .






Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho
Gi
Z, E, N, A :
Z', E', N', A' :
'
1
1
!
1
1
+

Do s khi A = nguyn t khi v ta c % khi lng M trong
2
MX chim 46, 67% nn:
( ) ( )
( )

2
M
MX
M
46, 67 A 46, 67 Z N 46, 67
1
M 100 A 2A' 100 100 Z N 2 Z' N'

= = =


Trong ht nhn M, ta c s ntron nhiu hn s proton 4 ht, nn:
( )
N Z 4 2 =
Trong ht nhn X, ta c s ntron bng s proton, nn:
( )
N' Z' 3 =
Tng s ht proton trong
2
MX l 58 ht nn:
( )
Z 2Z' 58 4 =
T
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Z 26; N 30
1 , 2 , 3 , 4
Z' N' 16
'
1 = =
1

!
1 = =
1
+
.
Vy s khi ca M l A 26 30 56 M = = l Fe v s khi ca X l A' 16 16 32 = = M
l S. Do :
2 2
MX FeS = (pyrit st).

Th d Th d Th d Th d 5 55 5. Hp cht A c cng thc
2
MX , trong M chim 46, 67% v khi lng. Trong ht
nhn M c s ntron nhiu hn s proton l 4 ht. Trong ht nhn X, s ntron bng s
proton. Tng s proton trong
2
MX l 58 ht. Xc nh cng thc phn t ca
2
MX ?
l s ht proton, electron, ntron v s khi trong nguyn t M.
l s ht proton, electron, ntron v s khi trong nguyn t X.
Phn loi v Phn loi v Phn loi v Phn loi v P PP Phng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 Tp 1 Tp 1 Tp 1 Tp 1 Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on


" "" "C CC C n nn n c cc c b bb b t tt th hh h n nn ng gg g m mm mi ii in nn nh hh h " "" " P PP Pa aa ag gg ge ee e - -- - 7 77 7 - -- -
BA BA BA BAI T I T I T I TP A P A P A P AP DU P DU P DU P DUNG NG NG NG
Bi 1. Bi 1. Bi 1. Bi 1. Nguyn t c cu to t nhng ht c bn no ? Khi lng v in tch tng loi ht ? Ti
sao nguyn t lun trung ha v in ?
Bi 2. Bi 2. Bi 2. Bi 2. Tm t s v khi lng ca elctron so vi proton, so vi ntron ? C th coi khi lng nguyn
t gn bng khi lng ca ht nhn nguyn t c khng ? Ti sao ?
Bi 3. Bi 3. Bi 3. Bi 3. Cho nguyn t X c tng s ht trong nguyn t l 46. S ht khng mang in nhiu hn s ht
mang in dng l 1. Xc nh s ht proton
( )
p , ntron
( )
n v electron
( )
e cu to nn
nguyn t X.
Bi 4. Bi 4. Bi 4. Bi 4. Cho nguyn t X c tng s ht trong nguyn t l 46. S ht mang in nhiu hn s ht khng
mang in l 14.
a/ Xc nh s ht cu to nn nguyn t.
b/ Xc nh in tch ht nhn, in tch lp v, in tch nguyn t X.
Bi 5. Bi 5. Bi 5. Bi 5. Cho nguyn t X c tng s ht trong nguyn t l 115. S ht mang in nhiu hn s ht
khng mang in l 25.
a/ Ht nhn nguyn t X c cu to gm nhng ht no ? S lng bao nhiu ?
b/ Xc nh in tch ht nhn, in tch lp v, in tch nguyn t X.
Bi 6. Bi 6. Bi 6. Bi 6. Cho hai nguyn t X v Y
a/ Nguyn t X c tng s ht trong nguyn t l 18. S ht khng mang in bng s ht mang
in m. Xc nh s ht p, n, e cu to nn X.
b/ Nguyn t Y c s ht mang in bng s ht mang in trong nguyn t X (cu a/), nhng
hn X n 2 ht khng mang in. Tm s ht cu to ca nguyn t Y.
Bi 7. Bi 7. Bi 7. Bi 7. Cho nguyn t X c tng s ht trong nguyn t l 21. S ht mang in gp i gp i s ht
khng mang in. Tm s ht cu to nn nguyn t X.
Bi 8. Bi 8. Bi 8. Bi 8. Xc nh cu to ht (tm s e, s p, s n) ca nguyn t sau, bit:
a/ Nguyn t nguyn t X c tng s ht bng 10.
b/ Tng s ht c bn l 13.
c/ Tng s ht c bn l 52, s proton ln hn s ntron l 16.
d/ Tng cc loi ht trong nguyn t l 18, trong tng s ht mang in bng gp i s ht
khng mang in.
e/ Nguyn t c tng s ht c bn l 24, s ht khng mang in chim 33, 33%.
f/ Nguyn t c tng s ht l 34, s ntron nhiu hn s proton 1 ht.
g/ Nguyn t c tng s ht l 18, s ht mang in nhiu hn s ht khng mang in l 18 ht.
h/ Nguyn t c s khi bng 207, s ht mang in m l 82.
Bi 9. Bi 9. Bi 9. Bi 9. Tm s proton, s electron, s ntron v cho bit tn nguyn t trong cc trng hp sau:
a/ Nguyn t X c s khi nh hn 36 v tng s ht l 52.
b/ Nguyn Y c tng s ht l 62 v c s khi nh hn 43.
S: / /
17 42
20
a X : Cl b Y : Ca .
Bi 10. Bi 10. Bi 10. Bi 10. Tm s proton, s electron, s ntron v tm s khi trong cc trng hp sau:
a/ Mt anion
3
X

c tng s cc ht l 111, s electron bng 48% s khi.
b/ Mt cation
3
R

c tng s ht l 37. T s ht electron i vi ntron l / 5 7 .
S: / / a Z 33, N 42. b Z 13, N 14 = = = = .
Bi 11. Bi 11. Bi 11. Bi 11. Cho hp cht
2
MX . Trong phn t
2
MX , tng s ht c bn l 140 v s ht mang in nhiu
hn s ht khng mang in l 44. S khi ca X ln hn s khi ca M l 11. Tng s ht c
bn trong X nhiu hn trong M l 16 ht. Xc nh k hiu nguyn t M, X v cng thc
2
MX ?
Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t


P PP Pa aa ag gg ge ee e - -- - 8 88 8 - -- - " "" "A AA Al ll ll ll l t tt th hh he ee e f ff fl ll lo oo ow ww we ee er rr r o oo of ff f t tt to oo om mm mo oo or rr rr rr ro oo ow ww w a aa ar rr re ee e i ii in nn n t tt th hh he ee e s ss se ee ee ee ek kk ks ss s o oo of ff f t tt to oo od dd da aa ay yy y " "" "
S:
2 2
MX : MgCl .
Bi 12. Bi 12. Bi 12. Bi 12. Mt hp cht v c A c cng thc phn t
2 3
X Y , tng s ht trong hp cht A l 296, trong
s ht mang in nhiu hn s ht khng mang in l 88. S khi ca X nhiu hn ca Y l 20.
S electron ca X bng trung bnh cng s proton v s khi ca Y. Tm cng thc phn t ca
2 3
X Y ?
S:
2 3
A : Cr S .
Bi 13. Bi 13. Bi 13. Bi 13. Mt hp cht A to bi hai ion
2
X

v
2
3
YZ

. Tng s electron ca
2
3
YZ

bng 32, Y v Z bng
3 ln s proton ca Z. Khi lng phn t ca A bng 116u . Xc nh X, Y, Z v cng thc
phn t ca A.
S:
3
A : FeCO .
Bi 14. Bi 14. Bi 14. Bi 14. Vit phng trnh phn ng ha hc xy ra (nu c) khi cho dung dch H
2
SO
4
long ln lt tc
dng vi
a/ ng oxit. b/ Nhm.
c/ ng. d/ Xt.
e/ Natri ccbnt. f/ St
( )
III oxt.
g/ Axit clohidric. h/ Bari hidroxit.
Bi 15. Bi 15. Bi 15. Bi 15. Hon thnh cc phn ng sau
a/
2 3
Al O HCl ......... b/
2 2
HCl ....?.... ZnCl H .
c/
4 2
MgSO BaCl ...... d/
( )
2
...?... NaOH Mg OH ... ?...
Bi 16. Bi 16. Bi 16. Bi 16. Tnh th tch kh thu c trong cc trng hp sau
a/ Cho
( )
5, 4 g nhm phn ng vi dung dch HCl.
b/ Cho
( )
20 g vi phn ng vi dung dch H
2
SO
4
d.
c/ Cho
( )
18, 9 g Na
2
SO
3
phn ng vi dung dch HCl d.
Bi 17. Bi 17. Bi 17. Bi 17. Tnh khi lng kt ta thu c trong cc trng hp sau
a/ Cho
( )
10, 4 g BaCl
2
tc dng vi dung dch H
2
SO
4
d.
b/ Cho
( )
10 g dung dch NaOH 20% tc dng vi dung dch FeCl
3
d.
c/ Cho
( )
100 ml dung dch AgNO
3

( )
1 M tc dng vi
( )
200 ml dung dch NaCl
( )
2 M .
d/ Cho
( )
500 ml dung dch Na
2
CO
3

( )
0, 2 M tc dng vi
( )
100 ml dung dch
( )
2
CaCl 0,1 M .

Phn loi v Phn loi v Phn loi v Phn loi v P PP Phng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 Tp 1 Tp 1 Tp 1 Tp 1 Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on


" "" "C CC C n nn n c cc c b bb b t tt th hh h n nn ng gg g m mm mi ii in nn nh hh h " "" " P PP Pa aa ag gg ge ee e - -- - 9 99 9 - -- -




































Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho
a/ Tnh khi lng tuyt i ?
Khi lng 19p:
( ) ( )
27 27
p
m 1, 6726.10 kg .19 31, 7794.10 kg

= = .
Khi lng 19e:
( ) ( )
31 27
e
m 9,1095.10 kg .19 0, 0173.10 kg

= = .
Khi lng 20n:
( ) ( )
27 27
n
m 1, 6748.10 kg .20 33, 496.10 kg

= = .
Khi lng tuyt i ca 1 nguyn t kali l:
( ) ( ) ( )
27 27
K p e n
m m m m 31, 7794 0, 0173 33, 496 .10 kg 65, 2927.10 kg

= = = .
Tnh khi lng tng i:
( )
27
K 27
65, 2927.10
M 39, 321 u
1, 6605.10

= = (Nguyn t khi ca K).



Dng ton 2 Dng ton 2 Dng ton 2 Dng ton 2. Khi lng Khi lng Khi lng Khi lng Khi lng ring Khi lng ring Khi lng ring Khi lng ring Bn knh nguyn t Bn knh nguyn t Bn knh nguyn t Bn knh nguyn t

Trong dng ny cn nh
n v:
( )
27
1u 1, 6605.10 kg

= v
( ) ( )
o
8 10
1A 10 cm 10 m

= = .
Khi lng proton:
( ) ( )

27
p p
m 1, 6726.10 kg hay m 1 u

= .
Khi lng ntron:
( ) ( )

27
n n
m 1, 6748.10 kg hay m 1 u

= .
Khi lng electron:
( ) ( )

31 4
e e
m 9,1095.10 kg hay m 5, 5.10 u

= .
Khi lng tuyt i ca
A
Z
X l
X p
m m . = (s proton)
n
m . (s ntron)
e
m . (s electron).
Khi lng tng i (nguyn t khi)
( )


27
u hay .v.C
1, 6605.10

= .
Cng thc lin h:
m
D
V
= .
Nguyn t c dng hnh cu nn: V
nguyn t

3
4
R
3
= (vi R l bn knh nguyn t).
1 mol nguyn t cha
23
N 6, 02.10 = nguyn t.
Do
e
m b hn nhiu so vi
p n
m , m nn khi lng nguyn t ch yu tp trung
ht nhn. V vy, trong tnh ton ha hc thng thng th: m
nguyn t

p n
m m = .
Khi lng tuyt i
Th d Th d Th d Th d 6 66 6. Cho nguyn t kali c 19 proton, 20 ntron v 19 electron.
a/ Tnh khi lng tuyt i v biu th khi lng tng i ca 1 nguyn t K.
b/ Xc nh cc t l khi lng
Ca proton vi electron.
Ca tng s electron vi nguyn t.
Ca ht nhn vi nguyn t.
Nu nhn xt ?
c/ Tnh s nguyn t K c trong
( )
0, 975 g kali .
Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t


P PP Pa aa ag gg ge ee e - -- - 1 11 10 00 0 - -- - " "" "A AA Al ll ll ll l t tt th hh he ee e f ff fl ll lo oo ow ww we ee er rr r o oo of ff f t tt to oo om mm mo oo or rr rr rr ro oo ow ww w a aa ar rr re ee e i ii in nn n t tt th hh he ee e s ss se ee ee ee ek kk ks ss s o oo of ff f t tt to oo od dd da aa ay yy y " "" "
b/ Xc nh cc t l khi lng ?

27
p
27
e
m
31, 7794.10
1837
m 0, 0173.10

= .

27
4 e
27
K
m
0, 0173.10
2, 65.10
m 65, 2927.10

= .

27 27
p n
h.nh
27
K K
m m
m
31, 7794.10 33, 496.10
1
m m 65, 2927.10


= = .
Nhn xt:
Khi lng tnh bng gam ca 1 nguyn t kali l v cng b, khng c cn no cn c.
Khi lng proton ln gp khong 1837 ln khi lng electron.
Khi lng electron rt nh b so vi khi lng ton b nguyn t (khong 0, 0045%). V vy,
trong cc tnh ton ha hc thng thng, ta c th b qua khi lng electron v xem khi
lng nguyn t bng khi lng ht nhn.
c/ Tnh s nguyn t K c trong 0,975(g) kali ?
S mol kali:
( )
K
0, 975
n 0, 025 mol
39
= = .
S nguyn t kali:
23 23
K
N 0, 025.6, 02.10 0,1505.10 = = nguyn t.





Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho
a/ Tnh khi lng ring ca nguyn t Zn ?
Th tch mt nguyn t km:
( ) ( )
3
3
8 24 3
4 r 4
V .3,14. 1, 35.10 10, 26.10 cm
3 3

= = = .
Khi lng ring ca nguyn t
( )
Zn
Zn D :
( )
/
24 3
Zn 24
m 65
D 6, 335.10 u cm
V 10, 26.10

= = = .
Bit
( ) ( )
27 24
1u 1, 6605.10 kg 1, 6605.10 g

= =
( )
/
24 24 3
Zn
D 6, 335.10 .1, 6605.10 10, 52 g cm

= =
b/ Tnh khi lng ring thc t ca ht nhn Zn ?
Th tch ht nhn nguyn t km:
( )
( ) ( )
3
3 13 39 3
1 Zn h.n
4 4
V .r .3,14. 2.10 33, 5.10 cm
3 3

= = = .
Khi lng ht nhn bng khi lng nguyn t:
( )
( ) ( )
24 24
Zn h.n
m 65.1, 6605.10 g 107, 9.10 g

= = .
Khi lng ring ht nhn nguyn t km:
( )
( )
( )
( )
/
24
Zn h.n
15 3
Zn h.n 39
Zn h.n
m
107, 9.10
D 3,22.10 g cm
V 33, 5.10

= = = .



Th d 7 Th d 7 Th d 7 Th d 7. Nguyn t Zn c bn knh
( )
10
r 1, 35.10 m

= , nguyn t khi bng


( )
65 u .
a/ Tnh khi lng ring ca nguyn t Zn ?
b/ Thc t hu nh ton b khi lng nguyn t tp trung vo ht nhn vi bn knh
( )
15
1
r 2.10 m

= . Tnh khi lng ring ca ht nhn nguyn t Zn ?


Phn loi v Phn loi v Phn loi v Phn loi v P PP Phng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 Tp 1 Tp 1 Tp 1 Tp 1 Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on


" "" "C CC C n nn n c cc c b bb b t tt th hh h n nn ng gg g m mm mi ii in nn nh hh h " "" " P PP Pa aa ag gg ge ee e - -- - 1 11 11 11 1 - -- -






Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho

( )
1 mol nguyn t canxi c
23
6, 02.10 nguyn t Ca.
Th tch thc t ca 1 mol Ca l:
( )
3
74
V 25, 87. 19,15 cm
100
= = .
Th tch ca 1 nguyn t Ca l:
( )
23 3
Ca
19,15
V 3.10 cm
6, 02

= .
Bn knh ca nguyn t Ca:
( )
o
3 8 Ca
3
Ca Ca Ca
3V
4
V r r 1, 97.10 cm 1, 97 A
3 4

1


= =


( )
.






Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho
Th tch ca 1 mol Au
( )
/
3
197
: g cm
19, 36
. Gi x% l th tch cc nguyn t Au trong tinh th.
Th tch thc ca 1 nguyn t Au:
( )
3
23
197 x
V . cm
19, 36 100.6, 02.10
= .
Bn knh nguyn t Au l:
( ) ( ) ( )
o
3
8 8 3
4
r 1, 44 A 1, 44.10 cm V .3,14. 1, 44.10 , cm
3

= = = .
Do :
( )
3
8
23
197 x 4
. .3,14. 1, 44.10 x 73, 95
19, 36 3 100.6, 02.10

= .


BA BA BA BAI T I T I T I TP A P A P A P AP DU P DU P DU P DUNG NG NG NG
Bi 18. Bi 18. Bi 18. Bi 18. Hy tnh khi lng nguyn t ca cc nguyn t sau theo u v kg
a/ Nguyn t
( )
Na 11e, 11p, 12n . b/ Nguyn t
( )
Al 13e, 13p, 14n .
c/ Nguyn t
( )
Cl 17e, 17p, 18n . d/ Nguyn t
( )
N 7e, 7p, 7n .
e/ Nguyn t
( )
Fe 26e, 26p, 30n . f/ Nguyn t
( )
K 19p, 19e, 20n .
g/ Nguyn t
( )
Cu 29e, 29p, 34n . h/ Nguyn t
( )
Ar 18p, 18e, 22n .
Bi 19. Bi 19. Bi 19. Bi 19. Mt loi nguyn t cacbon c cu to bi 6 proton, 6 ntron, 6 elctron.
a/ Tnh khi lng tuyt i v biu th khi lng tng i ca nguyn t cacbon.
b/ Xc nh cc t l khi lng
Ca proton vi electron.
Ca tng s electron vi nguyn t.
Th Th Th Th d d d d 8 88 8. Tnh bn knh gn ng ca nguyn t canxi. Bit th tch ca 1 mol canxi l
( )
3
25, 78 cm
Bit rng trong tinh th kim loi canxi cc nguyn t canxi c xem nh dng hnh cu,
chim 74% th tch tinh th, cn li l cc khe trng.
Th d 9 Th d 9 Th d 9 Th d 9. Nguyn t Au c bn knh v khi lng mol nguyn t ln lt l 1, 44
( )
A v
( )
/ 197 g mol . Bit khi lng ring ca Au l
( )
/
3
19, 36 g cm . Hi cc nguyn t Au
chim bao nhiu phn trm th tch trong tinh th ?
Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t


P PP Pa aa ag gg ge ee e - -- - 1 11 12 22 2 - -- - " "" "A AA Al ll ll ll l t tt th hh he ee e f ff fl ll lo oo ow ww we ee er rr r o oo of ff f t tt to oo om mm mo oo or rr rr rr ro oo ow ww w a aa ar rr re ee e i ii in nn n t tt th hh he ee e s ss se ee ee ee ek kk ks ss s o oo of ff f t tt to oo od dd da aa ay yy y " "" "
Ca ht nhn vi nguyn t.
Nu nhn xt ?
Bi 20. Bi 20. Bi 20. Bi 20. Cho nguyn t X c tng s ht trong nguyn t l 28. S ht khng mang in nhiu hn s ht
mang in dng l 1 ht.
a/ Xc nh s p, e, n.
b/ Tnh khi lng nguyn t X theo n v u v gam.
Bi 21. Bi 21. Bi 21. Bi 21. Nguyn t ca nguyn t X c tng s ht l 82. T s gia s ht mang in v s ht khng
mang in l
26
15
.
a/ Xc nh in tch ht nhn ca nguyn t X ?
b/ Tnh khi lng ca nguyn t X theo n v gam ?
c/ Hi trong
( )
1 g X th c bao nhiu nguyn t X ?
Bi 22. Bi 22. Bi 22. Bi 22. Nguyn t ca mt nguyn t A c tng s ht bng 60. S ht mang in gp i s ht khng
mang in.
a/ Tnh M
A
? Gi tn ca A ?
b/ Cho
( )
a gam A vo nc, thu c dung dch B v 2,24 lt kh C ( kc)
Tnh
( )
a gam ?
Tnh C% ca dung dch B ?
Bi 23. Bi 23. Bi 23. Bi 23. Cho bit mt nguyn t Magi c 12 electron, 12 proton, 12 ntron.
a/ Tnh khi lng 1 nguyn t Mg ?
b/ Bit
( )
1 mol nguyn t Mg nng
( )
24, 305 g . Tnh s nguyn t Mg c trong
( )
1 mol Mg ?
Bi 24. Bi 24. Bi 24. Bi 24. Tnh khi lng ring theo g/cm
3
ca nguyn t hidr. Bit bn knh nguyn t ca hir l
o
0, 53A v nguyn t lng mol:
H
M 1, 00799 = .
S:
( )
/
3
D 2, 685 g cm = .
Bi 25. Bi 25. Bi 25. Bi 25. Bn knh nguyn t v khi lng mol nguyn t Fe ln lt l
o
1, 28 A v
( )
/ 56 g mol . Tnh khi
lng ring ca Fe. Bit rng trong tinh th, cc tinh th Fe chim 74% th tch, cn li l khng
gian trng.
S:
( )
3
Fe
D 7, 84 g / cm .
Bi 26. Bi 26. Bi 26. Bi 26. Gia bn knh ht nhn
( )
R v s khi ca nguyn t
( )
A c mi lin h
3 13
R 1, 5.10 . A

= .
Tnh khi lng ring ca ht nhn ?
S:
( )
/
14 3
D 1,175.10 g cm = .
Bi 27. Bi 27. Bi 27. Bi 27. Bn knh ca nguyn t hir gn bng
( )
10
0, 53.10 m

, cn bn knh ht nhn bng


( )
15
10 m

.
Cho rng c nguyn t v ht nhn u c dng hnh cu. Tnh t l th tch ca ton nguyn t
v th tch ht nhn.
S:
14
1, 5.10 ln.
Bi 28. Bi 28. Bi 28. Bi 28. Tnh bn knh gn ng ca nguyn t Cu (ng), bit khi lng ring ca Cu l
( )
/
3
8, 93 g cm
v khi lng nguyn t Cu bng
( )
63 .v.C . Mt khc, th tch tht chim bi cc nguyn t
ch bng 74% ca tinh th, cn li l cc khe trng.
Phn loi v Phn loi v Phn loi v Phn loi v P PP Phng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 Tp 1 Tp 1 Tp 1 Tp 1 Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on


" "" "C CC C n nn n c cc c b bb b t tt th hh h n nn ng gg g m mm mi ii in nn nh hh h " "" " P PP Pa aa ag gg ge ee e - -- - 1 11 13 33 3 - -- -
Bi 29. Bi 29. Bi 29. Bi 29. Xem nguyn t Flo
( )
9e, 9p, 10n l mt hnh cu c ng knh bng
( )
10
10 m

v ht nhn l
mt hnh cu c ng knh
( )
14
10 m

.
a/ Tnh khi lng ca 1 nguyn t F.
b/ Tnh khi lng ring ca ht nhn nguyn t F.
c/ Tm t l th tch ca ton nguyn t so vi ht nhn nguyn t F.
Bi 30. Bi 30. Bi 30. Bi 30. Nguyn t nhm c bn knh
o
1, 43A v c khi lng nguyn t l 27(.v.C)
a/ Tnh khi lng ring ca nguyn t Al.
b/ Trong thc t, th tch tht chim bi cc nguyn t ch bng 74% ca tinh th, cn li l cc
khe trng. nh khi lng ring ng ca nguyn t Al.
S:
( ) ( )
/ / . / /
' 3 3
Al Al
a D 3, 66 g cm b D 2, 73 g cm = = .
Bi 31. Bi 31. Bi 31. Bi 31. Nguyn t c ng knh ln gp 10000 ln ng knh ht nhn. Nu ta phng i ht nhn ln
thnh mt qu bng c ng knh
( )
6 cm th lc ng knh ca nguyn t l bao nhiu ?
S:
( )
300 m .






























Dng ton 3 Dng ton 3 Dng ton 3 Dng ton 3. Ht nhn nguyn t . Ht nhn nguyn t . Ht nhn nguyn t . Ht nhn nguyn t Nguyn t ha hc Nguyn t ha hc Nguyn t ha hc Nguyn t ha hc ng v ng v ng v ng v
O Ht nhn nguyn t
K hiu nguyn t:
Z
A
X vi
X :
Z E :
A Z N :
'
1
1
1
1
=
!
1
1
= 1
1
+

O ng v
ng v l nhng nguyn t c cng s proton nhng khc nhau v s ntron (khc A).
Hu ht cc nguyn t ha hc l hn hp ca nhiu ng v vi t l % s nguyn t xc nh
nn nguyn t khi ca nguyn t (ghi trong bng h thng tun hon) l nguyn t khi
trung bnh ca nguyn t.


M =

hay
a.A b.B ......
M
100

= .
Trong :


l k hiu nguyn t ha hc.
l s proton = s in tch ht nhn = s hiu nguyn t.
l s khi.
Tng khi lng cc nguyn t
Tng s nguyn t
M :

l nguyn t khi trung bnh ca nguyn t
( )
.v.C .
A, B,... : l nguyn t khi cc ng v (tnh bng .v.C v bng s khi cc ng v)
a, b,... : l t l % s nguyn t cc ng v tng ng
Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t


P PP Pa aa ag gg ge ee e - -- - 1 11 14 44 4 - -- - " "" "A AA Al ll ll ll l t tt th hh he ee e f ff fl ll lo oo ow ww we ee er rr r o oo of ff f t tt to oo om mm mo oo or rr rr rr ro oo ow ww w a aa ar rr re ee e i ii in nn n t tt th hh he ee e s ss se ee ee ee ek kk ks ss s o oo of ff f t tt to oo od dd da aa ay yy y " "" "





Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho
a/
7 23 39 40 234
3 11 19 20 90
Li, Na, K, Ca, Th .
S VTHN S proton S electron S ntron S khi
7
3
Li
3+ 3 3 4 7
23
11
Na
11+ 11 11 12 23
39
19
K
19+ 19 19 20 39
40
20
Ca
20+ 20 20 20 40
234
90
Th
90+ 90 90 144 234

b/
1 4 12 16 31 54
1 2 6 8 15 26
H, He, C, O, P, Fe.
S VTHN S proton S electron S ntron S khi
1
1
H
1+ 1 1 0 1
4
2
He
2+ 2 2 2 4
12
6
C
6+ 6 6 6 12
16
8
O
8+ 8 8 8 16
31
15
P
15+ 15 15 16 31
54
26
Fe
26+ 26 26 28 54










Bi gii Bi gii Bi gii Bi gii tham kho tham kho tham kho tham kho

Th d 10 Th d 10 Th d 10 Th d 10. Hy cho bit s n v in tch ht nhn, s proton, s ntron v s khi ca nhng
nguyn t c k hiu sau y
a/
7 23 39 40 234
3 11 19 20 90
Li, Na, K, Ca, Th . b/
1 4 12 16 31 54
1 2 6 8 15 26
H, He, C, O, P, Fe.
Th d 11 Th d 11 Th d 11 Th d 11. Tnh khi lng trung bnh ca cc nguyn t trong cc trng hp sau y
a/ Clo trong t nhin l hn hp ca ca hai ng v bn
35
17
Cl chim 75, 77% v cn li
l
37
17
Cl .
b/ Mt nguyn t X gm hai ng v X
1
v X
2
. ng v X
1
c tng s ht l 18. ng
v X
2
c tng s ht l 20. Bit rng % cc ng v trong X bng nhau v cc loi ht
trong X
1
cng bng nhau. Xc nh nguyn t khi trung bnh ca X ?
Phn loi v Phn loi v Phn loi v Phn loi v P PP Phng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 Tp 1 Tp 1 Tp 1 Tp 1 Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on


" "" "C CC C n nn n c cc c b bb b t tt th hh h n nn ng gg g m mm mi ii in nn nh hh h " "" " P PP Pa aa ag gg ge ee e - -- - 1 11 15 55 5 - -- -
a/ Nguyn t khi trung bnh ca nguyn t clo l:
( )
Cl
35.75, 77 37. 100 75, 77
M 35, 5
100

= .
b/ Tnh khi lng trung bnh ca X ?
Cc ht trong ng v X
1
bng nhau nn:
18
Z N E 6
3
= = = = .
Do , s khi ca ng v X
2
l 12, s khi ca ng v X
2
l 20 6 14 = .

