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Acknowledgements Contents

1 wish to lhank the many firms, organisations and individuals who have provided
The ship - its functions, featutes and types
me with assistance and malcrial during the writing of lhis book.
For guidance provided in their specialist areas I would like (0 thank 2 Ship stresses and shipbuilding materials
Me W. Cole, Welding Manager and Mr I. Waugh, Ship Manager, both of Swan 13
Hunter Shipbuilders.
3 Shipbuilding
To the firm of Swan Hunter Shipbuilders, now a member of British Ship-
builders, I wish 10 extend my thanks for their permission to use drawings and 4 Welding and cutting processes
information based on their current shipbuilding practices.
The following firms and organisations contributed drawings and information
for various sections of this hook, for which I thank them:
5 Major structural items
A Keel and bottom construction 72
B Shell plating, framing systems and decks 77
AGA Welding Ltd MacGregor Centrex Ltd C Bulkheads and pillars 85
Austin and Pickergill Ltd Moss Rosenberg Verft, AS. D Fore end construction 92
Blohm and Voss, A.G. Odense Steel Shipyard ltd E Aft end construction 101
DOC CUlling Machines Philips Welding Industries F Superstructures and accommodation 116
Brown Brothers & Co. Ltd Phoceenne Sous-Marine, S.A.
Cammcll Laird Shipbuilders Power Blast ltd 6 Minor structural items 125
Cape Boards and Panels Ltd Rockwool Co. (UK) ltd
Clarke Chapman Ltd Sigma Coatings Ltd 7 Outfit
Dookin and Co. Ltd Stone Manganese Marine LId 134
F.A. Hughes and Co. Ltd Stone Vickers 8 Oil tankers, liquefied gas carriers and bulk carriers 165
Flakt Ltd (S.F. Review) Strommen Staal, A.S.
Glacier Metal Co. Ltd Taylor Pallister and Co. ltd 9 Ventilation
Hempel's Marine Paints The DeVilbiss Co_ Ltd 185
Hugh Smith (Glasgow) Ltd The Ntn'aJ Architect 10 Organisations and regulations
International Maritime Organisaton Voith GmbH 197
Uoyd's Register of Shipping Wilson Walton International ltd II Corrosion and its prevention
12 Surveys and maintenance
13 Principal ship dimensions and glossary of terms 229

The Ship- its Functions,

Features and Types

Merchant ships exist 10 carry cargoes across the waterways of the world safely,
speedily and economically. Since a large pan of the world's surface.
approximately three·fifths. is covered by water. it is reasonable 10 consider that
the merchant ship will continue to perform its funclion for many centuries 10
come. The worldwide nalure of this function involves the ship, its cargo and its
crew in many aspects of inll~rnational life. Some It:atures of this international
transportation. such as weather and climatic changes, availability of cargo-
handling facilities and international regulations. will be considered in later
The ship, in its various forms. has ~volved to accomplish its function
dqxnding upon three main factors - the type of cargo carried. the type of
construction and materials used. and the area of operation.
Three principal cargo-carrying Iypes of ship exisl loday: Ihe general cargo
ftSSel, !he lanker and the passen~r ve~1. The general cargo ship functions
today as a general carrier and also, in several particular forms, for unit-based or
unitised cargo carrying. Examples include container ships, pallet ships and 'roll·
on, roll-ofr ships. The tanker has its spedalised forms for the carria~ of crude
oil, refined oil products, liquefied gases, etc. The passenger ship includes,
senerally speaking, the cruise liner and some ferries.
The type of construction will affect the cargo carried and, in some generally
internal aspects, !he characteristics of !he ship. The principal types of
construction refer to the framing arrangement for stiffening the outer shell
plating, the three types being longitudinal, transverse and combined framing. The
use of mild steel, special steels, aluminium and other materials also influences
the characteristics of a ship. General cargo ships are usually of transverse or
COmbined framing construction using mild steel sections and plating. Most
tankers employ longitudinal or combined framing systems and the larger vessels
utilise high tensile steels in their construction. Passenger ships, with their large
areas of superstructure, employ lighter metals and alloys such as aluminium to
reduce the weight of the upper regions of the ship.
The area of trade, the cruising ra.nge, the climatic extremes experienced, must
all be borne in mind in the design of a particular ship. Ocean-going vessels
reqUire several tanks for fresh water and oil fuel storage. Stability and trim
Irrangemenu musl be satisfactory for the weather conditions prevailing in the
2 Th~ Ship - 111 Functions, Features and Types 3
area of operation. The strength of the structure. its ability to resist the effects of
waves, heavy sus. etc., must be much greater for an ocean-going \'essel than for
an inland waterway vessel.
Considerations of safety in all aspects of ship design and operation must be
paramoun!. so The ship must be seaworthy. This term relates to many aspects of •••• ••
the ship: it must be capable of remaining anoat in all conditions of wC3ther; it
Inust remain alloat following all but the most serious damage: and it musl
remain stable and behave well in the various sea states encountered. Some of the
constructional and regulatory aspects of seaworthiness will be dealt with in later
•! •,

chapters. Stability and other design aspects are explaincd in dt'uil III .VOl'o/
Architecture {or Marine Enginccrs. by W, Muckle (Bulterworths, 1975). ,

The development of ship types will continue as long as there IS a sufficient

demand to be met in a particular area of trade. Recent ynrs ha\'c seen such
developments as very large crude carriers (VlCCs) for the transport of oil. and
the liquefied natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas tankers for the bulk
carriage of liquid gases. Can tainer ships and \ roriou5 barge o.:arriers have developed
for general cargo transportation. Bulk carriers and combination bulk cargo
carriers are also relatively modern developments.
Seveul basic ship types wiJI now be conSidered in further detail. The

particular features of appearance. construction. layout. size. etc. will be
examined for the following ship types:

(I) General cargo ships. ci J:!
(2) Tankers.
(3) Bulk carriers.
(4) Container ships.
(5) Passenger ships.
0 ~

Many other types and minor \~.triations exist. but the above selection is
considered to be representative of the major part (If the world's merchant neeL


General cargo ships ,

The general cargo ship is the 'maid of all work', operating a worldwide 'go
anywhere' service of cargo transportation. II consists of as large a clear open
, !
: :E i
carga<arrying space as possible. together with the facililies required for loading
and unloading the cargo (Figure I./). Access to the cargo storage areas or holds
is provided by openings in the deck caJled hatches. Hatches ar~ made as large as
strength considerations will allow to reduce horizontal mO\'emenl of cargo
within the ship. Hatch covers of wood or steel, as in most modern ships, are used
to close the hatch openings when the ship is at sea. The hatch covers are made
watertight and lie upon coamings around the hatch which are set some distance
from the upper or weather deck to reduce the risk of flooding in heavy seas.
One or more separate de<:ks are fitted in the cargo holds and are known as
tween d~cks, Greater flexibility in loading and unloading, together with cargo
segregation and improv~d stability. are possible using the tween deck spaces.
Various combinations of derricks, winches and deck cranes are used for the
handling of cargo. Many modem ships are fitted with deck cranes which reduce
4 Th~ Ship - Irs Functions. F~QturesQnd Typn

cargo·handling limes and manpower requiremenls. A special heavy.lift derrick

may also be fitted. covering one or two holds.

Since full cargoes cannot be guaranteed with this type of ship. ballast<arrying
tanks must be fitted. In this way the ship always has a sufficient draught for
slability and 10lal propeller immersion. Fore and afl peak tanks are fitted which "''i
0_ .,,-,
also assisl in trimming the ship. A double bollom is filled which eXlends Ihe
length of the ship and is divided into separate tanks, SOme of which carry fuel _~;:5:~=;~:
oil and fresh water. The remaining lanks are used for ballast when the ship is ,, •'
sailing empty or partly loaded. Deep lanks may be filled which can carry liquid
cargoes or Water ballasl.
The accommodation and machinery spaces are USUally located with one hold
--> ,,
between them and th'e aft peak bulkhead. This arrangement improves the vessel's z
trim when it is partially loaded and reduces the lost cargo space for shafting
tunnels compared with the cenltaJ machinery space arrangement. The Current
range of sizes for general cargo ships is from 2000 to 15000 displacemenl lonnes
with speeds of 12-18 knots.
---...,..---- . ---

'::~' I~~
"i= I I "i::;;
;:2' ,;:.=
Refrigerated general cargo ship ~ -
-- .....

The filling of refrigeration planls for the cooling of cargo holds enables the '-
carriage of perishable foodstuffs by sea. Refrigerated ships vary lillie from
general cargo ships. They may have more than one tween deck, and all hold
spaces will be insulaled to reduce heal transfer. Cargo may be carried frozen or ,,

chilled depending upon its nature. Refrigerated ships are usually faster than ,
general cargo ships, offen having speeds up to 22 knots, and they may also
cater for up 10 12 passengers.
•1 ,,•
" ,,•
Tankers , ,
The tanker is used to carry bulk liquid cargoes, the most common type being Ihe
,,• ..
.. _

oil tanker. Many other liquids are carried in tankers and specially constructed ;

,,• ,•.
vessels are used for chemicals, liquefied petroleum gas. liquefied natural gas. etc.
The oil tanker has fhe cargo<arrying section of the vessel splil up into

__ •i __
·,, ,,r---
individual tanks by longitudinal :lnd Iransverse bulkheads (Figure 1.2). The cargo
is discharged by cargo pumps fitted in one or more pumprooms either at the
ends of the lank section or SOmetimes in the middle. Each lank has its own
J ---,
- ... t
§; t
=- ...
Suction arrangement which connects to the pumps. and a network of piping
discharges the cargo to the deck from where il is pumped ashore. No double
, .... - •

hellam is filled in the cargo<anying section of an oil tanker. Fore and aft peak
tanks are used for ballast. with often a pair of wing tanks Situated juSt forward
of midships. These wing tanks are ballasl-only tanks and are empty when the r--;-
ship is fuJly loaded. Small slop tanks are fined 3t the after end of the cargo
section and are used for the normal carriage of oil on loaded voyages. On ballast
L{,L ,.

runs the slop tanks are used for sloring the contaminated residue from tank.
cleaning operations.
Large amounts of piping are 10 be seen on the deck running from the pump.
rooms to the discharge manifolds positioned at midships, port and starboard.
Hose.handling derricks are fiued porl and starboard near the manifolds. The
~r lr
Th~ Ship _ Itt FUllction!. Featu"S and Types 7
,c<:onltnodatiOn and machinery spaces 3re located aft in modem tankers. The
range of sizes fOf oil tankers at present is enorrnous. from small to 700000
deadweight tonnes. S~eds range from 12 to 16 knolS. Oil lanke", 3rc dealt
W'ith in more detail in Chapter 8.

Liquefied gas tankers

(jquefied gas tankers are used to carry. usually at low tem~ratufe. liquefied
uo gas (LPG) or liquefied natural gas (LNG). A ~parate inner tank is
~IY 1eum
employed to contain the liquid and this lank is supported by the outer
.uall which has a double bottom (Figure 1.3).
LNG tankers carry methane and other paramn products obtained as a by'
product of petroleum drilling operations. The gas is carried at atmospheric
pressure and temperalUres 3S low as _164°C in tanks of special materials (see
T.b/~ 2.3). which can accept the low temperature. The tanks used may be
prismatic. cylindrical or spherical in shape and self·supporting or of membrane
~RStruction. The containing tank is separated from the hull by insulation
which also acts as a secondary barriet in the event of leakage.
LPG tankers carry propane. butane. propylene, etc .• which are extracted
(rom natural gas. The gases are carried either fully pressurised. part pressurised-
part refrigerated or fully refrigerated. The fully pressurised tank operates at 18
• bat and ambient temperature. the fully refrigerated tank at 0.25 bar and -saoc.

•; §
" Separate containment tanks within the hull are used and are surrounded by
insulation where low temperatures are employed. Tank shapes are either

V ,
~ u.
·--f~--- prismatic, spherical or cylindrical. Low temperature steels may be used on the
hull where it acts as a secondary barrier.
0 Displacement siltS for gas carrie", range up to 60 000 tonnes, with speeds of
12-16 knots. liquefied gas carrie", are dealt with in mme detail in Chapter 8 .

• "
Bulk C8rrtel'$
Bulk carriers are single-deck vessels which transport single-commodity cargoes
such as grain. sugar and ores in bulk. The cargo-carrying section of the ship is
J divided into holds or tanks which may have any number of arrangements,
depending upon the range of cargoes to be carried. Combination carriers are bulk
carriers designed for flexibility of operation and able to transport anyone of
sew:ra1 bulk cargoes on anyone voyage. e.g. ore or crude oil or dry bulk cargo.
The general.purpose bulk carrier. in which usually the central hold section
onJr is used for cargo. is shown in Figurcs 1.4 and 1.5(a). The partitioned tanks
which sunound it are used for ballast purposes either on ballast voyages or. in
the ~ of the saddle tanks, to raise the ship's centre of gravity when a low
denSIty cargo is carried. Some of the double·bottom tanks may be used for fuel
oil and fresh water. The saddle tanks also serve to shape the upper region of the
c~go hold and trim the cargo. Large hatchways are a feature of bulk carriers,
SUIte they reduce cargo-handling time during loading and unloading.
. An ore carrier has two longitudinal bulkheads which divide the cargo section
tnto wing tanks port and starboard, and the centre hold which is used for ore.
The high double bottom is a feature of ore carriers. On baUast voyages the wing
The Ship _ Its Functioru, Frorures and Types 9
pnlc.s and double bottoms provide baUast capacity. On loaded voyages the ore is
(;&fried in the central hold. and the high double bottom serves to raise the centre
,••. of pvity of this very dense cargo. The vessel's behaviour at sea is thus much
•• iJnproved. The cross·section is similar to that of the ore/oil carrier shown in
Frpre J.5fbJ. Two longitudinal bulkheads are employed to divide the ship into
~nue and wing lanks which are used for the carriage of oil cargoes. When orc
is carried, only the centre tank section is used for cargo. A double bottom is
fitted beneath the centre tank but is used only for water ballast. The bulkheads
and hatches must be oillig,ht.

_ -I

Wit" blUast

Oou~bOnom I~k
looll".el 01' ""~ bllIBfI

V \
(;enll't hold
toil 0/1 QO~1
Wi"", tank I 10,11

w... ~\w....
twltBI twllBl
I~ 0 .Iugt\l

t ==========

Fixu n J.J Tranrvn'St sntions: (tI} lxl/k curitr, fb} ort/oil CII,""

J -------1-
The ore/bulkfoil carrier has a cross-section similar to the general bulk. carrier

l iJ
shown in FIgUre 1.4. The structure is, however, significantly stf<;.nger, since the
bulkheads must be oiltight and the double bottom must withstand the high
density ore load. Only the central tank. or hold carries cargo, the other tank.
areas being ballast-only spaces, except the double bottom which may cany oil
fuel or fresh water.
Large hatches are a feature of aU bulk. carriers, to facilitate rapid simple cargo
handling. A large proportion of bulk carriers do not carry cargo-handling
\ / equipment, because they trade between special terminals which have particular
equipment for loading and unloading bulk commodities. The availability of
<:argo-handling gear does increase the flexibility of a vessel and for this reason
10 Thf! Ship - Its Functions. F~Qtuns lUTd Types
it is sometimf!S fitted. Combination carriers handling oil cargoes have their own
cargo pumps, piping systems. f!tc., for discharging oil. Bulk carriers are dealt
with in more detail in Chapter 8. Deadweight capacities range from small to
150000 tonnes depending upon type of cargo, etc. Speeds arc in the range of
12- J6 knots. ••
Container ships

.. .... -T
' ,
The container ship is, as its name implies, designed for the carriage of containen. ,-"-'-
,, ,' ,,

A container is a re·usable box of 2435 mm by 2435 mm section, with lengths

of 6055, 9125 and 12190 mm. Containcrs arc in use for most general cargoes,
and liquid--earrying versions also exist. In addition. refrigcrated models are in
I. J_J.

,, ,,
,,r .,-,. ,

The cargo--earrying section of the ship is divided into several holds which have
,, ,,
,,... -l-.,.
hatch openings the full width and length of the hold (Figure 1.6). The COntaincrs
r .,-.,-,
arc racked in special frameworks and stacked one upon the other within the hold , I 1 I
space. Cargo handling therefore consists only of vertical movement of the cargo , I

in the hold. Containers can also be stachd on the hatch covers where a low i
' , ,
t I

.. I I , I
deruily cargo is carried. Special lashing arrangements exist for this purpose and ~;; t...I. .. _J.
"lj ,.....,...,--
this deck cargo to SOme extent compensates for the loss of underdeck capaCity. .. "__....i. •
The various cargo holds are separated by a deep web-framed structure to ~'£ ~': 1
~~ t-~i-i"
provide the ship with transverse strength. The ship section Outboard of the !< C " I I
Containers on each side is a box-like arrangement of wing tanks which provides cJ 0 L 1 _I. .l.:;J!-----r -F--~---------
longitudinal strength to the structure. These wing tanks may be utilised for r-'" .,- ..
I ' , ,
water ballast and can be arranged to COunter the heeling of the ship when ,... J_~
' , __

discharging containers. A double bottom is also fitted which adds to the ••

1 I
longitUdinal strength and provides additional ballast space. L_L-l.J

Accommodation and machinery spaces are usually lOCated aft to provide the
maximum length of full·bodied ship for container stowage. Cargo-handling gear
is rarely fitted, as these ships travel between speciaUy equipped terminals for
rapid loading and discharge_ Container ship sizes vary considerably with
container-earrying capacities from 100 to 2000 or more. As specialist carriers - ----;.,--=-=-,,~
they are designed for rapid transits and are high powered, high speed vessels
with speeds up to 30 knots. Somc of the larger vessels have triple-screw
propulsion arrangements.

Passenger ships
•• o
The passenger liner, or its modern equivalent the cruise liner, exists to provide a
means of luxuriow transport between interesting destinations, in pleasant
climates, for its human cargo. The passenger travelling in such a ship pays for,
i. j
and expects, a SUperior standard of accommodation and leisure facilities. Large
"' ~
amounts of superstructure are therefore an essential fealure of passenger ships. oi
Z< "'
o l:!
Several tiers of declo are fitted with large open lounges, ballrooms, swimming z>
pools and promenade areas (Figuu J. 7).
AestheticaJly pleasing lines arc evident with Usually well.raked clipper-type
bows and unusual funnel shapes. Stabilisers are fitted to reduce rolling and bow
thrust devices arc employed for improved manoeuvrability. large passenger
liners arc rare, the moderate-sized cruise liner of 12000 tonnes displacement \,----,
now being the more prevalent. Passenger-carrying capacity is around 600, with
speeds in the region of 22 knots.

• <

i~ 2

Ship Stresses and

• Shipbuilding Materials
.;; The ship at sea or lying in still water is being constant!)' subjected \0 :I wide
variety of sueues and strains. which result from the action of (orces from
outside and within the ship. Forces within the ship result from structural weight.
t>,!o ~!
cargo. machinery weight and the ef(ects of operating machinery. Exterior forces
include the hydrostatic pressure of the water on the hull and the action of the

wind and waves. The ship must at all times be able to resist and withstand these
j messes and strains throughout its struClUre. II mUSI therefore be conslrucled
'-'&.;;• in a manner, and of such materials, that will provide the necessary strength. The
ship must also be able to function efficiently as a cargo-carrying vessel.
The various forces acting on a ship are constantly varying as to their degree
> and frequency. For simplicity. however. they will be considered individually and
the particular measures adopted to counter each type of force will be outlined.
- .-H

e-I i
Fif(Ure 1.1 Ship mOl'l!ml!nl - thl! silt dl!grl!~ offreedom

The forces may initially be classified as static and dynamic, Static forces are due
- to the differences in weight and buoyancy which occur at various points along
, t--=~i the length of the ship. Dynamic forces result from the ship's motion in the sea
and the action of the wind and waves. A ship is free to move with six degrees of
~ freedom - three linear and three rotational. These motions are described by the
1/ terms Ylown in Figure 2. J.
These static and dynamic forces create longitudinal, transverse and local in the ship's structure. Longitudinal stresses are greatest in magnitude
and result in bending of the ship along its length.
Ship Stresses and Shipbuilding MateriDls IS
8u.ouncy Longitudinal stresses

, Static loading
If the 1h.ip is considered floating in stm water, two different (orctS will be acting
upon it along ils length. The weight of the ship and its contents will be acting
vertically downwards. The buoyancy or vertical component of hydrostatic
pressure will be acting upwards. In total. the two forces exactly equal and
balance one another such that the ship floats at some particular draught. The
centre of the buoyancy force and the centre of the weight will be vertically in
line. However. at particular points along the ship's length the net effect may be
an excess of buoyancy or an excess of weight. This net effect produces a loading
of the structure, as with a beam. This loading results in shearing forces and
bending moments being set up in the ship's struCture which tend to bend it.
The stalic forces acting on a ship's structure are shown in Figure 2.2(Q). This
distribution of weight and buoyancy will a.Iso result in a variation of load, shear
'"' /
forces and bending moments along the length of the ship. as shown in FlgU.res
221bj-(d}. Depending upon the direction in which the bending moment acts,
the ship will bend in a longitudinal vertical plane. This bending moment is
known as the still water bending moment (SWBM). Special terms are used to
describe the two extreme cases: where the buoyancy amidships exceeds the
weight, the ship is said to 'hog', and this condition is shown in Figure 2.3;
where the weight amidships exceeds the buoyancy. the ship is said to 'sag', and
this condition is shown in Figure 2.4.

'- -- ---------------- -

i i
Fi!t.U'~ 1.,] HouillK cOftdiriO'l


c -~--.....0:-=-
- -:..::..:--::..::.--:.::.:-
- -:.=.::--=---=--,
FilU~ 2.1 S/Q';C 1000inl oftI ship:' It7llcturr
Fifll~ 2.4 ~uml condirlon
16 Ship Stressf?s and Shipbuilding Materials Ship Sm:,.~~·{·1' and Shipbuilding Materials 17

Dynamic loading decks and compressive stresses in lh-e bottom shell. This stressing, whether
compressive aT tensile. reduc('s ill magniwuc lowuds a position kn'J'wn <lS the
If th\: ship is now considered to be moving among W<lves. the distribution of neutral axis. The neutral3xis in a ship is somewhere below half the depth and IS.
weight will stll! be the sam\:. The distrihution of huoyancy. however, will vary in eflect. a horizontal line drawn the centre uf gravity of the snip's
a.s a result of the waves. the movement of the Sllip will also intwduce dynamic section.
f01C\:5. The fundamental bending cqmltiol1 for:1 beam is
The traditional approach to solving this problem is to convert this dynamic
situation into an equivalent statk une. To do this, the ship is assumed to be
balanced un a static wave of trochoidal form and length equal to the ship. The r y
profile of a wave'll: sea is considered to be 1I trochoid. This gives waves where the
creslS are sharper than the troughs. The wave crest is considered initially at where M is tile bending moment, f is the second moment of area of the se-ction
midships and then at the ends of the ship. The maximumqagging and sagging about its neutral axis, 0 is the stress at the outer flbre-s. and y is the distance
moments will thus occur in the structure far the particular loaded condition from the neutral axis to the OUter fibres_
considered, as shown in h'gure 2.5. This equation has been proved in ful1·scalc tests to be applicable to the
longitudinal bending of a srup. From the eq uaLioll the expression


is obtained for the stress in the material at some distance y from the neutral
axis. The values M. I and y can be determined for the ship, and the resulting
stresses in the deck and bottom -shell can be fuund. The ratio f!y is known as tne
section modulus. Z, when y is measured to the extreme edge of the section. The
values are d-etermineJ for the midship scction, since the greatest moment will
occur at or near midships (see Figure 2.2). A mme detailed explanation of this
process is given in Muckle's work, Nrrval Architecture jar Marine Engineers,
previously cited.
The stmctura.l materil:l1 induded in the calculation for the second moment J
will be all the lungitudinal material which extends fm a considerable proportion
of the ship's length. This material will include side and bottom shell platin;g,
inner bottom plating (where fitted). centre girders and decks. The material
forms what is known as the hull girder, whose dimensions arc very large
Figure 2.5 Drnami.c loading oj" ,hips ,Irm:furc. ra) still waler cOf/dition: (bj ,aggin/f compared to its thicknesS.
wndition, Ie) Jwgging condition

The total -shear force and bending moment are thus obtained and these will
ndude the still water bending moment t;onsidered preViously. If actual IoadJng Transverse stresses
~onditions for the ship aTe considered which will make the above conditions
lIorse, e.g. heavy loads amidships when the- wave trough is amidships, then the
naximum bending moments in normal operating servic-c can be found. Static loading
The ship's stmcture will thus be subjected 10 constantly fluctuating streSSes
esulling from these shear forces and bending moments as the waves move along A transverse section uf a ship is subjected to static pressure fmrn the surrounding
he ship's lengtll. water in addition to -the loading resulting from the weight of the structure,
cargo, etc. Although transverse stresses are oflesser magnLtude than longitudinal
stresses, considerable distortion of the structure ~ould ocellI, in the absence of
;tressing of the structure adequate stiffening (Figure 2.6).
The parts of the structure which resist transverse stre-sses are transverse
:he bending of a ship causes stresses to be set up within its structure. When a bulkheads, Ooors'in the double bottom (where fitted), deck beams, side frames
hip sags, tensile stresses are set up in the bottom shell plating and compressive and the brackets between them and -adjacent structure such as tank top flooring
tresses are set up in the deck. When the ship hogs, tensile stresses occur in the or margin -p13tes.
18 Ship Stresses and Shipbuilding Mat~rillh

Olating • , Slamming or pounding
Ship Stresses lmd Shipbuilding Muterials

In heavy weather, when the ship is heaving and pitching, the forward end leaves
and re-enters the water with a slamming effect (Figure 2.8). This slamming down
of the forward region on to the water is known as pounding. Additional


..... ',"

-/ t f t t t t t-t t "--

static .....-

~ - ---
Summer loael
ShiD forced dow~
on to w"te,

Figure 2.6 SIiW"C woterpremm" Joadingo[a ship'! ~r/'lJCfur"

Dynam ic 5t reSSe5
Pou~d'n~ ~~"'I- __
When a ship is rolling it is accelerated and decelerated, resulting in forces in the r region .
structure tendmg to distOIt it, This condition is known as racking and its- greatest I--- O,2SL 0' O,30t

Dislonion -oj Ftgu.rc 28 p()wujinr

• Rolli<1gof

SlrUCI"re, ren{i;"g stiffening must be fitted in the pounding region to reduce thl;' possibility of
to di,to" L\ damage to the structure. This is discussed further in Section A of Ch..ptel 5.

---~ Panting

The movement of waves along a ship causes fluctuations in water pressme on the
,plating. Th~ tends to create an in-and-out movement of the shell plating, known
as panting. The effect is particularly evident at the bows as the ship pushes its
way through the water.
The pitching motion of the ship produces additional ·..ariatiuns in water
FiKUre 2. 7 RacklllK
pressure, particularly at the bow and stem, which also cause panting of the
plating. Additional stiffening is provided in the form of panting beams and
effect is felt when the ship is in the- light or ballast condition (Figure 2. 7). The stringers. This is discussed further in Section 0 of Chapter 5
brackets and beam knees. joining horizontal and vertical items of structure are
used to resist this distortion.

Localised loading
Localised stresses
Beary weights, such as equipment in the mac-hinery spa<:cs or particular items of
The movement of a ship ill a: seaway results in forces being generated which aJe general cargo, can give rise to localised distOItiOfl. of the transverse section
largely of a local nature. These forces are, however, liable to cause the structme (Figure 2.9). Arrangements fm sp-r-c-adil1g HLC load, addilional stiffening and
to vibrate and thus tranunit stresses to other pans of the structure. thicker plating are methods used in de.aling with this problem.
20 Ship srresses {Jtld Shipbuilding MateriaA Ship Stresses and Shipbuilding Materials 21

Ddlec,;"" n'
usually exceeding ilbout 2%. Special steeh of high tensile strength are used on
, "Id·jng certain highly stressed parts of Ihe shi~'s structure. Aluminium alloys have
-- --,--". particular applications in the constructlOn of superstructures, espeCIally on
passenger ships.

'Acid' OJ 'basic' are terms often use-d when referring to -steels. The re~erence is t.o
Cargo the production process and the type of furnace lining, e.g. an alkaline or baSlc
lining i-s used to produce basic ~teel. The choke of furnace linmg IS dictated by
the raw mateJials used in the manufacture of the steet There are three partlcular
esses currently used for lne m-3TIufacture of carbon steeL namely the open
~:th process, the oxygen or basic oxygen steel proces~ and the elec:tric furnace
foIgurc 2,9 Loca/ircd 'Mds rendinf{ to distort the ship's Hrur:W re racess. In all these processes the het molten metal is exposed to alT o.r oxygen
p hich oxidises the impurities to refine the pig iron into high quality steeL
W In the open hearth process a long shallow furnace is used which is fired from
both ends. A high proportion of steel scrap may be used in this process.. Htgh
Superstructures and discontinuities qua!jty steel is produced whose properties can be controlled by the addltlOn of
suitable alloying elements. . ..
The ends of superslructures represent major discontinuities in the ship's In the oxygen or basic oxygen steel proce-s~ the molten metal IS contamed m
structllTe where a considerabJ.e change in section modulus occurs. Loc.aJised a basic lined furnace. A jet of oxygen is injected into the molten metal by an
st,resses. will. occur wllich may result in cracking of adjacent structure. Sharp overhead lance. Alloying elemcnts can be introduced into the rno1ten metal and
(flscontmuitle, are therefore to be avoided by gradual tapers being introJuced. a high quality steel is produced.
Thicker strakes of deck and shell plating may also be fitted at these points. In the electric furnace process. an electric arc is struck between carbon
Any aoles or -openings cut in decks create similar areas of hig.lllocal stre,s. electrodes and the steel charge in the fum-ace. Accurate control of tne final
Well-rounded comers musl be used where openings are necessary, and doubling composition of the steel and a high standard of purity are possible with this
plates may also be filled. In the case of hatchways the bulk of the longitudinal process,
strength matl;rial is concentrated outboard of the hatch openings on either side
to reduce the change in sccHan modulliS al tile openings, This is discussed
further in Sections Band F of Chapter 5. Finishing treatment
Steels from the above·mentioned processes will all contain an excess of oxygen,
Vibr.ations usually in the form of iron oxide. Several finishing treatment~ are possible in the-
rmal casting of the steel.
Vibrations- set up in a: ship due to reciprocating machinery, propellers, etc., can Rimmed ~teeJ is produced as ~ resuli of little ur no treatment to remove
result in the setting up of stresses in the structure. These are cyclic stresses Oxygen. In the molten state the oxygen combines with the carbon in the steel.
which could result in fatigue failure of local items of structure leading to mme roCleasing carbon monoxide gas. On solidifying, an almost pure iron ollter surface
general collapse, Balancing of machinery and adequate propeller tip clearances is formed. The central core of the ingot is, however, a mass of blow holes. Hot
c-an rcduoCC the effects of vibration to acceptable proportions. Aplirt fmm rolling of the ingot usually 'welds up' thes.e holes but tnick plates of this material
possible damage to equipment and structure, the presence of vibration can be are prone to laminations.
most uncomfortable to any passengers and the crew. Killed steel is produced by fixing tlw OXygCll hy the addition of aluminium or
The design of the slmcture is outside the scope of this book. The various &ilicon before pouring. the steel into the mould. The uluminium or s.llicon.
shipbuilding materials used to provide the structure will now hI; considered. produoCes oxide~ reducing the iron oxides to iron. A homogeneous rnatenal ot
superior quality 10 rimmed s(cd is thus produced. , ,
Balanced or sl;mi·kilkd steels arc an intermediate form ot steel ThIS resulls
Steel from the beginning of the rimming process in the mould and its termination by
tne use of deoxidi~ers.
Ste~l is the basic shipbuilding material in use today. Steel may be regarded as VaoJ.U1ll degassecl steels are produced hy reducing the atmospheric pressure
an lron-carbon alloy, usually containing other elements, the carbon content flot WhCli the steel is ill the llloltc-n state. The equilibrium between carb~)n and
22 Ship Stresses and Shipbuilding MaleriDls Ship Stresses and Shipbuilding MateriD/J 23
oxygen is thus obtained at a much lower level and the oxygen content becomes sund ard steel sections
very small. Final residual deoxidation can be achieved with the minimum
additions of aluminium or silicon. A very 'clean' steel is produttd with good ..nety of standard sections are produced ~ith vatting scantlings to suit their
notch toughness properties and freedom from lameUar tearing problems ~tion. The stiffenin~ of plates and sections utihses one or more of these
(lamellar tearing is explained in Chapter 4). ~. which are shown m Figure 2. J O.
The composition of steel has a major influence on its properties and this will
be discussed in the next subsection. The properties of steel are further improved
by various forms of heat treatment which will now be outlined. In simplified
terms the heat treatment of steels results in a change in the grain structure which
alters the mechanical properties of the material.

