Module 2  GEARS
Lecture 15 – WORM GEARS
Contents
15.1 Worm gears –an introduction
Fig.15.1 (a) Single enveloping worm gear, (b) Double enveloping worm gear.
Fig. 15.3 Nomenclature of a single enveloping worm gear
a. The geometry of a worm is similar to that of a power screw. Rotation of the worm simulates a linearly advancing involute rack, Fig.15.3
b. The geometry of a worm gear is similar to that of a helical gear, except that the teeth are curved to envelop the worm.
axial pitch.
7. For maximum power transmitting capacity, the pitch diameter of the worm should
normally be related to the shaft center distance by the following equation
C
0.875
3.0
d
1
C
0.875
1.7
(15.4)
8.
Integral worms cut directly on the shaft can, of course, have a smaller diameter than that of shell worms, which are made separately.
9. Shell worms are bored to slip over the shaft and are driven by splines, key, or pin.
Fig. 15.4 Worm gear force analysis
a) The tangential, axial, and radial force components acting on a worm and gear are illustrated in the Fig. 15.4
b) For the usual 90 shaft angle, the worm tangential force is equal to the gear axial force and vice versa.
15.3.1 Thrust Force Analysis.
The thrust force direction for various worm and worm wheel drive conditions are shown
in Fig. 15.6
Fig.15.6 (a) and (b) Worm gears thrust force analysis
The thread angle λ of a screw thread corresponds to the pressure angle φ _{n} of the worm. We can apply the force, efficiency, and selflocking equations of power screw directly to a worm and gear set. These equations are derived below with reference to the worm and gear geometry. Figs.15.7 to 15.9 show in detail the forces acting on the gear. Components of the normal tooth force are shown solid. Components of the friction force are shown with the dashed lines.
Fig. 15.8 Worm driving
Fig. 15.9 illustrates the same directions of rotation but with the torque direction reversed (i.e., gear driving). Then contact shifts to the other side of the gear tooth, and the normal load reverses.
Combining eqns. (15.12) with (15.14) and (15.13) with (15.14), we have:
2r
1r
2t
n
n
1t
n
n
15.4 KINEMATICS
(15.16)
The relationship between worm tangential velocity, gear tangential velocity, and sliding
materials, lubricant, temperature, surface finishes, accuracy of mounting, and sliding
velocity. The typical coefficient of friction of well lubricated worm gears is given in Fig.
15.10.
Fig.15.11 Velocity components in worm gearing
F
1t
F
n
cos
n
sin

f
F
n
cos
(15.20)
a) Eqn. 15.20 shows that with a sufficiently high coefficient of friction, the gear tangential force becomes zero, and the gear set “selflocks” or does not “over haul.”
b) With this condition, no amount of worm torque can produce motion.
c) Selflocking occurs, if at all, with the gear driving.
d) This is desirable in many cases and helps in holding the load from reversing, similar to a selflocking power screw.
15.7 BENDING AND SURFACE FATIGUE STRENGTHS Worm gear capacity is often limited not by fatigue strength but by cooling capacity. The total gear tooth load F _{d} is the product of nominal load F _{t} and factors accounting for impact from tooth inaccuracies and deflections, misalignment, etc.). F _{d} must be less than the strength the bending fatigue and surface fatigue strengths F _{b} and F _{w} The total tooth load is called the dynamic load F _{d} , the bending fatigue limiting load is called strength capacity F _{b} , and the surface fatigue limiting load is called the wear capacity F _{w} . For satisfactory performance,
F _{b} ≥ F _{d}
(15. 21)
and
F _{w} ≥ F _{d}
(15.22)
The “dynamic load” is estimated by multiplying the nominal value of gear tangential force by velocity factor “K _{v} ” given in the following Fig.15.
=F
2t
K
v
=F
2t
6.1+V
2
6.1 (15.23)
Adapting the Lewis equation to the gear teeth, we have
F =[
b
b
] bpy
=
[
b
] bmY
(15.24)
Where, [σ _{b} ] is the permissible bending stress in bending fatigue, in MPa, Table 15.3
F
w
=d
2
bK _{w}
(15.25)
F _{w} – Maximum allowable value of dynamic load under surface fatigue condition. d _{g}  Pitch diameter of the gear. b  Face width of the gear.
K _{w}  A material and geometry factor with values empirically determined from the Table
15.4.
Table 15.4 Worm Gear Wear Factors K _{w}
Where H – Time rate of heat dissipation (Nm/sec) C _{H} – Heat transfer coefficient (Nm/sec/m ^{2} /ºC) A – Housing external surface area (m ^{2} ) T _{o} – Oil temperature (º C) T _{a} – Ambiant air temperature (º C)
Surface area of A for conventional housing designs may be roughly estimated from the Eqn 15.27,
1.7 (15.27)
The design guidelines for choosing the lead angle, pressure angle, addendum dedendum, helix angle and the minimum number of teeth on the worm gear are given in Tables 15.5 to 15.8.
Table 15.8 Maximum lead angle for normal pressure angle
Normal Pressure angle φ _{n} 
14.5 
^{o} 



Maximum lead angle λ _{m}_{a}_{x} 
16 ^{o} 