X
12.50 14.50
M 13
100

= = .







Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho
a/ Khi lng nguyn t trung bnh ca oxi:
( )
O
99, 757.16 0, 039.17 100 99, 757 0, 039 .18
M 16
100

= = .
b/ T t l cc ng v, ta c th suy ra c t l s nguyn t cc ng v:

16 17 18 16 17 18
99, 757 0, 039 0, 204
O : O : O 99, 757 : 0, 039 : 0, 204 O : O : O : :
0, 039 0, 039 0, 039
= =

16 17 18
O : O : O 2558 : 1 : 5 = .
Vy nu c 1 nguyn t ng v
17
Oth s nguyn t
16
O l 2558 nguyn t v
18
O l 5 nguyn t.
c/ C 6 loi phn t O
2
tt c:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )


16 17 18 16 17 16 18 17 18
2 2 2
O , O , O , O O , O O , O O
M 32 M 43 M 36 M 33 M 34 M 35 = = = = = =
.








Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho
a/ Tnh % s lng ca mi ng v ?
Gi x l % s nguyn t ng v
( )
35
Cl 100 x l % s nguyn t ca ng v
37
Cl .
Ta c:
( )
Cl
35.x 100 x .37
M 35, 5 x 75%
100

= = = .
b/ Tnh % khi lng ca mi ng v
35
Cl trong axit pecloric HClO
4
?
S mol ca nguyn t ng v
35
Cl trong 1 mol nguyn t Cl l:
( )
35
Cl
75
n 0, 75 mol
100
= = .
Khi lng tng ng:
( )
35 35 35
Cl Cl Cl
m n .A 0, 75.35 26, 25 g = = =
( )
Do A M = .
Th d 12 Th d 12 Th d 12 Th d 12. Oxi trong t nhin l hn hp ca cc ng v:
( ) ( )

16 17 18
O 99, 757% , O 0, 039% , O.
a/ Tnh khi lng nguyn t trung bnh ca oxi ?
b/ Tnh s nguyn t ca mi loi ng v khi c 1 nguyn t ng v
17
O.
c/ Hi c th to thnh bao nhiu phn t oxi (bit phn t oxi c hai nguyn t) ? Tnh
khi lng phn t tng ng ?
Th d Th d Th d Th d 13 13 13 13. Khi lng nguyn t ca clo l 35,5. Clo c hai ng v l
35
Cl v
37
Cl .
a/ Tnh % s lng ca mi ng v ?
b/ Tnh % khi lng ca mi ng v
35
Cl trong axit pecloric HClO
4
?
( )
Cho H 1, O 16 = =
Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t


P PP Pa aa ag gg ge ee e - -- - 1 11 16 66 6 - -- - " "" "A AA Al ll ll ll l t tt th hh he ee e f ff fl ll lo oo ow ww we ee er rr r o oo of ff f t tt to oo om mm mo oo or rr rr rr ro oo ow ww w a aa ar rr re ee e i ii in nn n t tt th hh he ee e s ss se ee ee ee ek kk ks ss s o oo of ff f t tt to oo od dd da aa ay yy y " "" "
Ta li c:
( )
/
4
HClO
M 1 35, 5 16.4 100, 5 g mol = = .
Vy % khi lng ca ng v
35
Cl trong HClO
4
l:
26, 25
.100% 26,12%
100, 5
= .











Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho
a/ Tnh nguyn t khi trung bnh v gi tn R ?
Ta c:
( )
2
2
H
H
V
5, 6
n 0, 25 mol
22, 4 22, 4
= = = .
( )

2 2
R 2HCl RCl H
0, 25 ..................................0, 25 mol


Theo phng trnh ta c:
( ) ( )
/
R
R R
R
m
6, 082
n 0, 25 mol M 24, 328 g mol
n 0, 25
= = = = .
Nguyn t R l magie
( )
Mg .
b/ Tnh s khi tng ng v v phn trm s nguyn t ca mi ng v ?
Gi
1 2 3
A , A , A ln lt l s khi ca ba ng v tng ng.
Theo bi, ta c:
1 2 3
1
1 3
2 2
3
3 2
A A A 75
A 24
A A
A A 25
2
A 26
A A 1
'
1 =
1 '
1
= 1
1
1
1

1
1 1
= =
! !
1 1
1 1
= 1 1
=
1 1
+
1
1+
.
Ta c % s nguyn t ca
26
Mg l 11, 4%. Gi x l % s nguyn t ca
24
Mg
% s nguyn t ca
25
Mg l
( ) ( )
100 11, 4 x % 88, 6 x % = .
Do ,
( )
Mg
24x 25. 88, 6 x 26.11, 4
M 24, 328 x 78, 6
100

= = = .
Vy:
24
Mg chim 78, 6%;
25
Mg chim 10% v
26
Mg chim 11, 4%.

Th d 14 Th d 14 Th d 14 Th d 14. Ha tan hon ton
( )
6, 082 g kim loi R c ha tr II vo dung dch HCl thu c
( )
5, 6 l kh (kc)
a/ Tnh nguyn t khi trung bnh v gi tn R ?
b/ R c ba ng v bn. Tng s khi ba ng v l 75. S khi ca ng v th 2 bng
trung bnh cng s khi ca hai ng v cn li. ng v th ba chim 11, 4% v c
s khi nhiu hn ng v hai l 1 n v. Tnh s khi tng ng v v phn trm
s nguyn t ca mi ng v ?
Phn loi v Phn loi v Phn loi v Phn loi v P PP Phng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 Tp 1 Tp 1 Tp 1 Tp 1 Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on


" "" "C CC C n nn n c cc c b bb b t tt th hh h n nn ng gg g m mm mi ii in nn nh hh h " "" " P PP Pa aa ag gg ge ee e - -- - 1 11 17 77 7 - -- -
BA BA BA BAI T I T I T I TP A P A P A P AP DU P DU P DU P DUNG NG NG NG
Bi 32. Bi 32. Bi 32. Bi 32. nh ngha nguyn t ha hc ? V sao s hiu nguyn t li c trng cho mt nguyn t ha
hc ?
Ki Ki Ki Ki hi hi hi hiu nguyn t u nguyn t u nguyn t u nguyn t
Bi 33. Bi 33. Bi 33. Bi 33. Tm s lng cc loi ht trong nguyn t sau
a/
16
8
O. b/
63
29
Cu . c/
23
11
Na . d/
32
16
S.
Bi 34. Bi 34. Bi 34. Bi 34. Kho st s in tch ht nhn
( )
Z v s khi
( )
A ca mt nguyn t, ngi ta c kt qu sau:
X Y M N O P Q
Z 8 18 20 8 20 8 18
A 16 40 40 17 42 18 39

a/ Hy cho bit dy trn gm my nguyn t ? K cc nguyn t cng nguyn t ?
b/ Cho bit thnh phn ht nhn ca chng ?
c/ Vit k hiu ca chng (c xc nh tn nguyn t) ?
Bi 35. Bi 35. Bi 35. Bi 35. Hy xc nh in tch ht nhn, s proton, s ntron, s electron v khi lng nguyn t ca
cc nguyn t c k hiu sau y:
a/
15
7
N. b/
56
26
Fe . c/
39
19
K . d/
10
5
B.
Bi 36. Bi 36. Bi 36. Bi 36. Nguyn t X c A 40, Z 20 = = .
a/ Tm tng s ht cu to nn nguyn t ca nguyn t X.
b/ Tnh gn ng nguyn t khi ca X.
c/ Tnh khi lng tuyt i theo gam ca nguyn t X.
Bi 37. Bi 37. Bi 37. Bi 37. Nguyn t ca nguyn t natri c k hiu
23
Na .
a/ Xc nh s lng cc ht cu to nn nguyn t Na.
b/ Tm in tch ht nhn, khi lng nguyn t ca Na.
c/ Vit phn ng ca Na vi kh clo, nc, oxi.
Bi 38. Bi 38. Bi 38. Bi 38. Vit k hiu nguyn t X (ng tn nguyn t) trong cc trng hp sau
a/ C 15 elctron, 16 ntron.
b/ C in tch ht nhn l 14+ v c 14 ntron.
c/ Khi lng nguyn t l 80 v s hiu l 35.
d/ Tng s ht trong nguyn t l 40, s ht mang in hn s ht khng mang in l 12 ht.
e/ Nguyn t khi l 31, ht khng mang in nhiu hn s ht mang in dng l 1 ht.
f/ Tng s ht trong nguyn t l 46, s ht khng mang in bng
8
15
s ht mang in.
g/ Tng s ht proton v ntron l 26, hiu ca chng l 2.
h/ Tng s ht bng 28 v s khi nh hn 20.
Bi 39. Bi 39. Bi 39. Bi 39. Xc nh s khi, s hiu v vit k hiu ca cc nguyn t sau
a/ Tng s ht ca mt nguyn t X l 52. Bit s ht khng mang in nhiu hn s ht khng
mang in l 16.
b/ Nguyn t nguyn t Y c tng cc phn t to nn l 155, s ht mang in nhiu hn s ht
khng mang in l 33.
Bi 40. Bi 40. Bi 40. Bi 40. Vit k hiu nguyn t X, Y trong cc trng hp sau
a/
X Y
A : A 1 : 7 = . b/
X Y
N N 4 = . c/
X Y
Z Z 4 = .
Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t


P PP Pa aa ag gg ge ee e - -- - 1 11 18 88 8 - -- - " "" "A AA Al ll ll ll l t tt th hh he ee e f ff fl ll lo oo ow ww we ee er rr r o oo of ff f t tt to oo om mm mo oo or rr rr rr ro oo ow ww w a aa ar rr re ee e i ii in nn n t tt th hh he ee e s ss se ee ee ee ek kk ks ss s o oo of ff f t tt to oo od dd da aa ay yy y " "" "
Bi 41. Bi 41. Bi 41. Bi 41. Vit cng thc ca cc loi phn t ng
( )
II oxit, bit rng ng v oxi c cc ng v sau:

63 65 16 17 18
29 29 8 8 8
Cu, Cu, O, O, O.
Bi 42. Bi 42. Bi 42. Bi 42. Bit hiro v oxi c cc ng v sau:
1 2 3 16 17 18
1 1 1 8 8 8
H, H, H, O, O, O.
a/ Vit cng thc cc loi phn t hiro v tnh phn t khi ca chng ?
b/ Vit cng thc cc loi phn t oxi v tnh phn t khi ca chng ?
c/ Vit cng thc cc loi phn t nc ?
d/ Tnh khi lng phn t cc phn t nc trn ? Khi lng phn t ln nht ca nc bng
bao nhiu ?
Bi 43. Bi 43. Bi 43. Bi 43. Trong t nhin, oxi c 3 ng v:
16 17 18
8 8 8
O, O, O. Cacbon c 2 ng v:
12 13
6 6
C, C. Hi c th to
thnh bao nhiu phn t kh CO
2
? Tnh phn t khi ca chng ?
ng ng ng ng vi vi vi vi
Bi 44. Bi 44. Bi 44. Bi 44. ng v l g ? Cho cc nguyn t c k hiu nh sau:
10 20 40 11 23 24 12 21
5 10 20 5 11 11 5 10
A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H .
a/ Hy cho bit nguyn t no l ng v ca nhau ?
b/ Tm s lng ca cc loi ht trong mi nguyn t trn ?
Bi 45. Bi 45. Bi 45. Bi 45. Cho cc nguyn t:
16 32 40
8 16 18
O, S, Ar .
a/ Xc nh s proton, s ntron, s elctron trong mi nguyn t ?
b/ Mt nguyn t X c A 33, Z 16 = = . Nguyn t X l ng v ca nguyn t no trong 3
nguyn t ni trn ?
Bi 46. Bi 46. Bi 46. Bi 46. Cho nguyn t ng c k hiu nh sau:
63
29
Cu .
a/ Tm s lng cc loi ht cu to nn nguyn t ng.
b/ ng v th hai ca ng c nhiu hn 2 ntron so vi ng v trn. Vit k hiu ca ng v
th hai ca ng.
Bi 47. Bi 47. Bi 47. Bi 47. Tnh khi lng nguyn t trung bnh ca cc nguyn t sau y
a/ Bo c 2 ng v:
( )
10
B 18, 89% v
( )
11
B 81,11% .
b/ Oxi c 3 ng v:
( ) ( ) ( )

16 16 16
8 8 8
O 99, 757% , O 0, 039% , O 0, 204% .
c/ St c 4 ng v:
( ) ( ) ( )

55 56 57 58
26 26 26 26
Fe 5, 84% ; Fe 91, 68% ; Fe 2,17% ; Fe .
Bi 48. Bi 48. Bi 48. Bi 48. Nguyn t Ar c cc ng v:
( ) ( )

36 38 40
Ar, Ar 0, 06% , Ar 99, 69% .
a/ Tm nguyn t khi trung bnh ca Ar.
b/ So snh s ntron ca cc ng v trn.
Bi 49. Bi 49. Bi 49. Bi 49. Nguyn t kali trong t nhin c cc ng v:
39 40 41
K, K, K vi t l tng ng ln lt l
93, 08%; 6,12%.
a/ Tnh t l phn trm ca ng v
41
K.
b/ Tnh khi lng nguyn t trung bnh ca K.
Bi 50. Bi 50. Bi 50. Bi 50. Tnh khi lng nguyn t trung bnh ca cc nguyn t trong cc trng hp sau
a/ Clo c hai ng v l
35 37
17 17
Cl, Cl . T l s nguyn t ca hai ng v l 3 : 1.
b/ Brom c hai ng v l
79 81
35 35
Br, Br . T l s nguyn t ca hai ng v ny l
27
23
.
Bi 51. Bi 51. Bi 51. Bi 51. Tm thnh phn % ca cc ng v ca cc nguyn t sau
a/ Clo c hai ng v l
35 37
17 17
Cl, Cl . Bit khi lng nguyn t ca clo l 35,5.
Phn loi v Phn loi v Phn loi v Phn loi v P PP Phng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 Tp 1 Tp 1 Tp 1 Tp 1 Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on


" "" "C CC C n nn n c cc c b bb b t tt th hh h n nn ng gg g m mm mi ii in nn nh hh h " "" " P PP Pa aa ag gg ge ee e - -- - 1 11 19 99 9 - -- -
b/ Cacbon trng thi t nhin c hai ng v l
12
6
C v
13
6
C, cacbon c khi lng nguyn t
l 12,011.
c/ Trong t nhin, ng c hai ng v l
63
Cu v
65
Cu. Bit rng khi lng nguyn t trung
bnh ca ng l 63,54.
d/ Khi lng nguyn t trung bnh ca Ne l 20,18 v Ne c hai ng v ng vi s khi l 20
v 22. Tnh t l phn trm ca mi ng v.
e/ Hiro trong t nhin l hn hp ca hai ng v
1
H v
2
H. Nguyn t khi trung bnh ca hir
l 10,008.
Bi 52. Bi 52. Bi 52. Bi 52. Tm s khi ca ng v th hai ca cc nguyn t sau
a/ Nguyn t trung bnh ca bc l 107,88. Bc c hai ng v, trong ng v
109
Ag chim
44%.
b/ Nguyn t khi trung bnh ca Bo l 10,812. Bo c hai ng v, trong ng v
10
5
B chim 18, 8%.
c/ Brom c hai ng v, trong ng v
79
Br chim 54, 5%. Xc nh s khi ca ng v cn
li. Bit rng:
Br
M 79, 91 = .
d/ Cho nguyn t lng trung bnh ca magie l 24,372. S khi cc ng v ln lt l 24, 25
v A
3
. Phn trm s nguyn t tng ng ca A
1
v A
2
ln lt l 78, 6% v 10, 9%. Tm A
3
.
Bi 53. Bi 53. Bi 53. Bi 53. Oxi trong t nhin l hn hp ca ba ng v:
( ) ( ) ( )

16 17 18
8 8 8
O 99, 757% ; O 0, 039% ; O 0, 204 .
Tnh s nguyn t mi loi ng v khi c 1 nguyn t
17
8
O.
Bi 54. Bi 54. Bi 54. Bi 54. Nguyn t khi trung bnh ca Clo l 35,5. Clo c hai ng v l
35 37
17 17
Cl, Cl .
a/ Tm thnh phn % ca mi ng v ?
b/ Mi khi c 225 nguyn t ca ng v
35
Cl th c bao nhiu nguyn t ca ng v
37
Cl .
Bi 55. Bi 55. Bi 55. Bi 55. Magie c hai ng v l
1
A
Mg v
2
A
Mg. ng v
1
A
Mg c nguyn t lng l 24. ng v
2
A
Mg hn ng v
1
A
Mg 1 ntron. Tnh khi lng nguyn t trung bnh ca magie. Bit s
nguyn t trong hai ng v c t l X : Y 3 : 2 = .
Bi 56. Bi 56. Bi 56. Bi 56. Argon tch ra t khng kh c ba ng v l
( ) ( ) ( )

36 38 40
18 18 18
Ar 0, 337% , Ar 0, 063% , Ar 99, 6% .
Tnh th tch ca
( )
20 g kc.
Bi 57. Bi 57. Bi 57. Bi 57. Mt nguyn t c ba ng v m s khi l 3 s lin tip c tng s l 51. Xc nh 3 ng v ,
bit rng ng v nng nht c s proton t hn s ntron 2 ht. Vit k hiu nguyn t ca 3
ng v , bit ng v nh nht c s proton bng s ntron.
Bi 58. Bi 58. Bi 58. Bi 58. Nguyn t X ca nguyn t R c tng s ht c bn l 46. S ht khng mang in bng
8
15
s
ht mang in.
a/ Xc nh tn R.
b/ Y l ng v ca X. Y c t hn X l 1 ntron v Y chim 4% v s nguyn t ca R. Tnh
nguyn t lng trung bnh ca R.
Bi 59. Bi 59. Bi 59. Bi 59. Mt nguyn t X c ba ng v ng vi s khi l
3
36, 38, A v t l phn trm tng ng ln
lt l 0, 34%; 0, 06%; 99, 6%. Bit c 125 nguyn t ca nguyn t X c khi lng l
( )
4997, 5 .v.C . Tnh s khi A
3
?
Bi 60. Bi 60. Bi 60. Bi 60. Bo c hai ng v, mi ng v u c 5 proton. ng v th nht c s proton bng s ntron.
ng v th hai c s ntron bng 1,2 ln s proton. Bit nguyn t lng trung bnh ca B l
10,812. Tnh % mi ng v ?
Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t


P PP Pa aa ag gg ge ee e - -- - 2 22 20 00 0 - -- - " "" "A AA Al ll ll ll l t tt th hh he ee e f ff fl ll lo oo ow ww we ee er rr r o oo of ff f t tt to oo om mm mo oo or rr rr rr ro oo ow ww w a aa ar rr re ee e i ii in nn n t tt th hh he ee e s ss se ee ee ee ek kk ks ss s o oo of ff f t tt to oo od dd da aa ay yy y " "" "
Bi 61. Bi 61. Bi 61. Bi 61. Mt cht X trong t nhin l hn hp ca 3 ng v. ng v th nht cha 12 ntron chim
78, 6% s nguyn t. ng v th hai cha 13 ntron chim 10% . ng v th ba cha 14
ntron. Nguyn t lng trung bnh ca ba ng v ny l
( )
24, 328 .v.C . Tm s hiu nguyn
t v vit k hiu mi ng v.
Bi 62. Bi 62. Bi 62. Bi 62. Mt cht X trong t nhin l hn hp ca 3 ng v. ng v th nht c 5 ntron chim 50%,
ng v th hai c 7 ntron chim 35% v ng v th ba c 8 ntron chim 15%. Nguyn t
khi trung bnh ca hn hp l 12,15.
a/ Tnh s khi ca mi ng v.
b/ Vit k hiu nguyn t ca tng ng v.
Bi 63. Bi 63. Bi 63. Bi 63. Nguyn t X c hai ng v m s nguyn t ca chng c t l 27 : 23. Ht nhn ng v
( )
I
gm 35 proton v 44 ntron. ng v
( )
II nhiu hn ng v
( )
I hai ntron. Tnh khi lng
nguyn t trung bnh ca X ?
S:
( )

X
M 79, 92 .v.C = .
Bi 64. Bi 64. Bi 64. Bi 64. Nguyn t A c tng s ht bng 126. S ntron nhiu hn s electron l 12 ht.
a/ Tnh s proton v s khi ca A ?
b/ Nguyn t A gm ba ng v X, Y, Z. S khi ca X bng trung bnh cng s khi ca Y v
Z. Hiu s ntron ca Y v Z gp hai ln s proton ca nguyn t hiro. Tnh s khi ca Y
v Z ?
c/ Nguyn t trung bnh ca A bng 87, 88 . Hi ng v Z chim bao nhiu nguyn t trong
tng s 625 nguyn t. Bit t l s nguyn t ca Y v Z l 1 : 6.
S: / / /
88
38 Y Z
a A b A 89, A 87 c 90 = = nguyn t.
Bi 65. Bi 65. Bi 65. Bi 65. Nguyn t X c ba ng v l
( ) ( ) ( )

1 2 3
A A A
X 92, 3% , X 4, 7% , X 3% . Bit tng s khi ca ba
ng v l 87. S ntron trong
2
A
X nhiu hn trong
1
A
X l mt ht. Khi lng nguyn t trung
bnh ca X l 28,107 .
a/ Tm cc s khi
1 2 3
A , A , A ?
b/ Nu trong ng v
1
A
X c s ntron v s proton nh nhau. Tm s ntron trong mi ng v
S: / /
1 2 3
a A 28, A 29, A 30 b 14, 15, 16 = = = .
Bi 66. Bi 66. Bi 66. Bi 66. Tng s ht proton, ntron v electron trong mt nguyn t A l 16, trong nguyn t B l 58.
Tm s proton, s ntron v s khi ca cc nguyn t A v B. Gi s s chnh lch gia s khi
v khi lng nguyn t trung bnh l khng qua mt n v.
S: a/ A l
11
5
B v B c th l
39
19
K hoc
40
18
Ar .
Bi 67. Bi 67. Bi 67. Bi 67. Mt nguyn t X gm hai ng v X
1
v X
2
. ng v X
1
c tng s ht l 18. ng v X
2
c tng
s ht l 20. Bit rng % cc ng v trong X bng nhau v cc loi ht trong X cng bng nhau.
Xc nh khi lng nguyn t trung bnh ca X ? Gi tn X ?
S:
X
M 13, M : Al = .
Bi 68. Bi 68. Bi 68. Bi 68. Mt nguyn t R c ba ng v l X, Y, Z. Bit tng s ht ca ba ng v bng 129, s ntron
trong ng v X hn ng v Y mt ht. ng v Z c s proton bng s ntron.
a/ Xc nh in tch ht nhn nguyn t v s khi ca ba ng v X, Y, Z ?
b/ Bit
20
752875.10 nguyn t ca R c khi lng l
( )
m g . T l nguyn t cc ng v nh
sau: Z : Y 2769 : 141 = v Y : X 611 : 390 = . Xc nh khi lng nguyn t trung bnh
ca R v tnh gi tr m ?
S: a/
30 29 28
14 14 14
X, Y, Z . b/
( ) ( )

R
M 28,107 .v.C , m 3070, 63 g = = .
Phn loi v Phn loi v Phn loi v Phn loi v P PP Phng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 Tp 1 Tp 1 Tp 1 Tp 1 Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on


" "" "C CC C n nn n c cc c b bb b t tt th hh h n nn ng gg g m mm mi ii in nn nh hh h " "" " P PP Pa aa ag gg ge ee e - -- - 2 22 21 11 1 - -- -
Bi 69. Bi 69. Bi 69. Bi 69. X l nguyn t thuc nhm halogen. Cho
( )
2, 3 g Na tc dng va vi X
2
.
a/ Tm nguyn t khi v tn ca X ?
b/ X c hai ng v. Bit tng s khi hai ng v l 72. ng v th nht c s ntron nhiu
hn s proton l 1 v c % s nguyn t gp ba ln s nguyn t ca ng v hai. Xc nh s
khi, s ntron ca mi ng v.
Bi 70. Bi 70. Bi 70. Bi 70. Cho
( )
2, 984 g MCl tc dng vi dung dch AgNO
3
d th thu c
( )
5, 74 g kt ta.
a/ Xc nh tn kim li M.
b/ M c hai ng v. T s ca ng v I v ng v II l 19 : 1 . S ntron ca ng v II nhiu
hn ng v I l 2. Tm s khi ca mi ng v.
Bi 71. Bi 71. Bi 71. Bi 71. Cho
( )
10, 29 g mui NaX tc dng ht vi dung dch AgNO
3
thu c
( )
18, 79 g kt ta.
a/ Xc nh nguyn t lng trung bnh ca nguyn t X.
b/ Bit X c 2 ng v, ng v I hn ng v II 10% v s nguyn t. Ht nhn ng v I km
hn ng v II l 2 ntron. Xc nh s khi ca mi ng v.
Bi 72. Bi 72. Bi 72. Bi 72. Nguyn t khi trung bnh ca Bo l 10,81. Bo gm hai ng v:
11
5
B v
10
5
B. C bao nhiu

11
5
% B trong axit boric
( )
3 3
H BO .
Bi 73. Bi 73. Bi 73. Bi 73. ng c hai ng v l
63 65
29 29
Cu, Cu . Nguyn t khi trung bnh ca ng l 63,54. Tm t l khi
lng ca
63
29
Cu trong
2
CuCl .
Bi 74. Bi 74. Bi 74. Bi 74. Nguyn t khi ca clo l 35,5. Clo c hai ng v l
35
Cl v
37
Cl .
a/ Hi c bao nhiu % v khi lng ca
35
Cl cha trong axit percloric HClO
4
.
b/ C bao nhiu % v khi lng ca
37
Cl cha trong mui kali clorat KClO
3
.
Bi 75. Bi 75. Bi 75. Bi 75. Cho
( )
1, 2 g kim loi M tan ht trong dung dch HCl, sau phn ng thu c
( )
1,12 l kh H
2

( )
kc . Xc nh tn M ?
S:
( )
M 24 Mg = .
Bi 76. Bi 76. Bi 76. Bi 76. Khi cho
( )
0, 6 g mt kim loi nhm IIA tc dng va vi nc to ra
( )
0, 336 l kh hiro
( )
kc . Xc nh kim loi ?
S: Ca.
Bi 77. Bi 77. Bi 77. Bi 77. t chy hon ton
( )
5, 4 g mt kim loi R c ha tr khng i n thu c
( )
10, 2 g oxit. Tm
tn R ?
HD: p dng LBTKL, dn n
R
M 9n = , nn R l nhm
( )
Al .
Bi 78. Bi 78. Bi 78. Bi 78. Cho
( )
2, 4 g kim loi A ha tr II phn ng va vi
( )
100 ml dung dch HCl, sau phn ng
thu c
( )
0, 2 g kh
( )
kc .
a/ nh tn kim loi A.
b/ Tnh nng mol/l ca dung dch HCl.
Bi 79. Bi 79. Bi 79. Bi 79. Cho
( )
100 ml dung dch AgNO
3
phn ng va vi
( )
200 ml dung dch NaCl, sau phn ng
thu c
( )
14, 35 g kt ta.
a/ Tnh nng / mol l ca dung dch NaCl v dung dch AgNO
3
.
b/ Cho vo dung dch AgNO
3
trn
( )
20 ml dung dch NaCl
( )
2 M . Tnh khi lng kt ta thu
c sau phn ng ?
Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t