Norma/u;ng. The steel is heated to a temperature of 850-950°C depending

upon its carbon content and then allowed to cool in air. A hard strong steel with
a refined grain structure is produttd.
,., I",
Annazling. Again the steel is heated to around 850-950°C. but is cooled
slowly either in the furnace or in an insulated space. A softer more ductile steel
than that in the normalised condition is produced.

Hardening. The Sleel is heated to 8S0-9S0°C and then rapidly cooled by
quenching in oil or water. The hardest possible condition for the particular steel
is thus produced and the tensile strength is increased.

Tempuing. This process follows the quenching of steel and involves reheating
to some temperature up to about 680°C. The higher the tempering temperature
the lower the tensile properties of the steel. Ontt tempered, the metal is rapidly
,,, ,., ,,,
cooled by quench;-:g.
,.,.... 1.10 St.,.d4ud Jtt~l UCtiOllJ: (tI)fltlr plllr~: (b) Dffut bulb pllllt: (cJ tqutzl tln,le;
(d) unequal tlfIIlt; (t) chtlMtI: tnla
Composition and properties

Various terms are used with reference to steel and other materials to describe lIIlipbuiding .-Is
their properties. These terms will now be explained in more detail.
The steel used in ship construction is mild steel with a 0.15-0.23% carbon
Tensile strOlgrh. This is the main single criterion with reference to metals. It ctJDtent. The properties required of a good shipbuilding steel are:
is a measure of the material's ability to withstand the loads upon it in service.
Terms such as stress, strain, ultimate tensile strength, yield stress and proof (I) Reasonable cost.
stress are all different methods of quantifying the tensile strength of the (2) Easily welded with simple techniques and equipment.
material. The two main facton affecting tensile strength are the carbon content (3) Ductility and homogeneity.
of the steel and its heat treatment following manufacture. (4) Yield point to be a high proportion of ultimate tensile strength.
(5) Chemical composition suitable for flame cutting without hardening.
Ductility. This is the ability of a material to undergo permanent changes in (6) Resistance to corrosion.
shape without rupture or loss of strength. It is particularly important where
metals undergo forming processes during manufacture. These features are provided by the five grades of mild steel (A-E) designated
by the C~fication societies (see Chapter 10). To be classed, the steel for ship
1fIlrdnen This is a measure of the workability of the material. It is used as an co:;urucli?n must bt manufactured under approved conditions, and inspected,
assessment of the machinability of the material and its resistance to abrasion. :' prescnbed tesu must be carried out on selected specimens. Finished material
...;~ped Wi.~ the ~ety's brand. a symbol with L superimposed on R being
Toughness. This is a condition midway between briulenm and softness. It
is often quantified by the value oblained in a notched bar test.
of r~OYd s ~gLSter. The chemical composition and mechanical properties
a Ie eClion of mild steel grades are given in Table 2./.

M/"Imllm /1'I1S1l1i MiltlmulII
C N, 51 S P A' yield SIfI'U SI'f!U f'/ollxallm, (1I/1"J)'
(%) ,%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (N/mm') IN/mm') (%) (J)

LR 'A'
mUd ncel
2.5)(. C
- 230 400-490 22

LR '0' 0.21 0.70- 0.10- 0.04 0.04 0.015 400-490

mUd liCe! mix. 1.40 0," mu. m",. min. '" 22 413\

LR 'E' 0.70- 0.10- 0.04 0.04 0.015

mild stcel
mIX. !.SO 0.50 mIX. mIX. min. '" 400 490
" 27 DI


Millimum 1('II,IIt MI,,/"',m'
C N, 51 S P AI )'/t/d 1/"'11 I/,rll "/WllfulltN' (7I/UP)'
(%) (%) ("') (%) (%) (%) (N/mm') (N/mm'l f%' (J)

LR 11.1132 0.18 0.70- 0.50 440-590 )1 a1

m",. 1.60 mu.
min. "' 22

LR AIU6 0.18 0.70- 0.50 .l4 al

max. 1.60 max.
min. '" 490-62U
" O"C

LR Eli 36 0.18 0.70- 0.10- U.04 0.04 0,0]5 '55 490-620 )4 III
mu. 1.60 0.50 max. mu. min. " -40·C


Mlllimum U1/fm/l/e
y/tld or proof Itlullt Minimum
N, C, N. OI/1rpy
C Sf S P AI fl"" "rtnx,h e/onpl/on
("') (%) ("') (%)
'') (%)
''''' "'» (N/mm') (N/mm' ) (%) (l)

Low carbon
staWeu steel 0.03
AISI304 m....
1.2 0.75 0.02 0.02 - 10.7 18.5 - '" 560 SO 103 al

om - - -
36% Nlalloy 0.09 0.3 0.02 3.5.8 11S 480
" 147 II

((nvu) -196"C

51' Nillul 0.20

- 4.5-
- - .590-740 20 881\

91' Ni steel 0.13

- 8.5-
- - 587 690-830 22 34 II

N, 51 N, I:e Z, C, TI
,"') ("') ,%) ("') ("') (%) (%) (%)

Illoy S083
Rem. 0.2.5
". m 16
26 Ship Streue$ and Shipbuilding Materillls
Developments in steel production and alloying techniques have resulted in the
availability of higher strength steels for ship construction. These higher tensUe
strength (HTS) steels, as they are caJled, have adequate notch toughness,
ductility and weldability, in addition to their increased strength. The increased
strength results from the addition of alloying elements such as vanadium,
chromium, nickel and niobium. Niobium in particular improves the mechanical
properties of tensile strength and notch ductility. Particular care must be taken
in the choice of electrodes and welding processes for these steels. Low hydrogen
electrodes and welding processes must be used. Table 2.2 indicates the chemical
composition and mechanical properties of several high tensile steel grades. A
special grade mark, H, is uSt'd by the classification societies to denote higher
tensile steel.
Benefits arising from the use of these steels in ship construction inclUde
reduced structural weight, since smaller sections may be used; larger unit
fabrications are possible for the same weight and less welding time, although a

more specialised process, is needed for the reduced material scantlings.

Cryogenic or low temperature materials are being increasingly used as a N~ N~
consequenct of the carriage of liquefied gases in bulk tankers. Table 2.3 details 0. 0.
the properties and composition of several of these cryogenic materials. The main
aiterion of selection is an adequate amount of notch toughness at the operating
temperature to be encountered_ Variow alloys are principally used for the very
low temperature situations. although special quality carbon/manganese steels
have been used satisfactorily down to -50°C.

Castings and forgings

The larger castings used in ship construction are usually manufactured from ~~
carbon or carbon manganese steels. Table 2.4 details the composition and
properties of these materials. Examples of large castings are the sternframe,
bossings, A-brackets and parts of the rudder. The examples mentioned may
also be manufactured as forgings. Table 2.4 also details the composition and 0.
properties of materials used for forgings.

~~ ~~
0. 0.
unsile Yilld Minimum
C M. Si S P stTerJrtlt stms tlO#Igarion
(':I) (':10) (':I) (':10) (") (Nfmm') (Nfmm ' ) (%)

Sleet castings 0.23 1.6 max. 0.60 0.04 0.04 '00

max. but nOI max. max. max.
less IhVl
" 2~

Slee) forgings 0.23

,X C

0.30- 0.45 0.045 0.045 24 longitudinal

nwt. 1.70 mu. max. max. 18 tnnsveue
Sleel forliDas 0.30 0.30- 0.45 0.045 0.045 '30 2I5 24 Iongiludinal
(not UlleDded 1.50 max. max. 18 tnnsverle
28 Ship Srreues and Shipbuilding Marerials Ship Srreue! and Shipbuilding Marerial! 29
AJuminium alloys • When the force applied tends to lengthen the material the stress is termed
..-:. tress'. When the force tends to cause the various paru of the material
The increasin8 use of aluminium alloy has resulted from its several advantages ....; ~ver one another the stress is termed 'shear stress',
over steel. Aluminium is about one·third the weighcoLstee1 for~uivalent ..,. tensile test is used to determin.e the ~ehaviour of a material up to ,its
volume of material. Ibe use or-aluminium alloys in a structure can result ill 'fhe point. A specially shaped specimen piece (Figure 2. J 2) of standard sue
reaucllons or~of the weight of an equivalent stul structure. This reduction ~ in the jaws of a testing machine. A load is gradually applied to draw
in weight. particularly in the upper regions of the structure, can improve the
stabi't 0 e vessel. This follows from the lowering of the vissel's centri:or. ......
• <Is of the bar apart such that it is subject to a tensile stress. The original

~ resu.!! ase me en nc ~Sta6ility is discussed in

detaIfliirluckle's Naval Archir«tu~ for MQrin~ Engineen. The corrosion
resistance_of aluminium is very good but careful maintenance and insulation
from the adjoining steel structure are necessary. The properties required of an
aluminium alloy to be used in ship construction are much the same as for steel.
namely strength, resistance to corrosion, workability and weldabililY. These
requirements are adequately met. the main disadvantage being the high cost of
aluminium. 1---- 5.65,S",----I
The chemical composition and mechanical properties of the common ship-
building alloys are shown in Table 2.5. Again these are classilication society
1_' 7.65"'S,,_o.._~-_.1
gradings where the material must be manufactured and tested to the satisfaction
of the society.
";i 10 ......

1 J 11 FiKu" 211 Aluminium tll/oy J«riOllS


1---- t" • 511-----1
Aluminium alloys are available as plate and section. and a selection of
1_.--,.", ·._.·.--_·1
aluminium alloy sections is shown in FiguTf! 2.1 J. These sections are formed by 101
extrusion. which is the forcing of a billet of the hot material through a suitably
shaped die. Intricate or unusual shapes to suit particular applications are there- ~ 2.12 Ttrfsilt tnt sp«imt1U: (tI) [or pitltn. !rripl tI1Id ItcriOiU Itl • tJrickntlf o[
fore possible. mrHtrial): (b) [or hot-ToIftd btlr
Where aluminium alloys join Ote stul structure, special insulating
IeIt length L 1 of the specimen is known and for each applied load the new
arrangements must be employed to avoid galvanic corrosion where the metals
meet (see Chapter II). Where rivets are used, they should be manufactured from leasth L 2 can be measured. The specimen will be found to have extended by
SOIne small amount L 2 -L 1 • This deformation, expressed as
a corrosion-resistant alloy (see Table 2.5).
Materials testing Original length

Various qualities of the materials discussed so far have been mentioned. These is known as the linear strain.
qualities are determined by a variety of tests which are carried out on samples Additional loading of Ote specimen will produce results which show a
of the metal. ~orm increase of extension until the yield point is reached. Up to the yield
The terms 'stress' and 'strain' are used most frequently. Stress or intensity of ~t the removal of load would have resulted in the specimen returning to its
stress, its correct name, is the force acting on a unit area of the material. Strain ~~. Stress and strain are therefore proportional up to the yield point, or
is the deforming ofa material due to stress. When the force applied to a material e ~ limit as it is also known. The stress and strain values for various loads
tends to shorten or compress the material Ote stress is termed 'compressive CIn shown on a graph such as Figure 2. J3.
30 Ship Strene3 and Shipbuilding Materill/3 Ship Stresses and Shipbuilding Materloli 31
F ,aClU'~
'['his coMtan t is known as the 'modulus of elasticity' (E) of the material and has
the same units as stress. The yield stress. is the value of stress at the yield point.
lIre \5 Where a clearly defmed yield point is not obtained a proof stress value is given.
Yiel-d -
nus is obtained by a line parallel to the stress-strain line being drawn at some
<Ues; percentage of the strain, such as 0.1%, The interse~tion of this line willi the
s.treSS-strain line is considered the proof stress (see FIgure 2.14).
The bend test is used to determine the ductility of a material. A piece of
material is bent over a radiused fanner. sometimes through 180 degrees. No
cracks or surface laminations should a.ppear in the material.
Impact tests can have a number of forms but the Charpy vee-notch test is
usuallY spedfied. The test specimen is a 10 mm square cross-section, S5 rnm in
Length. A vee-notch is cut in the centre of one face, as shown in Figure 2.15. The


Figure 2.13 Srre~~-st/1lin gNIph for mild steel
F-raclure /
P'u"f f



Figure 2.15 Chllrpy impilet test

specimen is mounted horizontally with the notch axis vertical. The test involves
the specimen being struck opposite the notch and fractured. A striker or
hammer on the end of a swinging pendulum provides the blow which breaks the
specimen. The energy absorbed by the material in fracturing is measured by the
machine. A particular value of average impact energy must be obtained for the
-I '_O.'%I\ra'n DUlterial at the test temperature. This test is particulariy important for materials
to be used in low temperature regions. For low temperature testing the specimen
Figure 2.14 Stre!r-mairz graph /0' higher leftl'ile steel ia cooled by immersion in a bath of liquid nitrogen or dry ice and acetone for
about 15 minutes. The specimen is then handled and tested rapid.y to minUnlse
[1' thor testing worriO c()nlinued bey()nu Ilw ),jeld point the spcdml;."n wouLd any temperature changes. The impact test, in effect, measures a material's
'neck' or reduce in clUs:;-'edlon. Th-o loau value, divided by the original resistance to fracture when shock loaded.
speClInen CIOSS-5Cc!lIJnal ale:> would give the ~harc shown in Figure 1.13. The A dump test is used on a specimen length of ba.r from which rivets are to be
highest value of stress is known a~ the ultimate tensile ,tress (llTS} of th~ made. The bar is compressed to half its original length and no surface cracks
material. must .appear. Other rivet material tests include bending the shank until the two
Within the clastic limit, stre~:; i:; proportiumJ tll strain. and theretore ends touch without any cracks or fractures appearing. The head must also accept
flattening until it reaches two and a half times the shank diameter.
== constant

, e e

, • •
3 •

t-................. r--...
-." ........ ~
r; \
Building I ship is a complex prottSS involving the many departments of the ship- '\
building organisation. the arrangement and use of shipyard facilities and the
many skills of the various personnel involved. Those departments directly
involved in the construction, the shipyard layout, material movement and the
equipment used will be examined in tum.
e e e e

• ~ • •
Drawing office

The main function of the shipyard's design and drawing offices is to produce the
working d~wings to satisfy the owner's requirements. the rules of the ......... I':::
c1assifiation societies and the shipyard's usual building practices. A secondary,
but nevertheless important, function is to provide information 10 the production
L .
·v V

planning and conlrol departments, the purchasing departments. etc .. to enable

steelwork outfitting and machinery items to be ordered and delivered to satisfy
the building programme for the ship. • "" l / ' / l/

Closely follOWing the basic design drawings will be the production of the
lines plan. This plan (Figu" 3.1) is a scale drawing of the moulded dimensions
of the ship in plan, profile and section. The ship's length between the forward
and after perpendiculars is divided into ten equally spaced divisions or stations
numbered 1 to 10. Transverse sections of the ship at the various stations are
drawn to give a drawing known as the body plan. Since the vessel is symmelTical. I)
half·sections are given. The stations 0 to 5 representing the after half of the ship

~ I)
are shown on the left side of the body plan with the forward sections shown on
the right. The profile or sheer plan shows the general outline of the ship, any
sheer of the decks, the deck positions and all the waterlines. For clarity, the 1/
deck positions have been omitted from Figure J.1 and only three waterlines are

/"-7 1/V ~•
shown. The various stations are also drawn on this view. Additional stations may
be used at the fore and aft ends, where the section change is considerable. The
half-breadth plan shows Ihe shape of the waterlines and the decks formed by
horizontal planes at the various waterline heights from the keel. This plan is
usually superimposed upon the profile or sheer plan. as shown in Figure 3.1.
The initial lines plan is drawn for the design and then checked for 'fairness'.
To be 'fair' all the curved lines must run evenly and smoothly. There must also
be exact correspondence between dimensions shown for a particular point in
all the three different views. The fairing operation, once the exclusive province:
of a skilled loftsman, is now largely accomplished by computer programs.
34 Shipbuilding
Once fairtd. the final lines plan is prtpartd and a tablt of offsets is compiled
for usc in producing the ship's plates and frames.
The traditional practice of drawing plans according to structural areas such tr> ~

as the shell, the deck, the double-bottom framing, elC., is inconvenient in many
cases since the ship is nowadays buill up of large prefabricated units. A unit may f-
consist of shell plating, some framing and part of a deck. An expansion of a
ship's shell is given in Figure 3.2, the positions of the various units. I
Plans are therefore drawn in relation to units and contain all tht information /
required 10 build a particular unit. A number of traditional plans arc still
produced for classification society purposes, future maintenance and reference,
but without the wealth of manufaclUring information which is only needed on
the unit plans.
The planning and production control departments require drawing
information to compile charts for monitoring progreSS. compiling programmes,
producing programmes for material delivery, parts production and assembly
and finally unit production and erection. f-

Plan approval I--

The fundamental design plans and basic constructional details must all receive
•• ~
classification society approval and, of course, the shipowner's approval. Unwuai
aspects of design and innovations in coostructional methods will receive special 1• ~
attention, as will any depanures from standard practice. Progress is not hindered l ~
by the classification societies, whose main concern is the production of a sound
and safe structure.
• i ~

The shipowner will normally have clearly indicated his requirements from the li ..;
design inception and his approval of plans is usually straightforward. Most large
vi •
shipowning companie5 have a technical staff who utilise their practical
experience in developing as near perfect and functional a design as possible.
- f-
Plan issue
With plan approval the ordering of equipment, machinery, steel section and i,
plate, etc., will begin and the plans will be issued to the various production
departments in the shipyard. The classification society, the owners and their
( ,
representatives in the shipyard also receive copies of the plans.
During the manufacturing processes, as a result of problems encountered,
feedback from previous designs, modifications reque5ted by the owner, etc.,
amendments may be made to plans. A system of plan recall, replacement or
modification in the production departments must be available. This ensures
that any future ships in a series do not carl)' the same faults and that co"ective
action has been taken.
Steel ordering \UJ
The ordering of steel to ensure availability in line with programmed require-
menU is essential. It must therefore begin at the earliest opportunity,
36 Shipbuilding
occasionally before plan approval where delivery problems may occur. The

.", .
steel ordering is a key function in the production process. requiring involnmenl i
with the drawing office. planning departments. production departments and the " i< <
st~1 supplier. The monitoring and control of stock is also important. since the
steel material for a ship is a substantial part of the ship's final cost. Stock held
••, -
., "
by a ~ipyard represents a considerable capital investment.

Loh work

•i g
Loft work takes place in a mould loft. The mould loft is a large covered area
with a wooden floor upon which the ship's details are drawn to full size or some
smaller more convenient scale. Much of the traditional loft work is now done
by computer but some specialist areas still require wooden templates to be H !t

made, mock-ups to be constructed, etc.
In the traditional mould loft operation the lines plan and working drawing ~
information is converted into full-scale lines drawn on the 10ft noor. From these
lines the (airing or smoothness of the ship's lines is checked and a scrieve board t r~\
, .;:

produced. A scrieve board is a wooden board with the body sections at every
frame spacing drawn in. Once the ship's lines arc checked and fair, a half-block
model is constructed by joiners usually to about 1!50th scale. This model has ~\
v •;

the exact lines of the ship and is used to mark out the actual plates on the shell,
giving all the positions of the butts and seams.
The loftsman can now produce templates for marking. cutting and bending
the actual plates using the full·size scrieve board markinp.s in conjunction with
the plate positions from the model. A table of offsets is produced finally for the ,,
various frames and plates, giving manufacturing information for the various
tndes involved in production.


On~Unth scale lofting
•- ;
With one-tenth scale lofting the mould loft becomes more of a drawing office ,
with long tables. Fairing is achieved using the one-tenth scale drawings. The
scrieve board is made to one-tenth scale, perhaps on white-painted plywood.
One-tenth scale drawings are then made of the ship's individual plates. These
dnwings may then be photographed and reduced in scale to one-hundredth of
t ~

full size for optical projection and marlting of the plates. Alternatively, the
one-tenth scale dnwings may be tnced directly by a cutting machine head.
Numerical control

A numerical control system is one where a machine is operated and controlled

by the insertion of numerical data. The numerical data is a sequence of numbers
which fully describe a part to be produced. In addition, the use of certain code
numbers enables instructions to be fed into the machine to enable it to operate
automatically. A reading device on the machine converts the numbers into
electrical impulses which become control signals for the various parts of the
machine which produce the finished part.
38 Shipbuilding Shipbuilding 39
. The i~pul data for the machine is initially produced from drawings and offset sler before, during and after the various pro~esses in shipbuildin~ utilises
Informal.lon. !he various parIS to be produced 3rc programmed and then coded uan handling appliances. such as overhead travelling cranes, vacuum 11ft cranes
~r deSCribed In numeri~~ terms. Punched card, punched tape or magnetic tape ~l8JIetic cranes, roller conveyors, equipment, etc. . .
IS then p~oduced contalrung I~e numerical data. The card or tape information is o The various steel parts in plate and sectlon form are now Jomed to~ether by
then fe~ mlo a compuler neSlang program. The various pariS are then 'nested' or lding to produce subassemblies, assemblies and units. A subassembly IS several
econo~lcally fi."ed into a standard plate size (Figurr 3.1). A final punched or ~ of steel making up a tw<Htimensional part which, together with other
magnetIC tape IS. produ~ed Which. is. used for the operation of the numerically :=emblies, will join to form a unit. Subassemblies may weigh up to 5 tonnes
controlled machine. ThIS process IS illustrated by a simple now chart in Figu
~4. rr
;;-;nare and examples would be transverses, minor bulkheads and web frames
3.6). Assemblies consist of larger, usually three-dimensional, structures

Shipyard layout

The sh.i~yard layout is arranged to provide a logical ordered now of materials

an~ equlpme~l towuds the final unit build-up, erection and outfitting of the
ship_ The vanous production stages are arranged in work areas or 'shops' and as
far as .pracli~ble. in modem yards, take place under cover. The sequence' of
eve,U$ IS outlllled In Figu~ 3.5.
---I o
Prdiminafy ship desip

Dra, oC delaikd plans • Slet! ordered

ApproVal oC plans and iuue Stet! dtlivUed

LoClwork and production oC _______
taMe 0+ oirK'ls ~
lillie oC stet! and production begun Inpplng o<ad<~t
Material prtpantion - lhot4:llutinl and priminl

Manuearure oC plates and sections - marltins. euttinl.,: and shapina

Subassemblies and assemblies produced


Figt.lrt 3.6 SubotsrmbJ)' - "'rb fr(Jmr

Units CiriC&'ed and delivered to the berth

V nits erected, Caired and wdded

· • of plating and sections weighing up to 20 tonnes. Flat panels and bulkheads are
examples and consist of various pieces of shell plating with stiffeners and
Figuft 3.' Ship/NUdill1 ttqutnct Olt~nrlt
perhaps deep webs crossing the stiffeners (Figure 3.7). The flat or perhaps
curved panel may form part of the shell, deck or side plating of, for instance, a
~t~el ~I~tes and sections are usually stored in separate stockyards and fed into tanker. Units are complex built·up sections of a ship, perhaps the comolete fore
theu ,indIVIdUal sh~t-blasting and priming machines. The plates are cleaned by end forward of the collision bulkhead, and can weigh more than 100 tonnes
abrasl,ve .shot o.r gnt and then coated with a suitable prefabrication priming paint (Figure 3.8), their size being limited by the transportation capacity of the yard's
to a lumted thickness for ease of welding, The major areas of steel are therefore eqUipment.
protected from corrosion dUring the various manufacturing processes which The various subassemblies, assemblies or units are moved on to the building
berth or storage area until required for eJl!ction at the ship. At this stage, or
'J?te plates. and sect,ions follow their individual paths to the marking or direct. perhaps earlier, items of pipework and machinery may be fitted into the unit
cutting ma~hiner;: w~ch produces the suitably dimensioned item, Flame cutting in what is known as pre-outfitting, Once erected at the berth the units are cut to
or mechamcal. guillotmes ~ay be u~d. Edge preparation for welding may also size, where necessary, by the removal of excess or 'green' material, The units
be d~ne at this stage. Vanous shaping operations now take place using plate- are faired and tack welded one to another and fmally welded into place to form
bendmg rolls, presses, cold frame benders, etc., as necessary. The material the hull of the ship,
Shipbuilding 41
40 Shipbu.ilding

Inn~r bottom plating



- -._--

FiliUrc 1.8 lJmr

Materials preparation

Plates and sections received from the stcel mill are shot·blasted to remove scale,
primed with a temporary protectivc pai'llt and finally straightened by rolling to
remove any curvature.

Shot.blasting and priming

Fij?Ufe], 7 Assembly
A typical m.achine will first water-wasb then heat·dry the plates hefore descalil1g.
The plates are then simultaneously shot-blasted both siJ-e-s with metallic abrasive.
The plate is fed in horizontally at speeds of llP to 5 mfmin, and around 300 trh
Materials handling of shot are projected on to it Blowers and suction deYi.ces remove the shot
which is cleaned and recycled. The clean plates are immediately cove rca with a
The layout ,of .a shi~yard should aim tu reduce materials handling to.a minimum coat of primmg paint and dried in an automatic spraying machine (Fi/(Ure 3.10).
by appro~nate locatIOn of -",ark s~ations Dr areas. The building of large uni ts and A thickness of about 1 mm of compatib-le priming paint is applied to avoid
the <:apaclty to transport them will reduce the number of items handled but will problems with fillet weLds on to the plating.
re-quue greater care and more- sophisticated equipment. The building of a ship is
as ~uch gov.erned by the shipyard layout as the materials handling equipment
and Its capacity. Straightening
An. actual shipyard ~yout is shown in Figure 3.9. The progression of
~ate~a1S through the .vanous production stages can deaIly be seen. The various Plate straightening or levelling is achieved by using a plate rolls machine (Fi;;UTe
, arkinE pro~esses which the plates and sections undergo will naw be ex.amined 3.]1). This consists basically of five large rollers, the b(lHom two being driven
m more detail.
.. Shipbuilding


M tain

~0 Spray C()nUmina~V
,"''' .r Plale 11
, . -. ,• -
RQII"( e,,-~.ust
r -
, • •
,• T ra"e,

Figure ).10 Automatic paint-spraying plant

- Bottom roller /
Bottom sUPp<>rting

Secti(Jn th,origh rQlle-r

Bent r;lale
Straightlmed plate

~ ~~ ~i
• 00
1- --
-:;='1"~':'~5,,~,;,~o~"~"~"~~=I-t- __ '~""'-- __J_.~~~ ~ r
luawlRaJl Jallaj,ll!; ::;: Ii; Figure 3.11 Platestroighrcning

pJRl.lPOll Jaua,I!1-S /..eq AIQwi'lSRqnS and the top ones idling. The top roners can be adjus.ted for height independently
at each end and the bottom rollers nave adjustable centres. A number of smaller
SUpporting rollers are positioned around the five main rollers. The plate is feci
through with the upper and lower rollers spaced at its thickness and is
subsequently straightened. This machine is also capable of bending and flanging
,Cuning .and shaping

Various machines and equipment are used for cutting.and shaping the steel parts
which ronn the subassemblies, assemblies and units.
Shipbuilding 45
44 ShipbuildillK
C"m"~o IrTlovabl~ but
Contour or proftle-cutting machine tix~d when CU!!In9'

Driven ganlr~

This machine is made up of a robust portal frame for longitudinal travel which is
traversed by several burner carriages, .some of which are motorised (Figure 3.ll).
A motorised carriage can pull one or more slave carriages for congruent or
miIIor-image operation. The bUffin carriages may be equipped with single Plale
Rail Trip~ ..·n"ule
bumeTs or up to three heads which. l;an be angled and rotated for edge bead \
preparation in addition to cutting, as shown in Figure 3.12. Fully automatic Swp-port ' I
Colwrn:"_l._.l._'L' -'-- --.J__.,,:-~ ~..L_...;._
Mmmi,oo Sl",,~ MDlOrised Slav~ ,
ca"iage~ Cutt'ng l~bl.
cama"" -cam"g~" carr;"'l~ ' "

Track GanlrV'IJtior>ary
,up'port Ii IranS\l~rS!!ly

• / f""I
Cwtting labj~
I r l I
Figure 3.12 Profile-rurting mllrhine
Rail -.. I'j ,<I -......,..

Gantry rn"ving longitudinally

operation is possible with punched paper tape input under numerical control. Carriage

Semi-automatic operation can be acmelled by a photoelectric tradng table using

5t~ti(",ary I 'tation~ry

}:1, 1:2.5, 1:5 or 1:10 scale drawings. Complex shapes such as floor plates in
double bottoms can be cut with these machines, and also plate edge preparation II rl l II
may be carried out while cutting shell plates to the required shape.

Flame pkmer
G/¥ 'tation~,y
A typical flame planer can have up to three gantries run on supporting Carriage rn"~lng
carriages. The gantries are traversed by one or two burner heads - Figure tran,versely
3_13(a). With triple-nozzle heads., cutting to size and edge preparation of one or
more edges of a plate can take place simultaneously. The operation of the I I
machine is largely automatic, although initial setting up is by manual adjust- w L- "-J
ment. With a three·gantry machine, the longitudinal plate edges can he rut to
size and also the transverse edges -- Figure 3.13(b). The transversely -cutting
gantries wilt operate once the longitudinal gantry is clear. The flame planer can
Figure 3. /3 Flame plani"/{ mac/1in,., (aj flame plant"; (b) rhre.e-gl1.ntry operaricm of
split or cut plates to a desired length or width by straight-line cuts. The use of a flame planer
compound or triple-nozzle head enables simultaneous cutting and edge
preparation of plates. All straight-line edge preparations, such as. V, X, Y or K, somewhat longer than for name planing, although the act~a.l mechanical cutting
are possible with this machine. operation is much quicker. Modem machines use m.l1lmg heads. for edge
preparation to produce an accurate high standard of finish far s.uperl~r to gas.-
cuttillg techniques _ Figure 3.14(a). These machines. can also achieve high s~ed
Mechanical planer shearing on the lighter gauges [}f plating. The mosl l;omplex edge prepa.rahons
can be obtained by the use of the rotatable head and assorted cutter shapes -
Steel plate l;an also be planed or cut to size using roller shears, as in the
mechanical planer. The plates are held by hydraulic clamps. Setting-up time is Figure 3.14(bJ,
46 Shipbuilding 47

Gap or rillg press

The gap or ring press is a hydraulically-powered press which cold works steel
plait. The operations of bending, straighteni~g. dishin~ and swedging of Sleel
Hvdr • .,l,t pl:lIcS can all be achieved by the use of Ihe dlffcrenl die blocks on the bed and
the Tam (Figure J. J 5). The gap press provides better access all round and is more
versatile than the plaIt rolls.