P PP Pa aa ag gg ge ee e - -- - 2 22 22 22 2 - -- - " "" "A AA Al ll ll ll l t tt th hh he ee e f ff fl ll lo oo ow ww we ee er rr r o oo of ff f t tt to oo om mm mo oo or rr rr rr ro oo ow ww w a aa ar rr re ee e i ii in nn n t tt th hh he ee e s ss se ee ee ee ek kk ks ss s o oo of ff f t tt to oo od dd da aa ay yy y " "" "
Bi 80. Bi 80. Bi 80. Bi 80. Cho
( )
3, 36 l oxi
( )
kc phn ng hon ton vi kim loi ha tr
( )
III thu c
( )
10, 2 g oxit.
a/ Hy xc nh tn kim loi ha tr
( )
III .
b/ Ha tan oxit thu c bng dung dch HCl 20% va .
Tnh khi lng mui thu c.
Tnh khi lng dung dch HCl.
Tnh nng % mui thu c.
Bi 81. Bi 81. Bi 81. Bi 81. Cho
( )
4, 68 g kim loi kim M tc dng vi nc thu c
( )
1344 ml kh
( )
kc . Xc nh M ?
Bi 82. Bi 82. Bi 82. Bi 82. Ha tan
( )
3, 36 l HCl
( )
kc vo nc ta c
( )
300 ml dung dch A.
a/ Tnh nng mol/l ca dung dch A.
b/ Tnh khi lng dung dch
( )

2
Ca OH 20% trung ha hon ton dung dch A.
Bi 83. Bi 83. Bi 83. Bi 83. Cho A l mui canxi halogenua. Cho dung dch cha
( )
0, 2 g A tc dng vi lng d dung dch
bc nitrat th thu c
( )
0, 376 g kt ta bc halogenua. Hy xc nh cng thc ca A.
HD: Cch 1. Gii theo pt, . Cch 2. Gii theo tng gim khi lng.
2
A : CaBr .
Bi 84. Bi 84. Bi 84. Bi 84. Ha tan ht
( )
12 g RCO
3
vo dung dch HCl d, kh sinh ra cho hp th vo dung dch
( )
2
Ba OH d, thu c
( )
23, 64 g kt ta.
a/ Xc nh tn R, cng thc ha hc ca RCO
3
?
b/ Nu cho RCO
3
trn vo
( )
100 ml dung dch HCl
( )
1 M . Hi RCO
3
c tan ht khng ?
c/ Vit k hiu nguyn t R, bit trong ht nhn nguyn t R c s ht mang in bng s ht
khng mang in.
Bi 85. Bi 85. Bi 85. Bi 85. Cho
( )
4,12 g dung dch mui NaX tc dng va vi dung dch AgNO
3
thu c
( )
7, 52 g kt
ta.
a/ Tnh nguyn t khi ca X v gi tn X ?
b/ Nguyn t X c hai ng v. Bit ng v th hai c s ntron nhiu hn ng v th nht l 2
v phn trm ca hai ng v bng nhau. Tnh s khi ca mi ng v ?
S: a/ NaBr b/
1 2
A 79, A 81 = = .
Bi 86. Bi 86. Bi 86. Bi 86. Cho
( )
14, 7994 g mui clorua ca kim loi M tc dng vi dung dch AgNO
3
d thu c
( )
30, 307 g kt ta AgCl (hiu sut phn ng l 96%).
a/ Vit phng trnh phn ng xy ra v tnh nguyn t lng ca kim loi M v gi tn M. Cho
bit M 90 < v Cl 35, 5 ; Ag 108 = = .
b/ Nguyn t M c hai ng v l X v Y vi tng s khi l 128. S nguyn t ng v X bng
0, 37 s nguyn t ca ng v Y. Tnh s khi ca X v Y ?
S: a/ M 63, 54 M : Cu = . b/
X Y
A 65, A 63 = = .
Bi 87. Bi 87. Bi 87. Bi 87. Mt nguyn t X c ba ng v vi thnh phn % s nguyn t ln lt l 92, 3%; 4, 7%; 3%.
Bit tng s khi 3 ng v l 87. Nu cho
( )
2, 8107 g X tc dng vid dung dch NaOH, thy
sau phn ng thu c
( )
4, 48 l H
2

( )
kc theo phng trnh:
2 2 3 2
X 2NaOH H O Na XO 2H .
a/ Tm s khi 3 ng v, bit rng ht nhn ng v II cha nhiu hn ng v I l 1 ntron.
b/ Tm s ntron mi ng v, bit c mt ng v c cng s proton v s ntron.
Phn loi v Phn loi v Phn loi v Phn loi v P PP Phng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 Tp 1 Tp 1 Tp 1 Tp 1 Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on


" "" "C CC C n nn n c cc c b bb b t tt th hh h n nn ng gg g m mm mi ii in nn nh hh h " "" " P PP Pa aa ag gg ge ee e - -- - 2 22 23 33 3 - -- -
Phng php
Nm k cch vit cu hnh electron nguyn t da vo nguyn l vng bn, nguyn l Pauli v
quy tc Hund.
Da vo s electron lp ngoi cng suy ra tnh cht ca nguyn t ha hc.
Lu
T Z 21 = tr ln, sau khi vit cu hnh, phi sp xp li theo cc lp t trong ra ngoi.
Dng
( )

4 2
n 1 d ns



( )

5 1
n 1 d ns .
Dng
( )
9 2
n 1 d ns



( )
0 1
n 1 d ns
1
.
Lp ngoi cng c


1e, 2e, 3e :
4e :
5e, 6e, 7e :
8e :
'
1
1
1
1
1
1
!
1
1
1
1
1
1+

Nguyn t phi kim thng nhn thm electron bin thnh ion m (t c cu bn vi 8e
lp ngoi cng ca kh him cng chu k):
m
X me ion X

.
Nguyn t kim loi thng cho electron tr thnh ion dng:
n
M ne ion M


( t c cu bn vng vi 8e lp ngoi cng, ging vi kh him chu k ngay trc ).
Hp cht ca nguyn t R vi oxi, vi hiro:

IA IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA
Oxit cao nht
2
R O
RO
2 3
R O
2
RO
2 5
R O
3
RO
2 7
R O
Hp cht vi hidro RH
2
RH
3
RH
4
RH
3
RH
2
RH
RH

Hp cht
Nhm
Kim loi (tr H, He, B)
Kim loi hay phi kim.
Thng l phi kim.
Kh him.
S: a/
X
A 28,107 = v 28, 29, 30. b/ 14, 15, 16.
Bi 88. Bi 88. Bi 88. Bi 88. S mol cc kim loi A, B, C trong hn hp t l vi nhau theo 4 : 2 : 1. Khi lng mol phn t
ca chng t l vi nhau theo 3 : 5 : 7 . Khi cho
( )
4, 64 g hn hp cc kim loi A, B, C tc dng
vi axit clohidric, thy c
( )
3
3,136 dm kh thot ra. Trng thi oxi ha ca cc kim loi trong
cc mui c to l II. Hy
a/ Vit phng trnh phn ng tng qut cho phn ng ca kim loi M vi axit clohidric.
b/ Tnh lng hidro thot ra ? Xc nh 3 kim loi A, B, C ?
S:
( )
0,14 mol ,
( ) ( ) ( )
A Mg , B Ca , C Fe .









































Dng ton 4 Dng ton 4 Dng ton 4 Dng ton 4. . . . Cu hnh electron, ion Cu hnh electron, ion Cu hnh electron, ion Cu hnh electron, ion Mi lin Mi lin Mi lin Mi lin h gia cu hnh v tnh cht nguyn t h gia cu hnh v tnh cht nguyn t h gia cu hnh v tnh cht nguyn t h gia cu hnh v tnh cht nguyn t
Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t


P PP Pa aa ag gg ge ee e - -- - 2 22 24 44 4 - -- - " "" "A AA Al ll ll ll l t tt th hh he ee e f ff fl ll lo oo ow ww we ee er rr r o oo of ff f t tt to oo om mm mo oo or rr rr rr ro oo ow ww w a aa ar rr re ee e i ii in nn n t tt th hh he ee e s ss se ee ee ee ek kk ks ss s o oo of ff f t tt to oo od dd da aa ay yy y " "" "









Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho
a/
( )
A Z 20 =
Cu hnh electron
( )
2 2 6 2 6 2
A Z 20 : 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s =




S phn b obitan:


Do l kim loi v c 2 electron ngoi cng nn c kh nng cho 2e:
2
A 2e ion A

.
Cu hnh electron ion
( )
2 2 2 6 2 6
A Z 18 : 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p

= .
- B sung: Cch xc nh v tr, chu k, nhm v phn nhm trong bng tun hon (hc chng 2)
nguyn t = s in tch ht nhn = Z.
S lp = s th t chu k (hng ngang t tri sang phi trong bng tun hon).
Nhm v phn nhm (hng dc t trn xung).
Xc nh s nhm v phn nhm chnh (nhm A):
Nu electron cui cng in vo phn lp s hoc p th thuc nhm A.
Lc , s th t ca nhm A = s electron lp ngoi cng ( cng l s electron ha tr).
Nu electron cui cng in vo phn lp d hoc f th thuc nhm B (theo mc nng lng).
Lc , s th t ca nhm B = s electron lp ngoi cng cng vi s electron phn
lp d cha bo ha st lp ngoi cng ( cng l s electron ha tr). C th, xc nh s
th t nhm cn da vo tng s electron hai phn lp
( )
x y
n 1 d ns (vi n l lp ngoi
cng v theo cu hnh electron). Khi :
o Nu x y 8 < th s th t nhm x y = .
o Nu 8 x y 10 : thuc nhm
( )
VIII B .
o Nu x y 10 th s th t nhm
( )
x y 10 = .
b/
( )
E Z 21 =

nguyn t: 21.
C 4 lp electron Thuc chu k 4.
Electron tn cng in vo phn lp d (theo mc nng lng) nn thuc phn nhm ph nhm B
v c tng s electron hai phn lp (3d
1
v 4s
2
: theo cu hnh e) l 3 < 8 nn thuc nhm IIIB.

c/
( )
G Z 22 =

Th d 15 Th d 15 Th d 15 Th d 15. Cho cc nguyn t c in tch tng ng:
( ) ( ) ( )
A Z 20 , E Z 21 , G Z 22 , = = =
( ) ( )
L Z 24 , M Z 29 = = .
Vit cu hnh electron ? C bao nhiu lp ? Thuc chu k my ? Xc nh s electron
lp ngoi cng ? Thuc nhm my ? D on tnh cht (kim loi, phi kim hay kh
him) S phn b obitan ca mi nguyn t ? C bao nhiu electron c thn ? Vit cu
hnh ion c th c ca chng ?
C 2 electron lp ngoi cng
C 4 lp Thuc chu k 4
Thuc nhm IIA (do tn cng l s)
Tnh kim loi

1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
4s
2
Khng c electron c thn
Theo mc nng lng
2 2 6 2 6 2 1
: 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d
Cu hnh electron
2 2 6 2 6 1 2
: 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s
Theo mc nng lng
2 2 6 2 6 2 2
: 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d
Cu hnh electron
2 2 6 2 6 2 2
: 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s
Phn loi v Phn loi v Phn loi v Phn loi v P PP Phng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 Tp 1 Tp 1 Tp 1 Tp 1 Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on


" "" "C CC C n nn n c cc c b bb b t tt th hh h n nn ng gg g m mm mi ii in nn nh hh h " "" " P PP Pa aa ag gg ge ee e - -- - 2 22 25 55 5 - -- -
nguyn t: 22.
C 4 lp electron Thuc chu k 4.
Thuc nhm IVB.


d/
( )
L Z 24 =

nguyn t: 24.
C 4 lp electron Thuc chu k 4.
Thuc nhm VIIB.


e/
( )
M Z 29 =


nguyn t: 29.
C 4 lp electron Thuc chu k 4.
Thuc nhm IB.







Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho
a/
2 2 6 2 4 32
16
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p : A l phi kim.
b/
2 2 6 2 6 2 40
20
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s : B l kim loi.
c/ S
( )
( )

19
2 2 6 2 6 2 40
20 19
32.10 C
p 20 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s : C
1, 6.10 C

= = l kim loi.







Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho
Tng s ht l 13
( )
Z N E 13 2Z N 13 N 13 2Z do Z E = = = =
M
N 13 2Z
1 1, 5 1 1, 5 3, 7 Z 4, 3
Z Z

. Do Z nguyn nn Z 4 = .
Do R c Z E 4, N 5 = = = v
9
4
R.
Cu hnh electron
( )
2 2
R Z 4 : 1s 2s = .
Biu din obitan
( )
R Z 4 : =

Theo mc nng lng
2 2 6 2 6 2 4
: 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d
Cu hnh electron
2 2 6 2 6 5 1
: 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s
Theo mc nng lng
2 2 6 2 6 2 9
: 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d
Cu hnh electron
2 2 6 2 6 10 1
: 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s
Th d 1 Th d 1 Th d 1 Th d 16 66 6. Hy vit k hiu nguyn t v cu hnh electron nguyn t, t xc nh tnh cht ha
hc ca nguyn t, bit:
a/ Nguyn t c lp electron ngoi cng l 3s
2
3p
4
v c s ntron bng s proton.
b/ Nguyn t c mc nng lng cao nht l 4s
2
v c s khi gp hai ln s proton.
c/ in tch ht nhn ca nguyn t l
( )
19
32.10 C

, s khi bng 40.


Th d 17 Th d 17 Th d 17 Th d 17. Nguyn t R c tng cc loi ht bng 13. Xc nh thnh phn cu to (cc loi ht) ?
Vit cu hnh electron ? Biu din obitan ? Cho bit v tr trong bng tun hon ? Nu
tnh cht (kim loi hay phi kim hay kh him) ? N c kh nng cho hay nhn electron ?
Vit c ch hnh thnh ion v cu hnh electron tng ng ca n ?
Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t


P PP Pa aa ag gg ge ee e - -- - 2 22 26 66 6 - -- - " "" "A AA Al ll ll ll l t tt th hh he ee e f ff fl ll lo oo ow ww we ee er rr r o oo of ff f t tt to oo om mm mo oo or rr rr rr ro oo ow ww w a aa ar rr re ee e i ii in nn n t tt th hh he ee e s ss se ee ee ee ek kk ks ss s o oo of ff f t tt to oo od dd da aa ay yy y " "" "
V tr
th: 4.
C 2 lp electron thuc chu k 2.
C 2 electron lp ngoi cng, electron cui in vo phn lp s thuc nhm IIA.
Tnh cht l kim loi.
C kh nng cho 2 electron lp ngoi cng tr thnh ion dng R
2+
:
2
R 2e ion R

.
Cu hnh electron ca ion tng ng
( )
2 2
R Z 2 : 1s

=







Bi gii Bi gii Bi gii Bi gii tham kho tham kho tham kho tham kho
Ta c: P N E 58 = , m P E Z 2Z N 58 N 58 2Z = = = = .
Mt khc:
N 58 2Z
1 1, 5 1 1, 5 16, 5 Z 19, 3
Z Z

.
Do Z (s proton = s th t) l s nguyn nn Z c th nhn 1 trong cc gi tr 17; 18; 19 .
V s khi A N Z 40 = < nn:

Z 17 18 19
N 58 2Z = 24 22 20
A Z N = 41 (loi) 40 (loi) 39 (nhn)

Theo gi thit, ta chn nghim:
( )

39
19
Z 19, N 20, A 39 R : kali K = = = .
Cu hnh electron:
( )
2 2 6 2 6 1
K Z 19 : 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s = .
Biu din obitan
( )
K Z 19 : =
V tr trong bng tun hon
th t: 19.
C 4 lp electron thuc chu k 4.
C 1 electron lp ngoi cng v electron cui in vo phn lp s thuc nhm IA.
C kh nng cho 1 electron to thnh ion dng K : K 1e K

.
Cu hnh electron tng ng
( )
2 2 6 2 6
K Z 18 : 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p

= .









Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho
a/ Cho bit X v Y l kim loi hay phi kim ?
Ty thuc s electron
( )
x ca phn lp ngoi cng
( )
x
4p m X l kim loi hay phi kim. Chng hn
nh: Nu x 2 th X l kim loi, cn 3 x 5 th X l phi kim.
Th d 1 Th d 1 Th d 1 Th d 18 88 8. Nguyn t M c tng cc loi ht bng 58 v s khi nh hn 40. Xc nh thnh phn
cu to ? Vit cu hnh electron ? Biu din obitan ? Cho bit v tr trong bng tun hon
? Nu tnh cht (kim loi hay phi kim hay kh him) ? N c kh nng cho hay nhn
electron ? Vit c ch hnh thnh ion v cu hnh electron tng ng ca n ?
Th d 19 Th d 19 Th d 19 Th d 19. Nguyn t ca 2 nguyn t X, Y ln lt c phn lp electron ngoi cng l 4p
x
v 4s
y
.
Bit trong X, Y th s proton bng s ntron v X, Y khng l kh him.
a/ Cho bit X v Y l kim loi hay phi kim ?
b/ Vit cu hnh electron v biu din obitan ca X, Y, bit rng tng s electron hai
phn lp ngoi cng ca nguyn t 2 nguyn t l 7 ? X v Y c kh nng cho hay
nhn electron ? Vit c ch cho nhn v cu hnh electron ca ion tng ng ?
Phn loi v Phn loi v Phn loi v Phn loi v P PP Phng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 Tp 1 Tp 1 Tp 1 Tp 1 Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on


" "" "C CC C n nn n c cc c b bb b t tt th hh h n nn ng gg g m mm mi ii in nn nh hh h " "" " P PP Pa aa ag gg ge ee e - -- - 2 22 27 77 7 - -- -
Nguyn t Y l kim loi, v phn lp ngoi cng
( )
y
4s c y 2 .
b/ Xc nh X v Y ?
Cu hnh electron ca X v Y:
Ta c x y 7 = .
x 6 5
y
1 2
X
2 2 6 2 6 2 10 6
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p
2 2 6 2 6 2 10 5
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p
Y
2 2 6 2 6 1
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s
2 2 6 2 6 2
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s

Nu x 6, y 1 = = th X c 8 electron lp ngoi cng X l kh him, tri vi gi thit nn loi.
Vy x 5, y 2 = = .
V x 5 = X c
X
Z 35 = X l Brom (phi kim).
Vy
( )

2 2 6 2 6 2 10 5
Br Z 35 : 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p = (theo mc nng lng).

2 2 6 2 6 10 2 5
: 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s 4p (theo cu hnh electron).
V y 2 Y = c
Y
Z 20 = Y l Canxi (kim loi).
Vy
( )

2 2 6 2 6 2
Ca Z 20 : 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s = .
Biu din obitan
( )
Br Z 35 : =


( )
Ca Z 20 : =


V tr trong bng tun hon
C
( )
Br Z 35 : =
nguyn t: 35.
C 4 lp electron thuc chu k 4.
Lp ngoi cng c 7 electron, electron cui in vo phn lp p (theo mc nng lng)
thuc nhm VIIA (nhm halogen).
C 7 electron ngoi cng, nn c kh nng nhn thm 1 electron bin thnh ion m (t c
cu bn vi 8e lp ngoi cng ca kh him cng chu k).
C ch: Br 1e Br

. Cu hnh:
( )

2 2 6 2 6 10 2 6
Br Z 36 : 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s 4p

= .
C
( )

2 2 6 2 6 2
Ca Z 20 : 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s =
nguyn t: 20.
C 4 lp thuc chu k 4.
Lp ngoi cng c 2 electron, electron cui in vo phn lp s thuc nhm IIA.
Do l kim loi v c 2 electron ngoi cng nn c kh nng cho 2e:
2
Ca 2e ion Ca

.
Cu hnh electron ion
( )
2 2 2 6 2 6
Ca Z 18 : 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p

= .




1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
4s
2
1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6


3d
10

4p
5


4s
2

Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t


P PP Pa aa ag gg ge ee e - -- - 2 22 28 88 8 - -- - " "" "A AA Al ll ll ll l t tt th hh he ee e f ff fl ll lo oo ow ww we ee er rr r o oo of ff f t tt to oo om mm mo oo or rr rr rr ro oo ow ww w a aa ar rr re ee e i ii in nn n t tt th hh he ee e s ss se ee ee ee ek kk ks ss s o oo of ff f t tt to oo od dd da aa ay yy y " "" "



















Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho
a/ Hp cht ca R vi hidro l
4 2
RH RO : l hp cht oxit cao nht ca R vi oxi.
Do trong oxit cao nht ca n
( )
2
RO cha 53, 3% oxi v khi lng nn

R
R O R
%R %O 100 53, 3 53, 3
M 28, 038 R :
M 2M M 32

= = = l Silic
( )
Si .
b/ Oxit cao nht ca R c dng
2 5 3
R O RH : l cng thc hp cht vi hir ca R.
Do hp cht vi hiro
( )
3
RH c R chim 82, 35% v khi lng nn

R
R H R
%R %H 82, 35 17, 65
M 13, 997
M 3.M M 3
= = = R : l Nit
( )
N .
c/ Oxit cao nht ca R c dng
3 2
RO RH : l cng thc hp cht vi hidro ca R.
Do hp cht vi hidro
( )
2
RH c H chim 5, 88% v khi lng nn

R
R H R
%R %H 100 5, 88 5, 88
M 32, 01 R :
M 2M M 2

= = = l lu hunh
( )
S .
d/ Oxit cao nht ca R c dng
2 7
R O RH : l cng thc hp cht vi hiro ca R.
Do hp cht vi hiro
( )
RH c H chim 2, 74% v khi lng nn

R
R H R
%R %H 100 2, 74 2, 74
M 35, 496 R :
M M M 1

= = = l clo
( )
Cl .
e/ Hp cht ca R vi hidro l
3 2 5
RH R O : l hp cht oxit cao nht ca R vi oxi.
Do trong oxit cao nht ca n
( )
2 5
R O cha 74, 08% oxi v khi lng nn

R
R O R
%R %O 100 74, 08 74, 08
M 13, 996 R :
2M 5M 2.M 5.16

= = = nit
( )
N .
f/ Gi ha tr cao nht vi H l n
H
v vi oxi l n
O
.
Th d Th d Th d Th d 20 20 20 20. Xc nh nguyn t R trong cc trng hp sau
a/ Hp cht kh vi hidro ca mt nguyn t R l RH
4
. Oxit cao nht ca n cha 53, 3% oxi
v khi lng.
b/ Oxit cao nht ca mt nguyn t tng ng vi cng thc R
2
O
5
. Hp cht ca n vi
hidro l mt cht c thnh phn khng i vi R chim 82, 35% v khi lng.
c/ Oxit cao nht ca mt nguyn t ng vi cng thc RO
3
. Hp cht ca n vi hidro c
5, 88% H v khi lng.
d/ Oxit cao nht ca nguyn t R c dng R
2
O
7
. Sn phm kh ca R vi hidro cha 2, 74%
hidro v khi lng.
e/ Hp cht kh vi hidro ca mt nguyn t c cng thc RH
3
. Oxit cao nht ca n cha
74, 08% khi lng oxi. Tm tn nguyn t ?
f/ Nguyn t Y c ha tr cao nht i vi oxi gp 3 ln ha tr trong hp cht kh vi hidro.
Gi X l cng thc hp cht oxit cao nht, Z l cng thc hp cht kh vi hidro ca Y.
Bit t khi hi ca X i vi Z l 2, 353%.
Phn loi v Phn loi v Phn loi v Phn loi v P PP Phng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 Tp 1 Tp 1 Tp 1 Tp 1 Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on


" "" "C CC C n nn n c cc c b bb b t tt th hh h n nn ng gg g m mm mi ii in nn nh hh h " "" " P PP Pa aa ag gg ge ee e - -- - 2 22 29 99 9 - -- -
Theo bi ta c:
O H H
O H O
n 3n n 2
n n 8 n 8
' '
1 1 = =
1 1

! !
1 1 = =
1 1
+ +
.
Gi s hp cht X l
3
YO v Z l YH
2
.
Ta c
2
2
YO
Y
X Y
Y
YH Y
M
M 32
d 2, 353 2, 353 M 32 Y :
M M 2

= = = =

lu hunh
( )
S .


BA BA BA BAI T I T I T I TP A P A P A P AP DU P DU P DU P DUNG NG NG NG
Bi 89. Bi 89. Bi 89. Bi 89. Bi tp c bn v cu hnh electron
a/ Hy vit cu hnh electron ca nguyn t cc nguyn t c in tch ht nhn ln lt l

( )
A Z 15 = .
( )
D Z 12 = .
( )
E Z 17 = .

( )
F Z 13 = .
( )
G Z 18 = .
( )
L Z 21 = .

( )
M Z 26 = .
( )
Q Z 24 = .
( )
T Z 29 = .
b/ Xc nh s electron lp ngoi cng v tnh cht ca nguyn t ni trn.
c/ i vi mi nguyn t, lp electron no lin kt cht ch hn.
Bi 90. Bi 90. Bi 90. Bi 90. Cho bng cc thnh phn ca mt s nguyn t b trng mt s phn
Z A S p S n S e in tch ht nhn Tnh cht
Nguyn t X 31 15
Nguyn t Y 17 37
Nguyn t T 20 20
Nguyn t Q 29 34

a/ in gi tr thch hp vo ch trng ?
b/ Vit cu hnh electron ca cc nguyn t trn ?
c/ Vit k hiu ca cc nguyn t trn (c xc nh tn nguyn t) ?
Bi 91. Bi 91. Bi 91. Bi 91. Xt cc nguyn t:
11 19 27 40 80
5 9 13 20 35
B, F, Al, Ca, Br .
a/ Xc nh s electron mi lp. S electron lp ngoi cng ?
b/ Nhn xt v s lp electron ngoi cng ca B v Al, ca F v Br ?
Bi 92. Bi 92. Bi 92. Bi 92. Cho cc nguyn t:
20 31 39
10 15 19
Ne, P, K.
a/ Hy xc nh s proton, s ntron, s electron ca mi nguyn t trn ?
b/ Vit cu hnh electron ca cc nguyn t trn ?
c/ Cho bit nguyn t no l kim loi, phi kim, kh him ?
d/ Phn b electron lp ngoi cng ln cc obitan v cho bit c bao nhiu electron c thn
lp ngoi cng ?
Bi 93. Bi 93. Bi 93. Bi 93. Cho cu hnh electron lp ngoi cng ca cc nguyn t sau

( )
6
A 2p .
( )
1
E 3s .
( )
5
G 3p .
( )
1
L 4s .
a/ Vit cu hnh electron y ca cc nguyn t trn ?
b/ Cho bit nguyn t no l kim loi, phi kim, kh him ?
c/ Phn b electron lp ngoi cng ln cc obitan v cho bit c bao nhiu electron c thn
lp ngoi cng ?
d/ Vit k hiu nguyn t khi bit trong mi nguyn t c s ht khng mang in lun nhiu
Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t


P PP Pa aa ag gg ge ee e - -- - 3 33 30 00 0 - -- - " "" "A AA Al ll ll ll l t tt th hh he ee e f ff fl ll lo oo ow ww we ee er rr r o oo of ff f t tt to oo om mm mo oo or rr rr rr ro oo ow ww w a aa ar rr re ee e i ii in nn n t tt th hh he ee e s ss se ee ee ee ek kk ks ss s o oo of ff f t tt to oo od dd da aa ay yy y " "" "
hn ht mang in dng 1 ht ?
Bi 94. Bi 94. Bi 94. Bi 94. Cho bit cu hnh electron phn lp ngoi cng ca cc nguyn t sau

( )
1
A 3d .
( )
3
E 4p .
( )
2
G 5s .
( )
6
L 4p .

( )
5
M 3p .
( )
1
Q 3s .
( )
2
R 3p .
( )
1
V 4s .
a/ Vit cu hnh electron y ca cc nguyn t trn ?
b/ Cho bit nguyn t no l kim loi, phi kim, kh him ?
c/ Phn b electron lp ngoi cng ln cc obitan v cho bit c bao nhiu electron c thn
lp ngoi cng ?
Bi 95. Bi 95. Bi 95. Bi 95. Cho cu hnh electron lp ngoi cng ca cc nguyn t nhm A l
1 1
A: 3s , B: 4s .
a/ Vit cu hnh electron ca chng. Tm A v B ?
b/ Vit phn ng xy ra khi cho A, B tc dng vi H
2
O, dung dch HCl, clo, lu hunh, oxi ?
Bi 96. Bi 96. Bi 96. Bi 96. Cho cc nguyn t X, Y, Z c cu hnh electron lp ngoi cng ln lt l
( )
4
X : n 1 p ,
( )
4 1
Y : np , Z : n 1 s vi n 3, n 4 = = . Xc nh X, Y, Z ?
Bi 97. Bi 97. Bi 97. Bi 97. Cho cc nguyn t sau
Nguyn t A c in tch ht nhn 16+.
in tch ht nhn ca nguyn t l
( )
19
32.10 C

.
in tch ca v nguyn t l
( )
19
48.10 C

.
Nguyn t X c s hiu nguyn t 20.
Nguyn t Y c 3 lp electron, lp M cha 6 electron.
Nguyn t B c 3 lp electron, lp ngoi cha 3 electron.
Nguyn t C c tng s electron phn lp p l 9.
Nguyn t D c electron cui cng c in vo phn lp 4s
1
.
a/ Vit cu hnh electron ca cc nguyn t trn.
b/ mi nguyn t, lp electron no cha y electron (lp electron bo ha).
c/ Xc nh tnh kim loi, phi kim, kh him ca cc nguyn t .
Bi 98. Bi 98. Bi 98. Bi 98. Cho cc nguyn t v ion sau
Nguyn t A c 3 electron ngoi cng thuc phn lp 3s v 4p.
Nguyn t B c 12 electron.
Nguyn t C c 7 electron ngoi cng lp N.
Nguyn t D c cu hnh electron lp ngoi cng l 6s
1
.
Nguyn t E c s electron trn phn lp s bng
1
2
s electron trn phn lp p v s electron
trn phn lp s km s electron trn phn lp p l 6 ht.
a/ Vi cu hnh electron y ca A, B, C, D , E ?
b/ Biu din cu to nguyn t ?
c/ mi nguyn t, lp electron no cha s electron ti a ?
d/ Tnh cht ha hc c bn ca chng ?
Bi 99. Bi 99. Bi 99. Bi 99. Cho X, Y l hai nguyn t c mc nng lng cui cng l 4s
1
v 4s
2
. Bit rng X v Y u c
20 ntron.
a/ Vit cu hnh electron ca X, Y. nh tn X, Y ?
b/ Cho
( )
7, 9 g hn hp X, Y tc dng vi dung dch H
2
SO
4
d, sau phn ng thu c

( )
l 4, 48 kh (kc). Tnh % khi lng tng cht trong hn hp ban u ?
Bi 100. Bi 100. Bi 100. Bi 100. Cho cc ion X , Y

v nguyn t Z u c cu hnh electron l 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
.
a/ Xc nh tn X, Y, Z ?
Phn loi v Phn loi v Phn loi v Phn loi v P PP Phng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 Tp 1 Tp 1 Tp 1 Tp 1 Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on


" "" "C CC C n nn n c cc c b bb b t tt th hh h n nn ng gg g m mm mi ii in nn nh hh h " "" " P PP Pa aa ag gg ge ee e - -- - 3 33 31 11 1 - -- -
b/ Vit cu hnh electron ca X, Y ?
c/ Nguyn t no l kim loi, phi kim, kh him ?
Bi 101. Bi 101. Bi 101. Bi 101. Cho cation M

c cu hnh electron lp ngoi cng l 3p


6
.
a/ Vit cu hnh electron v s phn b orbitan ca nguyn t M ?
b/ Tm v gi tn
2
R

, ion I

c cu hnh electron ging nh ion M

?
Bi 102. Bi 102. Bi 102. Bi 102. Mt nguyn t c Z 20 = . Hy vit cu hnh electron ca
2
X, X

. Cho bit X l nguyn t g ?
Thuc chu k no ? Nhm no ? L kim loi hay phi kim ?
Bi 103. Bi 103. Bi 103. Bi 103. Nguyn t Fe c Z 26 = . Vit cu hnh electron ca nguyn t Fe, xc nh v tr ca Fe trong
bng h thng tun hon cc nguyn t ha hc. Hy vit cu hnh electron ca cc ion
2
Fe


v
3
Fe

.
Bi 104. Bi 104. Bi 104. Bi 104. Cation R

c cu hnh electron lp ngoi cng l 3p


6
.
a/ Xc nh v tr ca R trong bng h thng tun hon ?
b/ Anion X

c cu hnh ging nh cu hnh ca electron R

. Hy cho bit tn v cu hnh


electron ca nguyn t ca nguyn t X ?
Bi 105. Bi 105. Bi 105. Bi 105. Phn lp electron ngoi cng ca hai nguyn t A v B ln lt l 3p v 4s (khng c phn lp
3d). Tng s electron ca hai phn lp bng 5. Hiu s electron ca chng bng 3.
a/ Vit cu hnh electron ca hai nguyn t ny. Suy ra s hiu nguyn t ca hai nguyn t
.
b/ Hai nguyn t ny c s ntron hn km nhau 4 ht v c tng s khi lng nguyn t
bng
( )
71 .v.C . Tnh s ntron v s khi ca mi nguyn t.
Bi 106. Bi 106. Bi 106. Bi 106. Phn lp electron ngoi cng ca hai nguyn t A v B ln lt l 3p v 4s (khng c phn lp
3d). Tng s electron ca hai phn lp bng 6. Hiu s electron ca chng bng 4.
a/ Vit cu hnh electron ca hai nguyn t ny.
b/ Tnh tng s obitan ca mi nguyn t.
c/ Xc nh s electron c thn ca mi nguyn t.
Bi 107. Bi 107. Bi 107. Bi 107. Cho hai nguyn t A v B c cu hnh electron ngoi cng ln lt l 3s
x
v 3p
5
.
a/ Xc nh s in tch ht nhn ca A v B. Bit rng phn lp 3s ca hai nguyn t hn km
nhau 1 electron.
b/ Hy xc nh s electron c thn ca A v B.
Bi 108. Bi 108. Bi 108. Bi 108. Tng s ht trong nguyn t ca mt nguyn t l 58. S khi A ca nguyn t nh hn 40.
a/ Tm s proton, s ntron v s electron ca nguyn t.
b/ Vit cu hnh electron ca nguyn t trn.
Bi 109. Bi 109. Bi 109. Bi 109. Ba nguyn t A, B, C c s hiu nguyn t l 3 s t nhin lin tip. Tng s electron ca
chng l 51. Hy vit cu hnh electron v cho bit tn ca chng.
Bi 110. Bi 110. Bi 110. Bi 110. Oxit cao nht ca mt nguyn t ng vi cng thc
2 5
R O . Hp cht ca n vi hiro l mt
cht c thnh phn khi lng l 82, 35% R v 17, 65% Hidro. Tm nguyn t ?
S: R : N.
Bi 111. Bi 111. Bi 111. Bi 111. Oxit cao nht ca mt nguyn t ng vi cng thc
2 3
R O . Trong hp cht ca n vi hiro c
5, 88% hidro v khi lng. Tm nguyn t ?
S: R : S.
Bi 112. Bi 112. Bi 112. Bi 112. Hp cht vi hidro ca mt nguyn t ng vi cng thc
4
RH . Oxit cao nht ca n cha
53, 3% oxi. Gi tn nguyn t ?
S:
( )
R : Silic Si .
Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t


P PP Pa aa ag gg ge ee e - -- - 3 33 32 22 2 - -- - " "" "A AA Al ll ll ll l t tt th hh he ee e f ff fl ll lo oo ow ww we ee er rr r o oo of ff f t tt to oo om mm mo oo or rr rr rr ro oo ow ww w a aa ar rr re ee e i ii in nn n t tt th hh he ee e s ss se ee ee ee ek kk ks ss s o oo of ff f t tt to oo od dd da aa ay yy y " "" "
Bi 113. Bi 113. Bi 113. Bi 113. Khi cho
( )
3, 33 g mt kim loi kim tc dng vi nc th c
( )
0, 48 g hidro thot ra. Cho bit
tn kim loi kim .
S: M : Li .
Bi 114. Bi 114. Bi 114. Bi 114. Cho
( )
0, 6 g mt kim loi thuc phn nhm chnh nhm II tc dng vi nc th c
( )
l 3, 36
hiro thot ra ( kc). Gi tn kim loi .
S: M : Ca .
Bi 115. Bi 115. Bi 115. Bi 115. Ha tan
( )
20, 2 g hn hp hai kim loi kim nm hai chu k lin tip vo nc d thu c
( )
l 6, 72 kh
( )
kc .
a/ Xc nh tn v khi lng hai kim loi kim .
b/ Tnh th tch dung dch
2 4
H SO 2M cn trung ha dung dch trn.
S:
( )
/ / l a A : Na, B : K b V 0,15 = .
Bi 116. Bi 116. Bi 116. Bi 116. Dn kh clo vo bnh cha natri, thu c
( )
4, 68 g mui
a/ Tnh khi lng natri v th tch kh clo
( )
kc cn ng iu ch c lng mui trn ?
b/ Ha tan lng mui trn vo nc to thnh
( )
200 ml dung dch. Tnh nng mol/l ca
dung dch thu c ?
c/ Khi cho
3
AgNO vo dung dch trn th thu c bao nhiu gam kt ta ?
Bi 117. Bi 117. Bi 117. Bi 117. Cho
( )
19, 5 g Zn phn ng vi
( )
l 8, 96 kh clo.
a/ Tnh khi lng mui thu c ?
b/ Cho mui thu c phn ng va vi
( )
50 ml dung dch KOH to kt ta ln nht.
Tnh nng mol/l ca dung dch thu c ?
Bi 118. Bi 118. Bi 118. Bi 118. Cho
( )
10, 8 g mt kim loi ha tr III tc dng vi dung dch axit HCl to thnh
( )
53, 4 g mui
clorua.
a/ nh tn kim loi ?
b/ t chy hon ton
( )
5, 4 g kim loi trn. Tnh th tch khng kh cn dng
( )
kc . Bit
trong khng kh c
1
5
th tch oxi.
Bi 119. Bi 119. Bi 119. Bi 119. Vit phn ng thc hin chui chuyn ha sau
a/
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) 1 2 3 4 5
2 2
2
Fe FeCl Fe OH FeO FeCl AgCl .
b/
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 2 3 4
2 4 3
Na NaOH Na SO NaCl NaNO .
Bi 120. Bi 120. Bi 120. Bi 120. C
( )
200 ml dung dch A gm
2 4 4
H SO , FeSO v mui sunfat ca kim loi M ho tr II. Cho
( )
20 ml dung dch B gm
2
BaCl 0, 4M v NaOH 0, 5M vo dung dch A th dung dch A va
ht H
2
SO
4
. Cho thm
( )
130 ml dung dch B na th thu c mt lng kt ta. Lc ly kt
ta nung trong khng kh n khi lng khng i c
( )
10,155 g cht rn, dung dch thu
c sau khi loi b kt ta c trung ho bi
( )
20 ml dung dch HCl 0, 25M.
a/ Xc nh tn kim loi M ?
b/ Tnh nng mol/lt cc cht trong dd A ? Cho bit nguyn t khi ca M ln hn nguyn
t khi ca Na v hydroxit ca n khng lng tnh.
Phn loi v Phn loi v Phn loi v Phn loi v P PP Phng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 Tp 1 Tp 1 Tp 1 Tp 1 Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on


" "" "C CC C n nn n c cc c b bb b t tt th hh h n nn ng gg g m mm mi ii in nn nh hh h " "" " P PP Pa aa ag gg ge ee e - -- - 3 33 33 33 3 - -- -





















































Dng ton 5 Dng ton 5 Dng ton 5 Dng ton 5. Xc nh nguyn t thng qua nguyn t khi . Xc nh nguyn t thng qua nguyn t khi . Xc nh nguyn t thng qua nguyn t khi . Xc nh nguyn t thng qua nguyn t khi. .. .
Gii bi ton bng phng php cht thay th tng ng (p Gii bi ton bng phng php cht thay th tng ng (p Gii bi ton bng phng php cht thay th tng ng (p Gii bi ton bng phng php cht thay th tng ng (p
2 22 2
trung bnh) trung bnh) trung bnh) trung bnh)
O OO O Xac inh nguyn t thng qua nguyn t khi
Phng php Phng php Phng php Phng php
C th ni nguyn t mi nguyn t c mt gi tr nguyn t khi tng i c trng. Do c
th xc nh mt nguyn t bng cch tm gi tr NTK
( )
M ca nguyn t .
Cn nh Cn nh Cn nh Cn nh
Trong trng hp khi xc nh mt nguyn t cha bit ha tr, ta cn tm ra biu thc lin h
gia NTK
( )
M vi ha tr
( )
n ca nguyn t . Sau , da vo iu kin ca n tm M
ph hp bi ton. Chng hn nh: vi kim loi th 1 n : nguyn 4 nn bng cch lp
bng:
n 1 2 3 4
M ... ... ... ...

Ta s tm c nguyn t c n, M ph hp.
Cc nhm thng gp:
+ Nhm kim loi kim gm:
( ) ( ) ( )

Li Na K
Li M 7 , Na M 23 , K M 39 = = = c ha tr I.
+ Nhm kim loi kim th gm:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

Be Mg Ca Ba
Be M 9 , Mg M 24 , Ca M 40 , Ba M 137 = = = =
c ha tr II.
+ Nhm halogen gm:
( ) ( ) ( )

F Cl Br
F M 19 , Cl M 35, 5 , Br M 80 = = = c ha tr I.
+ Mt s kim loi khc:
( )
Fe
Fe M 56 = ha tr II hoc III,
( )
Cu
Cu M 64 = ha tr I,
( )
Zn
Zn M 65 = ha tr II,
( )
Al
Al M 27 = ha tr III,
O Giai bai toan bng phng phap cht thay th tng ng (p
2
trung binh)
Phng php Phng php Phng php Phng php
Khi lng mol trung bnh ca hn hp l M.

Xt hn hp cc cht: A, B,... ta c:
( )
( )
( )
A B
A A B B
A,B
A B A B
m
n .M n .M
M
n n n

= =

.
Vi cht kh th thay s mol n = th tch V.
Tnh cht ca i lng:
A B
M M M < < .
Cn nh Cn nh Cn nh Cn nh
Bi ton trung bnh l bi ton a nhiu cht v bi ton mt cht, thay th tng
ng khi cc cht trong hn hp c bn cht phn ng (cht tham gia, sn phm,
hiu sut,) l nh nhau.
Khi nim trung bnh c p dng vi nhiu i lng nh M, s nguyn t
trung bnh, ha tr trung bnh.
Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t


P PP Pa aa ag gg ge ee e - -- - 3 33 34 44 4 - -- - " "" "A AA Al ll ll ll l t tt th hh he ee e f ff fl ll lo oo ow ww we ee er rr r o oo of ff f t tt to oo om mm mo oo or rr rr rr ro oo ow ww w a aa ar rr re ee e i ii in nn n t tt th hh he ee e s ss se ee ee ee ek kk ks ss s o oo of ff f t tt to oo od dd da aa ay yy y " "" "

















Bi gii tham Bi gii tham Bi gii tham Bi gii tham kho kho kho kho
a/ Ta c:
( )
2
H
V 1,12
n 0, 05 mol
22, 4 22, 4
= = = . Gi n l ha tr ca kim loi X 1 n 4, n .
( ) ( )

n 2
2X 2nHCl 2XCl nH
0,1
mol ............................................0, 05 mol
n


Theo phng trnh phn ng
( )
X
X X
X
m
0,1 1, 2
n mol M 12n
n n 0,1
n
= = = = .
Ta c bng gi tr

n 1 2 3 4
X
M 12n =
12 (loi) 24 (nhn) 36 (loi) 48 (loi)

Vy kim loi cn tm l magie
( )
Mg .
b/ Ta c
( )
2
H
0, 336
n 0, 015 mol
22, 4
= = . Gi kim loi cn tm l X c nguyn t lng l
X
M . Do thuc
nhm IIA nn X c ha tr l II
( )
( )


2 2
2
X 2H O X OH H
0, 015 ........................................... 0, 015 mol


Theo phng trnh phn ng:
( )
X X
0, 6
n 0, 015 mol M 40
0, 015
= = = .
Kim loi thuc nhm IIA (ha tr II) c nguyn t lng
( ) ( )
40 .v.C X : Canxi Ca = .
c/ Gi kim loi kim th l X v nguyn t lng l M
X
X c ha tr II.
Ta c:
( ) ( )

2
X XCl
X X X
2 5, 55 5, 55
n mol , n mol
M M 2.35, 5 M 71
= = =


( )


2
X X
2X 2HCl 2XCl H
2 5, 55
............................... mol
M M 71


Th d Th d Th d Th d 2 22 21 11 1. Xc nh tn nguyn t trong cc trng hp sau
a/ Cho
( )
1, 2 g kim loi X tan ht trong dung dch HCl, gii phng
( )
1,12 l kh
( )

2
H kc .
b/ Khi cho
( )
0, 6 g mt kim loi nhm IIA tc dng ht vi nc to ra
( )
0, 336 l kh
( )

2
H kc .
c/ Cho 2g mt kim loi kim th tc dng ht vi dung dch HCl to ra 5,55g mui clorua.
d/ Ha tan hon ton 12g kim loi kim th tc dng va vi 400ml dung dch HCl 7, 3%
( )
/ D 1, 25 g ml = .
e/ oxi ha hon ton mt kim loi M ha tr II thnh oxit phi dng mt lng oxi bng
40% lng kim loi dng.
f/ Ha tan
( )
8,1 g kim loi M c ha tr 3 bng dung dch HNO
3
long thy thot ra 6, 72 lt
kh
( )
kc khng mu v kh ny b ha nu ngoi khng kh.
Phn loi v Phn loi v Phn loi v Phn loi v P PP Phng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 Tp 1 Tp 1 Tp 1 Tp 1 Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on


" "" "C CC C n nn n c cc c b bb b t tt th hh h n nn ng gg g m mm mi ii in nn nh hh h " "" " P PP Pa aa ag gg ge ee e - -- - 3 33 35 55 5 - -- -
Lp t l:
X X
X
X X
M M 71
2 2
M 40
2 5, 55 2 5, 55
M M 71

= = =

.
Kim loi kim th c nguyn t khi l 40 (.v.C)
( )
X : Canxi Ca .
d/ Gi kim loi kim th l X v nguyn t lng l M
X
X c ha tr II.
Ta c:
( )
dd
dd HCl
dd
m
D m 1, 25.400 500 g
V
= = =
M
( )
( ) ( )
ct dd HCl
HCl ct HCl
dd
m C%.m
7, 3.500 36, 5
C% .100 m 36, 5 g n 1 mol
m 100 100 36, 5
= = = = = = .
( )


2 2
X 2HCl XCl H
0, 5 .......1 mol


Theo phng trnh:
( ) ( )
X X
12
n 0, 5 mol M 24 X : Magie Mg
0, 5
= = = .
e/ Ta c
2
2
M
O M
O
m
40
m m 2, 5
100 m
= = v
( ) ( )
2 2
2
2
O O
M
M O
M O
m m
m
n mol , n mol
M M 32
= = = .

........
2
2
M O
2M O 2MO
n n


M:
( )
2
2 2
M M
M O M
O M O M
n m
32 32.2, 5
n 2n 2 . 2 2 M 40 M : Canxi Ca
n M m M
= = = = = .
f/ Do kh thot ra khng mu v ha nu ngoi khng kh NO
( )
2 2
Do : 2NO O 2NO nu
l

l
l
.
( ) ( )
( )

3 3 2
3
Al 4HNO Al NO NO 2H O
0, 3 ............................................0, 3 mol

l

Theo phng trnh:
( ) ( )
Nhm
M M
8,1
n 0, 3 mol M 27 M : Al
0, 3
= = = .












Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho
a/ Gi X l halogen v M
X
l nguyn t khi ca X halogen
2
Canxi : CaX .
Ta c:
( ) ( )

A AgX
X X
0, 2 0, 376
n mol , n mol
40 2M 108 M
= =

.
Th d Th d Th d Th d 22 22 22 22. Xc nh tn nguyn t hoc tn hp cht trong cc trng hp sau
a/ Cht A l mui canxi halogenua. Cho dung dch cha
( )
0, 2 g A tc dng vi lng d dung
dch bc nitrat th thu c
( )
0, 376 g kt ta bc halogen. Hy xc nh A ?
(Bi 7 trang 142 SGK 10 nng cao) (Bi 7 trang 142 SGK 10 nng cao) (Bi 7 trang 142 SGK 10 nng cao) (Bi 7 trang 142 SGK 10 nng cao)
b/ Ha tan hon ton 8,4 gam mui cacbonat ca kim loi
( )
3
M MCO bng dung dch
2 4
H SO
long va , thu c mt cht kh v dung dch G
1
. C cn G
1
, c 12,0 gam mui sunfat
trung ha, khan. Tm cng thc ha hc ca mui ?
Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t


P PP Pa aa ag gg ge ee e - -- - 3 33 36 66 6 - -- - " "" "A AA Al ll ll ll l t tt th hh he ee e f ff fl ll lo oo ow ww we ee er rr r o oo of ff f t tt to oo om mm mo oo or rr rr rr ro oo ow ww w a aa ar rr re ee e i ii in nn n t tt th hh he ee e s ss se ee ee ee ek kk ks ss s o oo of ff f t tt to oo od dd da aa ay yy y " "" "
( )
( )

.............................................................
2 3 3
2
X X
CaX 2AgNO Ca NO 2AgX
0, 2 0, 376
mol
40 2M 108 M



Lp t l:
( )
( )
X
X
X
X X
2 108 M
40 2M
1 2
M 80 X : Brom Br
0, 2 0, 376 0, 2 0, 376
40 2M 108 M

= = =

.
Vy cng thc ha hc ca A l
2
CaBr .
b/ Gi nguyn t lng ca M l M
X
. Ta c:
( ) ( )

2 4 3
M SO MCO
X X
12 8, 4
n mol , n mol
2M 96 M 60
= =

.
( )

3 2 4 4 2 2
X X
MCO H SO MSO H O CO
8, 4 12
........................... mol
M 60 M 96



Lp t l:
( )
X X
X
X X
M 60 M 96
8, 4 12
M 24 X : Magie Mg
M 60 M 96 8, 4 12

= = =

.












Bi gii tham kh Bi gii tham kh Bi gii tham kh Bi gii tham kho oo o
a/ Gi cng thc chung ca hai kim loi kim l X.
Phng trnh phn ng ca hn hp X vi H
2
O:
2 2
2X 2H O 2XOH H .

( )
2
X
A
M H
B
X
A B
M M Na
n n
M K
M M M
m 6, 2
31 23
2, 24
n 0, 2 2 2. 0, 2 mol
39
22, 4

'
1
1 '
1 = = = =
1
1 1
= = =
! !
1 1 =
1 1
+ < <
1
1+
Chn B
b/ Gi M l nguyn t trung bnh ca Na v K.
Ta c:
( )
2
H
0, 672
n 0, 03 mol
22, 4
= = .
( ) ( )


2 2 2
1
M H O MOH H MOH HCl MCl H
2
0, 06 .......0, 3 mol 0, 02.... 0, 02 mol



Theo phng trnh:
( )
MOH
n 0, 06 mol = . Ly
1
3
dung dch A
( )
MOH
1
n .0, 06 0, 02 mol
3
l
l
= =
l
l
tc dng
vi HCl. Theo phng trnh
( )
HCl
n 0, 02 mol = .
Vy
( ) ( )
HCl
0, 02
V 0, 2 200 m
0,1
= = = l l Chn B
Th d Th d Th d Th d 2 22 23 33 3. Xc nh tn nguyn t hoc tn hp cht trong cc trng hp sau
a/ Hn hp X gm hai kim loi kim A, B nm k tip nhau. Ly 6,2g X ha tan hon ton vo
nc, thu c 2,24 lt kh H
2

( )
kc . Vy A, B l hai kim loi:
A. Li v Na. B. Na v K. C. K v Rb. D. Rb v Cs.
b/ Cho hn hp cc kim loi kim Na, K ha tan ht vo nc c dung dch A v 0,672 lt kh
H
2

( )
kc . Th tch dung dch HCl 0,1M cn trung ha ht 1/3 th tch dung dch A l:
A. 100ml. B. 200ml. C. 300ml. D. 600ml.
Phn loi v Phn loi v Phn loi v Phn loi v P PP Phng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 Tp 1 Tp 1 Tp 1 Tp 1 Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on


" "" "C CC C n nn n c cc c b bb b t tt th hh h n nn ng gg g m mm mi ii in nn nh hh h " "" " P PP Pa aa ag gg ge ee e - -- - 3 33 37 77 7 - -- -
BA BA BA BAI T I T I T I TP A P A P A P AP DU P DU P DU P DUNG NG NG NG


Li 7, Na 23, K 39, Rb 85, Cs 133, Be 9, Mg 24, Ca 40, Ba 137
Fe 56, Cu 64, Al 27, Zn 65, O 16, H 1, S 32, N 14, Cl 35, 5, Br 80
= = = = = = = = =
= = = = = = = = = =

Bi 121. Bi 121. Bi 121. Bi 121. Cho 4,12
( )
g dung dch NaX tc dng va vi dung dch AgNO
3
thu c 7,52
( )
g kt ta.
a/ Tnh nguyn t khi X v gi tn ?
b/ Nguyn t X c hai ng v. Bit ng v th hai c s ntron nhiu hn ng v th nht l
2 v phn trm ca hai ng v bng nhau. Tnh s khi ca mi ng v ?
S:
( ) ( )
/ /
X 1 2
a M 80 vC X : Brom Br b A 79, A 81 = = = .
Bi 122. Bi 122. Bi 122. Bi 122. Ha tan hon ton 3,1g hn hp 2 kim loi kim k tip nhau vo nc thu c 0,56 lt
( )

2
H kc . Vy hai kim loi kim l
A. Na v K. B. Li v Na. C. K v Rb. D. Rb v Cs.
Bi 123. Bi 123. Bi 123. Bi 123. Cho 0,69 gam mt kim loi kim tc dng vi nc (d) thu c 0,336 lt kh hiro
( )
ktc .
Kim loi kim l
( )
Cho Li 7, Na 23, K 39, Rb 85 = = = =
A. Rb. B. Li. C. Na. D. K.
Bi 124. Bi 124. Bi 124. Bi 124. Ha tan hon ton 5,2g hai kim loi kim hai chu k lin tip vo nc thu c 2,24 lt H
2

( )
ktc . Hai kim loi l:
A. Li v Na. B. Na v K. C. K v Rb. D. Rb v Cs.
Bi 125. Bi 125. Bi 125. Bi 125. Cho 1,5g hn hp Na v kim loi kim A tc dng vi nc thu c 1,12 lt
( )

2
H kc . Vy A
l
A. Li. B. Na. C. K. D. Rb.
Bi 126. Bi 126. Bi 126. Bi 126. Ha tan 7,8g mt kim loi X vo H
2
O c dung dch D v 2,24 lt H
2