"'''' ''''\ 7
blockl L

lo' 'Ol



H (vi]

FIf(Ure 3.15 Gap ptess operatiOn!: fa} edge curving: (bi plate f1auening:
(ci platt flanging or bending; (d) plale straightening; (eJ p/Qle swaging
Plale ro/ls
Figure 3.14 MechQniCilI ed,,: pUlfItr: M tUStmbly; (b) meclumiCi1Qy cur
edge preptUtlrio1l - (i) sinde M~tl withoot nOlt, SlIitJlb/e for btJrchn of This machine has already been described with reference to plate straightening. It
pl;ztn: Iii) rinpe bevel with shNf'td IIOU J.5 mm (5/8 in) l7l4l'imum or is also used for roUing shell plates to the curvature required. By adjusting the
milled lIOU; (iii) doubk ~tl tmd "0#; (Il'l J plTportftion tmd "au
uring 'ciTculll,' cutter: (v) doubiN plTptITtltion; (vi) [acinp 0If flange, height of the top roUer and the centre distance of the bottom rollers. large or
o!,lnlcturrsl,tcn"OIlS Small radius bends can be made. Bulkhead flanging is also possible when the
48 Shipbuilding ShiplJuiJdjnK 49

.~" Guillotines
i, - I Hydr:lUJically-powercd shc-aril1g machines or guillotines are u~c:d for s.mall
jobbing work. The plates are fed. pusitioned and often held by hand. Small
itemS, such as brackets aJld machmery space nUOT plates, may bc produced in
this manner

Frame br:nder
RDIler C€nlrfs Ships' frames are shaped by cold bending on a hydraulicalJy,powCIcd inilchine.
V;W;I"~ rad"
Three initially in-line cLamps hold part of the frame in position. The main rams
then move the outer two clamps forward O[ ba\:kwards to ben\l the frame to the
desired shape (Figure ],17) The damps are then released <lnd the I'rame is


, __ 1:

,., '0'
FigulV! 3./7 Frllme bender operol[on, (a) bow f/OJre bmd: (b) initial posirion; «:) bilge
/urn bend
Ffl[1UC j, 16 Roll pres~ opera/fans_ (OJ) slicer Hrake rc>liinJ,. (h) half·round rollin/! ./Or JJla5rl
durtclc posrs, etc, (rj 9rJ- cjfr('cf/rm!{liIK. /d) DJAf/dread [langing advanced through the machine by a motorised drive. The next portion is then
similarly bent. Offset bulb and angle bar plate'S can be bent two at a time, placed
back to back. In this way, port and starboa.rd frames are produced
machine is fltted with a tllln,ging barLlm] bottom block.. The~e variuus arrange-
ment~ are shown in Figure 3.16. Control or lhe Illachine is by manu<ll setting,
The machine can be controlled by hand :md the frame bent to match a
and operations carried out frOIll a comole located nearby. A shaped metal or template made of wood or stee1 strip. Modem machines arc now equipped for
wooden lathe is used to check the finishe-J. shape.
~e lIumericall;ontrol of frame bending which enables fUlly automatic operation
"'.thout the use of templates.
Punchrngand notching pre,ls

Air holes and drain holes requireu in many plates and ~ections can be cut un a Materials handling equipment
profile burner or by a punching press A fully automated press can be used to
pUllch round and elliptical holes, as well as rect:mgular and semicircular notches, Be!ween the various machines and during build-up of the plates and sections into
at preset pitches a![)ng a plate or section. The machine is hydraulkally powered Ilnits. numerous items. of materials-handling equipment are used.
and fed. Stolting up is against datum rollers on the 1I1'-lchine. Manual operation Cranes. of various types are used in shipyards. The overhead electric iravelling
is possible. in addition to the automatic mode. crane (OETe) win be found in burning halls and fabrication shops. 11ris crane
50 Shipbuilding Shipbuilding 5I

traverses a gantry which is itself motorised to travel along rails mounted high on Special motorised heavy-lift trailers or transporters are used to transfer unils
the w~ls of the .hall or shop. Using this type of crane the sorting. loading and and large items of steelwork around the shipyard and to the berth or building
unload~~ o~rations can be combined and maximum use is made of the ground dock. Fork-lift trucks. trailer.pulling trucks. roUer conveyor lines and various
area. !.:ifting 15 usually accomplished by magnet beams, vacuum devices or grabs. other devices are also used for male rials movement of one kind or another.
Goliath cranes are. to be seen spanning the building docks of most new ship-
yards. Although of hIgh first cost, this type of crane is flexible in use and covers
the groun~ area .very efficiently. Some degree of care is necessary in the region Panel lines
of the rails which run along the ground. Mobile cranes are used for internal
materials movement, usually of a minor nature. Most modern shipyards use panel lines for the production of flat stiffened
panels. A number of specialist work stations are arranged for the production of
these panels.
P,ne-I comple-It
The plates are first fed into the line, aligned, clamped and manually tack
welded together. The plate seams are then welded on one side and the plate
turned over. The second side welding of the plate seams then takes place. Some
panel lines use a one-sided welding technique which removes the plate-turning
operation. The panel is now flame planed to size and marked out for the webs
and stiffeners which are to be fitted. The stiffeners are now injected from the
side, positioned. clamped and welded on to the panel one after another. The
stiffened panel is then transferred to the fabrication area if further build up is
'-' ..,
Stlllt'llt... welded
10 p,nel
Slifftnf'f cl,mping
''''' welding 9Inlry
- ,
required, or despatched directly to the ship for erection. The process is shown
in Figure 3.18.

Shipyard welding equipment

The equipment required for the manual welding of a ship's hull should enable
St. 3 the operator to usc high amperages with large-gauge electrodes and yet still have
P,nel CUI 10 adequate control of current for the various welding positions adopted and lhe
finished tIlt plate thicknesses being welded. It should also be robust in construction and safe
,nd mlrked off
V' in operation_
tlifftfle-... ./ Multi-operator systems, in which a three-phase transformer supplies up to six
operators, are favoured in shipyard. Each operator has his own regulator and a
supply of up to ISO A. The regulator is fed from an earthed distribution box on
- the transformer and provides a range of current selections. The regulawr should
PIlle- st,ml welded
be positioned fairly close to the welder both to reduce power losses and the time
laken when changing current sellings. Remote-controlled transformers, whose
one IIde-. p,ntl
turned OVtr Ind current can be altered by the welder through his electrode holder cable, are now
s«ond lide welded

- Wtlding
9I n llV
fitted in some shipyards. The various welding processes are described in
Chapter 4.

St. 1 POI\tioned ,no
mlnu,lIV tICk Wllldc<l ...
V w

Figu" 3.18 PilnellUle

, )'
':1i1 III'1 k:: arc welding
Weldin}? a/ld Culling Processes 53

" ' d . d between two metals in an electric circuit when tney

, "3JClsprOIJ(;e -F 42Th
" _ , e]ed nc hort distance. The basic cin:ui! is shown 1Il 19Uie . . e
,, 4 -';\~'. separated b~;e~ (orms one electrode in the Cllcuit and the welding rod_or
,,,,_tp.taJ to be W Othe r . The electric arc produ.eed creates a reglOn of 11l~h
..::jtIe foflTl S the. h elts and enables fusion of the metals to take place. ElectriC
1" .~
tute" whic ill
is supp I'Ie d VI"a vari3ble
h' h i ,
voltage J.e. transformers W Ie may supp y on

I Welding and Cutting ,':'" -', -

-'.;;.. ;
e welding operations.
~:;./i!f.I" l'/elrJ,ny,el
" "'---
In shiP?uilding, welding is now the. a-ccepted method of juining metal. Welding is
the fUSUlg of two metals by heatmg to produce a joint which is as ,trung or
stronger than the parent metal. All metals may be welded, but the degree of
simplicity and the me~hods used v.a:ry considerably. All shipyaId welding
processes are of the fUSIOn type. where the edges of the joint afC melted and
fuse with the molten weld metal. The heat source for fusion welding may be
pro.. . ided by gas torch, electric aTe or electric resistance

Gas welding Figure 4.2 Elef'lric arc welding l:lrcuj[

A gas flame pmduced by the bu.rning. of oxygen and 8;cetylene is llsed in this "':'1IIe welding operation the welding rod and plate are fust touehee!
process. A hand-held torch is used to direct the flame around the parent metal and: quickly dr3wn ap3Jt some 4-5 mm to produce the arc across tne
:·,'.The temperature produced ls in the region of 4000°C and current !low
. the metals. may be from 10 to 600 A. The current flow must be preset or
• depending upon the metal type and thickness and ttle 'Supply vo\1age.
Yoltage across Ihe arc affects the amount of penetration and the profile or
,'j• . of the metal depos-ited. The c.urrent to a larg~ extent detCJ~ncs t~e
~ of we1d metal dcpD'3i\eJ.. A \ugh quality weld \s proo'.lced With 'Se:enl
- . . . layers Orweld metal, but it is less costly to usc a single heavy depOSIt 01
:j.lf excessive current is used weld s-p<ltter, i.e. tiny blobs of metal depositec
\'II~ld <in"ct,on Jround the weld, may Occur.
• For a satisfactory weld, atmospheric gases must be excluded and the contro
ot~ arc must be- easily achieved. This is done by shielding the arc du.nng tht
1t'e14ing process. A gas shield is produced by one of two basic meth.ods, etther b)
the bllming of a flux or the provision of a gas shield directly,
Figurl' 4. I Gos wefdinK with an o-xy-acetylene torch
"ocesses flux
and filler rods proVide the metal f(lf the joint (Figure 4.1). Gas welding is little Manual welding
used, having been superseded by the faster process of electric 3rc welding. OutfiT
tr.ades, sud1 as plumbers, m.ay employ welding 01 use the gas flame foo
brazing or silver soldering.
.... ,. ..
In the manual welding process a consumable electrode or welding rod is held iJ
~der and fed 011: to the parent metal by the operator. The welding rod is
54 WeJdingandCUttingPtocesses Welding and CUtting Proce$$C$ 55
flux<oated mild steel electrode. The metal of the electrode Is normally rimming
steel. 'Th:U is a ductile material which does not contain silicon or aluminium, both
of which tend to affect the electric arc. The rod coatinp are made up of
ceUulose. mineral silicates. oxides, fluorides, basic carbonates and powdered •
metal aUoys. The particular constituents used are held together with a binding
material such as sodium silicate. The coating covers the length of the core
wire, except where it fiu into the holder.
Electrodes are classified according to their flux coatings as given in the ~---\\
International Standard ISO 2560: 1973(E). The two basic types ue the rutile-
coated electrode and the hydrogen<ontrolled electrode. Rutile is an almost
pure mineral fonn of titanium oxide and is the principal ingredient of rutile-
coated electrodes. It increases slag viscosity, decreases spatter and improves
slag detachability. Rutile electrodes are general-purpose, givina a JOOd finish
and a sound weld. Hydrogen<Ofltrolled or basic electrodes deposit weld metal
which is low in hydrogen content. They are used for the welding of highly
stressed joints and the higher tensile stub. The coatings contain major
proportions of carbonates and fluorides which are baked on to reduce the water
content of the coating to a very low level.

., ....

1.1 l<l
the electrode to break the arc. One man is able to operate several of these
devices simultaneously.

Automatic welding

In the automatic machine welding process, travel along the metal takes place at
a fixed speed with a flux<overed electrode fed 00 to the joint. The correct arc
,., length and metal deposition is achieved by the machine, the speciaUy spiralled
Fi,un 4.J Wtldinl positions; M hori:onta! or dOM11/hand: (b) horilonta/lnrtiaJ!: (c)
flux coating providing the shield during welding. Only downhand welding of
horizontaljoinu is possible with this machine.
)lutica!; (d) overlrad; (e) inclined The arc may be additionally sealed with carbon dioxide gas to permit higher
<:Urrents for high speed welding. A twin-fillet version is also available for stiffener
Manual welding may be accomplished in any direction, the three basic modes welding to nat plates or panels (Figure 4.5).
being downhand, vertical and overhead, and some combinations of these modes Another automatic machine welding process, submerged arc welding, uses a
are shown in Figure 4.3. The correct type of electrode must be used, together bue wire electrode and separately fed granulated flux. The flux melts to
with considerable ~, in particular for the overhead and vertical welding produce a gas shleld for the arc and a molten covering. large metal deposiu at
positions. As far as possible, welding is arranged in the downhand mode. high speeds, Without air entrainment, are therefore possible in this very efficient
The gravity welder is a device consisting of a tripod, one leg of which acts as process. The process is shown diagrammatically in Figure 4.6(a). The unused
a rail for a sliding electrode holder (Figure 4.4). Once positioned and the arc flux may be recovered for re·usc. This is a process for horizontal, i.e. downhand,
struck, the weight of the electrode and holder cause it to slide down the rail and operation only and may be operated nonnaUy welding both sides or as a one·
deposit weld metal along a joint. The angle of the sliding rail will determine the aided welding process. In the nonnal process the downhand weld is made and
amount of metal deposited. At the bottom of the rail a trip mechanism moves the plate turned over or an overhead weld is made from below. Some veeing out
56 Wdd{n~aml Culting Processes Welding and Cu rring Processes 57

Bare ",ie. e'e<:trode

/ ~U1d~
/ Long,tudinal
Welding Luree-c,


II of weld
~ cooled
Figure 4.5 Automutic /lu.r-c[){]led dt'Ctnxlf' IVI'lding uSing a twin·hEaded , liv,;or
I, macJlinc
W"ld '
~ tra~elling

r-- _ -, Starting
Di'eeti,m of weld ing
• !:=======:::':':::!==:':::::!:'="::"""======::'0,,,/
Wice f-eed Bare Ngur.e 4. 7 EieClroslag wefdin;2,'
r(>ll, ~C:) wire
/ elecHooe
Run-on and fun·off plates are required at the beginning and end of the weld and
no ~toppage must occur during the p-rocess. The arrangement is shown

t ! Welding
P 7,J
(J,'.nulated \
diagrammatically in Figure 4. 7.

Electrogas welding
flux Coppe,
1llis process is parHcularly suited 10 shipbuilding since vertkal plates of thick-
neues in the range 13-40 mm are efficiently joined. Cooled shoes are again
used but a flux·coated electrode is now employed. Fusion is achieved by an arc
between the electrode and the metal, and a carbon diQxide gas shield is supplied
I.' through the upper region of the saoes. The arrangement is similar to Figure 4. 7,
for e1ectroslag welding, with the carbon dioxide supplied through the top of the
Figure 4.6 Submerged arc welding,' Ill) submerged arc IWlding; (b) l)(/cking
plate iJ"ange men! for one·sided welding oboes.

Stud welding
of the joint may be necessary for the fmal run. In tae one-sided process various
forms of backing plate can be used, of which one example is shown in Figtm: .A macltine OJ gun as part of the electric circuit is used in stud welding. In one
4.6(b). Any defects in the- weld will then have 10 be repaired by veeing out and Illethod the stud is fed into the clutch and a ceramic ferrule is placed over the
welding from the other side. This process is limited to indoor undercover use and end. The stud is placed against the metal surface and the operation of tae gun
is unsuitable for use on the berth. trigger withdraws the stud to create an arc (Fi!?UTe 4.8). After a period of lilrcing,

Electroslag welding

The vertical welding of plate thicknesses In excess of 13 mm is efficiently

achieved by this process. Initially an arc is struck but the process continues by
electrical resistance heating through the slag_ The weld pool is contajned by
I cooled shoes placed either s~de of the plate which may be moved up the plate I" 1" 10>
II mechanic.a.lly or manually in separate sections. Alternatively, shoes the height of
the weld may be fIxed in place either side. The bare wire electrode is usually fed Figure 4.8 Stud weldin;:_ (a) ~rud and ferrule pkzud on plate; (v) arr
from the top through a consumable guide and acts as the electrode of the circuit. drawn; (c) weld completed
58 Welding arid Cutting Pro-r:esses
Welding (lnd Cutting ProceSses 59
the ~tud .i:s driven into the molten meta] I '
ferrule concentrates the are, reduces the ac~e~~ o~n: we11mg ~akes lace . The
metal area. Fhm is contained ill the end ofrhe stud. It an con mes t e rna ten
b suPPly source is usually d.c::, and the proces; may be fully or semi-automatic:: in
Another method uses a fUSible coUar over the d h . In steel welding using this ptoc:;ess. carbon dioxide may be the shielding gas
electricity to crea te the arc and then coil /n .of t e srud :-Vhich condUcts and plating of any thickness may be welded. Controls within the wire feed unit
metal pool and fanning the weld Weld dapse~, Dlelllg the stud m~o the molten enable a range of constant wire feeds related to the current to be selected. With
~~:~s~~a~~~~r~u~[~~::~~~~~~ings. ~th:~u()~p~~eo~~~:'o~se~~~~:min~~~;~~; carbon dioxide gas, the arc characteristic changes with the current from a short-
circuiting (dip transfer) arc at low currents to a spray arc at high currents. Dip
{"bing G~.con"ols
Processes usin g gas
The~...,aIl'd W elding processes employing a bare electrode or welding wire with
gas :>lue utom f ' . a
.' A a IC or sem.l-automatlC operation is usual. With automati
~perat~on, once, set the. process is controlled by the machine. In semi-automati~
peratl~n machine settings are made but the torch js h!lTld held and th
proces!3-IS to some extent controlled by the opefif.tor, e
€ lect<adll"
Tungsten inert gas (TlG) -ccnlinuou.I','
This is a process for thin sheet metal such as steel or aluminium. A water-cooled
non-consumable tungsten electrode and the plate material have an arc cre.ated •
Ga~ shield
Figure 4.10 Metal inert "liS procesS
tnnsfer allows all positions of welding, but the -spray arc is downhand only. Dip
tnnsfer is ideaUy suited to thinner materials, since it produces less distortion
effects.. This process is being used increasingly in s.ltipbuilding.

Plasma metal inert gas

Fille, ,,,d
" - O"-e<:tlon of w~ld
1bis is..a further development of the metal inert gas process which incorporates a
plasma arc around the MIG arc. The plasma is an ionised stream of gas which

Plal~;.,:::::;:",:,~J~l2rL,~~~?~;~"O~'Zd='O"'Z'''210'2'Z'ZltZ'OI,?,?Z'Z'ZUZ' Z? 'N~ld
surrounds the MIG arc and concentrates its effect on to the metal. The plasma
arc has its own set of controls fOJ its electric circuit. It is initially ignited by the
MIG arc and with both arcs indiridually controlled the process can be finely
Figure 4.9 Tungsten inert gas prOCeJt 'lUlled' to the material requirements. Automatic and semi·au tomatic versions are
lV3.i1able. The semi-automatic version uses a dual-flow noule arrangement. as
~etw~~ them by a high frequency discharge across the gap. The inert gas shield di()Wn in Figure 4,11, with a single supply of gas, usually argon, as the shielding
JS USlJ Y argon gas. The process is shown in Figure 4,9. and the plasma gases. The torch used i-s no heavier than a conventionaJ MrG
torch .and the process has the advantages of higher weld metal deposition rates
and tne use- of a narrower vee preparation which may be as small as 30 degrees.
Metal inert gas (MIG)

~ ~:nsutnable metal wire electrode is used in this process and is fed through the Thermit welding
t:rc~rt~r:rl~h from a feed unit (Figure 4.10). An inert gas is fed through the lhis is a fusion process taking place as a result of the hea t released in a chemical
e the arc and the tOrch and plate are part of an ele<:tric circuit. The ~tion between powdered aluminium and iron oxide ignited by barium
Welding and Cutting Processes 61
60 Welding and Cutting Proces:ses
C""sum •.,Ie- electrode- ",i~
/ ,,'
Weldi~g ourre~1 '"

coo~!ffi - ---101
. ArgOn (Ia' I
~ollie 1\ / +,,--f*\
i I
v - - - -.
Sh-i.. ldi~g gal r "

f>lasma gas

f---- G •• 'SI1ield
iel £Iil'C~
iniual we~d '" E!oc~-qoug"
atter ,n'lial weld

Figure 4.12 wdd preparatiOI1,: fa) l./lIi'Qre Inm join 1, (b; si~lIk,-V burr joint. (l:)
doubfe· V butt {oin!.- (d) dOI/Me- U hu rl joint

Fillet welds are used for righ.t·angled plate joints and lapped jOilltS. as showlJ.
in Figure 4.13. Two paJticular terms are lIsed in relation to ftIlet welds - the leg
length L ;Ind the throat thickness T - as shown in Figure 4. 13(a). The leg length
- Sr.ieldir>9 gas is related to the thickness of the abutting plate and the throat thickness must be
at least 7cYJ'<; of L. A full penetration type of fillet weld may be used where
MouJe special strength is required. A full penetration joint is shown ill Figure4.J3(c).
Pla,ma 9'"
The abutting plate is of V or J preparation to ensure full penetration wh.en
The fillet welds descrihed may be arranged in a number of ways, depending
Figlue 4. II Plasma inert gao pmce.s on structural requirements. Fully continuous welds are used in important

peroxide. The parts to be welded are usually large sections, such. as a stemframe,
and they are positioned together in .a sand or graphite mould. The molten steel Wel~

and slag from th.e chemic..l reaction is first formed in .a cmcible and then run
into the mould_ Leg length -i-
, i

Types of weld
'-. (\,-,
(a) , Throa,
Th,c~ne<;, r

A number of different welded joints are used, depending upon their situation,
material thickness, re-quired strength, etc. The depth of weld may require more
than one- pass or run of weld 10 build up to the workpiece thickness, Reversing
the workpiece, gouging out and a final back-run will also be necessary unless a
one·sided technique is employed.
The butt weld is the strongest joint when subjected to tension and is
illustrated in Fif?Ure 4.12. The single--V type of preparation is used for the butt
weld for plate thicknesses in excess of 6 mm up to a maximum of 20 mm. Below
6 mm, a square- edge preparation may be employed and for very thick plates a
double-V preparation is used. A U·weld preparation is also used which requires '"
Figure 4.13 HUe! welds,' (a) flUei w.-ld, fb) lap weld; Ie) filler weld WIth ft<f1 penetrarioll
less weld metal and gives a better quality joint in return for a more expensive
edge preparation_
62 We-Iding and CutUng Processes Welding and Cutting Processes t1.:l

Welc\ effect of thh, -afId the differell~e in deposited weld metal and parent metlkl
_ S,dfe"pr
properties, results in dbtortion of the wor.kpie-ce. The appea~ance of dJ.stortion

(=~/1~"'" W~ld
may be in onc or more of the followmg forms - longttudlnal shnnk.age,
transverse shrinkage. and angular di.stortiDn. Figure 4.15 muatratts these vanous
effects. . _
The cause of di"torti-on may be attributable to s~veral pos.s.lble factors actUlg
individually or together. fhe con-centrated heating of the welded area ~d i~s

ubseqtlent later con-traction will affect the weld metal and the workpIece III
~jffereJ1t ways. As a consequence, streSSes will be set up ill the weld, the two
, , " \ ...
joined workpieces and the overall structure. ." ,..
The degree of fe-stain t pe-rmiJ;ted to the welded Jomt Will affect its dIstOrtion.
W.ld St;ff~n.r
Where welded joints are unrestrained their subsequent weld shrinkage will
Figure 4.14 Nan-COnnll1.lOUi fillet ....'flds· ffl) inrermit/ent WJ?/ding: (b-J ch4ill wdding Jelie-ve any stresses se, up. Restrained jointS, by virtue of the rigidity of the
structure or some applied form of damping, induce high. stn:sses to the weld
strength connections and for oiltight and watertight connections_ Chain and and cracking may occur if the COrrect welding sequences are not a.dopted.
intermittent welds are spaced sections of welding and are shown in Figure 4. ]4. The properties of the wmkpiece- and tne -pm.\ible stresses 'locked in' it due to
&lme savings in weight and distortion are pOS5ible for lightly stressed material manufacturing processes may b-e altered or affected by welding and lead to
which does not require watertight jQints. dis-tnrtioI\.
Tack welds are short runs of weld on any joint to be welded. They are used
to initially align and hold the material prior to the finished joint. They are
assembly welds and must be subject to a full welding procedure. They should mstortion prevenflon
not be less than 75 mm in length to ensure a sufficient heat input and should not
be welded ovu. Good design mould ensUTe as few welded joints as possible in a structure,
particularly wilen it is. made up of thin section plate. Where they exist, welded
Welding practice ]atn.u should be accessible, preferably for downhand welding.
The edge preparation of joints. can be arranged to reduce distortIon, as shown
Tile welding of the metal, because of the localised concentration of heat, gives in FIgUre 4.16. A single-V preparation joint with four runs of welding will
rise to areas of plating which first -expand .and later contract on cooling. The distort as shown. A double-V pTepal<ltion }oirl.t welded with four runs in the
order shown will only exhibit slight shrinkage of the joined plates.
! ,~ - .hrlnl<a9"


" //<'>
, ,
.-'///~ ///

,,", /
L"n9;I<Jdin~I/,i //"
,h"nl<age .-' FilJUre 4.16 Edge prl!pl1TtItio/'l to redUce dirlOrriQl1: (8) ringle· Y preplJJdn'O n
/ ,Mng cO/'lsiderob/e distort/em (1 fiNt welding ron, 2 Jecond we/ding nm.
J third welding run, 4 final weldin!,: run), (b) double- V pre{Xlration givt,.,g
only slIght Ihril1~

Restraint is the usual method of distortion prevention in shipbuilding. Where

UOIts are faired ready for welding they ue tack welded to hold them in place
dUring welding. The parts will then remain dimensionally correct and the rig.id1ty
of the structur-e will usually restrain any distortion. Strongba-cks or clampin~
\tlmgements are also used on bu1t and fl11e1 weld" as shown in Figur.e 4.17.
All welds 'shrink', so the use of the correct procedure in welding can de
bJ,ueb to red~ dUi.tmti<m. The fewer runs involved in a welded joint, the le-~
Ffgure 4. 1,5 DistOltfon effect: "ill be the distortion. SymmetricaJ welding either side of a joint with a double-\
Welding Qnd Oltting Processes 65
preparalio n will ploduce a dislortion·frce weld. Simultaneous welding by 1'010'0
operal ors is Iherefore ;I useful Icchniqut which should be practised whenever
possible. Welding should always take place IOwards Ihe free or unrestrained end
of a joint. For long welding runs several techniques are used to minimise
diSl0l1ion. Th." b~ck-5te~ metJ.1od is in Figllrt 4.18" Her,t the operator
lWeids the jOint In sections In IhC' numenC<lI order aJld direction shown. A
vari3tion or this is 'skip' welding. which is shown in flgure 4.19. and likewise
..... proglesses in the numerical order and direction shown. Distortion may then be
controlled by balancing the welding as much as possible and allowing the weld
shrinkage to occur rreely. Welding sequences taking Ihis into accounl should be
well thought out berore welding commences.

Distortion correction
Despite the most stringenl methodS to e1iminale il. distortion can still occur.
Where the distortion in a joinl is considered unacceptable the joint must be
gouged. grooved or completely split. and then rewelded. Strongbacks may be
placed across the joint to restrain distortion during rewelding.
Figuft 4.17 QampitlX 1Irr/11lltmttffS Straightrorward mechanical means may be used. such as hydraulic jacks or
hammering on localised areas or distortion or buckling. Where such methodS
inv~lve straining the welds, they should be examined ror cracks arter correction.
Every errort should be made to avoid mechanically straightening structures ror
this reason.
_---:;-,• .-,_-;-_'+'_-:-_'.>I.'__~I••__.... -t< D,'ftlionOI
~ 3 1 Ie 4 ,. 6 _Id

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ Joonl pr;>on,-------_
c:= I.,
=:J c===t 101

c===t t
Fi,utr 4. III B«k·$ttp _ldinK t~niqllt
Fiprt 4.20 SpOf hftlti",: (aj cu"'ed pltue: (b) h~ted: (e) exptJIuiofl: (dJ kvelled pfafe
___••.-, '.>I I.---;,---~ ;~ __---t O;"llon

4 2 6"· ", I· ,. o..... eld

===C=::::::I=~=C=I ====~=:J::=~J=::J:=~'~=Otdef 01 The application of concentrated heat from a gas·burning torch may be used
for correcting distortion in steels other than the higher tensile. quenched and
tempered types. The process is shown in Figure 4.20. A small area is heated on
_______ Jo'nl Pfc:.,eu,OI',--------
the side where the contraction would bring about an improvement. The steel
I is heated to a 'red heat' and the torch slowly moved along a previously drawn
tine, at such a speed that the 'red heat' does not pass right through the material.
The area heated wants to expand. but is resisted by the surrounding material.
Fiprt 4.19 Skip OT ...._dm"6 ....ddilt,'mniqllt The fecrystallisation absorbs the expansion and, on cooling, contraction occurs
66 Welding and Curting Processes 67
which brings about a favourable distortion. thus correcting the original distorted
1I II... __
L JL ~_J ~
SlfUclure (Figure 4.21).
~.;. - - --'1- - - - - --- - -- -, 1- - --
It U :'
" ) HUlf'O , I Weld faults
I:I. I
II , !eng""
I I:
The weld
Faults may occur in welding as in any other process. These faults may arise from
It I ! II" bad workman.ship, incorrect procedures, wrong materials used, etc. A good weld
II II is illustrated in Figtlrt! 4.22fa). In such a weld a degree of fusion should have
" n
taken place at the sides of the weld. There should be no overlap or undercut at
____ JL ...Jl _
the toe of the weld. A slight reinforcement or build·up of material should be
present at the top surface and there should be root penetration along the bottom
A bad weld is shown in Figure 4.22(b). The absence of reinforcement and
root penetration are the result of incorrect procedure or bad workmanship.
Overlap is infused metal lying over the parent metal. Undercut is the wastage of
parent metal, probably caused by too high a welding current. Porosity is caused
by gases trapped in the weld. Slag indusion is the result of inadequate cleaning
between weld runs. Poor fusion or penetration between runs may be due to poor
cleaning or incorrect voltage or current settings. The result of a bad weld is a
weak or faulty joint. A bad weld can also be the starting point for a crack.

Figurt 4.2/ Distortion co".~tion

lamellar tearing
Weld Ih,""
ill loe Relnlo,c""""
umellar tearing around welded joints has become a problem as plate thicknesses
j I have increased and structures have become more rigid. Lamellar tearing is a
brittle cracking in steel plate as a result of tensile stresses at right·angles to the
01 lU$"'" _
t plate. It is caused by the contraction of weld metal when cooling. Lamellar
tearing is most likely to occur when thick plates, large weldments and high
O'_1I;01l0n \

,I internal connection restraint are all present. The characteristic 'tear' occurs in
the cross-plate of a T-configuration and may begin at the toe or rool of a weld or
Rool _trillIOn
at some point below the weld (Figurt! 4.21).
One method of reducing the problem of lamellar tearing is the use of 'clean'
101 steels such as those produced by the vacuum degassed process. Other measures
Lillie Of no
indude the use of joint configurations which avoid right angle tensile stressing
PorCl"!Y .. ".IOtC~1 of the plate, or preheating the plate before welding.
V""~"', \ / /""'''~
;ncl",ion- No inlf""" Tutong
No,ic!'e ,} penetrl';on

' " Lack 01 '001



Fftr,Ire 4.22 Ezilmpiet of_Ids: ra) 1I' tood wtld: (bJ 1I' bfld 'oIt>tld
68 We!dingarld Cutting Processe~' Wdding and Cutting Proce,~ses 69

Weld testing and then oxidls-ed by a ~tream of lligh preSSUre ox.ygen carries away the
ox.idised metal. A narrow g.ap with parallel sides remains along the line {:f the
Several non·de~\luctive technique" a,e ul>ed 11, the eX:lminati"n 01 wehJed t Small amounts of al10ying elcm('\lts in the steel plale call be removed In the
joints. These include yjsuul examim;tion, dye pcnelr.aJlts, magnetic p<lrtides. ~.
clJ1tiag process, but large amount& o~ elements ~uc h as ch '
rn~llum may prev
radiography and ultrasonic method". Destructive- testing of special test plates and cutting. Tile introduction of an irorHICh pOWder mto the cutting area. OVeH;omes
their welded .Joint" i~ r~'i\lirerl fOT certain da;,;.e-" of WOlk. but most :l-hipbuHo:ling this llwb\em, p-,nticu\arly with stainless steel. .. _ .
weld testing is nun--destrUC:llve. Acetylene or propane is usually used as the gas. m conjunction
The trained experienced inspec;tur and surveyur can detect surface defe-e-ts with oxygen. A typical cutting torch is. shown in Flgu~e 4.24. Automated
and flaws ill welds by ...isual examination. He may abo WGue,,\ mmc detaileu ;auangementS of cutting torches are used Ln ..anou" machl11es for edge pre?il'
examination of known pwblem areas or regions of mgh stress His coMtant :ration. flame planing, etc., a.Ji ~en~ioned In_ Chapter 3. An edge preparation
vigilance and attendance during the: we1diIlg up of a ship en"ures good work and .arraogewent of ton::hes is shown In FIglJ. ye 4.2,;,.
satislactOlY stalldard$ 1)[ welding.

Magnetic particle testing L" a surface examination technique. A mixture of
),-<)11 r>'e"UT~ ~"\\\'VJ O~"I'l"·n
iron filings in thill white paint is &pread over <i welded joint. The joint is then
magnetised by attaching "d laTg.e perman.eflt magnet to it. Discfmtinuitie-s then
show up 3$ concentlations of iron filings, Iesultin,g from the distorted magnetic
- I~---- ~~A",B

Dye penetrams ale spread over the ?,uiface of a joint and then wiped or I .1 Pr~I'ea\ln'Jo>\qenanr A,~lVI~'W Q~Y'J,",,~~i~~
washed off. The weld surface is then examined using an ultraviolet light. Any I ' In'lylp,,, m'~lur~ ~~I~e
crack will contain the luminous dye and will be readily visible.
Radiographic inspection i~ a means of 'photographing' welded joints.. A
ph.Qtogr.aphic plate is exposed tu radiations from X-ray or gamma ray devices on ,II! II /
P,ehea\ h(ll~,

the far side of the joint. Any inclusions or gas holes will then show up on tIte I ~ CUlling o.y~en h"Io'
photogr.aphic plate. ~
Pi.,,, Vjew (l{ noul"
Ultrasonic insllection uses pulses of ultrasonic energy whkh ale reflected at
any surface they meet. For the ultrasonic: waves to initially enter dIe metal a Figl<rf 4.24 OXy.acdylcl1c cllttlng IOrcl!
coupling medium is necessary. Cellulose paste has been found to be effective
and peels. off easily after use. A cathode ray tube is used 10 'read' the reflection
patterns and very minor flaws Illay be detected with this method of testing.
It is particularly effective fOI detecting plate laminations and the degree of roO!
penetration in welds_

Classification societY weld testing pI",,,

The classification societies reqUire various tes.ts, Some of them destructive, in
order to approve weld materials and electrodc&. Joints. made between the
materials and the electro-des are then subjected to various strength. metallurgical
and other tests.