( )
ktc .
a/ Xc nh kim loi X ?
A. Li. B. Na. C. K. D. Rb.
b/ Trung ha 20ml dung dch D cn phi dng 10ml dung dch H
2
SO
4
1M. Tnh nng mol
ca dung dch D ?
A. 1M. B. 2M. C. 3M. D. 4M.
Bi 127. Bi 127. Bi 127. Bi 127. Cho 3g hn hp gm Na v kim loi kim M tc dng vi nc. trung ha dung dch thu
c cn 800ml dung dch HCl 0,25M. Kim loi M l
A. Li. B. Cs. C. K. D. Rb.
Bi 128. Bi 128. Bi 128. Bi 128. Cho 17g hn hp X gm 2 kim loi kim ng k tip nhau trong nhm IA tc dng vi nc
thu c 6,72 lt H
2

( )
ktc v dung dch Y. Th tch dung dch HCl, 2M cn trung ha dung
dch Y l
A. 200ml. B. 250ml. C. 300ml. D. 350ml.
Bi 129. Bi 129. Bi 129. Bi 129. Hn hp 6,2g gm kim loi Na v 1 kim loi kim khc, cho hn hp tc dng vi 104g
H
2
O, ngi ta thu c 110g dung dch. Cho bit s nguyn t gam 2 kim loi trong hn hp
u bng nhau. Xc nh tn kim loi ?
A. Li. B. Na. C. Rb. D. K.
Bi 130. Bi 130. Bi 130. Bi 130. Cho 38,2g hn hp 2 mui cacbonat kim loi ha tr I tc dng vi 1 lng d dung dch HCl
th thu c 22,4 lt CO
2
0
o
C v 3atm.
a/ Tm tng khi lng cc mui to thnh ?
A. 41g. B. 40g. C. 41,5g. D. 42g.
b/ Hai kim loi ny lin tip nhau trong phn nhm chnh nhm I. Hy gi tn mi mui ban
u ?
A. Li
2
CO
3
v Na
2
CO
3
. B. Na
2
CO
3
v K
2
CO
3
.
C. Cs
2
CO
3
v Na
2
CO
3
. D. Li
2
CO
3
v K
2
CO
3
.
Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t


P PP Pa aa ag gg ge ee e - -- - 3 33 38 88 8 - -- - " "" "A AA Al ll ll ll l t tt th hh he ee e f ff fl ll lo oo ow ww we ee er rr r o oo of ff f t tt to oo om mm mo oo or rr rr rr ro oo ow ww w a aa ar rr re ee e i ii in nn n t tt th hh he ee e s ss se ee ee ee ek kk ks ss s o oo of ff f t tt to oo od dd da aa ay yy y " "" "
Bi 131. Bi 131. Bi 131. Bi 131. in phn mui clorua ca 1 kim loi kim nng chy thu c 0,896 lt kh
( )
ktc anot v
1,84g kim loi catot. Bit phng trnh in phn dng tng qut (iu ch kim loi kim) l

2
pnc
Catot
Anot
2MX 2M X vi M l kim loi kim
( )
Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr v X l halogen
( )
F, Cl, Br, I, At , chng hn nh in phn mui Natri clorua:

2
pnc
Catot
Anot
2NaCl 2Na Cl .
Vy cng thc ha hc ca mui l
A. LiCl. B. NaCl. C. KCl. D. RbCl.
Bi 132. Bi 132. Bi 132. Bi 132. in phn mui Clorua ca mt kim loi kim nng chy thu c 0,896 lt kh (kc) anot v
3,12g kim loi catot. Cng thc ha hc ca mui l
A. LiCl. B. NaCl. C. KCl. D. RbCl.
Bi 133. Bi 133. Bi 133. Bi 133. in phn mui clorua kim loi kim nng chy thu c 1,792 lt kh
( )
ktc anot v 6,24
gam kim loi catot. Cng thc ho hc ca mui em in phn l
A. LiCl. B. NaCl. C. KCl. D. RbCl.
Bi 134. Bi 134. Bi 134. Bi 134. in phn nng chy hon ton 1,755g mui clorua kim loi ha tr I thu c 0,69g kim loi
catot. Tn kim loi l
A. Li. B. Na. C. Rb. D. K.
Bi 135. Bi 135. Bi 135. Bi 135. in phn nng chy hon ton 2,235g mui clorua ca mt kim loi thu c 1,17g kim loi
catot. Tn kim loi l
A. Li. B. Na. C. Rb. D. K.
Bi 136. Bi 136. Bi 136. Bi 136. Cho 1,15 gam mt kim loi kim X tan ht vo nc. trung ho dung dch thu c cn 50
gam dung dch HCl 3,65%. X l kim loi no sau y ?
A. K. B. Na. C. Cs. D. Li.
Bi 137. Bi 137. Bi 137. Bi 137. Oxi ha 4,6g mt kim loi A ha tr I, thu c 6,2g mt oxit baz tng ng
a/ Xc nh tn kim loi ?
A. Li. B. Na. C. K. D. Rb.
b/ Ha tan lng oxit trn vo 93,89ml H
2
O c dung dch B. Tnh nng % ca dd B ?
A. 6%. B. 5%. C. 3%. D. 8%.
Bi 138. Bi 138. Bi 138. Bi 138. Hn hp A gm 2 kim loi kim nm hai chu k lin tip nhau. Ly 3,1g A ha tan ht vo
nc thu c 1,12 lt kh hidro (kc). Vy hai kim loi l
A. Li, Na. B. Na, K. C. K, Rb. D. Rb, Cs.
Bi 139. Bi 139. Bi 139. Bi 139. Kim loi M thuc nhm IIA, bit M chim 60% khi lng trong oxit ca n. Vy M l
A. Be. B. Mg. C. Ca. D. Sr.
Bi 140. Bi 140. Bi 140. Bi 140. Ha tan hon ton 1,44g mt kim loi ha tr II bng 250ml H
2
SO
4
0,3M (long). Mun trung
ha axit d trong dung dch sau phn ng phi dng 60ml dung dch NaOH 0,5M. Kim loi
l
A. Be. B. Ca. C. Ba. D. Mg.
Bi 141. Bi 141. Bi 141. Bi 141. Nung hn hp mui cacbonat ca hai kim loi k tip nhau trong nhm IIA theo phn ng tng
qut:
0
3 2
900 C
MCO MO CO n khi khi lng khng i thu c 2,24 lt CO
2

(kc) v 4,64g hn hp hai oxit. Hai kim loi l
A. Mg v Ca. B. Be v Mg. C. Ca v Sr. D. Sr v Ba.
Bi 142. Bi 142. Bi 142. Bi 142. Mun trung ha 9,6g hn hp cng s mol hai oxit kim loi nhm IIA phi dng 100ml dung
dch HCl 4M.
a/ Xc nh tn 2 oxit ny ?
A. CaO v MgO. B. CaO v BaO. C. CaO v SrO. D. BaO v MgO.
b/ Tnh phn trm khi lng mi oxit trong hn hp u ?
A. 60% v 40%. B. 30% v 70%. C. 64,6% v 35,4%. D. 58,3% v 41,7%.
Bi 143. Bi 143. Bi 143. Bi 143. Ha tan 54g mt kim loi B c ha tr khng i vo dung dch H
2
SO
4
10% va thu c
50,4 lt kh hidro (kc) v dung dch D
a/ Xc nh kim loi B ?
A. Mg. B. Ba. C. Ca. D. Fe.
Phn loi v Phn loi v Phn loi v Phn loi v P PP Phng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 Tp 1 Tp 1 Tp 1 Tp 1 Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on


" "" "C CC C n nn n c cc c b bb b t tt th hh h n nn ng gg g m mm mi ii in nn nh hh h " "" " P PP Pa aa ag gg ge ee e - -- - 3 33 39 99 9 - -- -
b/ Tnh nng phn trm ca dung dch D.
A. 30%. B. 45,3%. C. 90%. D. Kt qu khc.
Bi 144. Bi 144. Bi 144. Bi 144. Cho 5,94g hn hp 2 mui clorua ca hai kim loi A, B thuc phn nhm chnh nhm II cho
vo H
2
O c dung dch X. Cho dung dch X tc dng vi dung dch AgNO
3
va thu c
17,2g kt ta v dung dch Y. C cn dung dch Y c m (g) mui khan.
a/ Tnh m (g) mui khan ?
A. 9g. B. 9,26g. C. 9,12g. D. 8g.
b/ Xc nh A, B bit t l s mol mui clorua A, clorua B l 1:3, t l khi lng nguyn t
ca A, B l 5 : 3 ?
A. Be, Mg. B. Ba, Ca. C. Ca, Mg. D. Ba, Mg.
Bi 145. Bi 145. Bi 145. Bi 145. Mt dung dch mui sunfat kim loi ha tr II c cha 3,6g mui trong 100ml dung dch. Cn
150ml dung dch BaCl
2
0,2M phn ng ht vi dung dch trn.
a/ Tnh nng mol/l ca dung dch sunfat dng ?
A. 0,03M. B. 0,3M. C. 0,2M. D. 0,02M.
b/ Xc nh tn kim loi ?
A. Be. B. Mg. C. Ba. D. Ca.
Bi 146. Bi 146. Bi 146. Bi 146. Cho 16,2g kim loi X (c ha tr n duy nht) tc dng vi 3,36 lt O
2
(kc), phn ng xong thu
c cht rn A. Cho A tc dng ht vi dung dch HCl thy c 1,2g kh H
2
thot ra. X l:
A. Mg. B. Zn. C. Al. D. Ca.
Bi 147. Bi 147. Bi 147. Bi 147. Ha tan 8,1g kim loi M c ha tr 3 bng dung dch HNO
3
long thy thot ra 6,72 lt kh
(ck) khng mu v kh ny b ha nu ngoi khng kh.
a/ Xc nh tn kim loi M.
A. Cr. B. Fe. C. Al. D. Zn.
b/ Ha tan 10,8g kim loi M trn bng mt lng va dd HCl thu c dung dch A. Cho
dung dch A tc dng vi 6,9g Na (Na tan ht). Tnh khi lng kt ta thu c ?
A. 7,8g. B. 3,9g. C. 11,7g. D. Kt qu khc.
Bi 148. Bi 148. Bi 148. Bi 148. Ha tan 1,62g kim loi A v dd H
2
SO
4
long thu c 2,016 lt H
2
( 27,3
0
C v 836mmHg).
a/ Xc nh kim loi A.
A. Cr. B. Fe. C. Al. D. Zn.
b/ Ly 3,42g mui sunfat ca A cho tc dng vi 200ml dung dch NaOH thu c kt ta.
Nung kt ta n khi lng khng i thu c 0,765g cht rn. Tnh nng mol ca
dung dch NaOH, bit rng cc phn ng xy ra hon ton.
A. 0,325M. B. 0,225M. C. A v B. D. Ch c 0,45M.
Bi 149. Bi 149. Bi 149. Bi 149. Cho 2,52g mt kim loi tc dng ht vi vi dung dch H
2
SO
4
long, thu c 6,84g mui
sunfat. Kim loi l:
A. Mg. B. Zn. C. Fe. D. Al.
Bi 150. Bi 150. Bi 150. Bi 150. Cho 1,4g kim loi X tc dng vi dung dch HCl thu c dung dch mui v 0,56 lt kh H
2

(kc). Vy kim loi l
A. Mg. B. Zn. C. Al. D. Fe.
Bi 151. Bi 151. Bi 151. Bi 151. Mt oxit kim loi c t l phn trm ca oxi trong thnh phn l 20%. Cng thc ca oxit kim
loi l:
A. CuO. B. FeO. C. MgO. D. CrO.
Bi 152. Bi 152. Bi 152. Bi 152. Cho hn hp X gm Fe v kim loi M c ha tr l III. Ly
( )
19, 3 g X cho tan hon ton vo
dung dch HNO
3
(long) ta thu c
( )
6, 72 l hn hp kh Y gm NO v NO
2
c t khi ca Y
i vi H
2
l 17, 8 .
a/ Xc nh tn M v thnh phn % theo khi lng ca tng cht trong hn hp u ?
b/ Tnh khi lng HNO
3
tham gia phn ng v th tch kh NO, N
2
O ? Bit cc kh u o
iu kin chun.

Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t


P PP Pa aa ag gg ge ee e - -- - 4 44 40 00 0 - -- - " "" "A AA Al ll ll ll l t tt th hh he ee e f ff fl ll lo oo ow ww we ee er rr r o oo of ff f t tt to oo om mm mo oo or rr rr rr ro oo ow ww w a aa ar rr re ee e i ii in nn n t tt th hh he ee e s ss se ee ee ee ek kk ks ss s o oo of ff f t tt to oo od dd da aa ay yy y " "" "





















































Dng ton Dng ton Dng ton Dng ton 6 66 6. . . . S dng s ng cho gii ton S dng s ng cho gii ton S dng s ng cho gii ton S dng s ng cho gii ton C%, C C%, C C%, C C%, C
M MM M
, D, V , D, V , D, V , D, V

O S dung s ng cheo
Li m Li m Li m Li m
Bi ton trn ln cc cht vi nhau l mt dng bi tp thng gp trong chng trnh ha hc
ph thng cng nh trong cc thi kim tra v tuyn sinh i hc, cao ng. Ta c th
gii bi tp dng ny theo nhiu cch khc nhau, song theo ti, vic gii dng ny theo
phng php s ng cho l nhanh nht, ph hp vi dng trc nghim hin hnh.
Nguyn tc Nguyn tc Nguyn tc Nguyn tc: Trn ln hai dung dch cng loi hoc khc loi li vi nhau.
Dng dch 1: c khi lng m
1
, th tch V
1
, nng C
1

( )

M
C% hay C , khi lng ring D
1
.
Dung dch 2: c khi lng m
2
, th tch V
2
, nng
( )
2 2 1
C C C , khi lng ring D
2
.
Dung dch thu c: c khi lng
1 2
m m m = , th tch
1 2
V V V = ,
nng
( )
1 2
C C C C < < v khi lng ring D.
S ng cho v cng thc tng ng vi mi trng hp l
a Lin quan n nng phn trm
( )
C% v khi lng m th
( )
( )
( )



1 1 2 1
2 1
1
2 1
2 2 1
m g dd A C C C
C C
m
C 1
m C C
m g dd B C C C



b Lin quan n nng mol/l
( )
M
C v th tch V

( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )



1 M M 1 M 2
M M 2
1
M
2
M M 1
2 M M M 2 1
V dd A C C C
C C
V
C 2
V
C C
V dd B C C C


l
l

c Lin quan n khi lng ring D v th tch V

( )
( )
( )



1 1 2
2
1
2 1
2 2 1
V dd A D D D
D D
V
D 3
V D D
V dd B D D D


l
l

d Lin quan n khi lng nguyn t M v th tch V



( )
( )
( )


1 1 2
2
1
2
1
2 2 1
V M M M
M M
V
M 4
V
M M
V M M M


l
l

Phn loi v Phn loi v Phn loi v Phn loi v P PP Phng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 Tp 1 Tp 1 Tp 1 Tp 1 Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on


" "" "C CC C n nn n c cc c b bb b t tt th hh h n nn ng gg g m mm mi ii in nn nh hh h " "" " P PP Pa aa ag gg ge ee e - -- - 4 44 41 11 1 - -- -























































e Lin quan n ha tan tinh th mui vo dung dch
Ta c th xem nh tinh th l mt dung dch c nng phn trm l


cht tan
tinh th
m
C% .100%
m
= ,
sau p dng s ng cho, ta c
2
1
2 1
C C
m
m C C

.
f Lin quan n ha tan kh (HCl, HBr, NH3,) hoc oxit vo dung dch
Vit phng trnh phn ng, sau tnh khi lng cc cht tan thu c. Xem kh hoc oxit
l mt dung dch cht tan c nng phn trm l
( )
( )


3
cht tan
oxit hay HCl,NH
m
C% .100% C% 100%
m

= . Sau p dng
2
1
2 1
C C
m
m C C

.
Lu
o Cht rn v cht nguyn cht c xem nh dung dch c nng
( )
M
C%, C bng 100%.
o Nc ct (dung mi) c xem nh dung dch c nng bng 0%.
o Khi lng ring ca H
2
O l
( )
/ D 1 g ml = .
o Cht kh tan trong nc nhng khng phn ng vi nc (HCl, HBr, NH
3
) xem C% 100% = .
O Mt s lu y khi giai toan v dung dich
c.t
M
d.d
m
C%.10.D
C% .100% C
m M
= =
a/ Lu 1. Khi ha tan mt Khi ha tan mt Khi ha tan mt Khi ha tan mt cht vo nc m c phn ng xy ra th phi xc nh r cht tan cht vo nc m c phn ng xy ra th phi xc nh r cht tan cht vo nc m c phn ng xy ra th phi xc nh r cht tan cht vo nc m c phn ng xy ra th phi xc nh r cht tan
trong dung dch l cht g mi tnh ton trong dung dch l cht g mi tnh ton trong dung dch l cht g mi tnh ton trong dung dch l cht g mi tnh ton.
Th d 1. Ha tan
( )

2
15, 5 g Na O vo nc c
( )
0, 5 l dung dch A.
a/ Tnh nng mol/l
( )
M
C ca dung dch A ?
b/ Tnh th tch dung dch
( )
/
2 4
H SO 20% D 1,14 g ml = cn trung ha dung dch A.
c/ Tnh nng mol/l
( )
M
C ca dung dch sau khi trung ha ?
Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho
a/ Ta c:
( )
2
Na O
15, 5
n 0, 25 mol
62
= = .
Khi ha tan
2
Na O vo nc c phn ng to thnh NaOHdung dch A l NaOH.
( )



2 2
Na O H O 2NaOH
1 1 2
0, 25 ............................... 0, 5 mol


Vy
( )
NaOH
M
0, 5
C 1 M
0, 5
= = .

b/ Phn ng trung ha dung dch NaOH (dung dch A) bng dung dch H
2
SO
4

( )



2 4 2 4 2
2NaOH H SO Na SO H O
2 1 1 1 mol
0, 5 ........ 0, 25 ................. 0, 25


Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t


P PP Pa aa ag gg ge ee e - -- - 4 44 42 22 2 - -- - " "" "A AA Al ll ll ll l t tt th hh he ee e f ff fl ll lo oo ow ww we ee er rr r o oo of ff f t tt to oo om mm mo oo or rr rr rr ro oo ow ww w a aa ar rr re ee e i ii in nn n t tt th hh he ee e s ss se ee ee ee ek kk ks ss s o oo of ff f t tt to oo od dd da aa ay yy y " "" "






















































Th tch dung dch sau phn ng:
sau dd ddA ddB
V V V = .
(nu bi khng cho khi lng ring D dung dch sau phn ng)

Khi lng dd sau phn ng:
sau dd ddA ddB Y Z
m m m m m = .
Nu cho khi lng ring D ca dd sau phn ng th
m
V
D
= .
T l :

Trc p/ :

Khi p/ :

Sau p/ :

( ) ( )

2 4 2 4
H SO dd H SO 20%
100
m 0, 25.98 24, 5 g m 24, 5. 122, 5 g
20
= = = = .
Vy
( ) ( )
2 4
dd H SO
m 122, 5
V 107, 5 m 0,1075
D 1,14
= = = = l l .
c/ Dung dch sau khi trung ha ch c cht tan l
( )
2 4
Na SO : 0, 25 mol .
( )

2 4
dd sau dd A dd H SO
V V V 0, 5 0,1075 0, 6075 = = = l .
Vy
( )
Na SO
2 4
M
dd
n 0, 25
C 0, 4 M
V 0, 6075
= = = .
b/ Lu 2. Khi tr Khi tr Khi tr Khi trn n n n ln dung dch A vi dung dch B c phn ng xy ra, sn phm to thnh ln dung dch A vi dung dch B c phn ng xy ra, sn phm to thnh ln dung dch A vi dung dch B c phn ng xy ra, sn phm to thnh ln dung dch A vi dung dch B c phn ng xy ra, sn phm to thnh
c cht khng tan c cht khng tan c cht khng tan c cht khng tan
( )
, cht kh , cht kh , cht kh , cht kh
( )
.
dd A dd B X Y Z

Th


Th d 2a. Cho
( )
58, 8 g dung dch
2 4
H SO 20% vo
( )
200 g dung dch
2
BaCl 5, 2%.
a/ Vit phng trnh phn ng xy ra v tnh khi lng kt ta thu c ?
b/ Tnh C% ca cc cht c trong dung dch sau khi tch b kt ta ?
Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho
a/ Vit phng trnh phn ng v tnh lng kt ta ?
Ta c:
( )
( )
( )
( )
2 4 2 4
2 2
H SO H SO
BaCl BaCl
20 11, 76
m 58, 8. 11, 76 g n 0,12 mol
100 98
5, 2 10, 4
m 200. 10, 4 g n 0, 05 mol
100 208
' '
1 1
1 1
= = = =
1 1
1 1
1 1

! !
1 1
1 1
= = = =
1 1
1 1
1 1 + +

Phng trnh phn ng

( )



.......
2 4 2 4
H SO BaCl BaSO 2HCl
1 1 1 2 mol
0,12 0, 05 0 0
0, 05 0, 05 .

................

......... 0, 05 0, 01
0, 07 0 0, 05 0,1

Vy khi lng kt ta :
( )
4
BaSO
m 0, 05.233 11, 65 g

= = .
b/ Dd sau phn ng c:
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
2 4
HCl
2 4 du H SO du
HCl : 0,1 mol m 0,1.36, 5 3, 65 g
H SO : 0, 07 mol m 0, 07.98 6, 86 g
' '
1 1
= =
1 1
1 1

! !
1 1 = =
1 1
1 1 + +


Khi lng dd sau phn ng
( ) ( )
4 2 4 2
BaSO dd H SO b dd BaCl b
m m m

= .
( )
sau dd
m 58, 8 200 11, 65 247,15 g = = .

HCl
3, 65.100%
C% 1, 48%
247,15
= = v
( )
2 4
H SO du
6, 86.100%
C% 2, 78%
247,15
= = .
Phn loi v Phn loi v Phn loi v Phn loi v P PP Phng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 Tp 1 Tp 1 Tp 1 Tp 1 Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on


" "" "C CC C n nn n c cc c b bb b t tt th hh h n nn ng gg g m mm mi ii in nn nh hh h " "" " P PP Pa aa ag gg ge ee e - -- - 4 44 43 33 3 - -- -






















































Th d 2b. Ha tan
( )
m g nhm vo
( )
296, 4 g dung dch HCl, phn ng va thu c
( )
5, 04 l
kh hidro
( )
kc v dung dch B.
a/ Tnh gi tr m v C% ca dung dch HCl ?
b/ Tnh C% ca dung dch B ?
Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho
a/ Ta c
( )
2
H
5, 04
n 0, 225 mol
22, 4
= = .
( )


....... ................. ...
3 2
2Al 6HCl 2AlCl 3H
2 6 2 3 mol
0,15 0, 45 0,15 0, 0225


Do :
( )
Al
m m 0,15.27 4, 05 g = = =
V
( )
HCl HCl
16, 425
m 0, 45.35, 5 16, 425 g C% .100% 5, 54%
296, 4
= = = = .
b/ Tnh C% ca dung dch B ?
Dung dch B ch c cht tan l
3
AlCl vi
( )
3
AlCl
m 0,15.133, 5 20, 025 g = = .
Khi lng ca hidro thot ra:
( )
2
H
m 0, 0225.2 0, 45 g

= =
Khi lng dung dch

2
dd B Al dd HCl H
B : m m m m

=
( )
dd B
m 4, 05 296, 4 0, 45 300 g = = .
Vy
3
AlCl
20, 025
C% .100% 6, 675%
300
= = .
c/ Lu 3. Khi ha tan mt mui ngm nc vo nc th cht tan l mui khan (khng ngm Khi ha tan mt mui ngm nc vo nc th cht tan l mui khan (khng ngm Khi ha tan mt mui ngm nc vo nc th cht tan l mui khan (khng ngm Khi ha tan mt mui ngm nc vo nc th cht tan l mui khan (khng ngm
nc), ng thi nc kt tinh tham gia vo th tch dung dch nc), ng thi nc kt tinh tham gia vo th tch dung dch nc), ng thi nc kt tinh tham gia vo th tch dung dch nc), ng thi nc kt tinh tham gia vo th tch dung dch.
Th d 3. Ha tan
( )

4 2
12, 5 g CuSO .5H O vo
( )

2
245, 5 ml H O thu c dung dch A. Tnh

M
C%, C ca dung dch A ?
Bi gi tham Bi gi tham Bi gi tham Bi gi tham kho kho kho kho
Ta c:
( )
4
4 4 2
4 2
CuSO
CuSO CuSO .5H O
CuSO .5H O
M
160
m .m .12, 5 8 g
M 250
= = =
( )
4
CuSO
8
n 0, 05 mol
160
= = .
( ) ( )
/
2 2 2 2
H O H O H O H O
D 1 g ml m D .V 245, 5.1 245, 5 g = = = = .
( )
4
ddA CuSO
8
m 12, 5 245, 5 258 g C% .100 3,1%
258
= = = = .

( )
2
H O kt tinh
m
( )
12, 5 8 4, 5 g = =
( )
( )
( )

2
2
2
H O kt tinh
H O kt tinh
H O
m
V 4, 5 m
D
= = l
( )
( ) ( )
2 2
ddA H O H O kt tinh
V V V 4, 5 245, 5 250 m 0, 25 = = = = l l .
Vy
( )
CuSO
4
M
0, 05
C 0, 2 M
0, 25
= = .
Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t


P PP Pa aa ag gg ge ee e - -- - 4 44 44 44 4 - -- - " "" "A AA Al ll ll ll l t tt th hh he ee e f ff fl ll lo oo ow ww we ee er rr r o oo of ff f t tt to oo om mm mo oo or rr rr rr ro oo ow ww w a aa ar rr re ee e i ii in nn n t tt th hh he ee e s ss se ee ee ee ek kk ks ss s o oo of ff f t tt to oo od dd da aa ay yy y " "" "






Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho

( )
20 g dd NaOH 30% 10 25 15% =
25%

( )
m g dd NaOH 10% 30 25 5% =
Theo cng thc
( ) ( )
20 15
1 : m 6, 67 g
m 5
= = Chn p n B






Bi gii tham Bi gii tham Bi gii tham Bi gii tham kho kho kho kho

( )
V ml dd NaCl 3% 0 0, 9 0, 9% =
0, 9%

( )

o 2
V ml H O 0% 3 0, 9 2,1% =
Theo s ng cho ta c:
( )

o
o
V 0, 9 3
V V 1
V 2,1 7
= =
Ta li c:
( )

o
V V 500 2 =
Gii
( ) ( ) ( )
1 , 2 V 150 ml = Chn p n A








Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho

( )

1 2 4
V ml dd H SO 2, 5M 1 1, 5 0, 5M =
1, 5M

( )

2 2 4
V ml dd H SO 1, 0M 2, 5 1, 5 1M =
Theo s ng cho ta c:
( )

1
1 2
2
V
0, 5
V 0, 5V 1
V 1
= = .
Ta li c
( ) ( )

1 2
V V 600 ml 2 = .
Gii
( ) ( )
( )
( )


2 4
2 4
1 H SO 2,5M
2 H SO 1M
V V 200 ml
1 , 2
V V 400 ml
'
1
= =
1
1

!
1
= =
1
1+
Chn p n C
Th d 25 Th d 25 Th d 25 Th d 25. pha c
( )
500 ml dung dch nc mui sinh l
( )
C 0, 9% = cn ly
( )
V ml dung
dch NaCl 3% pha vi nc ct. Gi tr ca V l
A.
( )
150 ml . B.
( )
250 ml . C.
( )
300 ml . D.
( )
350 ml .
Th d 24 Th d 24 Th d 24 Th d 24. C sn
( )
20 g dung dch NaOH 30% cn pha trn thm vo bao nhiu gam dung dch
NaOH 10% c dung dch NaOH 25% ?
A.
( )
3, 27 g . B.
( )
6, 67 g . C.
( )
8, 62 g . D.
( )
12, 0 g .
Th d 26 Th d 26 Th d 26 Th d 26. Cn ly bao nhiu ml dung dch
2 4
H SO 2, 5M vo bao nhiu ml dung dch
2 4
H SO 1M
pha trn chng vi nhau c
( )
600 ml dung dch
2 4
H SO 1, 5M ?
A.
( )
250 ml v
( )
350 ml . B.
( )
350 ml v
( )
250 ml .
C.
( )
200 ml v
( )
400 ml . D.
( )
400 ml v
( )
200 ml .
Phn loi v Phn loi v Phn loi v Phn loi v P PP Phng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 Tp 1 Tp 1 Tp 1 Tp 1 Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on


" "" "C CC C n nn n c cc c b bb b t tt th hh h n nn ng gg g m mm mi ii in nn nh hh h " "" " P PP Pa aa ag gg ge ee e - -- - 4 44 45 55 5 - -- -






Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho

( )

2
220 ml H O
( )
/ 1, 00 g ml
( )
/ 1, 84 D g ml

( )
/ D g ml

( )

2 4
110 ml dd H SO
( )
/ 1, 84 g ml
( )
/ 1 D g ml
Theo s ng cho th:
1, 84 D
220
1, 84 D 2 1 D
110 1 D

= =



( )
( )
( )
( )
/
/
1, 84 D 2 1 D D 0,16 g ml
1, 84 D 2 1 D D 1, 28 g ml

= =



= =


Chn D
Do khi lng ring D sau khi pha trn tha
1 2
D D D < < nn chn
( )
/ D 1, 28 g ml = .






Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho

81
35
% Br M 81 = 79 79, 319 0, 319 =
Br 79, 319 =

79
35
% Br M 79 = 81 79, 319 1, 681 =
Theo s ng cho, ta c:


81
35
79
35
% Br
0, 319
1, 681 % Br
= .

81
35
0, 319
% Br x100% 15, 95%
1, 681 0, 319
= =

Chn p n D






Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho
Ta c:
( )
2
hh
CO
0, 488 m 3,164
n 0, 02 mol M 158, 2
22, 4 n 0, 02
= = = = =
( )
2
h.h CO
Do : n n =

.

( )
3
BaCO
n mol M 197 = 100 158, 2 58, 2 =
hh M 158, 2 =

( )
3
CaCO
n mol M 100 = 197 158, 2 38, 8 =
Th d 27 Th d 27 Th d 27 Th d 27. Dng
( )
220 ml nc ct
( )
/ D 1 g ml = ha tan vi
( ) ( )
/
2 4
100 ml H SO D 1, 84 g ml =
c dung dch
2 4
H SO c khi lng ring bng bao nhiu ?
A.
( )
/ D 0,16 g ml = . B.
( )
/ D 0, 61 g ml = . C.
( )
/ D 1, 82 g ml = . D.
( )
/ D 1, 28 g ml = .
Th d Th d Th d Th d 29 29 29 29. Ha tan
( )
3,164 g hn hp hai mui
3
CaCO v
3
BaCO bng dung dch HCl d, thu
c
( )
448 ml kh
( )

2
CO ktc . Thnh phn % s mol ca
3
BaCO trong hn hp l
A. 50%. B. 55%. C. 60%. D. 65%.
Th d 28 Th d 28 Th d 28 Th d 28. Nguyn t khi trung bnh ca brom l 79, 319. Trong t nhin, brom c hai ng v
bn:
79
35
Br v
81
35
Br . Thnh phn % s nguyn t ca
81
35
Br l
A. 84, 05%. B. 81, 02%. C. 18, 98%. D. 15, 95%.
Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t


P PP Pa aa ag gg ge ee e - -- - 4 44 46 66 6 - -- - " "" "A AA Al ll ll ll l t tt th hh he ee e f ff fl ll lo oo ow ww we ee er rr r o oo of ff f t tt to oo om mm mo oo or rr rr rr ro oo ow ww w a aa ar rr re ee e i ii in nn n t tt th hh he ee e s ss se ee ee ee ek kk ks ss s o oo of ff f t tt to oo od dd da aa ay yy y " "" "
Theo s ng cho:
3
3
3
BaCO
BaCO
CaCO
n
58, 2 58, 2
%n .100% 60%
n 38, 8 58, 2 38, 8
= = =

Chn C






Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho
Ta c:
hh
2
2
hh
hh
M
H
H
M
d 18 M 18.2 36
M
= = = = .

3 3
O O
V M 48 = 32 36 4 =
M 36 =

2 2
O O
V M 32 = 48 36 12 =
Theo s ng cho:
3
3
2
O
O
O
V
4 1 1
%V .100% 25%
V 12 3 1 3
= = = =

Chn p n A





Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho
Ta c:
4 2 4 2
152
278
FeSO .7H O Xem FeSO .7H O

l dung dch
4
FeSO c nng phn trm l
4
FeSO
152
C% .100% 54, 68%
278
= = . Theo s ng cho th



1
1
2
2
m 54, 68 10, 26 25 14, 74
m
14, 74 1
25
m 29, 68 2
m 10,16 54, 68 25 29, 68
=
= =
=
Chn p n A




Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho Bi gii tham kho



3 2 2 4
SO H O H SO
gam : 80 98
200.98
gam : 200 .................... 245
80

=




1
1
2
2
m 122,5 49 78,4 29, 4
m
29,4
78,4
m 44,1
m 49 122,5 78,4 44,1
=
=
=

Xem SO
3
l dung dch H
2
SO
4
c nng phn trm l
245
C% .100% 122, 5%
200
= = . Gi
1 2
m , m l khi lng ca SO
3
v H
2
SO
4
49% cn ly. Theo s
ng cho th
( )
2
44,1
m .200 300 gam
29, 2
= = .
Th d Th d Th d Th d 30 30 30 30. Mt hn hp gm
2 3
O , O iu kin tiu chun c t khi hi vi hiro l 18. Thnh
phn % v th tch ca
3
O trong hn hp l
A. 25%. B. 55%. C. 75%. D. 95%.
Th d 31 Th d 31 Th d 31 Th d 31. Ha tan hon ton m
1
gam
4 2
FeSO .7H O vo m
2
gam dung dch
4
FeSO 10,16% thu
c dung dch
4
FeSO 25%. T l
1 2
m / m l
A. 1 : 2. B. 1 : 3. C. 2 : 1. D. 3 : 1.
Th d 3 Th d 3 Th d 3 Th d 32 22 2. Ha tan 200g SO
3
vo m
2
dung dch H
2
SO
4
49% ta thu c dung dch H
2
SO
4
78,4%.
Gi tr ca m
2
l bao nhiu ?
Phn loi v Phn loi v Phn loi v Phn loi v P PP Phng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 Tp 1 Tp 1 Tp 1 Tp 1 Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on


" "" "C CC C n nn n c cc c b bb b t tt th hh h n nn ng gg g m mm mi ii in nn nh hh h " "" " P PP Pa aa ag gg ge ee e - -- - 4 44 47 77 7 - -- -
BA BA BA BAI T I T I T I TP A P A P A P AP DU P DU P DU P DUNG NG NG NG
Bi 153. Bi 153. Bi 153. Bi 153. Cn bao nhiu lt axit
( )
/
2 4
H SO D 1, 84 g ml = v bao nhiu lt nc ct pha thnh 9 lt
dung dch
2 4
H SO c
( )
/ D 1, 28 g ml = ?
A. 2 lt v 7 lt. B. 3 lt v 6 lt. C. 4 lt v 5 lt. D. 6 lt v 3 lt.
Bi 154. Bi 154. Bi 154. Bi 154. Ha tan
( )
2, 84 g hn hp hai mui
3
CaCO v
3
MgCO bng dung dch HCl (d) thu c
( )
0, 672 lt kh iu kin tiu chun. Thnh phn % s mol ca
3
MgCO trong hn hp l
A. 33, 33%. B. 45, 55%. C. 54, 45%. D. 66, 67%.
Bi 155. Bi 155. Bi 155. Bi 155. Ha tan hon ton
( )
m gam Na
2
O nguyn cht vo
( )
40 gam dung dch NaOH 12% thu c
dung dch NaOH 51%. Gi tr ca
( )
m gam l
A. 11, 3. B. 20, 0 . C. 31, 8 . D. 40, 0.
Bi 156. Bi 156. Bi 156. Bi 156. thu c dung dch HCl 25% cn ly m
1
gam dung dch HCl 45% pha vi m
2
gam dung
dch HCl 15%. T l
1
2
m
m
l
A. 1 : 2. B. 1 : 3. C. 2 : 1. D. 3 : 1.
Bi 157. Bi 157. Bi 157. Bi 157. Dng
( )
500 ml dung dch NaOH 1M pha trn vi dung dch NaOH 2M, c dung dch
NaOH 1, 2M th phi cn th tch dung dch NaOH 2M l bao nhiu ?
A.
( )
125 ml . B.
( )
135 ml . C.
( )
152 ml . D.
( )
153 ml .
Bi 158. Bi 158. Bi 158. Bi 158. Cn phi ly bao nhiu gam mui n tinh khit
( )
NaCl v bao nhiu gam dung dch NaCl 5%
pha ch thnh
( )
480 g dung dch NaCl c nng 24% ?
A. 96g v 384g. B. 69g v 84,6g. C. 84,6g v 96g. D. 46,8g v 86,4g.
Bi 159. Bi 159. Bi 159. Bi 159. T
( )
20 g dung dch HCl 40% v nc ct pha ch c dung dch HCl 16%. Khi lng
nc
( )
g cn dng l
A. 27. B. 25,5. C. 54. D. 30.
Bi 160. Bi 160. Bi 160. Bi 160. Ly
( )
1
m g dung dch
3
HNO 45% pha vi
( )
2
m g dung dch
3
HNO 15% thu c dung
dch
3
HNO 25%. T l
1
2
m
m
l
A. 1 : 2. B. 1 : 3. C. 2 : 1. D. 3 : 1.
Bi 161. Bi 161. Bi 161. Bi 161. thu c
( )
500 g dung dch HCl 25% cn ly m
1
gam dung dch HCl 35% pha vi m
2

gam dung dch HCl 15%. Gi tr ca m
1
v m
2
ln lt l
A. 400 v 100. B. 325 v 175. C. 300 v 200. D. 250 v 250.
Bi 162. Bi 162. Bi 162. Bi 162. Ha tan
( )
200 g dung dch NaOH 10% vi
( )
600 g dung dch NaOH 20% c dung dch
A. Nng % ca dung dch A l
A. 18%. B. 16%. C. 17, 5%. D. 21, 3%.
Bi 163. Bi 163. Bi 163. Bi 163. T
( )
300 ml dung dch HCl 2M v nc ct, pha ch dung dch HCl 0, 75%. Th tch nc
ct
( )
ml cn dng l
Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t


P PP Pa aa ag gg ge ee e - -- - 4 44 48 88 8 - -- - " "" "A AA Al ll ll ll l t tt th hh he ee e f ff fl ll lo oo ow ww we ee er rr r o oo of ff f t tt to oo om mm mo oo or rr rr rr ro oo ow ww w a aa ar rr re ee e i ii in nn n t tt th hh he ee e s ss se ee ee ee ek kk ks ss s o oo of ff f t tt to oo od dd da aa ay yy y " "" "
A. 150. B. 500. C. 250. D. 350.
Bi 164. Bi 164. Bi 164. Bi 164. Trn
( )
800 ml dung dch
2 4
H SO xM vi
( )
200 ml dung dch
2 4
H SO 1, 5M thu c dung
dch c nng 0, 5M. Vy x nhn gi tr l
A. 0,1M. B. 0,15M. C. 0, 2M. D. 0, 25M.
Bi 165. Bi 165. Bi 165. Bi 165. Cn bao nhiu lt axit
( )
/
2 4
H SO D 1, 84 g ml = v bao nhiu lt nc ct pha thnh
( )
9 l
dung dch
2 4
H SO c khi lng ring
( )
/ D 1, 28 g ml = ?
A. 3 lt v 6 lt. B. 6 lt v 3 lt. C. 5 lt v 4 lt. D. 4 lt v 5 lt.
Bi 166. Bi 166. Bi 166. Bi 166. Lng SO
3
cn thm vo dung dch H
2
SO4 10% c 100 gam dung dch H
2
SO
4
20% l
A. 2,5 gam. B. 8,88 gam. C. 6,66 gam. D. 24,5 gam.
Bi 167. Bi 167. Bi 167. Bi 167. Ha tan hon ton m gam Na
2
O nguyn cht vo 40 gam dung dch NaOH 12% thu c dung
dch NaOH 51%. Gi tr ca m (gam) l
A. 11,3. B. 20,0. C. 31,8. D. 40,0.
Bi 168. Bi 168. Bi 168. Bi 168. Cn ly bao nhiu gam tinh th CuSO
4
.5H
2
O v bao nhiu gam dung dch CuSO
4
8% pha
thnh 280 gam dung dch CuSO
4
16% ?
A. 180 gam v 100 gam. B. 330 gam v 250 gam.
C. 60 gam v 220 gam. D. 40 gam v 240 gam.
Bi 169. Bi 169. Bi 169. Bi 169. Cn ly V
1
lt CO
2
v V
2
lt CO c c 24 lt hn hp CO
2
v CO c t khi hi i vi
metan bng 2. Gi tr ca V
1
(lt) l
A. 2. B. 4. C. 6. D. 8.
Bi 170. Bi 170. Bi 170. Bi 170. Ha tan m gam Al bng dung dch HNO
3
long thu c hn hp kh NO v N
2
O c t khi so
vi H
2
bng 16,75. T l th tch kh trong hn hp l
A. 2 : 3. B. 1 : 2. C. 1 : 3. D. 3 : 1.
Bi 171. Bi 171. Bi 171. Bi 171. Nguyn t khi trung bnh ca ng 63,54. ng c hai ng v bn:
63
29
Cu v
65
29
Cu Thnh
phn % s nguyn t ca
65
29
Cu l
A. 73,0%. B. 34,2%. C. 32,3%. D. 27,0%.
Bi 172. Bi 172. Bi 172. Bi 172. Th tch nc nguyn cht cn thm vo 1 lt dung dch H
2
SO
4
98% (D = 1,84 g/ml) c
dung dch mi c nng 10% l
A. 14,192 ml. B. 15,192 ml. C. 16,192 ml. D. 17,192 ml.
Bi 173. Bi 173. Bi 173. Bi 173. Ha tan 100gam P
2
O
5
vo m gam dung dch H
3
PO
4
48% ta c dung dch H
3
PO
4
60%. Gi tr
ca m l
A. 550gam. B. 460gam. C. 300gam. D. 650gam.
Bi 174. Bi 174. Bi 174. Bi 174. Cn ly bao nhiu gam oleum H
2
SO
4
.3SO
3
ha tan vo 200gam H
2
O c mt dung dch
H
2
SO
4
c nng 10% ?
A. 18,87gam. B. 81,78gam. C. 17,88gam. D. 71,88gam.
Bi 175. Bi 175. Bi 175. Bi 175. Ha tan 11,2 lt kh HCl (kc) vo m gam dung dch HCl 16% thu c dung dch HCl 20%.
Gi tr ca m l
A. 36,5. B. 182,5. C. 365. D. 224.
Bi 176. Bi 176. Bi 176. Bi 176. Ha tan V lt kh HCl (kc) vo 185,4 gam dung dch HCl 10% thu c dung dch HCl
16,7%. Gi tr ca V l
A. 4,48. B. 8,96. C. 2,24. D. 6,72.


Phn loi v Phn loi v Phn loi v Phn loi v P PP Phng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 Tp 1 Tp 1 Tp 1 Tp 1 Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on


" "" "C CC C n nn n c cc c b bb b t tt th hh h n nn ng gg g m mm mi ii in nn nh hh h " "" " P PP Pa aa ag gg ge ee e - -- - 4 44 49 99 9 - -- -
6 66 60 0 0 0 CU CU CU CU TR TR TR TRC NGHI C NGHI C NGHI C NGHIM M M M N N N N CH CH CH CH NG I NG I NG I NG I
Cu 1. Cu 1. Cu 1. Cu 1. Nguyn t ha hc l nhng nguyn t c cng
A. S khi. B. S ntron. C. S proton. D. S ntron, proton.
Cu 2. Cu 2. Cu 2. Cu 2. Tm pht biu khng ng ?
A. Electron c khi lng l
( )
0, 00055 u v in tch bng 1.
B. Proton c khi lng l
( )
1, 0073 u v in tch bng 1 .
C. S ht proton v electron trong nguyn t bng nhau.
D. Ntron c khi lng l
( )
1, 0086 u v in tch bng 1.
Cu 3. Cu 3. Cu 3. Cu 3. Nguyn t cacbon c hai ng v bn l
12
6
C chim 98, 99% v
13
6
C chim 1,11%. Nguyn t
khi trung bnh ca nguyn t cacbon l
A. 12, 500 . B. 12, 011. C. 12, 022 . D. 12, 055 .
Cu 4. Cu 4. Cu 4. Cu 4. Bit Avogaro bng
23
6, 022.10 . Vy s nguyn t H c trong
( )
1, 8 g H
2
O l
A.
23
0, 2989.10 nguyn t. B.
23
0, 3011.10 nguyn t.
C.
23
1, 2044.10 nguyn t. D.
23
10, 8396.10 nguyn t.
Cu 5. Cu 5. Cu 5. Cu 5. Obitan
y
P c dng hnh s tm ni
A. c nh hng theo trc z. B. c nh hng theo trc y.
C. c nh hng theo trc x. D. Khng nh hng theo trc no.
Cu 6. Cu 6. Cu 6. Cu 6. Nguyn t khi trung bnh ca Vanai
( )
V l 51. Vanai c hai ng v , ng v vanadi 50
chim 0, 25%. S khi (xem nguyn t khi bng s khi) ca ng v th hai l
A. 49. B. 51. C. 51,0025. D. 52.
Cu 7. Cu 7. Cu 7. Cu 7. Mt nguyn t X c 75 electron v 110 ntron. K hiu ca nguyn t X l
A.
75
119
X. B.
185
185
X. C.
185
75
X. D.
75
185
X.
Cu 8. Cu 8. Cu 8. Cu 8. Hiro c ba ng v
1 2 3
H, D, T v beri c mt ng v
9
Be . S loi phn t
2
BeH c th c
trong t nhin c cu to t cc ng v trn l
A. 1. B. 6. C. 12. D. 18.
Cu 9. Cu 9. Cu 9. Cu 9. Cho cu hnh electron ca X l
2 2 6
1s 2s 2p . Vy X
A. Thuc chu k 2, nhm VIA. B. Thuc chu k 3, nhm VIIIA.
C. Thuc chu k 2, nhm VIIIA. D. Thuc chu k 3, nhm IIA.
Cu 10. Cu 10. Cu 10. Cu 10. Cc obitan trong cng mt phn lp electron
A. C cng s nh hng trong khng gian.
B. C cng mc nng lng.
C. Khc nhau v mc nng lng.
D. C hnh dng khng ph thuc vo c im mi phn lp.
Cu 11. Cu 11. Cu 11. Cu 11. Dy gm cc phn lp electron bo ha l
A.
1 3 7 12
s , p , d , f . B.
2 5 9 13
s , p , d , f . C.
2 5 9 13
s , p , d , f . D.
2 6 10 14
s , p , d , f .
Cu 12. Cu 12. Cu 12. Cu 12. Cho 6 nguyn t vi cu hnh phan mc nng lng cao nht l:
2 2 2 6 4
1s , 3s , 3p , 3p , 4p . S
nguyn t kim loi phi kim kh him trong s 6 nguyn t trn ln lt l
A. 4 1 1 . B. 3 2 1 . C. 2 2 2 . D. 2 3 1 .
Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t


P PP Pa aa ag gg ge ee e - -- - 5 55 50 00 0 - -- - " "" "A AA Al ll ll ll l t tt th hh he ee e f ff fl ll lo oo ow ww we ee er rr r o oo of ff f t tt to oo om mm mo oo or rr rr rr ro oo ow ww w a aa ar rr re ee e i ii in nn n t tt th hh he ee e s ss se ee ee ee ek kk ks ss s o oo of ff f t tt to oo od dd da aa ay yy y " "" "
Cu 13. Cu 13. Cu 13. Cu 13. Cho 4 nguyn t
12 14 16 14
6 6 8 7
A, B, D, E. Hai nguyn t c cng s ntron l
A. A v B. B. B v D. C. A v D. D. B v E.
Cu 14. Cu 14. Cu 14. Cu 14. S phn b electron trn cc obitan ca nguyn t oxi
( )
16
8
O c biu din ng l
A. B.
C. D.
Cu 15. Cu 15. Cu 15. Cu 15. Nguyn t ca nguyn t X c cu hnh electron kt thc 4s
1
. S hiu nguyn t l
A. 19. B. 24. C. 29. D. Tt c u ng.
Cu 16. Cu 16. Cu 16. Cu 16. Mt cation
n
X

c cu hnh electron lp v ngoi cng l 2p
6
. Cu hnh electron lp v ngoi
cng ca nguyn t X c th l
A. 3s
1
. B. 3s
2
. C. 3s
2
3p
1
. D. Tt c u ng.
Cu 17. Cu 17. Cu 17. Cu 17. Nguyn t Ne v cc ion Na
+
v F

c c im chung l
A. C cng s proton. B. C cng s ntron.
C. C cng s electron. D. C cng s khi.
Cu 18. Cu 18. Cu 18. Cu 18. K hiu nguyn t biu th y c trng cho mt nguyn t ca mt nguyn t ha hc v
n cho bit
A. S khi A. B. Nguyn t khi ca nguyn t.
C. S hiu nguyn t. D. S khi A v s hiu nguyn t Z.
Cu 19. Cu 19. Cu 19. Cu 19. Mt nguyn t X c 17 electron v 20 ntron. K hiu ca nguyn t X l
A.
20
17
X. B.
34
17
X. C.
54
17
X . D.
37
17
X.
Cu 20. Cu 20. Cu 20. Cu 20. Nguyn t X c cu hnh electron
2 2 6 2
1s 2s 2p 3s th ion
2
X

to nn t X s c cu hnh
electron l
A.
2 2 5
1s 2s 2p . B.
2 2 6
1s 2s 2p . C.
2 2 6 1
1s 2s 2p 3s . D.
2 2 6 2 2
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p .
Cu 21. Cu 21. Cu 21. Cu 21. Anion A

c cu hnh electron kt thc phn lp 3p


6
. Vy nguyn t A c s hiu nguyn t
l
A. 17. B. 18. C. 19. D. 20.
Cu 22. Cu 22. Cu 22. Cu 22. Cc electron ca nguyn t nguyn t X c phn b trn 3 lp, lp th ba c 6 electron. S
n v in tch ht nhn nguyn t ca nguyn t X l
A. 6. B. 8. C. 14. D. 16.
Cu 23. Cu 23. Cu 23. Cu 23. ng trong t nhin gm hai ng v
63
Cu v
65
Cu c t s
63
65
Cu 105
245 Cu
= . Khi lng nguyn
nguyn t trung bnh ca ng l
A. 64,4. B. 63,9. C. 64. D. Kt qu khc.
Cu 24. Cu 24. Cu 24. Cu 24. Nguyn t A, cation
2
B

, anion C

u c cu hnh electron l
2 2 6
1s 2s 2p . A, B, C l
A. A l kh him, B l phi kim, C l kim loi. B. A l phi kim, B l kh him, C l kim loi.
C. A l kh him, B l kim loi, C l phi kim. D. Tt c u sai.
Cu 25. Cu 25. Cu 25. Cu 25. Nguyn t cha 20 proton, 19 ntron v 19 electron l
A.
37
17
Cl . B.
39
19
K. C.
40
18
Ar . D.
40
19
K.
Cu 26. Cu 26. Cu 26. Cu 26. Nit c 2 ng v bn l
14
7
N v
15
7
N. Bit nguyn t khi trung bnh ca nit l
( )
14, 0063 u .
Vy phn trm ca mi ng v l
Phn loi v Phn loi v Phn loi v Phn loi v P PP Phng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 Tp 1 Tp 1 Tp 1 Tp 1 Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on


" "" "C CC C n nn n c cc c b bb b t tt th hh h n nn ng gg g m mm mi ii in nn nh hh h " "" " P PP Pa aa ag gg ge ee e - -- - 5 55 51 11 1 - -- -
A.
14
7
9, 97% N v
15
7
90, 03% N. B.
14
7
99, 7% N v
15
7
0, 3% N.
C.
14
7
99, 37% N v
15
7
0, 63% N. D.
14
7
0, 3% N v
15
7
9, 97% N.
Cu 27. Cu 27. Cu 27. Cu 27. Mt oxit c cng thc
2
X O c tng s cc loi ht trong phn t l 92 v s ht mang in
nhiu hn s ht khng mang in l 28 ht. Vy oxit ny l
A.
2
Na O. B.
2
K O. C.
2
Cl O. D.
2
H O.
Cu 28. Cu 28. Cu 28. Cu 28. Cu hnh electron trng thi c bn ca nguyn t kim loi c electron c thn obitan s l
A. Crom. B. Coban. C. St. D. Mangan.
Cu 29. Cu 29. Cu 29. Cu 29. Trong s cc ion sau:
2 2 2 3 4 2
Na , Cu , Mg , Fe , Al , Mn , S

. Nhng ion khng c cu
hnh ca kh him l
A.
2 2
Na , Mg , Cu

. B.
2 2 2
Mg , S , Fe

.
C.
2 3 4
Fe , Al , Mn

. D.
2 2 4
Cu , Fe , Mn

.
Cu 30. Cu 30. Cu 30. Cu 30. Nguyn t nguyn t trng thi c bn c s electron c thn ln nht l
A.
( )
Al Z 13 = . B.
( )
Fe Z 26 = . C.
( )
Cr Z 24 = . D.
( )
Ag Z 47 = .
Cu 31. Cu 31. Cu 31. Cu 31. Cation
2
M

c cu hnh electron lp ngoi cng l 2s
2
2p
6
. Cu hnh electron ca nguyn t M:
A.
2 2 6
1s 2s 2p . B.
2 2 4
1s 2s 2p . C.
2 2 6 2
1s 2s 2p 3s . D.
2 2 8
1s 2s 2p .
Cu 32. Cu 32. Cu 32. Cu 32. Trong nguyn t hiro electron thng c tm thy
A. Trong ht nhn nguyn t.
B. Bn ngoi ht nhn, song gn ht nhn v electron b ht bi ht proton.
C. Bn ngoi ht nhn v thng xa ht nhn, v th tch nguyn t l my electron ca
nguyn t .
D. C bn trong v bn ngoi ht nhn, v electron lun c tm thy bt k ch no trong
nguyn t.
Cu 33. Cu 33. Cu 33. Cu 33. Lp electron c s electron ti a l 18 ht l
A. Lp K. B. Lp L. C. Lp M. D. Lp N.
Cu 34. Cu 34. Cu 34. Cu 34. Tng s cc obitan trong lp N l
A. 9. B. 4. C. 16. D. 8.
Cu 35. Cu 35. Cu 35. Cu 35. Nguyn t c Z 15 = th c s electron ha tr l
A. 2. B. 3. C. 4. D. 5.
Cu 36. Cu 36. Cu 36. Cu 36. Ht nhn ca nguyn t ng
65
29
Cu c s ntron l
A. 65. B. 29. C. 36. D. 94.
Cu 37. Cu 37. Cu 37. Cu 37. C hai ng v bn ca cacbon, chng khc nhau v
A. S ntron. B. S proton. C. S hiu nguyn t. D. Cu hnh electron.
Cu 38. Cu 38. Cu 38. Cu 38. Nguyn t X c 9 proton v 10 ntron. Nguyn t Y c 10 proton v 9 ntron. Nh vy c th
kt lun rng
A. Nguyn t X v Y l nhng ng v ca cng mt nguyn t.
B. Nguyn t X c khi lng ln hn nguyn t Y.
C. Nguyn t X v Y c cng s khi.
D. Nguyn t X v Y c cng khi lng.
Cu 39. Cu 39. Cu 39. Cu 39. Cu hnh electron ca nguyn t
29
Cu trng thi c bn l
A.
2 2 6 2 6 9 2
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s . B.
2 2 6 2 6 10 1
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s .
C.
2 2 6 2 6 2 9
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d . D.
2 2 6 2 6 1 10
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d .
Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t