Cutting processes

The majo-rity of metal .eu tting in shipyards utilises gas cutting techniques. Plasma
arc and gouging cutting technique. are also being increasingly used.

Gas cutting
During gas. cutting the mC'tal is, in effect, "cut' by oxidising and blowing away a Figure 4.25 Edge preparation: (tJ) triple-nozzle head; (b) pLIIl
narrow band of material. The metal is heated by the preheat :section of the flame new of m)n(f3 showing order cf Ocperllrl/)"n
Welding and o,ttingPrtxesu1 71
70 W~lding and CUtting Proc~ne:s
Plasma arc cutting compressed a;ir pipeat~a~hed. stre~m ~ec;~~;~S::t~ra~ ~~;~~o~ ~~::;:
to the workpiece 10 Oludtse and remo e cd 'de the high temperature
The cutting torch consists of a lungsten electrode located in a waler-cooled Another arrangement useds tubthular. el~d",r ott~~ ~I~~~ode. The electrodes are
The air is blown own e my . h .
nozzle which acts as one eleclrode in the circuit (FIgU~ 4.26). The materia! 10 arc.. The solid electrode anangement 15 s own In
consumed In both these processes_
be cut is the other electrode and the circuit is completed by a stream of ionised
gas which will conduct electricity. This 'plasma gas' is supplied around the FJ&Ure 4.27.
tungsten electrode and constricts the arc formed between it and the metal plale.


Flt:Urr 4.26 l'IIlunll IUC currin, t~h

A very high temperature region is created at the arc which melts the metal and
cuts through it. The gas is initially ionised by a short electrical discharge between
the electrode and the nozzle. Inert gases such as argon have been used bUI
modem developments have enabled air or oxygen to be used_ This is an
automated cutting process which is much faster than other methods.


Gouging steel plate by 'arc-air' or by a special cutter fined to a gas torch is a

way of removing metal for the 'back-runs' of a butt weld. Gas or arc welding
processes may be modified for gouging purposes. Arc-air gouging consists of a
solid copper-dad carbon graphite electrode in a special holder which has a

Major Stmctu"a/ Items 73
Some double bottoms have a duct keel filled along ttIe cenLreline. Tnis is an
internal passage of watertight i,;onstTUction rUlJning some distance along the
length (l\ the sh.ip, (;fH~n (mm the forepeak tQ the f~Hwafd machinery space
bulkhead. Use is made of this pilssage to carry the pipework along the length of
5 the ship to the various holds or tanks_ An entrance- is usually prQvided at the
forward end of the machinery space via Ol watertight manhole. }iu dUd keel is
nece-ssary ill the machinery spOlce or aft of it, SiflC'~ pipework will run Llbove the
engine room douiJle bot/om and along the shaft tunnel, where one is fitt-ed.
Major Structural Items C"nli"uou~
Brac:k~t S.l;ffe~e' gifuer

IJ ~ ,long,tUrl,n~1
,, "V , <1lif~ncc

The ~otlom shell constI~c1ion consists of the central .keel of the ship. with the
0 0 1:'')... i " !
floormg ~trUl;tllre and sure shell platIng on either side. Almost all """ssel, bUilt
, 4 11 "I-Iat bar
:oday , With the ex.ception oftankels, are fiued with a double botlom. This is an
ntcconal ~kin fitted about I rn above the outer shell pJalin 6 and supported by' ,
the oorffig structure. I("~I plo1e I nmr,osto=


The construction of the duet keel uses two longituuinal girders spaceJ
Th~ keel runs along the centreline of the bottom plating of the ship and for the not more than 2,0 m apart. This r-c,tril:!jull is to enSUfe that the lon~itlldinal
maJoflty of merchant ships is of a fiat plate construction. At right-angles to the girders rest on the ducking blocb wJlen the ~Itip is in ilryduck. Stiffeners are
flat plate keel, r~nning alo~g the s~p's centreline from the fore peak to Ihe aft fitted to shell and bottom platillg at alternate frame space-S and arc bracketed to
peak bulkhead, IS a watertIght longItudinal division knowfl as the centre girder tlte longitudinal girders (Figure 5.2). The kce-l plale and the tank tCJ-P above the
or vertical keel. WhcYC a double-bottom constructIOn is employed, th.e centreline duct keel must have their sc:alltling~ inneaseJ 10 ..:ompensate for the reduced
strength ()f the transverse floors.
Centre lone 'lrak~ of
Centre Y;rder
ct~<Jb~~-hot!Om Pla';"9

Double-bottom s.tructure

~ljffen~r Where a, double bottom ur inn(':r ~hcll is fitted it is watertight up to the bilges
floor :-- FI~tba' tnus proViding complete watertight integrity' s}\Ould the outer snell be pieree{
in way of the double bottom The minimum depth is determined by rule require
ments for the size of vessel but the- adual depth is sometimes increaseo in place
to suit double-bottom tank capacities. The douhle bottom may have a slopin:
• margin Leading to the bilge radiused plating or a l:ontimlOUS double botton
Keer plole
extending to tne side shell. The sloping margin CUtls-tructiol1 requires the use 0
Figure 5,} Hilt plale keel margin plates to connect up with the sirle hami"g and pTovirles",i collecting ba~
or well fur bilge water (Figure 5.3). The continuous tank top -or Oat margin mus
~t~.ake of, tank t.op plating results in the furmation of .an I·seclion
keel (Figure have bUge water collecting points or drain 'hats' fitted into it (Figure 5.4:
. )'. ThIS prOVIdes conSlderable- strength to the structure- and resistance t The flat margin is connected to the side framing by a flanged bracket. The l1a
b~ndmg. The flat plate keel or 'middle hne strake of plating' is increased i.~ margin type of consttuction is much used in modern COllstruction.
~/kness fDr st:engt~ purposes and for a corrosiDn allowance, because of the The struclure is made up of vertical noms wnieh may be watertight, solid c
~culty In mamtrunmg paint pIOteetion systems in way of the docking blocks
d unng the vessel's life, of bracket constructicJn. The floor Structure is continuous from the centre girde
to the side shell and supports the inner bottom shell. Side girders are fitted i
. Major StrncturaI Items 75
I nter<:ostlll
.io;le- , . the longitudinal direction, their number depending on the width of th.e ~hip,
These side girde[~ are bwken either side of the floors and are therefore termed
Flange girder '.:'
Continuou,! LorogitudiMI
Fla",!" " wtercos-tal girders.
~ird8r ! \ Watertight or oiltight floors are fitted beneath the main bulkhe.a.<ls and are
also used to subdivi-de the double-bottom spa!,;e into tanks. for various liqUids.
lt Solid plate Ooors of non-watertight cunstruction_ usually lightened by manholes,
oi arc positioned in other places as required to stiffcn the structure. Between solid
plate floors. bracket floors are fitted. Bracket flours consist of plate brackets
attached to tlte centre girder find the ~ide shell with bulb plate stiffeners running
Ship t. Conlinuou. I., 8racket
between, The stiffeners are supported by angle bar struts at intervals and any
centreline Longitudinal
side girders which are present in the S1fucture .
./ The arrangement of flooring will be determined by the type of framing
system adopted, which may be either transverse or longitudinal.

Transversely framed double bottom

Ship l
Flat ba, \ In tercoswl When tramversely, rhe double-bottom structure L:onsists of solid plalc
niffenoer ,ide girder
Roors and bracket floors with transver~e frames. The bracket flom is fiued

Air hole
between the Widely spa-ccd solid noors. It consists of transverse bulb <Ingle
FIgure 5.3 wngltudtJrlIlly framed dOUble bottom: (a) bracket /1-00',- (b) solid floor sutlons stiffening the shell and i~ner bottllm plating. Vertical suppon is
provided by brackets at the side shell and centre girder, any side girders and
intermediate struts. The number of intercostal side girders fitted is determined
by classification ~ociety rules. Solid and bracket floors for a transversely' framed
vessel are shown in Figure 5.4.

Lonyitudinally framed double bottom

lJ.t~il of dr.-in 'h'-I'

This is the system favoured as a resul.! of tests and it provides adequal:e resistance
to distortion on ships of 120 ll\ in length or greater. Off~et bulb plates are used
Angle IntereoSt.' as longitudinal stiffeners on the shell and inner hottom plating, at intervals of
bar ,ide
cen"e 9irder Upper frame about I m. Soiid floors provide support at transverse bulklleads and at intervals
\lru I girde. Flange
I ! / / not exceeding 3.8 m along the length of the ship. Brackets are fitte-d at tnc
centre girder and side shell at intermediate frame spaces between solid noors.
jI Bracket The1;.e brackets arc flanged at the free edge and extend to the tlrst longitudinal.
,0 Channel bar or angle bar struts are provided to give support at intervals of not
, more than 25 m wnerc solid floors arc widely spaced. Intercostal side girder~ are
again fitted, their number depending upon classification society rules. Solid and
Brack.. t Flange Bottom fr~me Flat bar
br.a.cket fioors for a longitudinaUy framed vessel are shown in Figure 5.3.
", Flat bar

Machinery space double bottom

The construction of the double bottom in the machinery space regardless 01

, framing system has solid plate noors at every frame space under the
Centre !l"der I 1'11&'<:0'181 engine. Additional side girders are fitted outhoard of the maUl engine seating, a!
Droin hole~ ,ide girde,
required. The double-bottom height is usually increased 10 fuel oil
Figure 5..4 TnllfSl'f!"eJy framed double b(Jtt~-. lubricating oil and fresh water tanks of suitable capacities. Shaft alignment als(
"''' (a) IJrodei floor; (b) ~Qiid floor requires an increase in the double·bottom height or a raised ~eating, the forme
76 Major Structunz/ Items Mflj<Jr 0>11 .. " ...... , ...... _

met~od usually ~ing adopted. Continuity of strength is ensured and maintained their capacity determined. All double-bottom tanks are tested on completion
by .~dualJy ~~pU1g the tank lop height and internal structure to the required by the maximum service pressure head of waler or an eqUivalent air test.
po~tion. Additional. sup~rl ~d stiffening is necessary for the main engines,
bolkrs, etc., 10 proVIde a VlbratJon-resistanl solid platform capable of supporting
~~ concentrated loads. ~n slow-speed diesel..engined ships lhe tank top pialing Structure to resist pounding
IS Increased to 40 mm lhlck or thereabouls in wlY of the engine bedplate. This

HNvy ~It ~It
Pounding or slamming results from the ship heaving or pitching, Ihus causing
the forward region to 'slam' down on to the water. Additional structural
slrength must be provided from the forward perpendicular afl for 25-30% of
the ship's length. The shell plaling either side of lhe keel i:. increased in
thickness, depending upon the ship's minimum draught. The frame spacing is

o reduced, full· and half-height intercostal side girders are fined and solid floors
Ire installed at every frame space. With longitudinal framing the longitudinal
spacing is reduced. intercostal side girders are fitted and tran$Ye~ floors are
installed at alternate frames.

o Single-bottom construction

In oil. tankers particularly, and some smaller vessels, a single-boltom construction

lubtic,ling oil d~;n 'lnt -I--+_o~oil tint is employed. The oil tanker bottom structure is detailed in Chapter 8. The
Colf~ construction of the single bottom in smaller ships is similar to double-bottom
Figurt 5.S MQdlillU)' rpDU doubl~ bottom construction but without the inner skin of plating. The upper edge of all plate
floors must therefore be stiffened to improve their rigidity.
~ ach~eved by using a sp~cia.1 insert plate which is the length of the engine
rncluding the ~rust block In SIZe (Figure 5.5). Additional heavy girders are also
fitte.d undet ~IS plate a~d i~ other positions under heavy machinery as required.
Plating and guder In the machinery spaces is of increased scantlings in DECKS
the order of 10%.
SheU plating

Double-bottom tanks The side and bottom shell plating provides the watertight skin of the ship. The
shell plating also makes the greatest contribution to the longitudinal strenglh of
Access to the doUble-b~ttom tanks is usually by manholes cut in the tank top. the ship's structure. As a result of its huge area the shell plating is composed of
These ma~holes are SUitably jointed and bolted to be completely watertight many strakes or plales arranged in a fore and aft direction and welded together.
when not In use. Docking plugs are fitted in all double-bottom tanks and are a The horizontal welds are termed 'seams' and the vertical welds are termed
means ~f c.ompletely draining these tanks for inspection in drydock (Fi,grJTt! 'butts'. Several strakes of plating are usually joined together as part of a unit. A
5.~). Air pipeS are fitted to all double·bottom tanks to release the air when shell expansion by units was shown in Figure 3.2. The thickness of shell plating
filling. Sounding pipes are also fitted to enable the tanks to be sounded and is largely dependent upon ship length and frame spacing. The fmal structure
must be capable of withstanding the many dynamic and static loads upon Ihe
hull, as discussed in C1l.apter 2. Some tapering off of .shell plate thickness
M,td-51H'l PId
towards the ends of lhe ship is usual, since the bending moments are reduced in
this region.

ed.r c1!r;z 4"~ The strake of side plating nearesl to the deck is known as the 'sheerstrake'.
The sheerstrake is increased in thickness or a high tensile steel is used. This is
because this section of plating is furthest from the neutral axis and subject to Ihe
greatest bending stress, as discussed in Chapter 2. The region where the
DockIng plug. btl'S or m"nleu 51eet T.....'ne Ino:l ted lti<! grommet sheerslrake meets the deck plating is known as lhe gunwale. Two particular
arrangements in this region are used and are shown in Figure 5.7. With the
rounded gunwale arrangement no welding is permined on the sheerstrake
16 MaiorStl'Uctura/ items
Maior Structural items 77
metho<l usually being adopted. Continuity of strength is ensured and maintaine<l their capao;;ity determined. All double-bottom tanks are tested on completion
by .g~adually ~~ping the tank top height and internal structllre to the required by the maximum service pressure head of water or an equivalent air test.
PO~tiOI1. AddItiOnal, supp~rt a~d stif~ening: is necessary for the main engines,
bOilers, etc., to proVide a VlbratlOn-resmant solid platform capable of supporting
~h~ concentr.ated loads. On slow-speed diesel-engined ships the tank top plating Structure to resist pounding
IS mcreased to 40 mm thICk or thereabouts in way of the engine bedplate. This
pounding or slamming results from the ship heaving or pitching, thus causing
Heavy Conti""")LJ'
fl~l oor Drai"3go!
Flat the forward region to 'slam' duwn on to the water- Additional structural
centreline Heavy pl..t. seal
st,lf"noer ..ran9<'mem gircfer
Girder "" strength must be proVided from the forward perpendicular aft for 2S·-30'YL of
the ship's length. The shell plating either side of the keel I:' increased in
/ Girder
\ I thickness, depending upon the ship-'s minimum draugllt. The fra'me spacing is

o i \
reduced, full- and half·height intercostal side girders are fitted and solid floors
are installed at e'lery frame space. With longitudinal framing the longitudinal
spacing is reduced, intercmtal side girders are filted and tranwerse floors are
installed at alternate frames.

o 0
Single-bottom construction
I I .

0 'ese-
01 tank --jI
In oil tankers particularly, and some smaller vessels, a single-battom construction
is employed. The oil tanker oottOlll structure is detailed in Chapter 8. The
construction of the single boltom in smaller ships is similar to double-bottom
Figure 5,5 Machinery space dvul1l" borlom construction but without the Inner skin I)f pla.ting. The uppel edge of all plate
floors must therefore be stiffened to improve their rigidity.
~s ach.!eved by using a special insert plate which is the length of the engine
mcludmg the thrust block in size (Figure 5.5). Additional heavy girders are also
fiae.d under :his plate a~d i~ other posi:ions under heavy machinery as required. SECTION B SHELL PLATING, FRAMING SYSTEMS AND
Platmg and glrder matenalm the machinery spaces is of increased scantlings in DECKS
the order of 100/0.
Shell plating

Double-bottom tanks The side and bottom shell plating provides the watertight skin of the ship. The
shell plating also makes tne greatest contribution to the longitudinal strength of
Access to the double-bottom tanks is usually by manholes cut in the t.ank top. the ship's structure. As a result of its huge area the shell plating is composed of
These manholes are sUitably jointed and holted to be completely watertight many strakes or plates arranged in a fore and aft direction and welded together.
when not -in use. Docking plugs are fitted in all double-bottom t:mks and are a The horizontal welds are termed 'seams' and the vertical welds are termed
means of c:ompletely draining these tanks for inspection in drydock (Figure 'butts'. Several strakes of plating are usually joined together as part of a unit. A
5.6). Air pipes are fitted to aU double-bottom tanks to release the air when shell expansion by unin was shown in Figure 3.2. The thickness of shell pLating
filling. Sounding pipes are also fitted to enable the tanks. to be sounded and is largely dependent upon ship length and frame spacing. The final structure
must be capable of withstanding the many dynamic and static loads upun the
hull, as discussed in Chapter 2. Some tapering off of shell plate thickness
Botoarn sh.11
towards the ends of the ship is usual, since the bending moments are reduced in
this region.
The strake of side plating nearest to the deck is knl)wn as the 'sheerstrake'.
The sheerstrake is increas.ed in thickne~s or a high tensile steel is used. This is
because this section of plating is furthest from the neutral axis. and subject to the
greatest bending stress, as discussed in Chapter 2. The region where the
Docking plug, bra"s Or 'lainl""lt"., sheerstrake meets the deck plating is known as the gunwale. Two partkuLar
arrangements in this region are used and are shown in Figure 5.7. With the
Figure 5.6 Dockin,; pfug and pad rounded gunwale arrangement no welding is permitted on the sheerstrake
MlliorSlructurul Items Deck beam 79
knee -...... I
, 1 i
, ,
-, ...... ,
, ~
Tr ,,'s~e rse T'","w~··,e ~i'der
I,,,mc ha~e
centrel ~.
g"d~r , fr~me

Figt./n' 5.7 Gunwale- arrangement, ., I.

Margin _ ,
'l:ause of the high stressing which could re~uJt in crack~ emanating from the
oes' of fillet welds. Sucn welds reduce the resistance of components to
V 0 0
°1 0°'1 000 I 0
0 0 0"
acking. Where such structure is butt wclde-d the welding must blend into the o~,
Side lonyitudi"al, Cal lon~itudinal
m:nt plate. Towards the ends of the ship, as the CJOss·section reduces, the
niolls strakes of plating will taper in width. Where these plate widths become girder - __
Si,le t7:r::':Jr'"';::]I'r<T'rnt;;:':']";';;:F';::::':!'i'=-~-T-j'
nall, a stealer plate or strake is fitted (hgure 5.8). Tran.vers"

, ",
i P .11;~~
! ,: ,alo.~
't.... lkhead
---- c.nrr~


I P'.'ll"~
, "rdk~ Centre

S:~dl~r .
"r"H IOrlgitudinal5 _'S:.kbl,LLU-lClLLJCILLU-llLLI...llLUY
"' -
De-ck I,a,,;\, eroe "- De;;kl
!, ""gitudinals
" 1 1

<Trake O~, ----- - -' ,

gi,-der T,anS\l''''" beams

(hilt.... """

T 8eam


Figure 5.8 Steala strake arrangement

All openings in shell plating must have rounded edges to avoid stress con· I
entr~t-;oll~ and usually some form of -compensation to avoid a discontinuiiy of
lrength. :
'-0 00 0 q.ldo'QTojot I - j 0
:raming systems
/ ....
9irde, giroe, longitudinal,
lie bottom shell and side plating are framed, i.e. stiffened along their length, 101
gainst the compressing forces of the sea. Two different types of framing are in Figure 5.9 FnIming tystel1lJJ; fa) traml'eT:l'€ framing; (b) /ollgtrudillsl framing; (c) c()mbine~
80 Majo, Stntctural hems MajorStrncturai Items 81
use, or a combination of the tW{) may he employed. These are known.
respectively, as transverse, !-ongitudinal <lnd combine-d framing and are shown in
Figure 5. 9. Cargo arrangements may influence the choice of framing systems
but. generally, cons[deratiuns of longitudinal strength are the deciding factor. ,
:JCllJ~1 ,,'q
Transverse framing 1,IoLe

Transverse fr.aming of the shell plating consists of vertical stiffeners. either of

bulb plate or deep-flanged web frames, which are attached by brackets to the
deck beams and the flooring Structure. The sca:ntlings of the frames are- to some
extent dependent upon their depth and also on the of their end
connections. Particular locations, such as at the ends of hatches, require frames
of increased scantlings. Very deep web frames are often fitted in the machinery
Framc spacing is generally not mOle than 1000 mm but is always reduced in
the pounding (cgion and at the fore and aft ends in the peak tank regions.

Longitudinal framing

Longitudinal framing o-f the side shell employs horizontal offset bulb plates with
increased scantlings towards the lower side shell. Transverse webs are used to Bilge keel
support the longitudinal frames, their spacing being dependent upon the type llf l-olf",\ \lulb platel

ship and the section modulus of the longitudinal,. This constructiun is described •
and illustrated in Chapter 8 with reference to oil tanker construction.


With a flat keel construction there is litde resistance to rolling of the ship. A
Figure 510 Bilge keeL (a) pian view shO\l,1-ng ammgemellr at ends; rbj section rlJrough
bilge keel is fitted along the bilge radius either side of the ship to damp any t/ilge keel
tendency the ship Itas t() wll {Figure S.lO} Some improvement in longitudinal
strength at the bilge radius is a1so provided. The bilge keel must be arranged to
penetrate the boundary layer of water along the hull but not too deep to have -additional stiffening by increased frame scantlings, reduced frame spacing and
large forces acting on it. increased plate thickness. are required. The extent and nature of the stiffening
The bilge keel is fitted at right·angles to the bilge radiused plating but does reduces from 1*, which is the highest classific-ation, to 3, which is the lowest.
not extend beyond the extreme breadth line. It runs the extent of the midship Some modifications to the stem -and stem region~ may also be required.
section of the ship and is positioned, after model tests, to ensure the minimum
resistance to forward motion of the ship. Construction is of steel plate with a
stiffened free edge or a section such as a bulb pla!e. A means of fastening to the
hull is employed which will break off the bilge ked witllout damage to the hull
in the event of fouling or collision. The ends are fastened to a doubling plate on
the shell, since the bilge plating is in a highly stressed region of the ship. The deck of a ~hip is the horizontal platform which completes the enclosure of
the hull. It must provide a solid working platfonn capable of supporting any
load~ resting upon it, and also a watertight top cover to the hull structure. The
deck with its various forms of stiffening and its plating provides a considerable
lee navigation strengthening contribution to the strength of the ship. Where tile deck is pierced by hatches,
~pecial warnings or surrounds to the openings must be provided. These large
lee class no lations l·, I, 2 or 3 are assigned to ships which have additional openings require special compensation to offset their effect on the structural
strengthening as required by classification society rules. Various means of strength of the ship.
82 Major StTucrural /tems Major Strnctural Items 83
Deck plating fitted on the ship which run alongside the hatchways and the beams are
bracketed to these girders. In this way the unsupported span is reduced. Deck
The deck plating is made up of longitudinal strakes of plating across its width. beams arc usually offset bulb plates. For the length of the open hatch space the
The plates or strakes nearest to the deck edges are termed 'stringer plates'. They beams are broken and bracketed to the longitudinal girder or hatch side
are of thicker material than the remaining deck plating since they form the coaming. The beams are likewise broken and br~cket~d to the. longitudinal
iJriportant join between the side shell and deck plating. Towards the ends of the girders in way of the engine casing. A beam broken In th15 manner IS known as a
ship the deck plating,like the shelJ plating, is reduced in thickness. 'half·beam'.
The large openings in the deck for hatchways, engine casings, pump room Deck transverses support the longitudinally framed deck. These arc deep plate
entrances, etc., require compensation to maintain the section modulus of the webs with a facing flat or a flanged edge. They are bracketed to the side frames
material. The deck plating abreast of such openings is therefore increased in by beam knees. Small tripping brackets are fitted between alternate longitudinals
thickness. The plating between the hatches of a cargo ship is thinner than the and the transverse (Figurr 5.JJ).
rest of the deck plating and contributes little to longitudinal strength.
The plating of the weather decks is cambered towards the ship's side to assist
drainage of any water falling on the deck. This camber is wually of the order of
Deck girders
one·fiftieth of the breadth of the ship at midships.
Deck girders exist in a number of forms, depending upon their location. A
Deck stiffening flanged girder with tripping brackets will often be used ~ part of a hatch
coaming. Such a flanged girder is referred to as unsymmetncal and mwt have
The deck plating is supported from below in a manner determined by the
tripping brackets fitted at alternate frame spaces. The symmet~ca1 girder is often
framing system of the ship. With longitudinal framing, a series of closely spaced
used, particularly as a centreline girder. Brackets join the girder to the. deck
longitudinals are used in addition to deep web lIansverses. With transverse bums and are fitted at every fourth frame space. At hatch comers these guders
fnming, transverse deck beams art used at every frame space. Where hatches are must be additionally supported either by pillars or uansverse girders. The
fitted to a ship, continuow longitudinal girders are fitted over the length of the
ship running alongside the hatches.
symmetrical and unsymmetrical types of girder are shown in n,gure
The combination of longitudinal girders with transverse beams IS much In
use in modem ships. The deck longitudinal girders extend as far as possible along
Deck beams and transverses
Deck beams are fitted across the width of the ship and are joined to the side
frames by brackets known as 'beam knees'. Continuous longitudinal girders are


G.."" /
fxe flal

(.1 Ibl
Fifun 5.12 Girdef amlllrtmtnn: (a) lym~tricaJ; fb) unsymmttrical

... the fulJ length of the ship on the outside of the hatches. This continuous
longitudinal material permits a reduction in deck plate thickness, in terms of
classification society requirements.
The deck between the hatches must be supported by longitudinal or
transverse beams. Where side girders join transverse beams, particularly beneath
hatch openings, gusset plates are fitted (Figures 5.13 and 5.14).

Local loading
On the deck where concentrated loads are situated or likely, additional
Fifure 5.11 Deck bum stiffening mus~ be provided. M2chinery such as winches, windlasses, etc., will
Majo, Stmcfllral Irems 85

also require seatings which arc discussed in detail in Chaplcr 6. Also. any bums
,,"- fitted in way of deep tanks. bunktr l:mks. etc.. must ha\"c increa~d scanllings
,, and perhaps reduced spans to be at leaSl equal in strength to Ihe boundary bulk·
---- ....,-,r-------r--
" Discontinuities
, "
: 11 A discontinuity. as discussed here, refers 10 any break or change in section.
, II
I II ... tttickness or amount of plating materi31. Greal cart must be 13k~n 10 compensale
," GU\OO!I ;>1~lt
for any discontinuities in shell or deck plaling resulting from doors, hatchways,
etc. Where lhe loss of longitudinal material results. this compensation is of
particular importance. Where changes in the alllount of plating material occur.
Figuf't j. / J H(uch cOnl,r KUsur plillt. ~it ..V!d {rom ~lo ..' such as at bulwarks, the change should be gradual and well radiused.
Well·radiused corners must be used and sometimes the filling of doubling
plates or thicker insert plates, al Ihe corners of all openings. Any sharp corner
can produce a notch which. after stressing, could result in a crack. Figure 5./5
shows an insert plate filled 3t the comer of a hatch opening.

l ...... 01 1141
/ Hatch coamings

The edges of all hatch openings are framed by halch coamings. On Ihe weather
"'I,, deck the coarnings must be at a minimum height of 600 mm according to the
load line regulations. This is to reduce the risk of waler entry to the hoids.
----- :
Gn(1t. I
Internal coamings, e.g. those within the superstructure or holds. have no height
specified and in tween-<ieck holds particularly are often made flush with the
deck for uninterrupted cargo stowage. The weather deck coaming must be a
minimum of9 mm thick, and where Ihe height is in excess of 600 mm it must be
Fi,un' J.14 GUSSf!t plott' uud in mKhinf!!ry SplIU COnlIn/trion
stiffened by a horizontal stiffener and vertical brackets must be fitted not more
than 3 m apart. An edge stiffener must also be provided which may be a
preformed section where wooden hatch covers are fitted (see Figure 7./. later)
or a half·round steel bar as in Figllre 5./6.
The side cearning plates, as an extension of the longitudinal girder, are of
greater thickness than the end coarning plales and are extended beyond the
hatch opening in the form of brackets (Figure 5.16). These brackets also serve to

F•• meop«:1 f,_'I>oa! support the platforms used for the hatch operating equipment. Smaller vertical
brackets are fitted around the remainder of the coaming structure to stiffen it
(Figure 5./7).

01 ,1td'UI Ra<liU$

.Bult 10 be
t Idfofined in
eoaming bun

I The vertical divisions arranged in the ship's structure are known as bulkheads.
Three basic types are found, namely watertight, non·watertight and oiltight or
FiJ$lrt.5. J.s I,Ut" p/4tf!! fittm at hatch r:omer tank bulkheads. Oihight or W1Ic. bulkheads are watertight in their construction
but are subjected to more rigorous testing than a simply watertight bulkhead.
86 Major Structurtllltems 87
Ramp for "ate" c"".. wtleels Coaminog


'"' r\ ;eke!
c"",er Coamir>g
bracket Coaming
,tiff ene'
The transverse watertight bulkheads subdivide the ship inlo a number of water-
tight compartments and their number is -dictated by das~ification sadety
\ regulations. Oiltight bulkheads form the boundaries of tanks used for the

carriage of liquid cargoes or fuels. Non-watertight bulkheads are any other
I ,,
, bulkheads such as engine casings, accommodation partitions or stores
,, ~:,
, ,, ,
,, \ Watertight bu Ikheads
J ~ t t. '~ I'. ~
-In addition to subdividing the ship, transverse bulkheads also provide
/ I ~
considerable structural strength as support for the decks and to resist
Hateh. gi rde. Gusset plate Hateh end Tripping D~' deformation caused by broadside waves (racking). The spacing of watertight
".~ brll(;ke'l stiffener bulkheads, whicn is known as the watertight subdivision of the ship, is governed
,., by rules -dependent upon ship type, size, etc. All ships must have:
(1) A collision or fore peak bulkhead which is to be positioned not less than
"" "

Elliptical Half.rOUrl<:l
0.05 X length of the ship, nor more than 0.08 X length of the ship. from
the forward end of the load waterline.
- - - - - - - - r - -- +"
" COfnBf Daf at (2) An after peak bulkhead which encloses the sterntube(s) and rudder trunk
in a watertight compartment.
.... ---+
I ( ) I II "" (3) A bulkhead at each end of the machinery space; the after bulkhead may,
C, --_-I.: ',- --"-tT,-
'" -_-_-_ ,..... _
----1---- fOI an aft engjne room, be the after peak. bulkhead.

---r ·L.--.i~~,T~~~=-=b Additional bulkheads are to be fitted according to the vessel's length, e.g. a ship
between 145 and 165 m long must have 8- bulkheads with machinery midships
tH!low Hat<:n

-----t 'I

and 7 bulkheads with machinery aft.
Fitting less than the standard number of bulkheads is permitted in approved
circums.tances where additional structural compen~tion is provided. Water·

Figure 5.16 Hareh cOflming: (a) elevation of hatch coammg (~teel hQtch Cov~TSJ: (b) pkm
~ie\tl t:>fhatch cOflming Isteel hatch CQ~~)
tight bulkheads must extend to the freeboard deck but may rise to the
uppermost continuous decle. The aft peak bulkhead may extend only to the next
deck above the load waterline, where the construction aft of thi-s deck is fully
Offw1 0011> pla1e
watertight to the sheIL
The purpose of watertight subdivision and tne spacing of the bulkheads is to
provide an arrangement such that if one compartment is flooded between
bulkheads tne ship's w£terline will not rise above the margin line. The margin
line is a line drawn parallel 10 and 76 mm below tlte upper surface of the
bulkhead deck at the ship's side. The subdivision of passenger ships is regulated
by statutory requirements which are in excess of classification society rules for
cargo ships, but the objects of confIning flooding and avoiding sinking are the
Figure- 5.17 COilming bnJt::ket same.
Hatch --t"~ -If--- Bracket

" ..
Constrnction oj watertight bulkheads

D~' w.atertight bulkheads, because of their Large area, are formed of several strake1
I of plating. They are welded to tne shell, deck and tank top. The plating strakes
are horiz()ntal and the stiffening is vertical. Since water pressure in a tank

j increases with depth and the watertigh.'t bulkhead must withstand such loading,
the bulkhead must have increasingly greater strength towards the base. This is
Major Structural Items 89
achieved by increasing the thickness of the horizontal sirakes of plating towards
the bottom. The collision bulkhead must have pia ling some 12% thicker than
other watertight bulkheads. Also, plating in the aft peak bulkhead around the
stemtube must be: doubled or iJlcreased in thickness to reduce vibration. The
bulkhead is stiffened by vertical bulb plates or toe-welded angle bar stiffeners
spaced about 760 mm apart. This spacing is reduced to 610 mm for coUision and
oillight bulkheads. The ends of Ihe stiffeners are bracketed to the lanktop and
Ihe deck beams. In twecn decks. where the loading is less. Ihe stiffeners may
have no end connections. A watertight bulkhead 3rrangtment is shown in

, Figure j. J8.