P PP Pa aa ag gg ge ee e - -- - 5 55 52 22 2 - -- - " "" "A AA Al ll ll ll l t tt th hh he ee e f ff fl ll lo oo ow ww we ee er rr r o oo of ff f t tt to oo om mm mo oo or rr rr rr ro oo ow ww w a aa ar rr re ee e i ii in nn n t tt th hh he ee e s ss se ee ee ee ek kk ks ss s o oo of ff f t tt to oo od dd da aa ay yy y " "" "
Cu 40. Cu 40. Cu 40. Cu 40. Obitan nguyn t hiro trng thi c bn c dng hnh cu v c bn knh l
A.
( )
0, 045 nm . B.
( )
0, 053 nm . C.
( )
0, 098 nm . D.
( )
0, 058 nm .
Cu 41. Cu 41. Cu 41. Cu 41. Ion c 18 electron v 16 proton th mang in tch nguyn t l
A. 18 . B. 2 . C. 18 . D. 2 .
Cu 42. Cu 42. Cu 42. Cu 42. Ion
( )

2
4 16 8
SO S, O

c cha s ht proton v electron ln lt l


A. 24 24 . B. 48 48 . C. 48 50 . D. 24 26 .
Cu 43. Cu 43. Cu 43. Cu 43. Cu hnh electron ca ion
( )
2
26
Fe , Fe

l
A.
2 2 6 2 6 6 2
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s . B.
2 2 6 2 6 6
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d .
C.
2 2 6 2 6 4 2
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s . D.
2 2 6 2 6 5 1
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s .
Cu 44. Cu 44. Cu 44. Cu 44. Nhng nguyn t hay ion u c cu hnh electron
2 2 6 2 6
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p l
A.
2 2
Ar, Cl , K , Mg , S

. B.
2
Ar, Cl , Na , Ca

.
C.
2 3
Ar, Cl , K , Ca , N

. D.
2 2 3
Ar, Cl , K , Ca , S , P

.
Cu 45. Cu 45. Cu 45. Cu 45. Nguyn t ca nguyn t X c tng s cc loi ht proton, ntron v electron l 28, trong s
ht khng mang in chim khong 35%. Cu hnh electron ca nguyn t X l
A.
2 2 6 1
1s 2s 2p 3s . B.
2 2 5
1s 2s 2p . C.
2 2 3
1s 2s 2p . D.
2 2 6 2
1s 2s 2p 3s .
Cu 46. Cu 46. Cu 46. Cu 46. Cho 3 ion:
2
Na , Mg , F

. Cu khng nh sai l
A. 3 ion trn u c cu hnh electron ging nhau.
B. 3 ion trn c s ntron khc nhau.
C. 3 ion trn c s electron bng nhau.
D. 3 ion trn c s proton bng nhau.
Cu 47. Cu 47. Cu 47. Cu 47. Cho cu hnh electron nguyn t ca cc nguyn t


2 2 6 2 2 2 6 2 6 1
1 2
2 2 6 2 6 1 2 2 2 6 2 5
3 4
X : 1s 2s 2p 3s X : 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s
X : 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s X : 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p

Ba nguyn t m nguyn t to ra ion t do c cu hnh electron ging nhau l
A.
1 3 4
X , X , X . B.
2 3
X , X . C.
2 4
X , X . D.
2 3 4
X , X , X .
Cu 48. Cu 48. Cu 48. Cu 48. C bao nhiu electron trong mt ion
52 3
24
Cr

?
A. 21. B. 27. C. 24. D. 52.
Cu 49. Cu 49. Cu 49. Cu 49. V ht c s proton nhiu hn s proton l
A. Nguyn t Na. B. Ion clorua Cl

. C. Nguyn t S. D. Ion kali K

.
Cu 50. Cu 50. Cu 50. Cu 50. Oxi c ba ng v l
16 17 18
8 8 8
O, O, O. Vi % s nguyn t mi ng v tng ng l
1 2 3
x , x , x .
Trong
1 2
x 15x = v
1 2 3
x x 21x = . S khi trung bnh ca cc ng v l
A. 17,14 . B. 16,14 . C. 17, 41 . D. 16, 41.
Cu 51. Cu 51. Cu 51. Cu 51. Cho nhng nguyn t ca cc nguyn t sau. Nhng nguyn t no sau y l ng v ca nhau

1 2 3 4
A. 1 v 2 B. 2 v 3. C. 1, 2 v 3 D. C 1, 2, 3, 4.
Cu 52. Cu 52. Cu 52. Cu 52. Nguyn t no trong hnh v di y c kh nng nhn 3 electron trong cc phn ng ha hc
Phn loi v Phn loi v Phn loi v Phn loi v P PP Phng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 Tp 1 Tp 1 Tp 1 Tp 1 Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on


" "" "C CC C n nn n c cc c b bb b t tt th hh h n nn ng gg g m mm mi ii in nn nh hh h " "" " P PP Pa aa ag gg ge ee e - -- - 5 55 53 33 3 - -- -






A. 1 v 2. B. 1 v 3. C. 3 v 4. D. 1 v 4.
Cu 53. Cu 53. Cu 53. Cu 53. Khi phn tch mt mu brom lng, ngi ta tm c 3 gi tr khi lng phn t hn km
nhau 2 n v, iu chng t:
A. C hin tng ng v. B. C s tn ti ca ng phn.
C. Brom c 3 ng v. D. Brom c 2 ng v.
Cu 54. Cu 54. Cu 54. Cu 54. Bit 1 mol nguyn t st c khi lng bng 56g, mt nguyn t st c 26 electron. S ht
electron c trong 5,6g st l
A. 15,66.10
24
.
B. 15,66.10
21
. C. 15,66.10
22
. D. 15,66.10
23
.
Cu 55. Cu 55. Cu 55. Cu 55. Trong nguyn t cacbon, hai electron 2p c phn b trn 2 obitan p khc nhau v c biu
din bng hai mi tn cng chiu. Nguyn l hay quy tc c p dng y l
A. Nguyn l Pauli. B. Qui tc Hund. C. Qui tc Kletkopski. D. C A, B v C.
Cu 56. Cu 56. Cu 56. Cu 56. Pht biu no sau y khng ng ?
A. Cc electron chuyn ng xung quanh ht nhn theo nhng hnh trn.
B. Cc electron chuyn ng xung quanh ht nhn khng theo qu o xc nh no.
C. Obitan l khu vc xung quanh ht nhn m ti xc sut c mt ca electron l ln nht.
D. Obitan ca cc phn lp khc nhau c hnh dng khc nhau.
Cu 57. Cu 57. Cu 57. Cu 57. Hnh v no sau y vi phm nguyn l Pauli khi in electron vo AO ?



A. Hnh a. B. Hnh b. C. Hnh a v b. D. Hnh c v d.
Cu 58. Cu 58. Cu 58. Cu 58. Cu hnh ca nguyn t sau biu din bng lng t. Thng tin no khng ng khi ni v
cu hnh cho ?


A. Nguyn t c 7 electron. B. Lp ngoi cng c 3 electron.
C. Nguyn t c 3 electron c thn. D. Nguyn t c 2 lp electron.
Cu 59. Cu 59. Cu 59. Cu 59. Ion A
2+
c cu hnh electron phn lp ngoi cng l 3p
6
. Tng s electron trong nguyn t A l
A. 18. B. 19. C. 20. D. 21.
Cu 60. Cu 60. Cu 60. Cu 60. Cu hnh electron ca ion no sau y khc cu hnh electron ca kh him ?
A. Na

. B.
2
Cu

. C. Cl

. D.
2
O

.

P N TRC NGHIM
1.C 2.D 3.B 4.C 5.B 6.B 7.C 8.B 9.C 10.B
11.D 12.C 13.B 14.B 15.D 16.D 17.C 18.D 19.D 20.B
21.A 22.D 23.A 24.C 25.B 26.B 27.A 28.A 29.D 30.C
31.C 32.B 33.C 34.C 35.D 36.C 37.A 38.C 39.B 40.B
41.B 42.C 43.B 44.D 45.B 46.D 47.D 48.A 49.D 50.B
51.C 52.D 53.D 54.D 55.B 56.A 57.D 58.B 59.C 60.B
1
2
3
4
Hnh a Hnh b Hnh c Hnh d
Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t


P PP Pa aa ag gg ge ee e - -- - 5 55 54 44 4 - -- - " "" "A AA Al ll ll ll l t tt th hh he ee e f ff fl ll lo oo ow ww we ee er rr r o oo of ff f t tt to oo om mm mo oo or rr rr rr ro oo ow ww w a aa ar rr re ee e i ii in nn n t tt th hh he ee e s ss se ee ee ee ek kk ks ss s o oo of ff f t tt to oo od dd da aa ay yy y " "" "
14 14 14 14 N T N T N T N T P CH P CH P CH P CH NG I NG I NG I NG I



(Thi gian lam bai 60 phut)
Cu 1 Cu 1 Cu 1 Cu 1. Tm s lng cc loi ht cu to nn nguyn t
17 35
8 17
O, ion Cl

?
Cu 2 Cu 2 Cu 2 Cu 2. Vit k hiu nguyn t ca nguyn t X, bit rng tng s ht ca nguyn t X bng 28, trong
s ht mang in nhiu hn s ht khng mang in l 8. Vit cu hnh electron, ion (c th c)
ca nguyn t X, gi tn X ?
Cu 3 Cu 3 Cu 3 Cu 3. Vit cu hnh electron ca
Ne. Ion Na

. Ion
2
O

.
C nhn xt g v cu hnh electron lp ngoi cng ca chng ?
Cu 4 Cu 4 Cu 4 Cu 4. Hiro c ba ng v:
1 2 3
1 1 1
H, H, H. Clo c hai ng v:
35 37
17 17
Cl, Cl .
a/ Hi c bao nhiu loi phn t HCl c to thnh t cc ng v trn ?
b/ Tnh khi lng phn t ca cc phn t trn ?
Cu 5 Cu 5 Cu 5 Cu 5. Cho bit tnh cht (kim loi, phi kim, kh him) cc nguyn t ca cc nguyn t sau
a/ Nguyn t X c nguyn t khi l 39 v c 20 ht khng mang in.
b/ Nguyn t Y c electron cui cng in phn lp 3p, Y khng c electron c thn.
c/ Nguyn t Z c ba lp, Z to c ion Z
+
.
Cu 6 Cu 6 Cu 6 Cu 6. Nguyn t khi trung bnh ca clo l 35,5. Clo c hai ng v:
35 37
17 17
Cl, Cl .
a/ Tm thnh phn % ca mi ng v ?
b/ C 75 nguyn t ca ng v
37
Cl th c bao nhiu nguyn t ca ng v
35
Cl ?
Cu 7 Cu 7 Cu 7 Cu 7. Nguyn t X c s hiu nguyn t l 16. Cho bit X c bao nhiu electron ? Bao nhiu phn lp
? Bao nhiu lp electron lp ngoi cng ? L kim loi, phi kim, hay kh him ? Phn b electron
lp ngoi cng vo obitan ?
Cu 8 Cu 8 Cu 8 Cu 8. Xc nh s ht mang in ca nguyn t ca nguyn t X. Bit X c 4 lp electron v lp ngoi
cng c 1 electron ?
Cu 9 Cu 9 Cu 9 Cu 9. Cho X, Y l hai nguyn t c mc nng lng cui cng l
1
4s v
2
4s . X v Y u c 20 ntron.
a/ Vit cu hnh electron ca X, Y. nh tn X v Y ?
b/ Cho
( )
11, 8 g hn hp X, Y tc dng vi dung dch H
2
SO
4
d, sau phn ng thu c 4,48 lt
kh
( )
kc . Tnh thnh phn % khi lng ca tng cht trong hn hp ban u ?
Cu 10 Cu 10 Cu 10 Cu 10. C hp cht
2
MX c cc c im nh sau
Tng s ht l 140, trong s ht khng mang in km hn s ht mang in l 44.
Nguyn t khi ca M nh hn nguyn t khi ca X l 11.
Tng s ht trong ion X

nhiu hn s ht trong ion


2
M

l 19.
Xc nh cng thc phn t ca
2
MX ?
( c b sung thm cu hi nhm h thng y kin thc. Do , s lng cu v thi gian ( c b sung thm cu hi nhm h thng y kin thc. Do , s lng cu v thi gian ( c b sung thm cu hi nhm h thng y kin thc. Do , s lng cu v thi gian ( c b sung thm cu hi nhm h thng y kin thc. Do , s lng cu v thi gian
nhiu hn so vi kim tra bnh thng) nhiu hn so vi kim tra bnh thng) nhiu hn so vi kim tra bnh thng) nhiu hn so vi kim tra bnh thng)
Lu y: Hoc sinh khng c s dung bang h thng tun hoan
S 01 S 01 S 01 S 01
Phn loi v Phn loi v Phn loi v Phn loi v P PP Phng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 Tp 1 Tp 1 Tp 1 Tp 1 Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on


" "" "C CC C n nn n c cc c b bb b t tt th hh h n nn ng gg g m mm mi ii in nn nh hh h " "" " P PP Pa aa ag gg ge ee e - -- - 5 55 55 55 5 - -- -



(Thi gian lam bai 60 phut)
Cu 1 Cu 1 Cu 1 Cu 1. Vit k hiu ha hc cc nguyn t sau (c xc nh tn nguyn t).
a/ Nguyn t ca nguyn t X cu to bi 36 ht, trong s ht mang in tch nhiu gp i
s ht khng mang in tch.
b/ Nguyn t Y c 11 electron phn lp p, c s ht mang in nhiu hn s ht khng mang
in l 1 ht.
Cu 2 Cu 2 Cu 2 Cu 2. Cho nguyn t clo c k hiu nh sau:
35
17
Cl .
a/ Tm s lng cc loi ht cu to nn nguyn t clo.
b/ ng v th hai ca clo c nhiu hn 2 ntron so vi ng v trn. Vit k hiu ca ng v
th hai.
Cu 3 Cu 3 Cu 3 Cu 3. Neon c hai ng v:
20
Ne v
22
Ne. Tnh xem ng vi 18 nguyn t
22
Ne th c bao nhiu
nguyn t
20
Ne ? Cho bit
( )

Ne
M 20,18 .v.C = .
Cu 4 Cu 4 Cu 4 Cu 4. Xc nh in tch ht nhn, s proton, s ntron, s electron v s khi ca cc nguyn t sau:

39 31
19 15
K, P.
Cu 5 Cu 5 Cu 5 Cu 5. Cation R

c cu hnh electron lp ngoi cng l


6
3p . Anion X

c cu hnh electron ging


cu hnh ca cation R

. Hy cho bit tn v cu hnh electron nguyn t ca nguyn t X.


Cu 6 Cu 6 Cu 6 Cu 6. Nguyn t ca nguyn t X c tng s ht l 40. Trong , s ht mang in nhiu hn s ht
khng mang in l 12 ht. Xc nh k hiu nguyn t ca nguyn t v vit cu hnh
electron ca n ? Cho bit tnh cht (kim loi, phi kim, kh him) ?
Cu 7 Cu 7 Cu 7 Cu 7. Nguyn t X c s hiu nguyn t l 24. Cho bit X c bao nhiu electron, bao nhiu lp, bao
nhiu phn lp, bao nhiu electron lp ngoi cng, l kim loi, phi kim hay kh him ?
Cu 8 Cu 8 Cu 8 Cu 8. Cho X, Y l hai nguyn t c mc nng lng cui cng l
1
3s v
2
3s . Bit X v Y u c 12
ntron.
a/ Vit cu hnh electron ca X, Y. nh tn X v Y ?
b/ Cho
( )
7 g hn hp X, Y tc dng vi dung dch HCl d, sau phn ng thu c 4,48 lt kh

( )
ktc . Tnh thnh phn % khi lng tng cht trong hn hp ban u ?
Cu 9 Cu 9 Cu 9 Cu 9. Cho
24 27
12 13
Mg, Al .
a/ Vit cu hnh electron ca cc ion c th c ca hai nguyn t trn.
b/ Ha tan hon ton 7,5 gam hn hp X gm Mg v Al bng dung dch HCl d c dung dch
Y v V lt kh H
2

( )
ktc . C cn dung dch Y thu c
( )
32, 35 gam hn hp mui khan. Gi
tr ca V l bao nhiu ?
Cu 10 Cu 10 Cu 10 Cu 10. Tng s electron trong ion
2
3
MX

l 42, trong c M v X u c s ht ntron v proton bng
nhau.
a/ Tnh s khi ca M v X.
b/ Vit cu hnh electron ca M, X v ca cc ion m M, X c th to thnh.
( c b sung thm cu hi nhm h thng y kin thc. Do , s lng cu v thi gian c b sung thm cu hi nhm h thng y kin thc. Do , s lng cu v thi gian c b sung thm cu hi nhm h thng y kin thc. Do , s lng cu v thi gian c b sung thm cu hi nhm h thng y kin thc. Do , s lng cu v thi gian
nhiu hn so vi kim tra bnh thng) nhiu hn so vi kim tra bnh thng) nhiu hn so vi kim tra bnh thng) nhiu hn so vi kim tra bnh thng)
Lu y: Hoc sinh khng c s dung bang tun hoan
S 02 S 02 S 02 S 02
Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t


P PP Pa aa ag gg ge ee e - -- - 5 55 56 66 6 - -- - " "" "A AA Al ll ll ll l t tt th hh he ee e f ff fl ll lo oo ow ww we ee er rr r o oo of ff f t tt to oo om mm mo oo or rr rr rr ro oo ow ww w a aa ar rr re ee e i ii in nn n t tt th hh he ee e s ss se ee ee ee ek kk ks ss s o oo of ff f t tt to oo od dd da aa ay yy y " "" "


(Thi gian lam bai 45 phut)
Cu 1 Cu 1 Cu 1 Cu 1. Cho
40 35
20 17
Ca, Cl . Xc nh in tch ht nhn, s proton, s ntron, s electron v s khi ca
tng nguyn t trn ? Vit cu hnh electron ?
Cu 2 Cu 2 Cu 2 Cu 2. Nguyn t ca nguyn t X c tng s ht l 36. Ht khng mang in bng mt na ht mang
in. Vit k hiu ca nguyn t X. Vit cu hnh electron, cho bit tnh cht ca n (kim loi,
phi kim hay kh him) ?
Cu 3 Cu 3 Cu 3 Cu 3. Nguyn t khi trung bnh ca clo l 35,5. Trong , ng v
35
17
Cl chim 75%.
a/ Tm s khi ca ng v th hai ?
b/ Tm s lng cc loi ht cu to nn nguyn t ca ng v hai.
Cu 4 Cu 4 Cu 4 Cu 4. Nguyn t X c s hiu nguyn t l 16. Cho bit
a/ X c bao nhiu electron, bao nhiu lp electron ? Bao nhiu phn lp ? Bao nhiu electron
lp ngoi cng ?
b/ Phn b electron lp ngoi cng vo obitan ?
c/ X c th to thnh ion nh th no ? Vit cu hnh electron ca ion ?
Cu 5 Cu 5 Cu 5 Cu 5. Xc nh s ht mang in ca nguyn t ca nguyn t X, bit X c 4 lp electron v lp ngoi
cng c 1 electron ?
Cu 6 Cu 6 Cu 6 Cu 6. Nguyn t Fe c Z 26 = .
a/ Hy vit cu hnh electron ca Fe. Nu nguyn t Fe b mt hai electron, mt ba electron th
cu hnh electron tng ng s nh th no ?
b/ Ha tan hon ton 8 gam hn hp X gm hai kim loi Mg v Fe bng m gam dung dch HCl
20% va thu c dung dch A. C cn dung dch A thu c 22,2 gam hn hp mui
khan. Gi tr ca m l bao nhiu ?
Cu 7 Cu 7 Cu 7 Cu 7. Cho nguyn t kali c 19 proton, 20 ntron v 19 electron.
a/ Tnh khi lng tuyt i ca mt nguyn t K.
b/ Tnh s nguyn t K c trong
( )
0, 975 g kali.
Cu 8 Cu 8 Cu 8 Cu 8. Oxit cao nht ca nguyn t R c dng R
2
O
7
. Sn phm kh ca R vi hiro cha 2, 74% v khi
lng. Xc nh cng thc ca hp cht kh.



(Thi gian lam bai 45 phut)
Cu 1 Cu 1 Cu 1 Cu 1. Nguyn t c cu to t nhng loi ht no ? in tch ca tng loi ht nh th no ?
Cu 2 Cu 2 Cu 2 Cu 2. Tng s ht
( )
p, n, e ca nguyn t X l 28. Trong s ht mang in nhiu hn s ht khng
mang in l 8.
a/ Xc nh in tch ht nhn, khi lng nguyn t ca nguyn t ?
b/ Vit k hiu nguyn t ca nguyn t trn ?
c/ Y l ng v ca X v hn X 1 ntron. Vit k hiu ca nguyn t Y ?
Cu 3 Cu 3 Cu 3 Cu 3. Vit cu hnh electron ca
a/ Ion Ca
2+
. b/ Ion Cr
3

( )
Z 24 = .
Cu 4 Cu 4 Cu 4 Cu 4. Nguyn t khi trung bnh ca ng l 63,546 (.v.C). ng tn ti trong t nhin vi hai ng
v l
63 65
Cu, Cu .
a/ Tm % mi ng v ?
b/ Khi c 250 nguyn t
63
Cu th c bao nhiu nguyn t
65
Cu ?
Cu 5 Cu 5 Cu 5 Cu 5. Mt nguyn t R c tng s ht l 34, trong s ht mang in gp 1, 833 ln s ht khng
mang in.
S 03 S 03 S 03 S 03
S 04 S 04 S 04 S 04
Phn loi v Phn loi v Phn loi v Phn loi v P PP Phng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 Tp 1 Tp 1 Tp 1 Tp 1 Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on


" "" "C CC C n nn n c cc c b bb b t tt th hh h n nn ng gg g m mm mi ii in nn nh hh h " "" " P PP Pa aa ag gg ge ee e - -- - 5 55 57 77 7 - -- -
a/ Xc nh tnh cht (kim loi, phi kim, kh him) ca X ?
b/ Vit k hiu ca nguyn t R ?




(Thi gian lam bai 45 phut)
A A A A Phn trc nghim Phn trc nghim Phn trc nghim Phn trc nghim (3,0 im) (3,0 im) (3,0 im) (3,0 im)
Cu 1 Cu 1 Cu 1 Cu 1. S n v in tch ht nhn ca nguyn t c k hiu
23
11
Na l
A. 23. B. 23+. C. 11. D. 11+.
Cu 2 Cu 2 Cu 2 Cu 2. Cc s ng v c phn bit bi
A. S ntron trong ht nhn nguyn t. B. S proton trong ht nhn nguyn t.
C. S electron trong nguyn t. D. S in tch ht nhn nguyn t.
Cu 3 Cu 3 Cu 3 Cu 3. Cu hnh electron no sau y khng ng
A. 1s
2
2s
2
2p
4
. B. 1s
2
2s
2
2p
5
. C. 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
. D. 1s
2
2s
2
2p
7
.
Cu 4 Cu 4 Cu 4 Cu 4. S obitan nguyn t trong phn lp d l
A. 1. B. 3. C. 5. D. 7.
Cu 5 Cu 5 Cu 5 Cu 5. S electron ti a trong phn lp p l
A. 2. B. 6. C. 10. D. 14.
Cu 6 Cu 6 Cu 6 Cu 6. Nguyn t X c cu hnh electron phn lp ngoi cng l 3p
5
. Tng s electron trong v nguyn
t X l
A. 15. B. 16. C. 17. D. 18.
B B B B Phn t lun Phn t lun Phn t lun Phn t lun (7 (7 (7 (7,0 im) ,0 im) ,0 im) ,0 im)
Bi Bi Bi Bi 7 77 7. (2,0 im) (2,0 im) (2,0 im) (2,0 im)
Vit cu hnh electron ca nguyn t cc nguyn t
( ) ( )
Na Z 11 , Cl Z 17 = = v cu hnh
electron ca cc ion Na , Cl

.
Bi Bi Bi Bi 8 88 8. (2,0 im) (2,0 im) (2,0 im) (2,0 im)
Nguyn t nguyn t A c 7 electron thuc phn lp p.
a/ Vit cu hnh electron ca nguyn t nguyn t A ?
b/ A thuc nguyn t g ? (kim loi, phi kim hay kh him) V sao ?
Bi Bi Bi Bi 9 99 9. (3,0 im) (3,0 im) (3,0 im) (3,0 im)
Vit cu hnh electron ca cc nguyn t c Z 20 < v c 2 electron c thn.




(Th i gian lam bai 45 phut)
A A A A Phn trc nghim Phn trc nghim Phn trc nghim Phn trc nghim ( (( (4 44 4,0 im) ,0 im) ,0 im) ,0 im)
Cu 1 Cu 1 Cu 1 Cu 1. Nhng k hiu no sau y ca obitan l khng ng ?
A. 3s. B. 4d. C. 2d. D. 3p.
Cu 2 Cu 2 Cu 2 Cu 2. S electron ti a phn lp f l
A. 14. B. 10. C. 6. D. 2.
Cu 3 Cu 3 Cu 3 Cu 3. S in tch ht nhn ca nguyn t c k hiu
35
17
Cl l
A. 17 . B. 17 . C. 17 . D. 35 .
Cu 4 Cu 4 Cu 4 Cu 4. Hy ghp cu hnh electron ct A vi nguyn t thch hp ct B
S S S S 0 00 05 55 5
S S S S 06 06 06 06
Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t


P PP Pa aa ag gg ge ee e - -- - 5 55 58 88 8 - -- - " "" "A AA Al ll ll ll l t tt th hh he ee e f ff fl ll lo oo ow ww we ee er rr r o oo of ff f t tt to oo om mm mo oo or rr rr rr ro oo ow ww w a aa ar rr re ee e i ii in nn n t tt th hh he ee e s ss se ee ee ee ek kk ks ss s o oo of ff f t tt to oo od dd da aa ay yy y " "" "
A B
/
2 2 5
a 1s 2s 2p .
1/ S.
/
2 2 4
b 1s 2s 2p .
2/ Cl.
/
2 2 6 2 4
c 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p .
3/ O.
/
2 2 6 2 5
d 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p .
4/ N.
/
2 2 6 2 6 1
e 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s .
5/ F.
6/ K.

Cu 5 Cu 5 Cu 5 Cu 5. Nguyn t X c cu hnh
2 2 4
1s 2s 2p . S sp xp electron phn lp 2p vo obitan no sau y l
ng ?
A. B. C. D.

Cu 6 Cu 6 Cu 6 Cu 6. S electron lp ngoi cng ca kh him l
A. 2. B. 8. C. 2 hoc 8. D. 8 hoc 10.
Cu 7 Cu 7 Cu 7 Cu 7. ng v l nhng nguyn t c
A. Cng s proton nhng khc s ntron. B. Cng s ntron nhng khc s proton.
C. Cng s electron khc nhau v proton. D. Cng s electron v cng s proton.
Cu 8 Cu 8 Cu 8 Cu 8. Cu hnh no sau y l ca ion Cl

?
A.
2 2 6 2 5
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p . B.
2 2 6 2 6
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p . C.
2 2 6 2 4
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p . D. Cu hnh khc.
B B B B Phn t lun Phn t lun Phn t lun Phn t lun (6,0 im) (6,0 im) (6,0 im) (6,0 im)
Cu 9 Cu 9 Cu 9 Cu 9. Cho hai ion
2
A

v B

u c cu hnh electron l
2 2 6
1s 2s 2p . Hy vit cu hnh electron ca
cc nguyn t A v B.
a/ Cho bit A, B thuc loi nguyn t s, p hay d ?
b/ A, B l kim loi, phi kim hay kh him ? V sao ?
Cu 10 Cu 10 Cu 10 Cu 10. Cho X v Y l hai nguyn t c cng s electron lp ngoi cng v c s n v in tch ht
nhn hn km nhau mt n v. Tng s proton trong hai ht nhn nguyn t l 32.
a/ Xc nh X v Y ?
b/ Vit cu hnh electron nguyn t ca X v Y ?




(Th i gian lam bai 45 phut)
A A A A Phn trc nghim Phn trc nghim Phn trc nghim Phn trc nghim ( (( (4 44 4,0 im) ,0 im) ,0 im) ,0 im)
Cu 1 Cu 1 Cu 1 Cu 1. Tm pht biu sai ?
A. Cc electron chuyn ng xung quanh ht nhn theo mt hnh trn.
B. Cc electron chuyn ng xung quanh ht nhn khng theo qu o xc nh no.
C. Obitan l khu vc xung quanh ht nhn m ti xc sut c mt ca electron l ln nht.
D. Obitan ca cc phn lp khc nhau c hnh dng nh nhau.
Cu 2 Cu 2 Cu 2 Cu 2. Cho cc nguyn t sau
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
N Z 7 , O Z 8 , S Z 16 , Cl Z 17 = = = = . Trong s , cc
nguyn t c hai electron c thn trng thi c bn la
A. N v S. B. S v Cl. C. O v S. D. N v Cl.
Cu 3 Cu 3 Cu 3 Cu 3. Cho k hiu nguyn t ca mt nguyn t
35
17
X. Cc pht biu no sau y v X l ng ?
A. X c 17 proton v 35 ntron. B. X c 17 proton v 18 ntron.
C. X c 17 proton v 17 ntron. D. X c 18 proton v 17 ntron.
S S S S 07 07 07 07
Phn loi v Phn loi v Phn loi v Phn loi v P PP Phng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 Tp 1 Tp 1 Tp 1 Tp 1 Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on


" "" "C CC C n nn n c cc c b bb b t tt th hh h n nn ng gg g m mm mi ii in nn nh hh h " "" " P PP Pa aa ag gg ge ee e - -- - 5 55 59 99 9 - -- -
Cu 4 Cu 4 Cu 4 Cu 4. Ion
2
A

c cu hnh electron phn lp ngoi cng l 3p
6
. Tng s electron trong nguyn t A l
A. 18. B. 19. C. 20. D. 21.
Cu 5 Cu 5 Cu 5 Cu 5. Nguyn t X c cu hnh electron l
2 2 6 2
1s 2s 2p 3s . Cu hnh electron ng vi ion to thnh t A
l
A.
2 2 6 1
1s 2s 2p 3s . B.
2 2 6 2 6
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p . C.
2 2 6
1s 2s 2p . D.
2 2 6 4
1s 2s 2p 3s .
Cu 6 Cu 6 Cu 6 Cu 6. Cc ion v nguyn t : Ne, Na , F

c c im chung l
A. S khi. B. S electron. C. S proton. D. S ntron.
Cu 7 Cu 7 Cu 7 Cu 7. Cu hnh no sau y l ca ion
( )
2
Ca Z 20

=
A.
2 2 6 2 6
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p . B.
2 2 6 2 6 2
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s .
C.
2 2 6 2 6 2 2
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 4p . D.
2 2 6 2 4
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p .
Cu 8 Cu 8 Cu 8 Cu 8. Bit k hiu nguyn t ca nguyn t
a
b
X , ch s cho bit
A. S n v in tch. B. S khi. C. S proton. D. S electron.
B B B B Phn t lun Phn t lun Phn t lun Phn t lun (6,0 im) (6,0 im) (6,0 im) (6,0 im)
Cu Cu Cu Cu 9 99 9. Trong hp cht
3
AB , tng s ht c bn trong phn t l 196, trong s ht mang in nhiu
hn s ht khng mang in l 60. S khi ca nguyn t B nhiu hn A l 8 v s ht c bn
ca A t hn trong B l 13. Xc nh cng thc phn t ca
3
AB ?
Cu 10 Cu 10 Cu 10 Cu 10. Bit rng nguyn t Fe c 26 electron. Hy vit cu hnh electron ca nguyn t Fe v cc ion

2 3
Fe , Fe

?




(Th i gian lam bai 45 phut)
A A A A Phn trc nghim Phn trc nghim Phn trc nghim Phn trc nghim ( (( (4 44 4,0 im) ,0 im) ,0 im) ,0 im)
Cu 1 Cu 1 Cu 1 Cu 1. S electron ti a trong lp th hai
( )
L l
A. 2. B. 8. C. 10. D. 16.
Cu 2 Cu 2 Cu 2 Cu 2. Cu hnh electron no sau y khng ng ?
A.
2 2 4
1s 2s 2p . B.
2 2 8
1s 2s 2p . C.
2 2 6 2 5
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p . D.
2 2 1
1s 2s 2p .
Cu 3 Cu 3 Cu 3 Cu 3. Nguyn t nguyn t no sau y c hai electron c thn trng thi c bn
A.
( )
Ne Z 10 = . B.
( )
Ca Z 20 = . C.
( )
O Z 8 = . D.
( )
N Z 7 = .
Cu 4 Cu 4 Cu 4 Cu 4. C bao nhiu electron trong ion
2
Ca


A. 20. B. 21. C. 18. D. 19.
Cu 5 Cu 5 Cu 5 Cu 5. Nhng electron no sau y quyt nh tnh cht ca mt nguyn t
A. Tt c electron trong nguyn t. B. Cc electron trong phn lp cui cng.
C. Cc electron lp trong cng. D. Cc electron ha tr.
Cu 6 Cu 6 Cu 6 Cu 6. Ion X c 18 electron v 16 proton, in tch ca ion l
A. 16 . B. 2 . C. 16 . D. 2 .
Cu 7 Cu 7 Cu 7 Cu 7. Trong cc cu hnh electron sau y, cu hnh no sai ?
A.
2 3
1s 2s . B.
2 2 3
1s 2s 2p . C.
2 2 5
1s 2s 2p . D.
2 2 6 2
1s 2s 2p 3s .
Cu 8 Cu 8 Cu 8 Cu 8. Cu hnh electron ca ion no sau y khng ging cu hnh electron ca kh him ?
A. Cl

. B.
3
Fe

. C. Na

. D.
2
Mg

.
B B B B Phn t lun Phn t lun Phn t lun Phn t lun (6,0 im) (6,0 im) (6,0 im) (6,0 im)
S S S S 08 08 08 08
Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t


P PP Pa aa ag gg ge ee e - -- - 6 66 60 00 0 - -- - " "" "A AA Al ll ll ll l t tt th hh he ee e f ff fl ll lo oo ow ww we ee er rr r o oo of ff f t tt to oo om mm mo oo or rr rr rr ro oo ow ww w a aa ar rr re ee e i ii in nn n t tt th hh he ee e s ss se ee ee ee ek kk ks ss s o oo of ff f t tt to oo od dd da aa ay yy y " "" "
Cu 9 Cu 9 Cu 9 Cu 9. Tng s ht c bn trong nguyn t A l 155, trong s ht mang in nhiu hn s ht khng
mang in l 33. Xc nh s khi ca A ?
Cu 10 Cu 10 Cu 10 Cu 10. Nguyn t khi trung bnh ca ng kim loi l 63,546. ng trong t nhin c hai ng v l
63
Cu v
65
Cu . S mol nguyen t
63
Cu c trong
( )
8 g Cu l bao nhiu ?




(Th i gian lam bai 45 phut)
A A A A Phn trc nghim Phn trc nghim Phn trc nghim Phn trc nghim ( (( (4 44 4,0 im) ,0 im) ,0 im) ,0 im)
Cu 1 Cu 1 Cu 1 Cu 1. S electron trong ion
( )
2
A Z 6

= l
A. 6. B. 8. C. 4. D. 10.
Cu 2 Cu 2 Cu 2 Cu 2. Tng s ht c bn trong nguyn t ca nguyn t A l 13. Cu hnh ca A l
A. s
2 2
1 2s . B.
2 2 1
1s 2s 2p . C.
2 2 6 1
1s 2s 2p 3s . D.
2 2 6
1s 2s 2p .
Cu 3 Cu 3 Cu 3 Cu 3. Cc nguyn t v ion
2
A, B , C

u c cu hnh l
2 2 6
1s 2s 2p . Chng c c im chung l
A. C cng s khi. B. C cng in tch ht nhn.
C. Cng s electron. D. Tt c u ng.
Cu 4 Cu 4 Cu 4 Cu 4. Cho k hiu ca nguyn t
65
29
X. Kt lun no sau y ng ?
A. C in tch ht nhn l 29. B. C in tch ht nhn l 29 .
C. C s khi l
( )
65 u . D. C 25 ntron trong ht nhn.
Cu 5 Cu 5 Cu 5 Cu 5. Nguyn t no sau y c cu hnh l
2 2 6 2 5
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p
A. Oxi. B. Nit. C. Clo. D. Lu hunh.
Cu 6 Cu 6 Cu 6 Cu 6. Nguyn t nit
( )
N Z 7 = c s electron c thn l
A. Khng c. B. 1. C. 2. D. 3.
Cu 7 Cu 7 Cu 7 Cu 7. Tng s obitan trong nguyn t c cu hnh
2 2 2 2
1s 2s 3s 3p l
A. 4. B. 5. C. 6. D. 7.
Cu 8 Cu 8 Cu 8 Cu 8. in tch ca mt ion c 18 electron v 17 ntron l
A. 1. B. 1 . C. 17 . D. 18 .
B B B B Phn t lun Phn t lun Phn t lun Phn t lun ( (( (6, 6, 6, 6,0 im) 0 im) 0 im) 0 im)
Cu 9 Cu 9 Cu 9 Cu 9. Nguyn t ca nguyn t X c tng s ht c bn l 36. Trong s ht mang in nhiu gp
i s ht khng mang in.
a/ Vit cu hnh electron ca nguyn t X ?
b/ Xc nh in tch ht nhn v s khi ca X ?
c/ X c kh nng to thnh ion khng ? Nu c, hy vit c ch cho nhn electron v cu hnh
electron ca ion tng ng ?
Cu 10 Cu 10 Cu 10 Cu 10. Trong t nhin cacbon c hai ng v
12
6
C v
13
6
C. Nguyn t khi trung bnh ca cacbon l
12, 011. Hy tnh % ca ng v
12
6
C ? Hi khi c 18 nguyn t ng v
12
6
C th c bao nhiu
nguyn t ng v
13
6
C ?




(Th i gian lam bai 45 phut)
S S S S 09 09 09 09
S S S S 10 10 10 10
Phn loi v Phn loi v Phn loi v Phn loi v P PP Phng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 Tp 1 Tp 1 Tp 1 Tp 1 Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on


" "" "C CC C n nn n c cc c b bb b t tt th hh h n nn ng gg g m mm mi ii in nn nh hh h " "" " P PP Pa aa ag gg ge ee e - -- - 6 66 61 11 1 - -- -
A A A A Phn trc nghim Phn trc nghim Phn trc nghim Phn trc nghim ( (( (4 44 4,0 im) ,0 im) ,0 im) ,0 im)
Cu 1 Cu 1 Cu 1 Cu 1. Cu hnh electron no sau y l ca ion
2
S

?
A.
2 2 6 2 4
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p . B.
2 2 6 2 6
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p . C.
2 2 6 2 5
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p . D.
2 2 6 2
1s 2s 2p 3s .
Cu 2 Cu 2 Cu 2 Cu 2. Trong ion
3
NO

, tng s electron l
A. 21. B. 32. C. 33. D. 34.
Cu 3 Cu 3 Cu 3 Cu 3. Nguyn t X c tng cng 8 electron phn lp p. Cu hnh electron ca nguyn t X l
A. s
2 2 6 2 4
1 2s 2p 3s 3p . B. s
2 2 6 2 2
1 2s 2p 3s 3p . C. s
2 2 4 2 4
1 2s 2p 3s 3p . D. s
2 2 6 2
1 2s 2p 3s .
Cu 4 Cu 4 Cu 4 Cu 4. Nguyn t ca nguyn t ha hc no sau y c cu hnh electron s
2 2 6 1
1 2s 2p 3s .
A. Ca. B. K. C. Ba. D. Na.
Cu 5 Cu 5 Cu 5 Cu 5. S proton trong ion
2
Ca

l
A. 18. B. 20. C. 22. D. 21.
Cu 6 Cu 6 Cu 6 Cu 6. Kt lun no sau y ca nguyn t c k hiu
65
29
X l ng ?
A. Nguyn t X c 29 proton v 36 ntron. B. Nguyn t X c 36 proton v 29 ntron.
C. S khi ca X l 65. D. in tch ht nhn ca X l 29+.
Cu 7 Cu 7 Cu 7 Cu 7. Cu hnh electron phn lp ngoi cng ca ion A

l 2p
6
. Cu hnh electron no sau y l ca
nguyn t A
A.
2 2 5
1s 2s 2p . B.
2 2 6
1s 2s 2p . C.
2 2 6 1
1s 2s 2p 3s . D. Tt c u sai.
Cu 8 Cu 8 Cu 8 Cu 8. Nhng nguyn t no sau y c 1 electron c thn
A.
( )
Na Z 11 = . B.
( )
Cl Z 17 = . C.
( )
Li Z 19 = . D.
( )
Fe Z 26 = .
B B B B Phn t lun Phn t lun Phn t lun Phn t lun ( (( (6, 6, 6, 6,0 im) 0 im) 0 im) 0 im)
Cu 9 Cu 9 Cu 9 Cu 9. Hai ion
2
3
XY

v
2
4
XY

c tng s proton ln lt l 40 v 48.
a/ Xc nh X, Y v ion
2 2
3 4
XY , XY

?
b/ Vit cu hnh electron ca cc nguyn t X v Y ? Cho bit v tr ca chng trong bng tun
hon cc nguyn t ha hc ?
Cu 10 Cu 10 Cu 10 Cu 10. Vit cu hnh electron ca cc nguyn t c Z 16 < v c 1 electron c thn ?




(Th i gian lam bai 45 phut)
A A A A Phn trc nghim Phn trc nghim Phn trc nghim Phn trc nghim ( (( (4 44 4,0 im) ,0 im) ,0 im) ,0 im)
Cu 1 Cu 1 Cu 1 Cu 1. Cu hnh electron no sau y l ca ion
( )
Na
Na Z 11

= ?
A.
2 2 6
1s 2s 2p . B.
2 2 5
1s 2s 2p . C.
2 2 6 1
1s 2s 2p 3p . D. Tt c u sai.
Cu 2 Cu 2 Cu 2 Cu 2. S electron trong ion
( )
F Z 9

= l
A. 7. B. 8. C. 9. D. 10.
Cu 3 Cu 3 Cu 3 Cu 3. Cu hnh electron ca cc nguyn t v ion no sau y ging cu hnh electron ca kh him ?
A. Na

. B.
2
Cu

. C. Cl

. D.
2
O

.
Cu 4 Cu 4 Cu 4 Cu 4. Nguyn t
( )
Cl Z 17 = th c v tr no sau y trong bng tun hon cc nguyn t ha hc ?
A. Thuc chu k 3, nhm VIIB. B. Thuc chu k 7, nhm IIIA.
C. Thuc chu k 3, nhm VIIA. D. Thuc chu k 7, nhm IIIB.
Cu 5 Cu 5 Cu 5 Cu 5. Nguyn t ca nguyn t ha hc no c cu hnh electron
2 2 6 2 6 2
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s ?
A. Ca. B. K. C. Ba. D. Na.
S S S S 11 11 11 11
Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t


P PP Pa aa ag gg ge ee e - -- - 6 66 62 22 2 - -- - " "" "A AA Al ll ll ll l t tt th hh he ee e f ff fl ll lo oo ow ww we ee er rr r o oo of ff f t tt to oo om mm mo oo or rr rr rr ro oo ow ww w a aa ar rr re ee e i ii in nn n t tt th hh he ee e s ss se ee ee ee ek kk ks ss s o oo of ff f t tt to oo od dd da aa ay yy y " "" "
Cu 6 Cu 6 Cu 6 Cu 6. Trong nguyn t, lp electron c mc nng lng cao nht l
A. Lp trong cng. B. Lp ngoi cng.
C. Tt c u nh nhau. D. Ty thuc tng nguyn t.
Cu 7 Cu 7 Cu 7 Cu 7. S sp xp electron vo obitan ca nguyn t
( )
C Z 6 = no sau y l ng ?
A. B.

C. D.

Cu 8 Cu 8 Cu 8 Cu 8. Cu hnh electron no sau y l ca
( )
Cr Z 24 = ?
A.
2 2 6 2 6 4 2
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s . B.
2 2 6 2 6 6
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d .
C.
2 2 6 2 6 5 1
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s . D. Tt c u sai.
B B B B Phn t lun Phn t lun Phn t lun Phn t lun ( (( (6, 6, 6, 6,0 im) 0 im) 0 im) 0 im)
Cu 9 Cu 9 Cu 9 Cu 9. Nguyn t M c tng s cc loi ht c bn l 115. Trong s ht mang in nhiu hn s ht
khng mang in l 25. Xc nh in tch ht nhn, vit cu hnh electron ca nguyn t M ?
Cu 10 Cu 10 Cu 10 Cu 10. Tng s electron trong ion
2
3
AB

l 42. Trong c A v B u c s ntron bng s proton.
a/ Tnh s khi ca A v B ?
b/ Vit cu hnh electron A, B v cc ion m A, B c th to thnh ?




(Th i gian lam bai 45 phut)
A A A A Phn trc nghim Phn trc nghim Phn trc nghim Phn trc nghim ( (( (4 44 4,0 im) ,0 im) ,0 im) ,0 im)
Cu 1 Cu 1 Cu 1 Cu 1. iu khng nh no sau y lun ng ?
A. S hiu nguyn t ca mt nguyn t bng s in tch ht nhn.
B. S electron trong nguyn t bng s proton.
C. S proton bng s ntron.
D. S obitan trong nguyn t bng s lp electron.
Cu 2 Cu 2 Cu 2 Cu 2. Cho nguyn t c k hiu
56
26
M. iu khng nh no sau y l ng ?
A. Nguyn t c 26 proton. B. Nguyn t c 26 ntron.
C. Nguyn t c s khi l 56. D. Nguyn t khi l 56.
Cu 3 Cu 3 Cu 3 Cu 3. Cho cc nguyn t
1 11 7 8 10
H, Na, N, O, Ne . Cc nguyn t c mt electron c thn l
A.
1 11 8
H, Na, O. B.
8 7 10
O, N, Ne . C.
1 10
H, Ne. D.
1 11
H, Na .
Cu 4 Cu 4 Cu 4 Cu 4. Tng s electron, ntron, proton trong nguyn t l 10. S khi ca nguyn t l
A. 6. B. 7.
C. 8. D. Khng xc nh c.
Cu 5 Cu 5 Cu 5 Cu 5. Cc nguyn t v ion F, Na , Ne

c c im chung l
A. Cng s electron. B. Cng s ntron.
C. Cng s khi. D. Cng int tch ht nhn.
Cu 6 Cu 6 Cu 6 Cu 6. Ion
2
M

c cu hnh phn lp ngoi cng l 2p
6
. Cu hnh electron ca nguyn t nguyn t M
l
A.
2 2 4
1s 2s 2p . B.
2 2 6
1s 2s 2p . C.
2 2 6 2
1s 2s 2p 3s . D. Cu hnh khc.
Cu 7 Cu 7 Cu 7 Cu 7. Tng s proton tron ion A

c cu hnh
2 2 6
1s 2s 2p l
A. 11. B. 10. C. 9. D. 8.
Cu 8 Cu 8 Cu 8 Cu 8. Mt nguyn t c tng cng 7 electron phn lp p. S proton ca nguyn t l
S S S S 12 12 12 12
Phn loi v Phn loi v Phn loi v Phn loi v P PP Phng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 hng php gii Ha hc 10 Tp 1 Tp 1 Tp 1 Tp 1 Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on


" "" "C CC C n nn n c cc c b bb b t tt th hh h n nn ng gg g m mm mi ii in nn nh hh h " "" " P PP Pa aa ag gg ge ee e - -- - 6 66 63 33 3 - -- -
A. 7. B. 8. C. 9. D. 10.
B B B B Phn t lu Phn t lu Phn t lu Phn t lun nn n ( (( (6, 6, 6, 6,0 im) 0 im) 0 im) 0 im)
Cu 9 Cu 9 Cu 9 Cu 9. Hy vit cu hnh electron ca nguyn t Fe, cc ion
2 3
Fe , Fe

v cho bit ion no bn hn ?
Bit Fe c Z 26 = .
Cu 10 Cu 10 Cu 10 Cu 10. Tng s cc loi ht c bn trong hai nguyn t A v B ln lt l 34 v 40. Hy xc nh
nguyn t khi, s hiu nguyn t, cu hnh electron ca A v B ?




(Th i gian lam bai 45 phut)
A A A A Phn trc nghim Phn trc nghim Phn trc nghim Phn trc nghim ( (( (4 44 4,0 im) ,0 im) ,0 im) ,0 im)
Cu 1 Cu 1 Cu 1 Cu 1. Nguyn t X c cu hnh electron phn lp ngoi cng l 2p
6
. Tng s electron ca nguyn t
X l
A. 8. B. 10. C. 12. D. Cha th xc nh.
Cu 2 Cu 2 Cu 2 Cu 2. S phn b electron vo obitan no sau y ng vi cu hnh electron
2 2 4
1s 2s 2p
A. B.
C. D.

Cu 3 Cu 3 Cu 3 Cu 3. Cu hnh electron ca nguyn t no trong cc nguyn t sau y khng c electron c thn
trng thi c bn
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
: Ca Z 20 , Mg Z 12 , He Z 2 , Ne Z 10 = = = = .
A. Ca, Mg v Ne. B. Ca, He v Ne.
C. Ne v He. D. Tt c u khng c.
Cu 4 Cu 4 Cu 4 Cu 4. Nguyn t X c cu hnh electron l
2 2 5
1s 2s 2p . Ion m X c th to thnh l
A. X

. B.
2
X

. C. X

. D.
2
X

.
Cu 5 Cu 5 Cu 5 Cu 5. Chn cc t v cm t thch hp in vo chi trng trong cc cu sau y
Obitan nguyn t l khong
( )
A xung quanh ht nhn m ti
( )
B c mt ca
electron l ln nht. Obitan s c dng hnh
( )
C Obitan p gm ba obitan
x y z
p , p , p c hnh

( )
D
Cu 6 Cu 6 Cu 6 Cu 6. in tch ht nhn ca nguyn t c k hiu
23
11
X l
A. 11. B. 23. C. 11 . D. 23 .
Cu 7 Cu 7 Cu 7 Cu 7. Lp electron th ba (lp O) ca cc nguyn t c tt c bao nhiu obitan ?
A. 3. B. 5. C. 7. D. 9.
Cu 8 Cu 8 Cu 8 Cu 8. Cu hnh electron no sau y l ca
( )
Cu Z 29 =
A.
2 2 6 2 6 2 9
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d . B.
2 2 6 2 6 1 10
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d .
C.
2 2 6 2 6 9 2
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s . D.
2 2 6 2 6 10 1
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s .
B B B B Phn t lun Phn t lun Phn t lun Phn t lun ( (( (6, 6, 6, 6,0 im) 0 im) 0 im) 0 im)
Cu 9 Cu 9 Cu 9 Cu 9. Nguyn t ca nguyn t X c tng s ht c bn l 82, tron s ht mang in nhiu hn s
ht khng mang in l 22. Xc nh X v vit cu hnh ca cc ion m X c th to thnh ?
Cu 10 Cu 10 Cu 10 Cu 10. Hiro c ba ng v
1 2 3
1 1 1
H, H, H. Oxi c ba ng v
16 17 18
8 8 8
O, O, O. Hy vit cc cng thc ca
phn t H
2
O c thnh phn ng v khc nhau ?
S S S S 13 13 13 13
Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Ths. L Vn on Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t Chng 1. Nguyn t


P PP Pa aa ag gg ge ee e - -- - 6 66 64 44 4 - -- - " "" "A AA Al ll ll ll l t tt th hh he ee e f ff fl ll lo oo ow ww we ee er rr r o oo of ff f t tt to oo om mm mo oo or rr rr rr ro oo ow ww w a aa ar rr re ee e i ii in nn n t tt th hh he ee e s ss se ee ee ee ek kk ks ss s o oo of ff f t tt to oo od dd da aa ay yy y " "" "



(Th i gian lam bai 45 phut)
A A A A Phn trc nghim Phn trc nghim Phn trc nghim Phn trc nghim ( (( (4 44 4,0 im) ,0 im) ,0 im) ,0 im)
Cu 1 Cu 1 Cu 1 Cu 1. Cho Na, Cl, O, N v Br . Nhng nguyn t no c kh nng nhn 1 electron khi tham gia phn
ng ha hc:
A. Na, Cl v O. B. Cl, O v N. C. O v Br. D. Cl v Br.
Cu 2 Cu 2 Cu 2 Cu 2. Trong cc phn lp sau, phn lp no cha bo ha
A.
6
3p . B.
10
4f . C.
2
5s . D.
6
3d .
C CC Cu 3 u 3 u 3 u 3. Cc nguyn t v ion
2
X, Y , Z

u c cu hnh electron l
2 2 6
1s 2s 2p . Chng c c im
chung l
A. C cng in tch ht nhn. B. C cng s lp electron.
C. C cng s electron. D. C cng s electron ha tr.
Cu 4 Cu 4 Cu 4 Cu 4. Cho k hiu nguyn t
63
29
X. Kt lun no sau y ng ?
A. C in tch ht nhn l 29+. B. C tng s ntron l 34.
C. C tng s electron l 29. D. Tt c u ng.
Cu 5 Cu 5 Cu 5 Cu 5. Nguyn t no sau y c cu hnh electron l
2 2 6 2 4
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p
A. Oxi. B. Nit. C. Clo. D. Lu hunh.
Cu 6 Cu 6 Cu 6 Cu 6. Nguyn t
( )
O Z 6 = c s electron trng thi c bn l
A. Khng c. B. 1. C. 2. D. 3.
Cu 7 Cu 7 Cu 7 Cu 7. Tng s obitan trong nguyn t c cu hnh
2 2 2 6
1s 2s 3s 2p l
A. 4. B. 5. C. 6. D. 7.
Cu 8 Cu 8 Cu 8 Cu 8. in tch ca mt ion c 18 electron v 20 proton l
A. 2 . B. 2 . C. 2 . D. 2 .
B B B B Phn t lun Phn t lun Phn t lun Phn t lun ( (( (6, 6, 6, 6,0 im) 0 im) 0 im) 0 im)
Cu 9 Cu 9 Cu 9 Cu 9. Tng s electron trong ion
2
3
AB

l 42, trong c A v B u c ht proton v ntron bng nhau.
a/ Tnh s khi ca A v B ?
b/ Vit cu hnh electron ca A, B v ca cc ion m A, B c th to thnh ?
Cu 10 Cu 10 Cu 10 Cu 10. Nguyn t M c tng cc loi ht c bn l 115, trong s ht mang in nhiu hn s ht
khng mang in l 23. Xc nh in tch, vit cu hnh electron v cho bit M thuc nguyn t
g (kim loi, phi kim, kh him) ? V sao ?
S S S S 14 14 14 14