Corrugated watertight bulkheads


The use of corrugations or swedges in a plate instead or welded stiffeners
produces as strong a structure with a reduction in weight. The troughs are
vertical on transverse bulkheads but on longitudinal bulkheads they must be
horizontal in order (0 add to the longitudinal strength of the ship.

Upper ,tool
I . I I ! I I .l'-Jr.., ,

r----t!+--+--+--f-----+---! •~
•, !+-+--+---+-1-- !A ,I " I' , I
IAa~ I ' I~'~'~I I ' I'
..-.~ -+--++-+-+---1-+- -~.I-
! I"·"' I' I' I . ,I .I
.....te.. rght
• l)ulknuo:l •

> ~ . I I I I i Ii
! I I II I'
I l/
Lo- 'lool

Happe'l... k

r i Double bOil""'

t., '"' Welded se.m


FifUrt 5.19 Coffllpud _l~rtitht bulkhrlld_' (tl) WCriOll throut/lt:OfflIprion: (b) d~~llrion
o{ bu/khtfld: (t) plDn ,ir.., oftorruprions
90 Major Structural Items
The corrugations or swedges are made in the plating strikes prior to
fabrication of the complete bulkhead. As a consequence, the strues run
vertically and the plating must be of unifonn thickness and adequate to support /
the greater loads at the bottom of the bulkhead. nus greater thickness of plate
offsets to some extent the saving in weight through not adding stiffeners to the "
bulkhead. The edges of the corrugated bulkhead which join to the shell plating "
may have a stiffened fiat plate fitted to increase transverse strength and simplify ,
fitting the bulkhead to the shell. On high bulkheads with vertical corrugations, " plates are fitted across the troughs. This prevents any possible ""
collapse of the corrugations. A corrugated bulkhead arrangement is shown in
Figure 5.19.
A watertight noor is fitted in the double bottom directly below every main
transverse bulkhead. Where a watertight bulkhead is penetrated, e.g. by
pipework, a watertight closure around the penetration must be ensured by a
collar fully welded to the pipe and the bulkhead.

,., '"
Testing o{watertight bulkheads

The main fore and aft peak bulkheads must be tested by filling with water to
the load waterline. Subdividing watertight bulkheads ate tested by hosing down.
Oiltight and tank bulkheads must be tested by a head of water not less than
2.45 m above the highest point of the tank.

Non-watertight bulkheads -----------
Any bulkheads other than those used as main subdivisions and tank boundaries
may be non-watertight. Examples of these are engine room casing bulkheads,
accommodation partitions, store room divisions, etc. Wash bulkheads fitted in
deep tanks or in the fore end of a ship are also examples of non-watertight
bulkheads. Where a non-watertight bulkhead perfonns the supporting function
similar to a pillar, its stiffeners must be adequate for the load carried. In all
other situations the non-watertight bulkhead is stiffened by bulb plates or f----Pill¥
simply fiat plates welded edge on. Corrugated and swedged bulkheads can also
be used for non-watertight bulkheads.

Pillars provide a means of transferring loads between decks and fastening
together the structure in a vertical direction. The pillars which transfer loads, as
in the cargo holds or beneath items of machinery. are largely in compression and Slif!ffief
require little or no bracketing to the surrounding structure. Pillars which tie
structure together and are subjected (0 tensile forces are adequately bracketed at
the head or top and the heel or bottom. Girder
Hold pillars are usually large in section and few in number to reduce inter-
ference with cargo stowage to a minimum. Pillars are provided to reduce the
need for heavy webs to support the hatch girders or end beams. The use of Fip'" .5.21 lIIbulu piJiJI, llffllll'~mtnU: (a) pi11tzf hud COIlJl«POI"I:
piJlan also enables a reduction in size of the hatch girders and beams. since their Ib) pillJu h«l COftntctiOlt
Maior Structuralltf!rns 93
92 Major Stnl("t/lralllC'ms
unsupported span is reduced. Where pIllars are filled between a number of
_-----------7 F..-ecastltdKk

venical decks they should be in line below one another 10 efficiently transfer
the loads.
Hold pillar sections arc usually a hollow fabricated shape manufaclured from ...
steel plale. Typical sections are round. square and somelimes octagonal. -~~-r-r-'lC"'in : : ~OT;T;!J-:,..,k71r---pl.lI~<lem
' : loci""
Machinery space pillars are usually fabricatcd from sections and. while slllalicr , ; , "'-+M I\JH-f""~_--P,.,ling minger
in dimensions than hold pillars. a greatcr number are tined (FigllrC' 5.20). , ' , ,
: ' : : lWl

Additional slruclural matcrial must be pro\'ided at the head and heel of pillars .J_":_.1_ ~
, " P~IJng SI""9t'
to evenly disuibuu: the load. AI the head a plate is used. orten with tripping
tperl..-lIed fl,1l
brackets to surrounding structure. At the heel an insert plate or doubling plate
is used, wilh or wilhoul bracken depending upon Ihc type of loading (Figur('
Solid pillars may be fined in accommodation spaces or under poinls of
concenuated loading. Solid round bar up to abolll 100 111111 diameter is filled.
again with head and heel plates to spread the lead.


FlKUtr 5.22 F(H'f! end ronStlllction
The forward end of a ship refers to the struClUre forward of the collision bulk·
head. TIle forward end is designed to provide a smooth enlfY 10 Ihe water and a
sneamlined flow along the ship. As a result. resistance to motion is reduced
to a minimum. The stem is the most forward pari of the ship and runs down to
the keel. It is constructed in two parIS - a bar stem from the keel to the load
waterline and a plate stem up to the deck. TIle plate slcm usually rakes well
forward providing pleasing lines 10 the s.hip. an increased deck area and a readily Fixutr 5.23 Sutton IhTOCiP plaIt' tDf .. ~
coUapsible region in the event of a collision. The side shell plating is narl~d OUI to sum sho..inf brusthook
fUrl her increase the de-ck are-a. This arrange-me", also serves to deflect sea waler
and spray away from Ihe- ship in heavy weJ,the-r. The forward deck area or
fore-castle houses the windlasses and winches required for anchor and mooring
duties. The anchor chain is housed in a chain locke-r benealh the forecastle. A
bulbous bow may be filled. which is a protrusion below the waterline designed
10 reduce fhe ship's resistance to motion.

Panting structure
Stem Panting is an in·and-out movemenl of the she-II plating resulting from the
variations of water pressure as waves pass along the huU and when the vessel
The stem is the terminating point of the forward shell plating. It is made up of a pitches. Special structural arrangements are necessary in the forward region of
stem bar from the keel 10 the load waterline and a stiffened plate struclUre up to the ship to strengthen the ship's pia ling agai.nsl this action. The structure mu~t
the forecastle deck (Figure 5.22). The stem bar is a solid round bar which is be strengthene-d for 15-20% of the ship's length from forward to t~e ste~. Thl.s
welded 10 the inside of the keel plate at the lower end. At its upper end the bar stiffening is made up of horizontal side mingers, known a~ 'pantlng stringers •
joins [he slem plate. The shell plating is welded to either side of the stem bar. fitted at about 2 m intervals below the lowest deck. Panting beams are fitted
The stem plate conSlruction of curved plales is stiffened at intervals by across the ship at alternate frame- spaces and are bracketed .to the. panting
breasthooks which are small flange plates fined horizontally (Figure 5.23). stringer. The intermediate frames are connected to the pantm.g strm~er b~
A continuous bulb or flat bar stiffener may be fined where the sle-m plale radius brackets (Fjgu~J 5.24 and 5.25). A partial wash bulkhead or a senes of pillars 15
is considerable. Heavier than usual shell plating may be fitted at the stem plate fiue-d on the centreline to further support the structure-. Perforated flats may be
94 Major Strocturalltems 95
SIde ,,,de< fitted instead of beams but these must be not more than 25 m apart.
Perforations of at lust 10% of the plate area are required in order to reduce
water pressure on the flats.

Bulbous bow
'~T==f======1======"iF=:;:::;;:1S o_ The bulbous bow is fitted in an attempt to reduce lhe ship's resistance. Arrange.
ments vary from a casting plated into the forward end to a fully radiused plated
structure, or in some cases a cylindrical shape plated into the forward end. The
erfectiven~s of the arrangement is the subject of much discussion but improved
buoyancy forward is provided which will reduct the pitching of the ship.
The construction shown in Figurt $.16 consists of a vertical plate web which
stiffens the free edge of the breasthooks fitted right forward in the bulb. Deep

frames with panting beams are fitted al every frame space with a wash bulk-

head on the centreline. The panting stringers consist of perforated plates running
Smnget the full width and length of the bulb. Another vertical plate web joins the bulb
to the fore end structure. A small stem casting connects the top of the bulb to
the plate stem above the load waterline. The numerous manholes cut into the
~7====:j;====;:h. Sl';nget structure permit access to all parts of the bulb. The anchor and cable arrange-
menlS must ensure that the bulb is not fouled during any part of the operation.

I, I
\ I
'" TI

1 \



Figun 5.26 Bulbous bow COI/Srnu:notl

96 Major S!fUcturalltems
Major Stru,:luralltems 97
Anchors and cables the side shelL A rubbing OJ chafing ring is also fitted at the outside shell. A
sliding pbte cover is shaped to fit over the cable and close the opening when
The forecastle deck !louses the windlass or windlasses which raise and lower the ~hip is at sea.
the anchor and cable. Variou~ items of mooring equipment such as bol1ards
faide-ads, etc., ilrC also arranged around the deck edge. The a~chQrs are housed
a,gains! the forward side shell, sometimes in speci'-llly recessed pockets. The Cable sto pper
anchor cable passes throlJgh the shell via the hawse pipe on to the forecastle
Th~ ch:Jin, <:able OT bow stopper is fitted on the {(lrccastle deck in line with th~
deck. It travels over tlte <::able stopper and on to the windlass cable lifter drum.
run of the anchor cable. II is used to hold the anchor <:Jble in place while th(
From the cable lifter it drops vertically down into the chain locker below.
ship is riding at anchor OJ the a.nchor is fully housed. In this way th~ windlas~
is freed ami isolated from :lllY shocks or vibratiollS from the cable. The c]taii
Hawse pipe stopper i~ not designed to stop the moving cable, blJt onl}' hold it in place. Om
type is shown in Figure 5,28 :and wmists of a fabricated structure of he3vy plaH
The hawse pipe is fitted to enable a smooth run of the anchor cable to the with 3 roller which the cable passes over, A hinged har is designed to fal
~indlass and to maintain the watertight integrity of the forecastle (Fixure between two vertical links and hold the cahle in place. The chain ~topper i~
:>.21). It. should be of ample size to pass the cable without snagging when raising welded Of bolted on [() a he.avy imeTt plate in the deck and i~ additionall)
or lowenng the anchor. Construction is usually of thick plating which is attached stiffened by h-rackets.
to a doubling pl.ate at the forecastle deck and a reinforced strake of plating:at

Bow.l<lp.,er Windlass
,/ The windlass i~ the lifting devic-e for the anchm cables or chains and i~ also ll~~(
for moming and winching duties. Various drums or harre-Is can be 'clutched in
tliperform the diffnent duties_ For raising tl1~ anchor. the cable lifting drum i
DotJbling plate
This is a barrel with specially shaped 'snugs" which tlle cable links fit into an(
For~ca'tl"deo;k pass round before dropping into the chain locker vi.a the spurling pipe. Tn.
anchor cable is allowed to IGwer under its own weight wiLh Lhe lifting drun
decliltched. while the brake band around it is used to ;;antrol the speed 0

----_ Sh,p', Chain locker

The chain locker is llormally fitted forward uf the collision bulkhead, It is 0
dimensions adequate- to house all the allchor cable and stil1le.ave a considerabil
empty space above. Two lockers or a centrally divided single locker will be fit tel
for the port an-d starboard anchor cables. The chain locker should be as Iowa
practicable to reduce Ihe height of the centre of gravity of the considerable mas
of the cables, A perforated false floor or ,grating is tilted at the hottom tl
./ --- --- Anchor
provide a drainage well and keep the cable out of mud and wate-l.
Figure 5.29 shows an arrangcmcnt of a chain locker. It consists of a plat,
stru-cture with vertical stiffeners armmd the outside. Plate webs which forn
part of the ship's internal structure are also utilised for stiffening. A raisel
perforated false floor is fitted allli supported by so-lid floors. The well thu
form-ed is connected to the bilge system and should be emptied every time th
I anchor is raised. The forecastle deck forms the top of the lucker wilh th
, ~purling pipe at the centre. The spurling pipe is manufactured of heavy plat
Chafing with a solid round bar .as a chaffln,g ring on the lower edge. Brackets radiate fror
the spurling pipe to lhe chain locker sides to strengthen the forecastle deck ani
the spurling pipe. A U-section plate welded to the ,ide with footholes cut iJ
Figure 5.2"7 Ha \tIl'e pipe provides access to the bottom of the chain locker from a watertight door at th
98 Ma;orStructural/tems 99
Spu.ling pipe B'ack~1

F OI'e.2'Itle deC:k

• L
Solid.floor pliot..

Fixu~ $.29 Dllnn lockn-

upper deck. Provis.ion is also made for ~curing the frnallink oflhe anchor cable.
The chain locker illustrated is one of a pair fitted port and starboard beneath
; their respective windlasses.

•• ~
~ .
/ J

,7 •
Clench cable assembly

.!; The fmallink of the anchor cable is secured to the ship's structure by a clench
pin. On most modem ships this pin is positioned on the outside of the chain
( f""·
. "1 '

locker and can be released easily and quickly. A situation may arise where the
safety of the ship does not allow time to raise the anchor. By releasing the
, i"-f----/. ~
clench pin all the cable can quickly pass out of the chain locker. leaving the ship

free to proceed out of danger. An arrangement is shown in Figure 5.30. where an
i //
,• .. I'~'
II ,
P,n f.""" bv
"" ~wt>eel
1r>W1'1,,1.1" on IOfeoc;Kl~ deock
./ I ,nc~,n

1/ I loc:~",

\ f

F,~l hn~
01 in<:hor


.-.J I
/,. ..,./\.\I'
.. ~_'r :


\"--""'/ /~~:~
. ,',_'
' ..
~ '.
100 Major SlrocturaJ Items
Major Structural Items 101
inser.t heavy pia Ie .pockel is filled into the chain locker side with a vertical pin
h~ldmg Ih~ fmal Imk of anchor cable. A hand-wheel assembly on deck is used 10 shown in Figun 5.3/. A non-rotating servo motor located in the gear housing is
ralSe the pm and release the link. used to change the pitch of the propeller blades. The force on the servomotor
piston is transmitted by a piston rod inside the propeller shaft to the crosshead
and crank mechanism in the hub. Water now can thus be provided in either
Thrusters direclion simply by changing the blade pitch angle. Any non-reversing prime
mover can therefore be used. e.g. a singie speed electric motol. The prime mover
A. thruster is .~su~y considered to be a device which assists in docking. manoeu- need not be stopped during manoeuvring operations since the blades can be
vnng, or posllJon~g ~f a vessel which is moving at a low speed. Some fonn of placed at zero pitch when nO thrust is desired. The drive is obtained thsough a
propeller-type deVIce IS used 10 move water either freely or in a duct. The pro- flexible drive shaft, couplings and bevel gears. Special seals prevent any sea water
peller may be fixed or. contr_o.llable pilch and the complete unit may be retract- leakage into the unit.
able or exposed, flXed In position or able to rotate (aZimuth). The complete assembly includes part of the athwartships tunnel through
ProbabJ~ the. most common unit Iitted on merchant vessels is the tunnel which water is directed to provide the thrust. Grids must be fitted at either end
t~ruster .usmg either ~ fixed pitch or a controllable pitch propeller. The flXed of the tunnel and this can reduce the thrust to some eXlent. The actual tunnel

pilch Unit wouJd require a reversible drive. A controllable pitch type thruster is locatiOn is usually decided by model tests to ensure !he minimum resistance
when not in usc. A tunnel construction arrangement is shown in Figure 5.32.
, Gill jet thrusters utilise a vertical axis propeller in a T-shaped tunnel. Water is
drawn in from both sides and leaves through the bottom of the hull. Rotatable
g.ilI ftns djrect the water in One of a number of flXed positions around II circle.
The hydrojet thruster has a similar arrangement but draws waler in from below
and discharges it at the sides with vanes directing the thrust. Steering vanes in
the diverging liquid path can also be used 10 maximise the thrust to one side or
the other. Ducted jet thrusters operate somewhat similarly to a tunnel thruster
except that the duct is usually curved. This duct may be located either on the
" ship's side or the bottom shell and usually requires large openings.
An azimuth or rotating thruster usually consists of a dUCled propeller which
"--. can rotate through 36(f. The propeller may be flXed or controllable pitch. This
unit is particularly sujted for dynamic positioning and some propulsion duties.
When fitted to ships, an azimuth thruster is usually retractable.

" //
I prapeller

" " " " " - B•..,hl

1. Tunnel sulio/l 9. Ollllk pin n·", 17. Servo mOtor piston
Z. Motor nzOlilltillg stool 10. Crosshead bearing llOUS;/lg 18. Sen'O motor cylinder head
J. Input dn·I'e shaft 1/. Toper roller t/'rust bearing 19. Feed bock IillkJlge Tube: ......Idl!d
4. InpUl drive shaft cur";dgC' /2. Crossheod 20. !Kn·o motor cylinder d'reclly 10
5. /'rolH""r shaft Jeal /1. Propeller shafr 21. Sul'O molar end CO~r
6. Propeller blade /4. Prop~l1ershaft thrust 22 Spiral bel·el pinion FiKU'" 5.32 Bow thrusrer tunlltl
7. Blade palm sal betJnnl 21. Drive shofr raper roller
8. Illlb bod)' 15. Spiral bC'1·el ...hed BearinX SECTION E AFT END CONSTRUCTION
16. Pirtoll rod 2-1. Gear housl/lg

Fig/Ire 5.3/ Tunnel fllruster Im;f The aft end of a ship terminates the structure and is designed to provide a
Smooth water flow into and away from the propeller. The propeller and rudder
MajorSttucruralltems 103
102 Major Stnu:tIlral Items

are also positioned :lnd supporled 3t the after end and require cenain structural Cruiser Stern
arran!lemcnts in order 10 operale S3lisfaclorily. The after end consrruetion The COllslruclion of the cruiser stern (FigUff! 5.33) ensures adequate resisla.nce
invoh'es an amount of overhanging structure to accept the sleering gear below 10 any pounding stresses which may occur. Solid pIalI' floors are fitted at.every
deck and mooring equipment higher up on the wealher deck. This arrangemen! frame space and a heavy centreline girder is fitted below ~ach .of lh~ decks In the
leads to large slamming forces in Ihis afler region. and an adequalely stiffened t rn A centreline web 35 a continuation of the centrelme guder IS fitted at the
slruclure is therefore ri."quiled. ~f~er' end shell plating and runs down to the centreline girder in the n~ring
Two main types of stern construclion have been u~d 10 dale - Ihe cluistr region. Special frames are radiused around the afler end and are ~nown as cant
slern and the transom stern. The cruist'r stern is I3rely used in modem frames'. since they are set at an angle to the centreline of the ~up. These cant
construclion but it IS slill to be $Cen in a large proportion of the ships 3t sea. The frames join cant beams which suppa" the deck at the radlUscd after e~d.
!ransom stern. "'ilh its slraig,ltt·linc form. Ii."nds itself well 10 current Horizontal stringers may also be fitted to stiffen up the Slructure by connecung
manufacturing techniques. It also provides a greater deck area aft and is it to Ihe transverse frames further forward.
currenlly much uSed for a variety of ship lypeS.

Upper deck
Transom stern
\IF====I;t[\\ Deep solid-plate floors are also a feature of the transom slem construction,
together wilh a centreline girder (Figure 5.34) .. The ~at plate of the lIansom
stem construction, however, allows use of verucal suffeners around the shell
Sft;:ond deck

_ BulkheMl


-- -

, :
L 1 I
, I
... I
t I
, ,
......... 1
,, ,,.....,.-
I I ' dK'
, "'.m g"dro-

... ..j 1 t
- __I
I rI - , ---
1 X
____ I~I J
--"I :--,...,
I , I
, I I
. ---.1_ ..L 1~,~.!.,der
PI¥> ...ewof u~ tlrek S«fHl>f'l x-x
Fi8W~ jJ4 TlVlUlOm Jft,.,.
FifulT s.]] Ou.iur sum
104 Major Structural/terns
plating. The vertical stiffeners are bracketed to the floor and to the deck heams
which nm transversely across the stem. A deep hmizontal stringer can provide
additional stiffening to the >hen plating if required. A deep centre girder runs
beneath each of the deck:; at tlte stern and is bracketed EO the deep web at the
centreline of the after shell plating. This web is likewise bracketed to the various
floors in the stern and finally 10 the solid-plate floor construction below. Elevirlion,
looking afl

Rudder trunk
The rudder trunk is an open section which is left in the stern for the elltry of the
rudder stock into the steering flat (Figure 5.34). A horizontal platform is some_
times fitted midw.ay up the trunk to fit a watertight gland. The (runking above i,
then constructed to be watertight and access to this upper section and the gland
is provided bya manhole.

Sternframe \
, .J\
The shell plating at the after end is temtinated by the stemframe (Figure 5.34).
This is usually a casting, but fabrications and forgings are sometimes used. In
" \'C ;'
. '" '<' A, -- -

single-screw shi ps the ste-rnframe has a boss on the cen treline for the tailshaft to
pass through and an adequate aperture is provided for the propeller to operate Plarr view ,
in. 1f sufficient clearance at the blade tips were not allowed then serious ,,
vibrations would be set up in the after end of the ship. The lower part of the
sternframe may provide a support for the rudder post or an overh.anging section ,
Line of pl~li"~
may provide gudgeons for the rudder pintles. Figures 5.34, 5.41 and 5.42 show ,
different arrangements. Various sections of the sternframe, particularly above ,
the arch, provide- connecting points to the individual floors of the after end \ ,
construction. The transom post and vibration post are two particular Floor
connections (Figure 5.34). Sound connections at these points ensure that
Figure 5.35 Cast sputacle [rome
propeller-induced vibntions are kept to a minimum. Twin-screw ships have a
sternframe which is only required to support the rudder pintles and is thus much
Tan.. tOP lW,gitudinal
reduced in size. Larger stemframes, particularly those of cast constmction, are girder
manufactured in two parts with provision made for bolting together and, after Palm

careful alignment, welding at the suitably prepared joint. \ , \ I

A-brackets and bossings

Twin-screw vessels with their shafts set away from the centreline require support
for the shaft overhang as it leaves the shell. Bossings are often used to increase
the vessel's width and allow the mafts to remain within the hull while still
retaining a streamlined flow ofwater to the propellers. The shafting is protected
and internal insp-ection is possible with this arrangement. These bossings are
symmetrical about the ship's centreline and give rise to the tenn 'spectacle
frame' because of their appearance from aft of the vessel (Figure 5.35). Some
modern constructions make use of A-brackets set out from the huU to support
the shafts (Figure 5.36). The f"mal A-bracket in addition to acting as a bearing,
must support the weight of the propeller.
Both bossings and A·frames are led into the stern and solidly built into the Figure 5.36 A_Bracket
structure with additional local stiffening where required.
Major Srructurallt~ms 107

The propeller shaft enters the ship through the sterntube which acts as the rll1al
bearing and a watertight seal to the sea. Traditional practice saw the use of
lignum vitae and certain synthetic materials as bearing surfaces within the sttrn·
tube and these were lubricated by sea water. The increased loadings, as a result
of slow speed shafts and heavier propellers on more modem ships, has led to the
., widespread use of oil.J.ubricated bearings. Wilh this arrangement
wear down in service is much reduced but there is a need for more accurate
alignment and for seals al each end of the stemtuhe. An oil-lubricated sterntube
arrangement is shown in Figure 5.37. Additional details are given in Marin.e
Auxiliary Machinery by D. W. Smith (6th edition, Buttcrworths Marine Engin-
eering Series. 1983).


A propeller consists of a boss which has several helicoidal form blades. When
rotated it 'screws' or thrusts its way through the water by giving momentum to
the column of water passing through it. The lhrust is transmiued along the shaft·
ing to the thrust block and fmally to the ship's structure. The thrust block must
therefore have a rigid seating or framework which is integrated into the ship's
structure to absorb the thrust. The propeller will usually be either of the fIXed
pitch or controllable pitch type. In addition some special designs and arrange·
ments are in use which offer particular aavantages.

Fixed pitch propeller

Although described as fixed pitch. a solid single.piece cast propeller has a pitch
which varie~ with increasing radius from the boss. The pitch at any particular
point on a blade is however fIXed and an average value for the complete pro·
peller is used in all calculations. A fIXed pitch propeller is shown in Figure 5.38,
where most of the terms used in describing the geometrical features are also




F~ur(' 5.38 F"urd pitch propf'l/{'r

MajorStmcrural Item!> 109
108 Major Structural Items

ghen. 11 should be note<l that the face is the surface farthest from the stem and
is the 'working' surface. A cone is fitted to the boss to provide a smooth flow of
wl!ter away from the propeller. A propeller which rotates clockwise, when
viewed flom \\ft, h comiueIed to be tight·handed. Most sifl&\-e-screw ships have
right-handed propellers. A twin-screw ship wUl usually have a right-handed star- r~"'1 Se-aJ D i.tance 1-I)/.cJ<a",lic
bo.ard propeller and a left-handed port propeller. Connecting tu~ conne-ct;on
Ca~t1\tior. ls the f",rmmg and bursting of vapc\l;r filled caviTIes or bubbles and ,tem Seal
occurs as a result of .::ertain pressure variations on the back of li propeller blade.
The re-sohs of this phenomenon are a loS'; ofihrust, erosion of the blade surface,
vibra.tiom in the afterbody of the ship and lloise. It h umally limited to hjgh-
speed, heavily loaded propellers and is not a problem under nonnaI operating
conditions with a well-designed propeller.
The pIOpeUel, when turning in the ship's wake, is a. potential source ofvibra- Load ing
tion excitation. To some extent this can be minimised by having the leading ring _+'_-+Tail.hatt
edges skewed back. Skew back is an advantage when the propeller is working in a
varying wak.e <15 not al1 the blade is affected at the :same time_ Variations in the
thrust and torque are therefore smoothed out. Since the vibrations are blade
excited, then the number of blades is -significant and determines the vibration
f1e-quency. Where severe vibration problems exis.t it may ultimately be necessary
to change the propeller for one with a diffelent number ofbladcs.

Propeller mounting - Pro""il", QO'S

N,t,ile tv'" s~oo

The propeller is fitted onto a t.aper on the tailshaft and a key may be inserted ,
between the two~ alternatively a keyless arrangement may be used. A large nut is 4r I ~
fastened and J,ocked in place on the end of the tailshaft. A cane is then bolted ~
over the end of the tailshaft to provide a smooth flow of water from the pIO-
pellel. Co C'- Lewi",!
One method of ke--yless propeller fitting is the oil injection system. The pro-

...., ----- - -
peller bore is machined with a series of axial and circumferential grooves. High-
pressure oil is injected between the tapered section of the tailshaft and the
propeller_ This reduces the friction between the two parts and the propeller is
I Withdr3wa

pushed up the shaft taper by a hydraulic jacking ring. Once the pIOpeller is Tail:shalt
positioned, the oil pressure is released and the oil runs back leaving the shaft and ,,,
propeller securely fastened together.
The Pilgrim Nut is a patented device which provides a predetermined fric-
tional grip between the propeller and its shaft. With this arrangement the engine Figure 5.39" Pilgrim nUl operl1tion
torque may be tranSJTliUed without loading the key (where fitted). The Pilgrim through an arc to change the pitch angle and therefore the pitch. A typical
Nut is, in effect, a threaded hYdraulic jack which is screwed onto the tailshaft, arrangement is shown in Figure 5.40.
see Ffgure 5.39. A steel ring receives thru,t from a hydraulically pressurised When a pitch demand signal is received, a spool valve is oper:ated which
nitrile rubber tyre. This thrust is applied to the propeller to force it Dnto the controls the supply of low pressure oil. to the aux.iliary servo-motor. This moves
tapered tailshaft. Propeller removal is achieved by reversing the Pilgrim Nut and the sliding thrust block assembly to position the valve Tad which extends. into a withdr:awal plate which is fastened to the propeller boss by studs. When the pIOpt111er hub_ The valve rod admits high pJessure oil into one side or the
the lyre is pressurised the pr(lpellel is drawn off the taper. Assembly and with-
othel of the main servO-motor cylinder. The cylinder movement is transferred by
drawal are shown in Figure 5.38. a crank-pin and ring to th~ pmpelleI blad~s. The pIopeller blade~ rotate togetheI
until the feed-back signal balances the demand signal and the low pressure oil to
Controlla ble-pitch p rope Ilers the auxilimy servo-motor is cut off. To enable emergency control of propeller
pitch. in the event ofloss ufpowe-t, the $pool val.. e~ can be opetated by hand.
A controllable-pitch propeller is made up of a boss with separate blades mounted The oil pumps are shaft driven.
into it. An internal mechanism enables the blades to be moved simultaneously
110 Majo, Stmcturalltems III
The control mechanism, which is usually hydraulic, passes through the tail·
shaft and operation is from the bridge. Varying the pitch will vary the thrust
provided and since a zero pitch position exists the engine shaft may tum con·
tinuously. The blades may rotate to provide astern thrust and therefore the
engine does not require to be reserved.

Special types

ir--' A number of specialised arrangements or types of propeller exisl and have

particular advantages or applications. The Voith-Schneider propeller, the Tip
, ,
Vortex Free propeller and the use of a duct or nozzle afC described here.
The Voith-Schneider prop€l~ a vertically-rotating device. The blades arc
, vertically positioned around a disC\.!!l-d can be rotated by cams in order to
, change the blade angle at a particular point in each revolution. Thjs results in a
lhrust whose magnitude and direction is determined by the cams. It is, therefore,
in some respects(similar to a controllable-pitch propeller in that the disc is driven
and the blades can be positioned independently of the main drive. This unit can
effectively thrust in any direction and will respond rapidly to the pitch control
mechanism. The complete assembly is unfortunately complex, noisy in opera-
tion and considerable maintenance is necessary. II is often used for main pro-
pulsion in ferries and vessels requiring considerable manoeuvrability. It may also
be used as a thruster or proplusion device for drill ships or fioating cranes which
require accurate positioning.
. The use of a duct or nozzle around the propeller can result in an improve-
ment of the propeller performance. Furthennore the aerofoil shape of the duct
~---+ can produce a forward thrust which will offset any drag it creates. The duct also
protects the propeller from damage and reduces noise. It is usually fitted on
ships with heavily loaded propellers, e.g. tugs, and has been used on larger
vessels. One particular patented design of duct is known as the Kort Nozzle.
The Tip Vortex Free (TVF) propeller is a recent special design which results
in much improved propeller efficiency. The blade tips are fitted with pieces at
right angles to lhe plane of rotation. The initial impression is that the blade
edges have been bent over towards the face, i.e. away from the ship. The attach-
.--~- ments at the blade tips serve to generate thrust across the whole propeller blade
and thus improve the propeller efficiency. A nozzle surrounds the propeller and
a tunnel structure under the stern on either side is used to direct the incoming
flow of water.


The rudder is used to steer the ship. The turning action is largely dependent on
the area of the rudder, which is usually of the order of one-sixtieth to one-
seventieth of the length X depth of the ship. The ratio of the depth to width
of a rudder is known as the aspect ratio and is usually in the region of 2.
Slrcamlined rudder of a double-plate construction are filled to all modern
ships and arc further described by the ammgement about their axis. A rudder
with all of its area aft of the wrning axis is known as 'unbalanced' (Figure
5.4l). A rudder with a small part of its area forward of the turning axis is known
as 'semi-balanced' (Figure 5.42). When more than 2570 of the rudder area is
[2 Major Stnlctural Iterm 1

lrward of the tU01ing axis there is no torque on the rudder stock at certain
rlgles and such an arrangement is therefore knoVlll as a 'balanced rudder' Hurlzontol
"~igure 5.34).
Tile constructi.on of modem rudders is of steel plate sides welded to all I ,,<:,'''~
ltemal webbed framework. Integral with the internal framework may be heavy ni~tle

Jrgings which form the gudgeons or bearing housings of the rudder. The upper ~~~",,"'.I _. .__
_ P"""ble
Ice of the rudder is fonned Illto a usually horizontal nat palm which acts as the .. ~

p iato
oupling. point for the ruddcI stock. A lifting hole is provided in the rudder to
na.ble a vertical in-line lift of the rudder when it is berng titted or removed. A
pedal lifting bar with eye plates is used to lift the rudder. On the unbalanced
od semi·balanced rudders showrl. in Figures 5.41 and 5.42 can be seen a famiorl.
r eddy plate at the forward edge. This is welded in place after me rudder is
itted to provide a streamlined water flow into the rudder. After manufadUIe,
very rudder is ai.I tested to a pre,sure equivalent to a head of 2,45m above the jlf-- I
:lop of the rudder to ensure its watertight integrity. The internal surfa~es are A A
sually coated with bitumen or some similar coaring to pmtect the metal shou~d Rudd"'
b.e pl:lting leak. A drain hole 1S provided at the bottom of the rudder to check I'US!

or water entry wilen the ship is examined in dry Jock. Pon~h 0


~udder pintles and bearings B~d,ir'g

~he rudder, depending on Ils type and 3fIangement, will turn on either pi.ntles
,r bearings_ 'ludder
The balanced rudder in Figure 5.34 has a rudder axle fitted at its turning ;lOll

xis. Upper and lower bearings are D.tted in the rudder, as shown in Figure
.43. The bearing consists of a stainless steel bush in the rudder and a ~tainless
teel liner on the axle_ The stainless steel bush i> spirally grooved to permit
librication. Other materials arc in use, such as gunmetal for the liner and lignum
ilae or lufnol for the bush. The uppeT and lower pair of tapered bearing rings Sen,ml A. A
re fitted between the rudder and the stem frame. These are fitted with a small
:learance but may support the weight of the rudder should the carrier fail. Figure 5Al Unbllkmced rudder
The semi-balanced rudder shown in Figure 5.42 turns on pintlcs. Arrange-
aents vary but the pintle (ol\sists of a bearing, length of constant ,harneter 31111 a
L'n~ 01
apered l.ength which is drawn into a similarly tapered hole on the rudder or shell
ternframe gudgeon. The pintle i5 drawn in by a laIge nut pulling on the ~I~ti"q
r- - - ~-
hreaded portiOll of the pintle. The pintle nut b securely locked in place after
ightening. A locking pintle has <l shoulder ofim;reased diameter <\t its lower end ------'-1
vhich prevents excessive lift of the rudder. A bearing or heel pintle has .a
learing surface at its lower edge wrJ1ch rests OIt J hard steel disc. This bearing
--~ .:1,,\, t
hol~ ___ ~ __ L~
)jJltlc: is only requiIc:d to support the weight of the rudder in the event of the -Eddy m fashion
ud-der caHier failing. Both types of pintle are shown in Figure 5.41. Liners of PlOte

Hass UI sometimes sta.in1css steel are filted to the pinJle hearing surfa.ce. Tile Ho,ilO"lal ----
learing material i~ held in a cage in the gudeon and j;; u~ually tufnol or some stiffener
lard-weariJlg synthetic material Lubrication is provided by sca water which IS
'rce to circulate around the bearing sur[.a-l:CS of botb pin tIes. 'I

___ --l
==Iudder stock and carrier ,

fhe ,tack. passes through a gland and a rudder carrier before entering the
v~nic,', sriff.ener
:teering .compartment. The gland and carrier may be cQrnbined ur separate .items
)[ el.juipmen t. Figure 5,42 Semi-baumced rudder
114 Ma;orStructll.rQllrems II:
SI.,,,It'\< SIDC~

<IMI Ruolle. "Oil
re V _ _ Gl.nd "''9
IUrn,""'! 1M'
, -

~I S1ee1
. •.
-..,. '" ,
H•• (! <lee

.I-- .. .. G"nmtl.1

, ""'"

"""''' /

.-... 1/


h'.. Uf!~ ~Md<:C!'fI
~, _QI'M"'.ng

,., ,.
Fipn 5.41 A~l('-~1Hin1 arnmttmDlIS: (a) "p~r ~arin, arTanf('~nt: (b) IOMy,- ~arinx
(JTTan~mml FipTfl 5.45 ....'lIurri/:hr Ihllld for rudder stock

, c~

Gllr'I<I ......
/ T.lle<


Grt... cup

""'" •
. .--.-.,....-

G'''''' \ 0
""9 LubliulO<

"--- 5.44 R,.dd".r carTi".r '- Slock

The rudder carrier consists of (wo halves which provide an upper and a lower
beating surface (Figure 5.44). The upper pari of Ihe rudder carrier is keyed to Fiture 5.46 Combined rudder amitr and gland
the stock so Ihal they turn logelher. The major pan of the rudder's weight js
J J6 Major Structural hems
Major StTUC(lIralltcms I J 7
transferred 10 the rudder carrier by either a shoulder. as part of the stock
forging, or a collar filled between the tiller and the carrier. The rudder weight is Bridge structure
thus transferred to the lower bearing surface of lhe carrier which is grease
lubricated. A flat or conical bearing surface may be used depending on the Where a bridge structure exceeds 15% of Ihe ship's length. lhe side plating thi~k-
particular design. The lower half of the carrier is bolted into a heavy insert plate must be increased by 15<;t abo\'e that of other superstructures. A I~ea\'ily
in the deck of the steering flat and is chocked against fore and aft and athwart. n~::ed bridge front is required with the aftcr end plating somewhat hglner.
ships movement. ~ 'ffener scantlings will likewise be increased al the forward end and reduced at
A separate walertight gland is often filled where the stock enters the rudder t~~ after end. Web frames or partial bulkheads must be fitted to support
lrunk. This arrangement provides access to a grealer length of the rudder slack. struc\Ure abo\'e. particularly al the corners of deckhouses abO\·e. Ho~se lOpS or
removes the need for a watertight construction of the carrier bearing and reduces decks in way of davit.unust be strengllll:,n"d and supported from belo'tl..
the unsupported length of the stock (Figure 5.45). A combined type of water-
tight gland and rudder carrier is shown in Figure 5.46. It is essential for ease of
opera lion of the rudder lhat the pin ties and rudder stock turning axes are in the
Same vertical line. Great care must be taken during installation to ensure this Poop structure
correct alignment.
The poop front must be adequately plated and stiffened as for lite bridge f~onl.
The internal stiffening will include webs and partial bulkheads as reqUired,
SECTION F SUPERSTRUCTURES AND ACCOMMODATION articular1~' where deckhouses are located above. The. after end of the poop.
~eing exposed. requires a more substantial constructIOn than thaI of the aft
The superstructure is that part of the ship's structure built above the uppermost ends of olher structures.
complete deck and is the full width of the ship. Deckhouses are smaller
structures not extending the full width and one or more storeys high. They may
be built on to the superstructure or at the base of maslS, etc. The construction
of Superstructures and deckhouses uses frames. plating, girders and brackets in a Raised quarter deck
similar manner to the hull. but of smaller scantlings. However. superstructures
extending 15% of the ship's length are considered to contribute to the The raised quarter deck results in a greater depth of ship over its length.
longitudinal strength of the ship. As such, they must have equivalent scantlings Increased scamlings must therefore be provided for the. frames. shell. deck
and strength 10 the main hulL plating and beams. Structures may be built on to the raised quarter deck as
The most forward section of the superstructure is known as the 'forecastle'. already described.
Any section of the SUperstruclure around the midships region of the ship is
referred to as a 'bridge structure'. The deck area aft is known as the 'poop' and
any SUperstructure located aft is likewise known. A raised quarter deck is a Discontinuities
weather deck extcnding for some portion of Ihe ship's length from aft and is
pOsitioncd above the upper deck.
The ends of superstructures represent major discontinuities in ~he stru:ture of
Most modern ships have most of the superslructure and accommodation the ship. Longer structures such as bridges and forecastles r~qUlre conSlden.ble
situated aft abO\'e the machinery space. The wperstructure and de<:khouses strengthening at the ends. Classification society rules reqUire the upper deck
usually tOtal four or five storeys. The major part in this space. excepl for thaI sheerstrake thickness to be increased by 20%, except where Ih~ struc~ure does
losl to Ihe machinery casing, is used for crew accommodation. not extend to lhe side shell. Deck plating at superstructure en~s IS also l~creased
in thickness. Side plating forming part of the superstructure IS well radluscd at
the ends towards the side shell (Figure 5.47).
Watertight opening and doors
All ships must be filled whh a forecaslle or an arrangement to provide a
minimum bow height. as defined in c1assificalion socielY rules. It is, usual to fit Where doors are filled into structures abo\'e the fr~e~ard d:ck they must be of
forecastles, and where this is done they must extend from the Slem a distance adequate strenglh and able to maintain the watertight mtegnty of the structure.
0.07 L afl (where Lis lhe freeboard length). The side plaling orlhe forecastle. The openings have radiused corners to reduce the str~~ effe~lS o.f the
beint; a continualion of the shell pIa tint;, is thicker thal1the end pia ling. Adequ:lIe discontinuity. A substantial framing is also fitted or addltlo~al stlffenmg to
arrallt;ements for stiffening of the forecastle pia tjng must be provided. retain the strength of the structure. Doors fined to the o~enmgs are of steel
SUitably stiffened, with a rubber gasket filled to effect watertightness. The doors
118 Major Structural/tems J )9

have securing dips or 'dogs' which can be operated from either side. The dogs
fasten on wedges wh.ich puU Ihe frame edge into the gasket. sealing the door
shut. Details of the door construction and closing arrangements are shown in
Figures 5.48-5.50.

H.ndle Selllock,"9 nul

Sf,1I lockIng nul

F•• me


------- ---'----;- ------1

...... w_
-- ""'"

• w_

,., ,., '"

Fq;un 5.48 DoorclllmPJ: flJ) psrizhr dotN dDmp; (b) _rhutiQltdoord#mp

- lubrQIO<


........ Rubber

I " ,,,-_ _,
, , I I
, I , I

: : '
Rubbe. Itrip

Upper deck
'" A""iI11

Fiplre SA7 Discontinuirin; (tI) fo~ctUtle deck pllltin6 bred: (b) poop dtck pl4tirtg bfeDk
120 Major Structurul Items

Clamll /
o 0 1
l 000110:
l_~ l.: _
/ " Deck

Fipn 5.j() Steel doon Toilet


Accommodation Swimming

.... . ,,-
2nd engOrlftf',

The superstructure will comprise several storeys of cabins. public rooms, offices,
navigation areas and machinery rooms. A typical arrangement of cabins and
rooms is shown in Figure 5.51. Stiffened steel bulkheads are used to support the
structure above and provide subdivision for fire containment (see Chapter 10).
easing (...c~=t-t===+-

Chi" offic...·'

Intermediate partitions are used to create individual cabins. Plastic laminates Toill:'
either side of a fire-resisting material core are used for the partitions. They are
set into U-section light-plate channels at the deck and the ceilings, as shown in 811d.00f'\
Figure 5.52(a) and (b). Ceiling panels are fitted on to wood grounds or
battens between the partitions_ Typical Ooor coverings comprise a bituminous 2nd Rtdio
otl~ of tie.
coating with vinyl tiles fitted to provide an easily cleaned hardwearing surface,

F~ 5,51 Accommodtltion tI17l1ngtmclr

122 12

0." Toe> of Dul!tl'eiOd ",_ed 10

32 rnm llftolI • 16 II lt~
2'5"""" 3 mmneel
..... centres
32 ...... "21 ........
16 II lteel CNnnel
J2 ...... deeP. '4 II lift! wrided to 215 mm

d\M1nel weIdelS 10 ,,6 mm "ft'lltu

32 mm deep Il 1611
welded 10 hinge'
3Bmm. nmm.
14 II m'el Ingle Deck she"h'ng.nd
_'ded 10 dfel< ", COlI.., ~O¥ed bY
OtP¥lrnenl 01 TrMle lno:!

Ce.llng ... &o 'J,1l1'Og

'n!tn PI«'l!
WI 10 I.t



76 mm " 38 mm " 48 min . . .~«>­

l1eel lugs; weId«IiO deck"
JIlO mm ","un.. Min. of 2 8ulkhUd
lugo pe< panel

FiKJU~ S.S2{t1) Panirion conltnlC'tiO/1 - htQd imd foot detaill Figure 5.S2(b} PuriNO" collstruction - dtckhtad bCIJm.t
124 Major SlructrJ,ral Ilt:nu

o ,..
Bun~ bftI

, --- .",..-----

Minor Structural Items

"" Minor structural items are now considered which, while not contributing greatly
to the strength of the vessel. can nevertheless be considerable in size and have
requirements for strength in themselves.

In reality the funnel is a surround and support for the variow uptakes which

ensure the dispersion of exhawt gases into the atmosphere and away from the
F~ 5.51 O'ew cabin ship. The shape of the funnel is sometimes detennined by the shipowner's
requirements but largely by smoke-clearing arrangements and the need for
COamin~ strips .are fi~ted at the edges to complete the arrangement. The cabins streamlining to reduce resistance. The owner's house mark or trademark is often
are proYJded WIth vanous arrangements of built-in furniture and fittings for crew carried on the outside of the funnel structure.
comfort~ as shown in Figr,ur 5.53. The funnel is constructed of steel plaling stiffened internally by angle bars or
flat plates fitted end on (Figurr 6.1). Brackets are fitted at the stiffener
connections to the deck and the plating of the funnel is fuDy welded to the
deck. A base plate may be fitted between the funnel plating and the deck.
Internal flats are fitted 10 the funnel and are made watertight with scupper
drains to coUecl ;my rainwatn. The number of flats fitted is dependent upon the
height of Ihe funnel. The various main engine ;md auxiliary uptakes afl~ fitted
within the funnel casing, usually on sliding feet to permit expansion. Some
uptakes are arranged to stand proud of the funnel casing.
In the funnel shown in Figure 6./ ventilalion louvres are fined on the after
end below Ihe upper lainOat. These louvres disperse the exhausts from the
various ventilators led up the funnel. Fire flaps are fitted in the airtight flat
beneath these ventilators and are used to shut off the air outlet from the engine
room in the event of a fire. A hinged watertight door is filled in the funnel
leading out on 10 the deck upon which the funnel stands. Holes or grilles are cut
into the forward face of the funnel towards the top, and the whistle is fitted
on a smaJJ seat just aft of the opening.
Ladders and platfonns are also provided inside the funnel for access purposes.
Lugs are fitted around the outside top shell plating to permit painting of the

Engine casing
The accommodation or upper deck spaces are separated from the engine room or
machinery spaces by the engine casing. Access doors are provided at suitable
26 Minor Structural Irems

""""" d' "n ~

Ie,,,. ,'~\ j
, Min.or Structural Items 127

L'~"·,,, I JDr'C'
,~,"'I", ,Ir, 'loi""


L-,,,·.. ~r

Pia" vie ....

"''''9''' M
< engine
,',,' ,qht


Sec',on ", Ui>l"h" Sfluion rl1roug!l
'''''00" t'al </; ffcne,
_ ""9' ne I
Ufl.o k" - .~ .. _~~"':"Ce'_~ t

poil1ts between the engine casing and the accommodation. The volume enclosed
by lhe 1:3:>ing is made as ~mal\ as possible but d ~uffkient dimemiol1:S to ..\low
maintenam:e and machinery removal from the- engine- room, The casing leads lip
to the up-per decks, finishing below the funneL fresh air is drawn in through
jalousies OJ louvres in small fan rooms off the casing and passes down tJUnking
into the engine room, The- hot air rises up the engine room into the casing. and
out of the funnel at the top.

The cons.truction of a typical engine c.asing is shown in Figure 6.2. The casing
i.s a ligiltly plated structUIe with dosely spaced vertical stiffeners. These bulb
plate or angle bar stiffeners are fitted on the machinery room side of the casing The casing top is of ~tiffene-d plate construction. with Jeep girders and
to ensure wntinuity. Swedged or corrugated bu\khcarls could aho be 1.11;.cd fOl bnn;kets alOtlnd \lie openings fDr the uptakes. Hea\l;l bracket, connect th-e
the casing sides. Stringers and brackets are filted at wrious heights, where no transverse beams to the vertical stiffeners. Thi, HnmgemcI11 ensures aJeq\~atc
flats ex.i~t, to furt her strengthen the structLJre. support for the funnel which sits on tlle casing top.
The casing sides are also used to support $eats for certain auxiliaries and as
securing points for pipe clips or hangars. TIle casing is supported on a deep Shaft tunnel
girder runnittg around tnc engine toDffi. This deep girder is in turn supported by
the pillars, transverses and bulkheads of the engine room structure (see Figure Where a ship's machinny space is not right all an enclmed area or i.ulmd i'
6.2). prOVided to lead the shafting to the after peak bulkhead, The tllnnel must be ()
128 Minor Structumlltem! Minor Structuralltcnu 129
watertight construction to provide integrity should the shart ~al cease to are consl·dere d so "d or o""n
yv - the solid type being constructed principally of
operate correctly. The forward end of the tunnel is filled with a sliding water.
tight door to ~al of( the tunnel if necessary. The tunnel is made of sufficient pla~h;h;u~:~kt~ak~~i~~r;~~~~b~~~~~'~~~ludinalstrength and as such_ in
proportions to enable access for maintenance to the shafting, and an escape ;;; solid form. is of relatively thin plate supported by S~ys ~~~:" ~; ~~~~h~r~
route is provided from the after end. s are RI back from the deck edge and must not .w. . .
Two types of construction arc used. either a curved top or roof, or a nat roof. 'Uy. This avoids the high stresses, particularly al the. nudsJups secllon. bemg
~~e. ~ ng
The curved roof is monger and can therefore be made of lighter plate than the I~nsmitled to the bulwarks and possible crac g cecum .
Oat-roof type. The nat.topped construction does. however. lend it~lf to more Ollwl Du'b
straightforward construction and provides a Oat platform in the hold above.
The plating is stiffened by bulb plates usually fitted in line with the frames. A
cominuous ring of stiffener bar is fitted with the curved·roof type of tunnel. The
Oat-roof type has brackets connecting the roof stiffeners to the vertical
stiffeners. Examples of each are shown in Figure 6.3. Slanch,on

SIllY /)llI' M:«l

ill ewerv II1"d

EB Sode.Pllllonq
BUlb plllle

""" ,....

Wlll~wllY ",tlener
I 0 ,>I ".
I., FiKUre !SA Bul ....·arkJ: (a) ~'I bul....·uk or roili,rg: (bl arrangement 0 { ·n ti g' bul....·ark
J'(Xt n

Wherr the solid bulwark meets the deck. freeing ports must ~e fittedf:o allohw
The structure must be capable of withstanding the water pressure should the the ~ id drainage of any water shipped. which could senou~y ~ eCI t e
tunnel become open to the sea. The scantlings must therefore be equivalent to stabil/y of the ship. Sometimes a 'floating' type of constfUCtlOn 'h' "rsed .to
th~ of a watertight bulkhead. The width of the tunnel is decided by access and provide a continuous freemg• 6 4(b). The depth 0 r t e reemg
port area. rlguTe.

maintenance considerations and will be reduced to the minimum necessary. A pori must be restricted to 230 mm. hi h .
raised Ooor is usually fitted and pipework is run along beneath it. The shaft o n bulwarks consist of rails and stanchions sUPporled by stays w .c ag~
bearings which arc positioned at intervals along the tunnel are carried on stools are : back from the deck edge. The lower rail spa~ing must ~ a m;;~um 0
or seats. These slools are welded 10 the lank top and the tunnel structure to 230 rom whereas the rails above may have a maxunum spacmg 0 k I ~m.
form a rigid platform. The lunnel is opened out into a larger area at Ihe after end Bulwa'rks of both types are usuaUy 1 m in ~cigh~. Bulwar p a~m~,
to provide an adequate working space for withdrawal of the tailshaft. The spare particularly in the forecastle region, is increased m thickness where It IS
tailshaft is usually mounted on the sheU in Ihis open area or recess. penetraled by mooring fittings.
Shaft tunnels must be hose tested on completion to ensure their watertight.
Deep tanks
Deep tanks are fined in some ships for the carriage of bunker oil, b~as~w~~r
Bulwarks are barriers fitted to the deck edge to protect passengers and crew and or li uid cargoes such as tallow. The entrance 10 the deep tank from t e ec IS
avoid the loss of items overboard should the ship roU excessively. Bulwarks ofte~ via a large oiltight hatch; this enables the loading of bulk or general cargoes
130 Minor Srructuralltf!mJ

if required. A deep lank is smaller than a cargo hold and of a much stronger ,
construction. Hold bulkheads may distort under the head of water if flooded,

say in a collision. However. deep tank bulkheads which may be subjected to a
constant head of oil or water must nol denect at all. The deep tank
construction therefore employs strong webs. nringer plates and girders. fitted as
closely spaced horizontal and vertical frames. Wash bulkheads may be: fitted in
larger deep tanks to reduct: surging of the liquid carried. Deep tanks used for
bunker tanks must have wash bulkheads if they extend the width of the ship. to
reduce free surface effects of the liquid.

~ - O.IIq>I ll«~

I'. Holn1o.

-r r::====i===~SI"nget pl~le
pump leel
1/ j) I".... pIlle

.", "
l,- Oouble Ilollom
FiKurr 6.5 Dup '""k: (II) pl4n l·;tW: (b) tln'Drion lookinz ourbotl,d

The construction of a deep tank used for bunker oil is shown in Figure 6.5.
The tank is one of two and extends for half the width of the ship. The strakes .,,
of plating which fonn the oiltight bulkheads of the tank increase in thickness
towards the bottom of the tank where the loading is greatest. The after oil-
tight bulkhead is stiffened by closely spaced vertical bulb plates. The forward
oiltight bulkhead is stiffened externally by II series of diaphragm plates. The
diaphragm plates form a cofferdam between the bunker tank and the oiltight
bulkhead orthe cargo hold forward.
Three horizontal stringers are fitted across the tank, a transverse wash
bulkhead and a longitudinal wash bulkhead. The stringers are bracketed to the
stiffeners at the tank sides and to the wash bulkheads which they join. The
whole structure is therefore stiffened by a series of deep 'ring· girders in both a
horizontal and vertical direction. A very strong structure is thus formed with
:;1 o
considerable restrictions to liquid movement within the tank. Q
~ ",
Corrugated or swedged bulkheads may be fitted to deep tanks, parlicularly '"
, ",".

those intended for liquid cargoes which require the tank to be cleaned. ~m.
:,----.;:1:-=-=-- --~--~~ ._.... =""-
Conventional stiffening could be positioned on the outside of small deep tanks o
to similarly facilitate cleaning. Heating coiis may be fitted in tanks intended for o '" W~
cargoes such as tallow. Deep tanks must be tested on completion by a head of
water equivalent to their maximum servict: condition or not less than 2.44 In
above the crown of the tank.
Minor StnlcturaJ lrom 133
132 Minor Stnlctural/tems
., h' ed flat to form a watertight joint with the
Machinery seats on the inboard side which IS mac In 'd bollom shell and fully welded inside
valve. The tube is let into the lower SI e or
Main engines, auxiliary machinery and associated items of equipm~nt ar~ and out, Figure 6.8(0). be fitted into inlet box~s which ar~ usually fit~ed
fast~n~d down on a rigid fram~work known as a seating or seat. These seats ar~ A number of sea tubes m a y . bel w th~ waterline. A box-like
of plat~_ angle and bulb construction and act as a rigid platform for th~ in the forward corner.; of the englne T~~h~ s~a through one or mOTe holes
equipment. They are welded directly to the deck or structure beneath, usuaUy in structure is fitted to Ihe shell and opensb 0 let into this box. or valves can be
1in~ with the stiff~ning_ The $eat is design~d to spread the concentrated load over with grids fitted. Several sea t~bes can t~e inlu box Figure 6.8Ib).
the supporting structure of the ship. It may be extended to the adjac~nt mounted on to flang~s welded dU~~~IY to t strength~n the shell plating around
structure or additional stiff~ning may b~ supplied in way of the seat. Steel The sea tubes or mlet boxes a~ serv~ 0
chocks are often fitted between the seat and th~ machinery item 10 enabl~ a the discontinuity resulting from the hole in the shell.
c~rtain amount of fitting to tak~ place and ensure a solid 'bed'. The it~m can
then be bolted down to the seat without pen~trating th~ doubl~ bottom or deck
Seats in the machinery space also serve as platforms to raise the pumps,
cool~rs, etc.. to th~ floorplate lev~l for easi~r access and maint~nanc~. A typical
pump seating as used in an engine room is shown in Figure 6.6. It is constructed
of steel plale in a box-type arrangem~nl for rigidity. A shell-mounted s~aling is
shown in Figure 6. 7.

Sea tubes and inlet boxes

Mosl valves having a direct inlet or oUllel to the sea ar~ mounted on a sea tub~
which is fitled inlo the shell. A sea tube is a thick-walled steel tube with a flange


Fip" 6.8 St'tI "''fIUT illlt'r tI"tlII~mnrts: (tI) It'tI rv/Jt'l; (b) ~tI i"ln box
Outfit 135


I .11'.•• "" ,)

I I'
, ••
Outfit B~11"'-


f IdOfl"!
t".o<:l,,·'1 ...
Hatch covers Cwr"'''''

Hatch covers are used to make the cargo halch watertight, 10 protect the cargo
and to stiffen up the structure of the hatch opening. Two basic types are in
general use - the wooden hatch coveT fitted across halch beams and the patent •
sleel covers of various designs. The halch covers fit on top of the halch

8'.1<:1."1 ~("I Il,tr'qI'
coarnings, which have been described in Chapter S. The weather deck coarnings lQ<m,ng 1'>~lch "de
are al a height set by the load line rules (see Chapter 10). The tween deck
coarnings are set flush or almost flush with the deck 10 reduce interference with
cargo stowage in this area.
which completely enclose (he hatch opening. O~ning ~nd :Iosing arr~~e::~~
".1", a ·singl. pull' via a winch wire or hydraubc or e ectnc power. .
Wooden hatch covers " ' " n wheels on a trackway along the hatc h coamlOg"oop . Th. "pante sections
~~; ~ther hinged together or joined by ch~ins to olle another. The covers finally
A combination of transverse beams and longitudinal hatch boards make up the
slOW at some poinl clear of the halch opening. .. 72 The halch
wooden hatch cover arrangemenl (Figure 7.1). I-seclion girden, the widlh of Ihe A MacGregor sleel halch cover arrangement is shown In F~re . . d ' gI
hatch. are fitled at intervals along the length of the hatch and are known as d ned b hydraulic power or a wUlch-operale sIn e
hatchway beams, shifting beams or webs. The ends of the beams fil either inlo :;=~u~~nAb~r~~~:ay ~:nned f~r
°i: Ihe hatch rollers by a on pl~lform~oP ~he
slols or carrien in the coaming side or lock into pos.ition on a trackway if they '''-'n."A venical plale is positioned each side of the coarrung ahl h "htowmg
are of the sliding type. The beam ends are additionally stiffened by a doubling -,. " Th oUers on I e atc cover
end of the halCh on the coarning trackway. e upper r
plate. The beams which lake the ends of the hatchboards have a vertical nat
fined to hold the boards in place.
The hatchboards 3re filled longitudinally over the hatch beams and are
protected at their ends by a metal band. The boards are at least 60 mm thick
and more for a span greater than 1_5 m. The roller beam arrangement of hatch·
boards is the same. the roller beam simply speeding up the opening and closing
of the halch. At least two tarpaulins must be fitted over the hatchboards and
suitably fastened down around the hatch coaming. Bauens, cleats and wedges
are used 10 'dog' down the tarpaulins. Steel locking ban or some suitable
addilionallocking device are required to secure each of the hatch cover sections
after battening down the tarpaulins_

Steel hatch covers

Patented steel halch covers of a variety of designs are available from several Figurt 7,2 MacGrtlor su~1 hafch co~~r
manufacturers, Most designs employ a number of .self·supporting steel covers
136 Outfit
Outfit m
ride up on lhi> platl' .and the C()Vef the . . . h _ __ / Fa~lIming
are thus COlll"act]'w' ~LlJw~d 'I f II" hIps 1n, tD I c vntlc,1! posItIon, The covers clip
.- ~ - ~ L car () H~ atcl opel1in..:r TI )- h
eccentric rollers which act as wheels' 11, "<..I <>: _ Ie lak covers rull un I
coamin,g in the low d __ _ le !aJSl.~ POSition and are dear of the

ere POSltlOli to <'flab-Ie tl:e covers to be fastened d '
III Thtc C()Y~rs ~~ of fabricatea' sted plate witll stiffeners or webs to ~treng~;:~'
c s ru~tur('. e eads of the covers overlap in the c1()~~d l ' _ ,
fitted with compresSible pa'k' . P~SltlOI1. Gromes
th C lIlg surround the outside edges of the -c-ovcrs Vt'he
e cO,vers .HC fastened dOwn by deat~ on to a raised ed can Ih' .:oa··' n
watertIght seal is formed and no tarpaulin is re'luired. Th~ athwa:tshi fmn,g. a
h~twcen the,. covers have a similar sealing arrangemell t The cleating arra~S ;J~~~~
s {)W~ m hgure, 7-2 b automatic, The cover wheels -drop into slots g. th
~f~J:ll11gb plate pnOl to cleating and are raised hydr3l1lically after UJld:~tjf\ge Coami"g.
a[~ mg, ars are fitted along the side and end coamings under the top rail Hook~
positIOned at thc cleating. pomls and L:all pivot thlougl I . h .
'1 D bl 'h ' . 1 a s ot m t e COamlltg
Ell. ou e·ac1lng ydraultc cylllldcrs move the bars to raise or lower the h k
00 s.
Cle" lug (bl

figure 7.4 Small wala-rigl'lt harch wver.- (a) section rhmugh hatch. (b) p-Ian ,'leW oj
nt1tch cwoer
the ship when arriving and departing its various ports of call. Various fittings are
provided on the deck and around the deck edge to assist in the mooring
operation and provide a deaT run or lead for the mooring and warping wires.
Examples of these fittings are bollards and the various types of fairlead which
are found on board ship.
The windlass, as mentioned in Section D of Chapter 5, has warping ends
which are used when mooring the ship. One or more warping winches are fitted
Fi',;ure 7.3 A,.itoml!tic peripheraf denting on the poop deck aft for similar dutie'S. Solid seatings, as mentioned in O1apter
6, transmit the loads to the deck and also stiffen the deck. Larger vessels have
In t,he raised position the hooks engage deal lugs which pull the I' t 11 mooring winches fitted on the upper deck also. Bollards or ffiQoring bitts are
sections down on to th I" 'F la c cover
, c sea mg stnp. or transverse deating a torsiun bar used to moor the ship once it is alongside and are welded OJ bolted to the deck
arrangement IS used. Lever arms on the end of the torsion bar are pushed ' or to a box,like structure which is welded to the deck, Figure 7.5(a). Adequate
the hatch closes and rolat th - up as
e c torsIOn bar. This presses cleating lugs on to structural support must always be pflJvided in way of bollards and all mo-oring
pressure pad~ on the end of the :J.djacent hatch section. A peripheral 'Ie i fittings, usually by additional stiffening to the deck beneath.
arrangement IS shown in Figure 7.3, c a Fairleads arc used to guide the bawsers or mooring wires to the boUards Qf
mooring winches. Fairleads are attached to the deck, a raised seat or the deck
Minor hatch covers and the bulwarks. Several different types are to be seen, such as the multi,angled
fai.rlead, the pedestal faidead, the roller fairlead and the panama £aidead. A
A number of small access openings. tank entmnces, elc., are fitted with . multi.angled fairlead consists of two horizontal and two vertical rollers with the
halch covers of steel construction. mmor wire passIng through the hole between the rollers, Figure 7.5(0). A pedestal
A t~pica1 small hatch COWr is shawn in Figure 7.4. The coamin ed e is fairlead consists of a single horizontal or vertical roUer mounted on a raised
forced mto a r~bber gasket by a number of fastening clips or 'dogs' ar~un: the pedestal 01 seat, Figure 7.5(c). A roller faidead is one or more vertical rollers on
cover, a watertight seal being thus formed. The handles are .arranged for internal a steel base which may fasten directly to the deck or to the deck and bUlwarks,
or e.xtental oper.atlon on accesses. A c(lunterbalance weight is sometimes fitted Figure 7.5(dj. The panama fairlead is an almost elliptical opening formed in a
to ease the opemng of the cover. casting which is fitted into a suitably stiffened aperture in the bulwark, Figure
7.S( 'I"
Mooring equipment and arrangements The multi-angled fairlead is fLtted at the deck edge and reduces the number of
guide rollers or other faideads required to give a clear lead of wire to the winch.
The ",:,inches and windlasses positioned on the forecastle and poop decks and The pedestal faidead guides the wire across the deck to the winch clear of any
sometimes the upper deck perform the mooring and warping duties reqUired by obstructions. The roller fairlead is used at the deck edge to lead in the mooring
~"pl. ,.- I
Outfit 139

, ..., r ...
c- o

0 00
( "'--~ ~o"





~ ~~~,.
,--------- ---..----- -. ---- ..
:.J t-~"«
. 2.. .~

'" Fil!Jl~ 7.6 AnonKtmtrtf O[Jrt:Jdf

and warping wires. A panama fairlead is lilted in the foremost position in the
forecastle bulwark on the centreline of all ships which pass through the Panama
Canal. Panama fairleads are also used in other positions around the deck edge as
For the various mooring and warping arrangements possible on a ship an
E!#varion 'arrangement of leads' drawing is provided. This shows the runs of the various
,., wires through and over the various fairleads and winch warping drums on the
7,5 fa} FabriCQttd bolJilrd: (b) mufti""nrlt lair/tad: le) ptdtJta' {airltQd:
decks of the ship. Such an arrangement for the fore end of a ship is shown in
(d] t....oo-rOOrr {Ilirltfld; (t) pII1IlllfW !Ilirlf!ad Figure 7.6.
140 Outfit Outfit 141
Masts, derricks and deck cranes Samson posts
Masts Some m3Sts on general cargo ships als11 double 3S support pOStS for the derricks
used for cargo handling. 53rnson posts are also used more specifically for
The. ship's mast acts. as a lookout platform and a mounting point for navigation supporting derricks. Tied arrangements of Samson posts, or bipod masts as they
equIpment s~ch as hghts: radat. aerials, etc. Access to the upper platform is by are sometimes called. are :lIso used. The scantlings and construction of masts and
a ladder which. depending upon the mast size, may be fitted externally or posts used in cargo....andling work are given in the c1assifiC3tion society rules and
internally. are dependent upon the safe working load (SWL) of the derrick boom. Most
A foremast. as filled to an oil tanker, is shown in Figure 7.7. Construction is masts are self-supporting by virtue of their construction and attachment to the
of light plate stiffened by internal webs. A O.type cross·section is often used for dttk. Only special heavy·lift derricks require wire stays or prcventers between
the post top and the deck.
Samson post construction is of tubular steel section, stiffened internally by
l ' >\e<~I, webs. Thicker plating or doubling plates 3re provided where atlachments are
made to the post. Derrick booms are of seamless tubing usually with a greater
pI.,._ diameter at the middle region where the bending moments are greatest. The
various goosenecks and end fittings are welded inserts in the tube ends.

".---.. -..
The post attachrmnt to the deck varies but must always provide adequate
stiffening and support. Mast houses are fitted at the base of some masts or
- f---- samson posts and mayor may not assist in stiffening the structure. Some posts
-<' ate let into the tween decks or are attached to the comers of superstructure to
,, ,•
,~ obtain support. The greater the derrick load the more stiffening is required.
• often by fitting additional webs below decks and heavier than usual bulkhead
, ----- stiffeners and brackets below the mast or post.
S«/l0tI I/trotJgh ..... Derrick rigs
"= ,J, The derricks used for catgo....andling work can be arranged or rigged in several
• --
S«l,OtIlflrough ",,,,
different ways to provide for different manpower requirements, cargo-lifting
capacities or lifting cycle times.

Union purchase

-r-- D~lo.houw
FOtealSffe dtotlo.
The union purchase rig is a much used arrangement for cargo loading and
discharging. Two derricks are used, one arranged to plumb the hatch and the

"" UPPt< dtoek
.'.', ,,/

Figlue 7.7 Oil rtmlce, !o,emDJf

SlllV t:=..... over
c.,go hook
irs streamlined, reduced-resistance form. The upper platform is additionally Haleh
supported by brackets to the outer plating of the mast. The mast is fully welded To winch To winch
to the deckhouse on the forecastle deck and to the upper deck. A solid round
bar is used to stiffen each of the ftee edges of plating and before erection the
mast is coated internally with a bitumen solution. Figun 7.8 Union fXl,duut ,ig
142 Outfit Outfit 143

olher to plumb the qU:ly 01 over th~ ship's side. The falls or wires frol11 both ,
derricks are shackled 10 the same cargo hook. Thus. by using the two winch
controllers separately and together Ihe hook is raised or lowered O\'er Ihe hold.
I ~ _ '!!l •

travels over the deck and ClIll be raised and lowered over the ship's side.
This arrangement is safe. in that only the load moves. and requires two
A: -;~.,
reliable operators for the winches. It is. however. only Suitable for light loads up
to about 1.5 tunnes. A union purchase rig is shown in Figu11' 7.8.

Swinging derrick

The fastest and most reliable method of cargo h:lI1dling is achieved by Ihe
swinging derrick rig. A long derrick boom with a deJr arc of swing is necessary
for this arrangement. An adjustable Span is usu:llly arranged 10 facilitate the
plumbing of the hatch and the quay over the ship's side. This is achieved by a
topping wire and winch which is independent of the cargo winch. A swinging
derrick rig is shown in Figurl' 7.9.


Sin'son _

_ Ca.g.o purcha'll.' "

SIIIW,nq r 1
o o
To IOI'l""Y / Derrick ileQd filling. 1/ S..-j~c:1 eye for flemish hook.
winch 12 FlemisJl·hook.
2 Pendulum block {it/ing wilh guide ,oilers.
] Uppe' CQ'go bloch I] Ladder.
4 Conn~ti"g f/Qu. 14 Gooseneck pin fockn.
5 Lo....t:r spQn block. 15 FQHclling d/'I'iu fa' la ..-ef CQfga
6 Span'el. block.
7 C,oss·t,ee. 16 l1e/'1 fitting.
8 1t,/('/ fo, rhe hauling PQrt. /7 Derrick pin.
9 £O ••.-C, CQrgo blocks. 18 Gooseneck Qrld goof/'n~k pin sackel.
/0 Connecting rrQI·t,se. 19 lI'incil('S.
F'iguf/' 7./ / Sliilk/'n heQI'y·liff derrick

Heavy-lift derrick

"illlelhn!! For loads heavier than Ihe safe working load of a single derrick, two derric~s
coupled together by a 'yo-yo' gear arrangemenl may be us,ed, as sh?wn I~
Figure 7.10. The derrick heads must be kept c1o~ together dunng operation an
144 Outfit Outfit 145

the central travelling blo~k which equalise~ the load must have a s.afe working Deck cranes
load greater than the cargo being lifted. A special heavy·lift derrick is titted to
many general cargo ships, with suitable rig and purchase gC"ur for its designed safe Derricks have been replaced on many modern l:argo ships by del:k cranes
working load. mounted on platforms between the holds (Figure 7.12). The deck crane provides
.,various patent heavy·lift derricks .are a:vailable, one example being the an immediately operational cargo·handling de-vice with minimal rigging reqUire.
Stulken derrick shown in Figure 7./1. The StUlken derrick has a safe working ments and simple, straightforward one·man operation. The safe working load of
load up to 300 tonnes and is positioned lJ.etween two outwardly raked tapering the crane is determined by its c3rgll·handling duties, and designs are avail.ablc
tubular c:,lumus., Several winches are provided for the various hoisting, ~lewing from 3~5 tannes and up to 10-15 tonnes as requilcd. Double gearing is a
and tOPPing duties. The controls are all arranged as levers in one console. which feature of~some of the larger cranes to enable speedier handling of ligh tel loads.
~n be operated by one man, This heavy·lift derrick can be arranged to serve
either of the hat-ches forward and aft of it. Smaller derricks are also rigged from
i. Three basic types of cranes are available - cargo cranes, grah-bing cranes
and twin-crane arrangements.
the tubular columns for normal cargo work. The general cargQ crane is for use {In cargo ships and hulk carriers. The
grabbing crane is for use with a rnechanically-operated grab when handling hulk
materials. It requires a multiple-wire arrangement for the operatIon oJ the grab.
Twin cranes utilise standard cranes whidl can be twinned u[iJperate-d in unison
to lift heavier loads such as containers, if requireu A single operamr [, usual
with this system by utilising a master and s1ave control ~ystem in the two cranes.
The use of a C(JmmOIl revolvin.g platform makes this arrangement possible-

Crane platfurm

The deck crane i, located on a platform pusitioned SOIlle distance from the deck
to provide the crane operator with a clear uninterrupted view of the hold and
the quayside (Figurf: 713). The dane also revolves around this platform. The

~ P~de,tdl



\, ,
Figure 7./2 (jeneral CIlTgO Nan" 1~le I
Ldi.lller ...


••tII-- Operat-or'l cab

" ,
Figure 7.] 3 Crane pede~tal and seat
146 Outfit 147

seat on which the crane rests is usually circular and of steel plate construction
with closely spaced vertical ribs or brackets. This seat is usually welded to or is
an integral part of the raised post or plalform which is welded to the deck of the
ship. Adequate structural support and stiffening should be provided both around
and under the seat.

T pUmping and piping arrangements

For the many services required on board ship. various piping and pumping
systems are provided. Some systems. such as bilge drainage and fire mains. arc
slatutory requirements in the event of damage or fire on board ship. Each of the
o various systems will be examined in turn.

Bilge system
The bilge piping system of any ship must be designed and arranged such that any
compartment can be discharged of water when the ship is on an even keel or

o listed no more Ihan 5 degrees 10 either side. In the machinery space at least two
"o suctions must be available. one on each side. One suction is connected to the
bilge main and the other to an independent power-driven pump or ejector. An
emergency bilge suction must also be provided and is usually connected to the
largest capacity pump available. A diagrammatic arrangement of a bilge pumping
t system for a 26000 deadweight tonnes bulk carrier is shown in Figure 7.14.




B,lge p,pe _

0 ,• o 0 Pedo.atM

" 0

• < •
( •,;• > •
'='f t~
• 00
(I (I
s,de plate

m.:: ..> go:!!

o >
,., '"
Figure 7./ oS (al Bilge S/1'l1m bo~; (b) bilge mud box

Strum boxes are filled on all bUI machinery and tunnel space suction pipes.
Perforations of 10 mm maximum diameter are made in the plate to provide a
suction area at least twice that of the suction pipe. In the machinery and tunnel
space bilge !ines, mud boxes are fitted. The mud box fits between lengths of
piping and has a perforated centreplate. The use of strum and mud boxes
prevents the entry of large objects to the pipeline and safeguards the internal
parts of the pump (Figure 7.15).
Suction valves for the individual compartments must be of the screw-down
non-return (SNDR) type to prevent reverse now. All other valves must be of the
48 OUtfit
On·return (NR) type. The port Jnd stathOard hoLd bilge valves are usually
~ouped ill distribution chests a.t the forward end of the machinery spa.:e. Bilge

·, .,
iping is made up of the fore arld aft mains and suction branches to the ",.~- compartments. Piping is arranged, where possible, in pipe tunnels. o(
uct keels to ,avoid penetrating watertight double-bottom tanks. Bilge ripes are
Ide-pendent of piping for any other duties such as hallasl or fre-sll water.
a"se-nge-t "hip bilge main:. romt mn at lea:.t 20'% of the ,hip's beam i.nsioe of the
de shell; in addition, any brandIeS further outboard must have a non-return
alve fitted.
Bil,gc pipe suction lines are sized according to ail empirical formula. Minimum 0

ranch and main siz:e-s -are 50 mm and 65 mm, respectively, and the maximum
ile is 100 rnm for both. Bilge piping may be constructed Qf cast iron, steel, ,
- -
opper or other suitable approved ma.terials. It is usual to employ galvanised
teel piping in bilge s}'~tems.
At \cast foU( inclepelldent puwel-dri'fe,n pump'" must be conn.ected to the -I:;
lilge main. Mmt ships employ two bilge pumps and have bilge main c-onnec.1ions IJ.o
III the ballast and main circulating pumps. \Vhere POSSible these pumps should
)e loc,Hed in separa~e- watertight compartments. One bilge system pump must
)e capable of operation under reason<lble damage conditions. A submersible N

mmp, remotely contrOlled, would provide this facility. Pumps fitted to the bilge
ystem must be self-priming or connected to a priming system or device.

% -:-0-:' Q
,~ ioi'
3aljast System
{equiremenls for the hallast system of a dry cargo ship are largely similar to

hose fm the bilge- system. There must be adequate protection provided against 1~
-, M

Jallast water I;'otering dry cargo or adjoining spaces. Connections between bilge 0-
md ballast lines must be by non·return valves. Locking v-alves or b-lanking.
mangements musi prevent accidental ernptying of deep tanks or flooding.
'ftLere tanks are employed for oil fuel ar baltast, effeo:::tive isolating sy&tcrns mUllt
'-+:;; ~n' Q :-~
,e used.
A ballast pumping arrangement for a 26000 deadweight tonnes bulk carrier >;.
s shown in FiKUre 7.16. ,

Fire ma~n

W paSsenger sllips of 4000 gross tonnes and above mllst have at least three "
Jower-driven fire pumps. All cargo ships in excess of 1000 gross tonnes must I
lave at least two independently driven fire pUmps. Where these two pumps are
.ceated in one area -an eme[ fiI~ pump must be pmvided and located ~

remote from the machinery space. The emergency fire pump must be
independently driven by a compression ignitiun engine or other approved means. 0 0
Water mains of sufflcient diameter to provide an adequate Water supply for the W:;
,imu.ltaneous operation {)f two fire hoses must be Connected to the fire pumps.
An isolating valve :is fitted tQ the machinery space fire main to enable the ~
~me[gency fire pump to supply the deck lines, if the machinery spaCe main is
'rokea or the pump is out of action. ••

A di.agIamm< a.rrangement of a fire and washrlcck system is shOwn in

ISO Outfit 151
Figure 7.17. The system is designed 10 supply valves with hose connections on
all the superstructure and upper decks. Relief valves are fitted at either end of
the main to ensure thai working pressure is not exceeded. The water may be

/ supplied by the machinery space lire pump. Ihe lire and tank-eleaning pump or
Ihe emergency fire pump located ill the forec3stlc. Additional lines arc led (0

,....---the hawse pipe for anchor washing and the garbage tank for nushing.
The emergency lire pump in (his arrangement is supplied by a boosler pump
lit I'd nc~ar the bOllom of Ihe ship. The booster pump is driven hydraulically
from one end of the emergency fire pump. the other end having another sea
water pump 10 furlher pressurise Ihe w:ller. A diesel engine drives the pumps
filled at either end.

General services
Many other pumping and plpmg services are filled In ships for the various
domestic. cargo and machinery requirements. For further details uf these
> systems reference can bt' made 10 the previously mentioned work. Marini:
ci Auxilwry Machint:ry. by Souchotte and Smith.

Direct drainage of the open decks above (he freeboard deck is adlleved by means
of scuppers. A typical arrangement is shown in Figure 7.18. In enclosed spaces.
such as bathrooms or galleys. the scuppers are led 10 the bilges. A scupper pot
is fitted in a deck and acts as the collecting point for water. A pipe is connected
> to the underside to drain the water directly to the bilge (Figure 7.19).


SCUllPl!< pipe
Outfit I S3

Sounding pipes

Sounding pipes :m: fitted 10 all tanks 10 enable soundings to be taken and Ihe
deplh of liquid pre~rl1 (0 be measured. Reference (0 the tank calibralion lables
will then permit the quantity of liquid present in the lank to be found.
Sounding pipes are made as straight as praclicable and are led above the bulk-
Fi head deck. except fOr certain machinery space tanks (Figure 7.20). A minimum
bore of 32 mm is required for sounding pipes. This may be greater where a
refrigerated space is passed through 10 allow for icing up. Where Lite sounding
pipe does not emerge abo~ the bulkhead deck. sornt fonn of self<losing device
should be fitted. e.g. a weighted cock. This would prevent nooding, in the event
Figuff 7./9 AuommoWtiotl scupper ''''flngrmerrr
of an overn~w. contamination due to the entry of other liquids or the escape of
;tazardous gases from the tank. A striking plate is filled al the bottom of an open
pipe where the sounding rod falls; alternatively. a closed pipe arrangement may
be used (Figure 7.20). A number of patent sounding devices are available and
may, with approval, be fitted instead of sounding pipes.

Cargo systems
,I ,
I Cargo pumps and piping systems aTe installed on tankers 10 diSl.:harge and load
:I , : _ _ _ Sound"'9 P'IM' Ihe liquid cargo. Separate ball:lSI-pumping systems are also provided for ballasl-
only lanks which are filled during ballast voyages.
;I System choice :md its flu;jbilily depend upon lhe range of calgces. the
vessel"s uading pattern and what the owner is prepared 10 pay fOl. The standald

syslem employs several ring mains along the tank length with branches off to
J the individual tanks. Other systems are in usc. for inslance. employing large
sluice valves to empty the tanks one to another. The pump suclions arc then
:1I Doo;l '''Wit taken from the aftermost lank with the \'esseluirnmed by the stern.
,'/ An example of a ring main system for a very large crude carrier is shown
diagr:l.I11matical1) in Figure 7.2/. Three mains are employed 10 serve the various
tanks. This arrangemenl also enables different grades of oil to be carried in the
lanks served by each main. Branches ale led off into each of the centre and wing
tanks and are fitted with isolaling valves. Cross-connections are arranged
between Ihe mains. and direct-loading pipes from the deck manifolds join Ihe
mains. Two stripping mains are also fitted and led forward with branches off 10
the various tanks. The stripping lines arc uscd 10 discharge the last few hundred
tonnes of cargo which the main suctions cannot handle.
The main cargo pumps are stt'am-driven horizontal or verlinl single·stage
centrifug:lt pumps. For the system shown in Figure 7.2/ one pump is provided
for ('itch main. The driving motor or lurbine is located in the machinery space
, and the drive p:lsses through a gastight seal in the pumproom bulkhead.
I OPen-PIpe
The SHipping mains are connected in the pumproom to lwo stripping pumps
:I "'II'I~nt

:I S,rok"'9 plile
which are usu:ll1y of the posilive-displacemcnt type.

Ikek pipl'"I\vrk
I / Shoffl plillng

A particular feature of tankers is the large quantity of piping seen on deck. A

typical arrangement is shown diagrammalically in 7.22. The cargo pumps
discharge inro mains which p:lSS up through the pumproOIll and along the upper
deck to midships. The mains branch into crossovers to port and starboard and
Outfit 155
are filled with V-pieces at the manifolds which arc grouped near to the ship's

ProdUClJ la"kers
More complex piping arrangements with independent lines are necessary on
products tankers to avoid contamination between the different cargo ·parcels·.
More than onc pumproom may be fitted on such ships. or individual pumps in
all tanks with no pumprooms. Anangements for flushing lines using water or a
~j pOrtion of Ihe cargo may increa~ the flexibility of a particular sy5lcm.
Ballasting Q"Qtlgements
Many tankers operate in the ballast condition on ev:ery other voyage. A
sufficient quantity of ballast sea water must therdore be loaded on board to
provide the ship with satisfactory seakeeping propelties. Certain tanks 3re
designated ballast only and are filled by the ballast pump and piping system.
Certain cargo tanks may be loaded with sea water ballast using the cargo pumps
with a sea suction.


Thermal insulation

!"-. A ship's steel hull and structure will conduct heat very well. In way of heated

0 tanks. refrigerated spaces and exposed accommodation spaces some form of
insulation is necessary to reduce the heat flow to an acceptable le~el.
~i Various materials such as glass fibre, cork and some foam plastics are in u~ as

·,,• -_._--:------_. ---~----- insulation. Glass fibre matting or sheet is used in modern ships since it is easily
fitted. is fire resistant. does not rot :lnd does not support animal life. The
amount of insulation filled in a compartment is decided by the temperature
-l----. which is to be maintained or accepted in the compartment (Figure 7.23).

• Fastening is now largely by tandom pinning. using a stud gun to rut the pins
• to the steelwork. The pins penenate the insulation. and caps fitted on the ends
,,• of the pins hold the insulation in place. Some slab insulation may be glued to the
steelwork. Joins between ~ctions of insulation are ~aled, usually with an

I ,,
adhesive tape. In accommodation spaces. insulation will be behind decorative
panels. In places where it is exposed 10 possible damage. a protecti~e cladding or
-- --- -----ll-J-----
..-- -,- Ir

·,, -.
• .1_----
lining, such as galvanised mild steel sheeting. may be fitted. Insulation on tank·
tops must likewise be protected from possible damage or be of a substantial

~.E ~
•, <1
0 [/
nature in itself. ()ver oil tanks a space must be left to avoid possible
contamination of the insulation. This space is not required when a bituminouS
covering is placed o~er the steel surface.
.e ~ ~

0 z0
- ~
Plugs over manholes in cargo tanks and also hatch co~ers must be insulated
to a~oid any areas through which heat might be conducted. Special scupper
z z Q.
arrangements are necessary 10 avoid heat transfer in refrigerated holds. This is
achieved by a brine seal in an S-bend trap. The bilges may thus be pumped out
but the sealing liquid. although diluted. will not be removed (Figure 7.24).
1S6 Outfit 157



~y •~


OIl " . ;>- 0


;>-I~< " Fif:Uff 7.14 Rtfri~ntltt'd hold K1Jp/Nr (fVP

.i '( I l.- Acoustic insulation


Sound results from the movement of air particles and travds in the form of

, waves away from the source. There arc many sources of sound on board ship.
• >
_~ 2' y« such as propulsion engines. auxiliary engines. large fans and ventilation plants.
! - ~ ••
.y ;>-
These would have a cumulative disturbing affect on p(rsonnel if allowed 10

. i

, continue unchecked.
Various countries now have either codes of practice for noise levels in ships.
or regulations relating to noise levels in ship spaces. Maximum noise levels are
I, r "~ given for particular spaces using a weighted sound pressure level or db{A) value.
Most ships at sea, however, would not meet these criteria. New ship designs
will require consideration of noise levels in the very early stages if an acceptable
,• •
~::: noise environment is to be obtained.
Two approaches are made to the solution of the problem. First, rooms and
", .
.~ ~ <'I ..,

•i, areas which are occupied for any length of time are fitted out in such a manner
as to be as sound absorbing as possible. The second method is to isolate or
E 5

..' c c •
g~ •
'" \ silence the sound from occupied spaces.
Increasing the sound·absorption capacity of a room is achieved by using a
variety of sound absorbers. These include membrane absorbers such as lhin
':I .. -.
;OJ €.~
os·2. i
panels, resonant absorbers such as perforated ceiling boards and porous
absorbers such as mineral wool. Sounds can be isolated by the use of nexible


.. ,,>
connections in ducting. nexible mountings on machinery, and sound insulating
the surroundings of a noisy space. Air-<:onditioning plant noise can be eliminated
by the use of duct and bafne silencers and sound attenuating supply and exhaust
CL. ~ ......

~ >.

£~ 1~l!:;;:
fittings. Figures 7.25(0) and 7.25(b) illustrate the problems to be found in a
ship's accommodation and the various solutions that can be adopted.
E ...... - .c\l%:·::
-"'-.. c·5 J"i'
t~ gi:i;.~ Watertight doors
~iE i!~
_ ai: :!~g'i Watertight bulkheads are. of coune, specificaUy designed and constructed to
ensure their watertightness. Where openings are necessary in these bulkheads

_', r:" "

",' ~•

\ '(IIi: I ~Jf P'J

'-" ~~

0' I

)\ \l~//--~~~
- l(@j' ,";n~"ln
W;'..I~ ~ ,4f.:
0~ u.1l.. ,
, ,,

l(~~ ~

\ / ~. ~
. I i i I Swnl1 {rom {lin /lIr(1II/:1, IlIli/.
1 Sound Iront l1,u:t J)'sfrm.

n. ~ L ~.
J Thm//lt rwnd in ulIlt.
" " Sowltl /ro/lsmilted Iltu1IIXit d,Il:1
=:il / \" ' l - ,)'rt("nt.

5 Airborne Irolltm;I/("U sQlltld.
~ rt I 6 Sound from Ilin.
7 /lull ~;bra/iuns.
, Ij Sound Irollsmilled /ilrouXIl Q("Com·
I~ 9 f:cht}

f1/(1Ut 7.25(Q) S'1lmd irllularlon - OCCQmmodotion ....II/, bad !mwl1 com{u"

! i ., . \
II --- I '2?r •
'.:. i

J~\~ ~
fr ~ ". I.'
~"'l ~~
, ,,, jI


, ' \ I"

~J~~J ,,\.!
ij;.... "I~
- .

err ~dlliH
r 'd\l
\ Ir!]DER--
IL ,,:1
I SOrllc/'r a/fltf lOll.
Lt..= 2 OUCI r)'s/em ....i'l,otlf rharp rdxrs.
J Quirl Ilrrol/linK am/.ill·trur.
l:'"'l " 1'7txlblr ("on/ltetlutl.
VibrafltJ/t il!Sl/faf;orl.
6 VibrtUiltJ( l1amfl(" (IUI-ltld /'0111 /IIII),
M.." ....I ......."
\'".,""",1".,1.- 7 'floa/iflx' {loo',
M,-,,'l".""· .,1",,,1,,·, ~1,,,.-, .•1...,"11
S Sou",l il/sulallorl.
~ <1t",1
~." I"" I ,I,~' """',ll"'" 9 SoltflilllhlurbinJ( ("dli"x·

f'ifUrt 7.25(bj SOltnd infUUuion _ accO/nmodll/ion ""lIlt X(}(W round comluff

160 Outfit 161

special w:ltertight doors must be fitted. On cargo ships with a shaft tunnel, the
tunnel entIilflce will have a watertight door fitted. On passenger ships, Ylith their
B"d!l'"<i"",. ].nge area5 ()f 3c-commodation and access requirements, a greater number of

~ watertight doors will be I1tted.

"'here ,-,penlngs are cut into bulkhead~ ,hey must be reinforced tu maintain
the strerrgth of the bulkhead. This is particularly so in the lower regions of

tfu watertight bu.Jkhc:ads, where the greatest loading occurs. Where stiffeners afB cut
or incr(.'3s_ed in spacing in way of a watertight door, adequate reinforcing is
I' required. The watertight door has a heavy framework which further stiffens

, L~
,,! the bulkhead in w~y of (he opening. The size_of the opening is kept as small as
All doors fitted below the waterline are of the sliding type, either horiwntal
l- -{S.
e or vertical ill operation. It is usual to use horizontal sliding doors, except where
BLlI khead deck 114 space limitations require the vertical type.
The sliding door must be able to close against a list of 15 degrees to port or
, :i starboard. It must be operable hom the vicinity of the door, in addition to a
:' point above the bulkhead deck. The remote operating point must have an
indicator showing the duoT position.
, A hori7.0ntal sliding, watertight door of Stone Manganese Marine Ltd
manufacture is shown in Figure 7.26. A stout door frame is fitted directly into
the bulkhead and provides the trackway along whkh the deor slides. The door is
, moved by a hydrauli..:: cylinder Wl1ich may be power operated or nand pumped.
I; ,
,! A special solenoid ,-pool valve which may be remotelY or manually operated
proVides the basis of the cuntrol system. Bridge operation, local manual ove-r-
, ride operation and local emergency control of the dam are possible. Operating
P CEJ ® ,! the hand pump together with manual movement of the solenoid valve provides
local or remote- emergency operation. Powered operation is possible from the
In""."ed;at~ (Ie<.;,
/ bridge or by manual movement of the solenoid valves at eitner the local or

(~}-- - 6 ,

remote pumping stationS.
Bridge operation is only llsual on passenger ships where there may be a large
number ofwat-ertight GOaTS,
, / l<- ® WatertigM duurs are pressure tested under a head of water cOrIesponding to
their bulknead position in the event of the ship flooding. This usually takes
place at the manufacturers' works.
Ab()ve tne waterline, in certain approved positions, hinged watertight doors
are permitted. TIlese will be similar in construction to the weathertighl doors

'~' II~-@
0-6 , ' ,
descrihed in Section f of Chapter 5.

I '
1 ,
,, II-- -0 A Dcwr·op..rllting r:ylimle r .
B Door·COlltrol valrc. solenQld!manU4J
D Hand pump (focal).
E Srop v<lrre (~e,.,idng).
n..,' , F Combined u1<mn closing limit turd
F1 , operated.

C rowa unit comprising: indicaTor liidlr switch,
G OpeMing limit ~wi/ch.
fl.-@) Pumpond motorufllr
H Switl;~ srrik:ers,
Oec",levpr '" Motor starter
!kJ.uf_['()ntro! vof"" (fl]amUJi)
Relief v/llve /lnd pre~S(lre gauge
J Door stop sited behind doo' cylfndl?'r 'A
K Warning plate.
Red and r.reffi IfJ:h / Indica/iun r. Alarm.
0 A Hand pump (emergi!/lcy rem ore)
Supply tunk
M Bridge colltro[[er!indicu!or,
N Key-op-e/'flud iwl<Jring ~witcli (I eal;h
Level gauge (dirmick) ~jde of the bulk:he<ld),

Figure 7.26 lfori:::onral sliJinK warerti~ht door Oil filter and srr<liner. P NOM-return rlJll'e,
162 Outfit 163

The motions of a ship in a seaway can result in \'arious undesirable effects.

examples of which ate cargo damage and human discomfort, Only the rolling of
a ship can be elTectiYely reduced by stabilisation, Two basically different stabilis.
ing systems are used on ships - the fUl and the tank. Both systems attempt to
reduce rolling by producing an opposite fOtCe to that atlempting to roll the ship.
Fin stabiliser

One or more pairs of fUlS are fitted on a ship, one on each side. see Figure 7.27.
The size or afea of lhe fins is governed by ship factors such as breadth. draught,
displacement. and 50 on, but is Yery small compared with the size of lhe ship.
The fins may be retractable, i.e. pivoting or sliding within lhe ships fonn. or
flXed. They act to apply II righting moment to the ship as it is inclined by a wave
or force on one side. The angle of tilt of the fm and the resulting momenl on the
ship is determined by a sensing control system. The forwlIrd speed of the ship
enables lhe fins to generate the thrust which results in the righting moment.
f.nbol< stifl--. itn
.igned with ship'l
',-"i", g

"" o



\ \

FiKure 7.27 Fill stabilist!f

164 Outfit

. The opera ling system can be compared 10 that of the sleering gear. in Ihal a
signal from the control unil CilUseS a mO\'cment of the fin which. when it reaches
the desir~d value, is ~r~ughl 10 r~sl. The fin movement takes place as a result of
3 hydraulic p~wer unit mcorporallng a type of variable displacemenl pump.
The effectiveness of the fms as stabilisers depends upon their sp«d of mO\·e.
ment. which must be rapid from one extreme point to the other. The fms are
rectangular in shape and streamlined in section. The use of 3 movable nap or a 8
fIXed and movable portlon is to provide a greater restoring moment to the ship
for a i1ighdy more complicated mechanism.
The control system is based upon an acceleration sensor. This unit provides a
signal which after electronic integration provides a measurement of roll velocity
and angle. These various parameters arc all used to bring :lbout a suitable lln
Oil Tankers, Liquefied Gas
movement which will oppose the roll.
Fin stabilisers provide accurate and effective roll stabilisation in return for a Carriers and Bulk Carriers
complex installation which, in merchant vessels, is usually limited to passenge,
ships. It ~ to be noted that at low ship speeds the stabilising power falls off, and
when stalionary no stabilisation is possible.

Tank stabiliser Oil tankers, because of theit sheer size and numbers at sea. are worthy of special
consideration. The liqUid nature of their cargo requires special forms of
A tank slabiliser provides a righting or anti.rolling force as a resull of the delayed construction and outfitting of these vessels. Cas carriers for the bulk transport of
flow of fluid in a SUitably positioned transverse tank. The system operation is liquefied gases are also an important specialist type of ship. The
independent of ship speed and will work when the ship is at rest. bulk carrier in its many forms is increasing in its unit size and numbers such that
. Consider a mass of waler in an athwartships lank. As the ship rolls the water it too is worthy of individual attention.
wil! b~ m~ved, but a moment or two afler the ship rolls. Thus, when the ship is
finlshmg ItS roll and about 10 return, the still moving waler will oppose the
return roll. The water mass thus acts against the roll at each ship movement. This Oil tankers
athwartships tank is sometimes referred to as 'flume'. The system is considered
passive, since the water flow is activated by gravity. Longitudinal and transverse bulkheads divide the cargo-carrying section of t~e
A wing tank system arranged for controlled passive operation is shown in vessel into a number of tanks. In addition to separation of different types of oiL
Figurc 7.28. The greater height of tank 3t the sides permits a larger water build. the individual tanks also reduce the effects of the liquid's free surface on the
up and thus a greater moment to resist the roll. The rising nuid level must not stability of the ship. Since oil contracts and expands with changes of
however ftll the wing tank. The air duci between the two Wing tanks conlains temperature, tanks are rarely completely full and movement of the liquid takes
valves which a~e operated by a roll sensing device, The differential air pressure' place. The bulkheads, decks. etc., must therefore be oiltight even when stressed
between tanks IS regulated to allow the fluid flow to be controlled and 'phased' or loaded by the movement of the oil in addition to the normal static loads.
for maximum roll stabilisation. Longitudinal stresses are considerable in tankers and great strength is therefore
A lank system must be specifically designed for a particular ship by using required to resist bending and stiffen the hull structure.
data from model tesls. The water level in the system is critical and must be Fire and explosion are an ever-present hazard on tankers and special systems
adjusted according to the ship's loaded condition. Also there is a free surface of ventilation are necessary. Void spaces or cofferdams are also fitled in places
effect .resulting from the moving water which effectively reduces the stability of to separate the cargo tank section from other parts of the ship, such as pump·
the shtp. The tank system does however stab~ise at zero speed and is a much less rooms and fore peak tanks. Cargo-handling equipment is provided in the form of
complex installation than a fin stabiliscr. pumps located in a pumproom, usually positioned between the machinery space
and Ihe cargo tanks. More than one pumproom may be fitted depending upon
the cargo carried or the piping arrangements. Suction pipelines run through Ihe
cargo tanks, and discharge lines leave the pumproom and travel along the deck to
the crossover lines and manifolds situated al midships.
Two main types of oil tanker are 10 be found at sea today. The very large
crude carrier (VLCC) and the products carrier. The main difference is in size
and the products carrier has a larger number of tanks with a more complex
piping system. This enables the carriage of many different cargo 'parcels' o~ any
one voyage. The various aspects of tanker construction will now be exammed.
Oil Tanker:s, Liquefied Gas Carriers and Bulk Carriers 167

", AU tank~rs 3ft conslructed using dther the longitudinal or the combined
type of framing system. Ships greater than 198 m in length must be framed


--~i j


longitudinally. A fully longitudinal system of C005111.\I;lioo will have longitudinal
stiffeners along the ship's sides throughout the tank length. Thn.e longitudinals
are usually offset bulb plales of incft'3sing dimensions towards the ballam mell
of the ship. Buill-Up stiffeMrs. consisting of webs with symmetrical nat plate
E nange.i. have also Men used. Side IIans~rses 3ft filted in line with the ballam

~ ~

transvenes to suppon the longitudinals against compressive loadings (Figures 8./
and 8.1). The combined framing system uses side frames with intermediate
- r r
Oeck eMue',ne g"~f

Str,ngeo 0,119'1 " _ _ le O"t'vht Ifinswerse

bulk.... , bulkhud


I Oocking brakell
F'-'ged buckel

FiguTt 8.2l::lt~,uion 0/ c:entrdint 0/ Illnk (iongitudinill/filming)

deep transverse webs. A number of longitudinal stringers are filled. depending

on the depth of the tank. Brackets and knees are used 10 tie the side frames to
the underside of the deck. the bottom plating and the stringers (Figures 8.3 and
, "/, /
,, , , ,

;' ;' ;' ,:

;' " ,," ,
;' ;'
Bottom structure
The bottom structure is longitudinally framed over the cargo tank length. Bulb
plates and built-up T-sections are usually employed. The bottom transverses
provide support and are spaced at intervals of around 3.8 m on smallet ships and
up to S m on longer vessels. The longitudinals are continuous and pass through
notches cut in the transverses (Figure 8..5). Aat bar make-up plates are fitted to
the transverses where the longitudinals pass through. At watertight bulkheads a
fully welded collar is fitted (Figure 8.6). The longitudinals are also bracketed to
the transverses. The transverses are usually a plate web with a heavier flat bar
flange. Horizontal stiffeners are fitted where a considerable transverse depth is
employed (Figure 8.1).
A centre girder is fitled. except where there is a centreline bulkhead. Various
arrangements of continuous or intercostal longitudinal side girders are also
sometimes fitted. The arrangements used will determine the scantlings of the
memben employed in the construction. The centreline girder is stiffened and
supported by vertical docking brackets fitted between each transverse (Figure
D,d< c.n1reline ~ird"r

D~' " /
1 !! h IB 'IT ia IT 18 r

" j...- ~~.P ",eb

on centreli""
l.a"S"II!~ __
t>u Ikhead
ela"g.e<J ,
" -I acket/ :

D IT ID IT ID 'T lD I T I[) 10
Figure 8.4 HeratiOll 01 ee'lrreb"" of ran/[ (c()mbined jrl1.minl':J
IT. 17I1mVNSI!. D, dockiIlg hracket; E, bracket)

8r~ckc'1 or 113: h,' ,,,tff,,er

r---.....-~--_--TO--~ "
,i ",,-



~ ~



) \
d====",=",!!o~,"~====~BottorTl shell pla1'n~

~- - ~
FIgure 85 /\'orch arrangement
o "
Bulkhead i
llillen"' Oilt'!Iht l>ulkhe.d

Flat b~f 'tiffene.

o o i
Bracket Bottom

,,- -
ColI~r longItudinal

o Q Q o o

Welded joint Weldl!d , Bott"m

in longilud;nel b-un in shell
, t>Oltaffi sh~11


70 Oil Tankers, Liquefied Gas Carriers tmd Bulk Carriers Oil Tlmkers, Liquefied Gas earners ond Bulk Canters 171
Centreline glrr1er Trlln:werse hulkheads

, Brockel Transverse bulkheads are similar 11\ cOllStruction to longitudinal hulkheads and
may be nat with stiffeners or cmrugatcd. Vertical wc-bs must be fitted to
transverse hulkheads in line with the centre girder and may be Htted in line with
V ,Flange
side girders Conugated~bulkheads may luse vertical or hori-lontal corrugations

/ / ~ \
~ Plate make up pleo:e
with stiffening webs l1tted ...t right·angles to the i.:UTfugations. lJJngituJinal
stiffeners ·arc arranged contil1Uously through transverse bulkheads and are
attach.ed by brackets

Transverse bulkheads must lwt be spaced greater than one·fifth of the ship's
<tiffene. , -A i
- Bonorn h;tr)yitudi,,~1
lengtll apart. Where the tank length is greater than one-tertth Df the ship's
or 15 m. a perforated or wash bulkl1e~-d must be fit led.

Wash burkheads
5~ell pl~l",g

Iip"!, 8. 7 D()d,illl brllckel A wash bulkhead is similar il1 constructioll 10 a tran,ve-rse bulkhe~d but is !lot
oil tight. Large holes or perforations exist in the plaling These holc~. while
),7).. A hl.'uvi,er platl.' fl,ange is fitted .at the uppcr edge of the tentreline girder. allowing the oil to mo-ve through. do restrict the: speed and force- of its
\ddltlUnal stlffemng ot the centreline girder is provided either by hmizuntal or movement and provide additional transverse strength to the ship.
'crlical flat bars.

Framing at ends
Jnderdeck structure
Beyond the cargo tank length the -vessel may be tnmsversely or of (ombined
rhis is largely the same as that for the buttom structure, with transvcnes fitted framing consHucti{)n and must ha-ve certain additional strengthening fitted. A
n hac with those below. A continuuus centreline girder and perhap3 intercustal deep tank or tanks is often fIlted forward of the (argo tank space Where
Jr continuuus side ~rders are fitted l:J.eneath the: deck. transverse franling is employed. solid floors are fitted at every frame space, Inter-
costal side girders of depth equal to the floors are also fitted in line with every
other bottom shclliongitudinal in the deep lank space_ The deep tallk is fitted
3ulkheads with web frames nOT mme than five frame spaces aparI. A centreline bulkhead
must also be fitted, unless llle mai11 10ngitwJinal bulkheads extend through the
three lypes of bulkhead arc to be found on tankers - longitudinal, transverse deep tank. With longitUdinal framing, transverses are fitted in the deep tank not
Lnd wash more than 3 m apart. Intercostal side girders are also fitted either side of the
centreline, On larger vessels th,; cargo tank structure may extend into the deep
tank itself. Panting and pounding arrangements are also necessary and will be
.ongitudinal similar to th{)se described ill· Chapter 5.
All modern tankers now have the machinery space and accommodation
:13t stiffened or corrugated oiltight bulkheads may be employed. The stiffening located aft. Web frames arc fitted not mClre than five frame sp.aces apart in the
; largely the same as .that, of the ~ide shell, I.e. horizontal stiffeners along the machinery space, with fixed or portable beams acrosS the casing opening.
,~lkhead where- lOll gJt uJrnal shell stiffening IS used. Brackets fasten the Tranverse framing of the bottom i" u"ua\ i.ll the machinery space and
~Iffeners to the transverse bulkheads at the ends. Where side transverses are construction is similar to that mentioned in Chapter 5. Transve-r~e or
Itled to the snell, correspondingly positioned vcrtical webs are fitted at the longitudinal framing of the sides a.nd deck may be used from the machinery
,u!khead, Horizontal stringers at the ship's si-de are matched by horizontal space to the after end of the ship. Deck longitudinals must extend into the
lrtngers on the bulkheads. A continu{lus rin,g·type structure of considerable machinery space a distance equivalent to one-third of the ship's breadth. Panting
lrength is thus builT up within the tank space. arrangements are also fitted in the after peak. as described in Chapter 5.
. This ring·type structure i~ further brace-d by the use of beams known as cro-ss.
les fitted between the transverses or side stringers and the longitudinal bulk- Superstructu res
Where corrugated bulkheads are employed the corrugations must nm These are of much the same construction as described in Chapter 5. The loal
orizofltally. Vertical webs are fined at e...'ery bottom transverse, in order to line rules require pJ(JtecUve housings around openings in the freeboard and othel
.lpport the bulkhead.
171 Oil Tankers, Liquefied Gar Carrier!: an.d Durle Carriers 173
H",~" and decks and a furecastle extending 7% of tbe ship's length from forward. Bc-cal.l~e
of a (linker's hig.h ,",ending slroes5es extra care must be taken with di~c()ntinuities

~C-= ======i:;:.-/="c"c,co,=.=m=·c"c,,,~;:I=~c~Oc"=':=·"==J·~,I.a:~~:~.n1
at the superstructure ends.
/ = I ,ee F,y 8!Jtbi
I ---
, _ H'l~h
Cofferdams.- are filted between oil tanks and other compartments and must be at
I co",m",~ least 760 mm wide. Pumprooms l)f water ballast tanks may, subject t{) certain
cOllditiom, be accepted instead of cofferdams. Special arrangements are
, necessary in tanker~ becallSe of the redu.ccd freeboard to clear tlle decks of
CJ "':k I :_t.n'!
water. Open rails are fitted for at least half the length of the weather deck. Solid
_.--L bulwarks are usually fitted only at the forecastle and around the superstructure.

Hat~h Access to the cargo t.ank spaces is by oil tight hatches. Circular or oval shapes are
usually employed with cQamings at least 225 mm high. Steel covers with suitable
oiltight fastening arrangements are usual, Figures 8.8(a) and 8.8(b). Patented
coven -of other approved materials are also available. Other tanles and cofferdam
spaces may have similar hatches or manholes for access (Figure 8.9).

T"PrJed 'l"rtln~ hule Clear Ofilled 110'1>5

0 0 0 0
0 C

0 0

~ ,
h"1il/7'f" 8.8((;I} Carl'O lank hale!!
0 a
0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 "


, --'';=:;:'''''''-: Waslle.
==l..,-_Joint Ot
Tappin~ ,trog

[==~=~=====:::l- Deck

F'l'tu/'e 8,8{h) Derail ofhatch dampiflg ammgemenr Figure 8.9 MQlthole cover: j{l) plate, (b) detail of:ecu";ngQmmgement
74 Oil Tankers, Liquefied Gas Carriers and Bulk Carriers 175

'enliJation arrangem-ellis an' fully described ill Chapter 9.

nert gas plants

IIcrt gas plants are being fitted to an ever·increasing rmnthcr of tankers to

nprove their operational safety. The plallt provides an inert gas blanket over
rlC ~llrface of the cargo to stop the build·up of flammable vapuurs which might
~ad to explosions.
A typical system is ~howl1 in Figurr:13.1 O. The plant uses exhaust gas which is
fawn flOm the boilu flue uptakes, where available, or frurn a separate
ombustion chamber. The gas enters:a scrubbing tower via a water seal which is ___

r" •

irculated b)' sea water. The gas is cooled, solids and unwanted gases are "-·-0.- '"
~rubbed out and it then passes through a demister which removes water vapour. ~.g'
'he inert gas which contains less than 5% uxygen is then pumped into the cargo
mks, Using fan units to drive the gas along the supply main. A deck-mounted
rat-er seal is fitted in the main to prevent the back·flow of flammable gases from
le cargo tanks.
During unloading the inert gas proVides a positive pressure on the cargo
Jrface which assists discharging in addition w ensuring a safe operation. Inert
3S is fed into tanks prior to loading and when fu11. the fans are stopped. During
Jading the ltigh velocity venting valves are opened to vent the inert gas to
tmosphere. When loading is complete the valves are closed and inert gas is
Jpplied to produce a slight pressure- in the- tanks. During loaded passage the
lert gas pressure is monitored and maintained.

)ther outfit items

pedal circular openings with removable gas-tight covers are provided for tank.
leaning operations. A number of fixed or portable tank-eleaning machines are
Jwered into the cargo space through these openings.
Tank sounding gauges, wltich give local and often remote readouts of liquid
eptlls, arc fitted to each cargo tank usually on to a 'pot' or cylindrical seat.
Heating coils are Htted in many tankers to improve the discharging of the
il. Steam is passed through coils fitted on the tank bollom to heJit the cargo
not to discharge. Gares will be releared dmmg heating and the ...enting system
111st therefore be open.

-iquefied gas carriers
he past 25 years hJlve seen the emergence of the bulk transport Gf n.atur31 both for use as fuel and as a refrigerant. Specialist ships are now used to
my the various types of gas in a variety of tank sys.tems, combined witn
rrangements for pressurising or refrigerating the gas.
Natural gas is found and released as a re~ult of oil·drilling operations. It is
mixture of such gases as methane, ethane, propane, butane and pentane. The
176 Oil Tanken, Liquefied Gas CAmen and Bulk CAmen
heavier gases. propane and butane, are separated by liquefaction ,md are termed
'peuoleum gases'. The remainder consisting largely of methane are known as '"
'natural gas'. The properties and therefore the behaviour of these IWO basic
groups vary considerably, thus requiring different means of containment and lIQuid
Storage during uansportation, llghl
Natural gas is, by proportion. 75-95% methane and hasla boiling point of
-162°C at atmospheric pressure. Methane has a critical temperature of -82°C. ;I"head
The critical temperature is the temperature abo\'e wllich it cannot be liquefied Ca<go ,."k
by the application of pressure. A pressure of 47 bar is necessary to liquefy
methane at -82°C. Thus, natural gas cannot be liquefied by pressure at normal
temperatures. Liquid natural gas tanken are therefore designed to carry the gas
in in liquid form at atmospheric pressure and a low service temperature in the
region of -164°e. The problems encountered. therefore, deal with protecting
the steel structure from the low temperatures, reducing the loss of gas and
avoiding the leakage of gas into the occupied regions of the ship.
Petroleum gas consists of propane, propylene and butane or mixtures of these
gases, all of which have critical temperatures above normal ambient
temperatures. Thus they can be transported either as a liquid at low temperature
and pressure or at nonnal temperature and under pressure. The design problems
for this type of ship 3re similarly protecting the steel hull where low
temperatures are employed. reducing gas loss and avoiding gas leakage, with the
added consideration of pressurising the tanks.

Liquefied natural gas tankers

The tank types of LNG carriers are ~If-supporting and either prismatic,
cylindrical or spherical in shape or :I membrane construction which is supported
by insulation, Materials used include aluminium, 9~ nickel steel or membranes
composed of stainless steel or nickel iron.
Tank designs are split into Ihree categories, namely self·supporting or free
standing, membrane and semi-membrane. The self-supporting tank is strong
enough by virtue of ils construction to accepl any loads imposed by the cargo it ,.,
carries. A membrane tank requires th~ insulation between the tank and lhe hull
to be load bearing, such an arrangement being termed an integrated tank design. Dome T"" h.,,~
Single or double metallic membranes can be used, with insulation separating the 1. /
two membrane skins. The semi-membrane or semi·integrated design is similar
to the membrane, except that the tank has no support at its comers.
o.,,~ ... ,,_r;:.;~\~O;;t~~
A double·hull type of construction is used with each of the above designs, the In huU_ Memb<_ I....k
space between being used for water b:J1l3sl. Thl:' basic configurations are shown l laIOO.. _
in Figure 8.11.
'lfUClure ~~======~
Comparison 0/ tunk types

Membrane and prismatic tanks use the underdeck cubic capacity most ,
W'ter tylLast
effectively, Cylindrical and spherical tanks involve constructional probkms by
FlZUfe 8.11 Tank arTIIII~mtl lOT liqutMd lU,"lIfll p: (tl) pnmuttie ttlnk: (6) spherial.'
penetrating the upper deck but pro\'ide greater safety in the event of collision or
grounding. Membrane tanks are cheaper to build but the insulation which must
tank: (e) c:ylindrictJ1 tank; (d) membrr'M ftlnk: (t) doublt-mtmbt"tlnt tank: m
mtmbnmt ttulle
be load be:lring is more expensive, The insulation of spherical tanks need not be
78 Oil Tankers, Liquefied G(Jj Carriers and Bulk Carrien P.. n~tr~tin9 179

)ad bearing ~ince it is only :1 partial se\;ondary 1)arrieL if needed at all ill this Spl"h
~spect The hull alld machinery cost~ arc ahout clIl.lal fDr each tyre All Ihe

lfferen t types are- in se n'icc. wi th the firmly cslabli\hcd desigm heing prismatic,
phcrical and membrane- types

'oi!-ojf S-e~anM~(~
iquc-fic-d natural gas is continually boiling in tanks when lr;msporto.:d by S('8.
be-re is therefore a lll::e-d to (eleasl:: this gas tu ;II/uid a pr~'s,ure nuild-up ill the
Ink. It may be n'"nte-d dire-c!iy to atillosphere or bum( in boilers or in sT,cc'";:llly Hull

darted dual fL1ele[lgines. Barningthe hoil-(Iffg-ilsin a flare mounted on a hO(lill

.:mote from the ship is another possible solution. Rc-liqud,tCiio!l is 110t )
~onomical because of the- large- p'Jwer and IllJ~e cost <If the machinery

Fi",rc 8.12 Cylhldrical rronk fanli. anan/[ement

-iquefied petroleum gas tankers
'hrec basi( lype~ of liquefied petroleum gas tankers MOO '::lJrrcnt]y used lJle
Jl1y pre~surised tank, the semi'pressuriscd partially rdri&c-Titlc.u lanK. and the
lily refrigerated atmmpheric preSSlJre tank. r--" T~1
The fully pressurised tallk areHies ~t Jhllilt 175 18.0 bar and requires
eavy expensive tanks of carb-(JTT steel W11ir;h <lrc lISually cylindrical in shape. This
igh pressure is equivalent l() the vapour pressare of the cargu <It the highesl ~ I --=---'~.•.. [ - 1_ _

[ -
SeumtJ'" V
ossible ambient temperaLare. uS\Jally taken as4S°c. The tank domes. penetrate
le upper deck and have (IUtU all the nccessary ClllTTlections for loading,
ischarging, sampling, ele.
.c. ~=.= Imul~liCln 1 , I
Semi-prcssurised lanks llpenltc <It about ~ har and a temperature of aholll
-7°C must be rnaintail1ed in lite tanks. Insulation is therefore required afllund
1[ • •. ··1 I.
11; tank and, since some cargo will boil off.. -a re-liquefaction plant is needed.
[milo-fital rylindrical tank conflgara!i(lIh are again used. Low lemperaltlfe
Fuel ail
:eels for temperatures dOWTl tu around - 45"C must be used for the Lanks.
Fully refrigerated atmo$pheric preSSllfe tank systems nave serlClce FiglHe H 1 J Alt dome tallk amMKl;mm[
?mperalurcs about -SO°C and maximum working pressures of 0.28 bar Thc
mks are insuLated, self-supporting and prismatic in shape. The tank material
lUst be ductile at low lemperatures and is usually a fme-g,rai[l hCal-tleated steel
Jcll as Arctic D or a low alloy niockel steel A secundary bartier capable of Wat.. ,
~tainjng the cargo in the cvent of main {ank fracture is required by classification t>a·""'l
xiety rule-s. Three lank types are used with fully refrigerated LPG sh.ips:
Hull and
(I) A c-entral trunk runs along the top for the length of the cargo tank. Wing "'lO"dar~
ballast tanks are Ii.Hed, their innet >Ulf-:aCC acting 3S the secondary barrier
(Figure 8.12). I / barrie'

(2) A large dume is situated aft at the top of the tank and wing b-allast tanks
are fitted (Figure 8.lJ}. The inner surface of the wing tanks acts as the I
second-ary barrier. __J
(3) A large dome is situated aft at the top of the tank but no Wl[lg ballast ,-_.
tanks are fitted (Figure 8.14). Hopper tanks are used for ballast when
necessary. The hull itself acts as the secondary barrier and must be of
r uel Water
low temperature carbun steel in way of the cargo tanks, Qi' b,llla.t
Figure 11.14 Tank <1n'an,;.ell1enr with hull as scmmlary barri""
180 Oil T/lnken, Liquefied Gas Q:miers and Bulk CIlm-ers
Oil Tmkers, Liquefied G/lS Carrien and Bulk Carriers 181
Comporiwn of tank types
1 d' the machinery spa\:e, the side shell in way of the \:argo tanks, the
The reduction in weight of tank mat~ri<ll in a semi-prcs:.urised tank design is ;:~I~Yt:n~: or upper hopper tanks, the main deck in-side of the ~lfie of ha~che~.
offset by the need fer refrigerating. plant allll insulation around the tank. The the forecastle deck ami the fore and aft peak tanks. LongitudInal ~rammg IS
employed at the bottom shell. the tank lap and the upper det:k olltslde of the
of low pre~sure tanks does, however, permit better utillsation of the underdeck
cubic capacity of the Yessel. The fuJly pressurised lank has no need of insulation line of hatches. . h . FO
nor a secondary barrier. A section through a typical floor in a l()wer hopper tank IS sown III 19ure
816 The longitudinal framing structure can be clearly seen. Above the ~opper
t~nk can be Seel] the transversely framed hold with the bracket connectmg the

Construction as-pects of LNG and LPG carriers

The various regulatory bodies have rules for the construction and cl:Jssiflc<llion
of ships carrying liquid gases in bulk. These rules follow dosely the 1\-10 code
for this type of vessel.
A complete or partial secondary barrier is required in ull but pressLl-re vessels
operaling at ambient temperatures down to --10"C. This secondary barrier is a Sirl~
liquid-resisting outer skin which will temporarily contain any leakage of thc 'rame
liquid cargo from Ihe primary barrier or tank. The secondary barrier should also
prevent the structure temperature [wm dropping and should llot fail under th~
same circumstances as the primary harrier. Le-",,~' he-pr>er tank
Bulkheads or cofferdam arrangements are necessary between cargo tanks,
depending upon the temperature of the cargo carried.
Cargo-pumping pipework systems must have no interconnection with other
systems. INhere a cargo tank has no secondary barrier:l suit:lble drainage system
must be provided which does not enter the machinery space. \\'here secondary
barriers are used drainage musi be provided to with any leakage, again frol11 Fi!\lm: 8,15 Bl,lk carrier rranSl'erse ~ation
outside the machinery space.
Special ship survival arrangements are required which limit the width of tanks frame
in relation to the ship's breadth. Double-b\Jttom t:mk heights are also stipulated. V
Arrangements of tank design or internal bulkheads where possible must be
u~d to restrict c.argo movement and the subsequent dynamic loading uf r1 . II Brd~ket
'~ ~
structure. Membrane tanks, for instanc-e, cannot have internal bulkheads and are - I\..¥'
tapered off in section tow.nds the top. \
\1 Hoo~er tank ,icle pla,e
Materials of construction and those ured in piping system.s are dealt with in S,de
conside-rablc detail in the rules. ,hell
F IDor ~Iale

Bulk carriers
Bulb 1,lat"
The bulk carriage o-f single-commodity cargoes has been il continually advancing I
trend with the development of specialist types of ship to sUit. nil' desire for Longitudinal ._ , Oi~/
flexibllity of operation has also led to variuus desigm to enable different bulk stdfener
-~ Tank loOP
cargoes to be carried on different voyages. Such vessels have become known as I

combination bulk carriers, -oil/bulk/ore (aBO) and oil/ore (00) are examples.
Some particular aspects of bulk carrier construction will nowbe examined in
detail. A transverse section through a general-purpose bulk carrier is shown in
Figure 8.15. TIte cargo hold is Seen 10 be shaped by the upper hupper or s.addlc
tanks, the lower hopper tanks and the double bottom. A wmposite framing
system is. iJsed in common with most bulk carders. Transverse framing is Fi1[1.1l'e 8.16 SQlid·fluor- arrangemmt in (J lower hopper tank
<2 Oil Tankers, Liquefied Gas Carriers and Bulk: Carriers 183

i__ H.t,h
__ -, co.>rn,n9
I-I"pi>'" iide T ,,"k ,;(/e r
taper b'ack~t plate
D~ck "Ia"n"
Hop,,", "

.- ~ liar .~

Strinqer Strin~ef
' ,titf~n.r , '
, "_/

'\;,~-;t--~,ilt__~."."·~ Bracket
" j
pl.ling )



" ,4__ 8r"ck','
-1ot----- Trar,v~"" home

Hopper"de laper l>racket


fr:am.... to the hopper hmk. At the end~ of the hupper tank region a considerable
change in section lKcurs. The construction used to reduce the effect of tl1is
discontinuity is snown in Fignn> 8.17. A large tapered bracket is used wnich is
connected to tile surrounding transversely framed structure as shown,
A section through an upper hopper t.:mJ,; or saddle tank is shown in Figure
8.18, The longitudinal framing under the deck can be seen as well as the bracket
connecting the aprer edge of the transverse frame to the tanL The side shell
pmtion of the tank is transversely framed by offset bulb plates with plate webs,
as shown in Figure 8./8. fitted at every fourth frame. A deep-flanged bracket
joins the inuer tank side to the hatch side girder.
1>, Details of a bulkhead stool are shown in Figure 8.19. With a corrugated
trausverse hulkhc:ad as :shown, the stool arrangement is used to shape the
forward and after lower regions of the <:3rgo hold. This !lush tapering shape
permits easy discharge of bulk cargoes and simplifies cargo lIold cleanin.g.
ure 8.17 Tapering-off 01 hopper tan.k at a{ter end" ra) plan vie-wan hopper tank end Shedder plates are fitted inside the troughs of the corrugated bulkhead for the
(t;) sectiOil 01'1 hopper lank end .
same reason.

.. ~ Ventilation

An ucc3n-goillg ~hip i~ required 10 operate in a ~'afi['ty {le .... ery different climates.
Air temperature~ m.ay range from -15°C to 50°(' and sea water temperutures
from aOc to 3-8°C The moisture wnlen! of the air will vary considerahly and
solar radhnion may ;lllect one or Illore of the ship's exposed surfaces. All the
I various forms of good lmd bad weatllcr will Jlsu be experienced. The air from
i I the air-conditioning and ventilation plauts is therefore rcq,Jired to provide all
accepl<lble climate for the crew to live and work in, su{fiden1 air fm machinery
--~ usc an-d to m<untain temperature and humidity al acceptablt: levels to the cargo.
I ! All this must be achieved reg.ardkss of tlu:: conditions prevailing externaltn the
ship_ The design of suitahle systems will therefore require infonnatioll about the

I ship's trade [l)ute~, type, or cargo and machinery imtalbtintl

I: Accommodation

Most ships' air-conditioning systems employ centrally situated units. These units
are s-elf-contained and supply the cabins and sraces within a particular area via
tmnking. The contrDI possihle in imiividual c..bins or spaces depends upon the
nature and wmp]exity of the central unit. Three ha,il: systems are in use - the
--~ single duct. the twin du~t and the twin dun with reheat. In each case the central
unit will deall. supply warm or cool. humidify or lkhumidify tile air supplied to
the cabins.
The single duct system
In the single Juct system the central unit mixes outside air with some returned
or recycled ait. This air is then filtered, heated and perhaps humidified or
cooled. This conditioned air is thell distribllted along a single -duct to the
indivi.Jual supply units in the different spaces. The amount of supply air can be
controlled within the particular cabin lJr space. Figure 9,] shows- the
arrangement of the sing.le duct system.

The twin duct system

Jl,.gain, outside and returned air are mixed in the cen tral unit then filtered,
preheated and perhaps humidified. Some of the air leaves the unit before it
,6 Ventilation Ventilation 187

{\" ,u""ly ,~" ,,,pply A" 'L1Ppl~ "'" <upply

con",,1 unit £ontrol u,,,t co"trol un;,
~"n"(J1 "" 1

s""plv "~.""g I"" C"OI,nq

3,r co,1 '.nil D,.I""ulOo" r

]'~ ====~:'
""'''" , :T
19t"J , i


_ L,

r,lIe, /

Figure 9,} The ll/Tgle dun svstenl FiKIJN' 9_1 The.ingle dll£'1 ""il~ r~heat srsrem

.aches the cooler, to be reheated; the amount is increased as the outside dischargin.g, the storage and ventilation must be suitable and satisfa<:t~TY .
mperature tails. The remainder of the air passes over the c(loling coil. The !W(l Inadequate, poor quality air supplies can seriously damage most cargoes. FalT~Y
I supplies at different conditions are passed through separate ducts to simple systems of cargo ventilation and attendant proce,dures can prevent sUi,;h
mtrolled mixing units in the individual spaces, The air temperature- and damage. Different cargoes react to the climate 00 board III as complex: a manner
mdition can then be selected for the particular space. 9,2 shows the as the human body, with often irreparable damage as ihe result ,,
rangement of the twin duct ~y~tem. Certain general cargoes, some fruit and vegetable cargoes and hygroSCOpIc
(water-absorbing or emitting) cargoes are carried in non-msulated holds: As a
Aic SUPPly
cOnl,,",1 unll
Ai, '''llply
~()nlrol L1nit
result they are exposed to all climatic changes which may cause c~ndens.atlOn on
the hull or cargo. Ventilati.on of the holds in which they .are. carned IS therefore
ReCiealing C"olinq
P,elleJli"g un;t ~<l11 P'"",ure
necessary. Refrig.erated and £Iozen cargoes are canied ill Insulated holds tut
because of the living, gas-producing nature of the cargo they also reqUlre

Ventilation of non-ins.ulated cargo holds
", ;--=-~~4-
The purpose of ventilation ill non-insulated holds is t(l remove surplus heat an,d
/ \, L DI\llilJ"ti"n
humidity, to prevent the cundensing of rn01sture 011 cargo or hun and to remme
gases pf()[lllCed in the ripening process of some fruit and vegetahle cargoes.
Fifi!:Ure 9_2 1'1". twin dun sysrem Natural and mechanical yen tibtion systems are lIsed for thIS purpose.


he single duct with reheat system :c~ "I'm ~

',,'et opening.
" I i ~, 1->1 n<j~d
he central unit mixes outs.ide and return air, mters, preheats and humidifies or ,I ",w~r

, 1

lOis the air to the lowest required temper.atllre for .any part of the system. The

r then passes along one duct to individual units in the spaces. Within tnese 1 J'
rUts is a controlled healer over which the air passes. Heating may be achieved
y circulating hot water or an electric heater. The air supply and its temperature
lay therefore be regulated. Figure 9.3 shows the arran gement of the s.ingle duct
ith reheat system.

argo spaces

he primary function of ships is to transport goods from place to place. The

U"go must be delivered in good condition and, in addition to careful10ading and Fir;Lm' 9.4 Niltural vennlarion of {ween·,kcK space or workshop
188 Veil tiTalian Ventilation 189

Natural ventilation is accompUshed by inlet and outlet pipe'S and trunking to

each cargo sp.a-cc. Thesc inlets and outlets consist of cowls or vcntilators of
various designs. Air is forced in by the action of tnc winu ordr.awll in as a result
of all ejector type of c:xhaust drawing air out which is then replaced. Where the Q
force of tlle wind is utilised the cowls must be manu:ally positioned, and are large- 0 0
.cumbersome fittings which must be well stayed to the deck. Figure 9.4 shows cl. ventil.ation .arrangement for a tween deck or workshop. Most modern
ships utilise mech.anical ventilation for reliability, improved performan::e and the
reduced size ofl;owls necessmy. . .-.-
Mechanical ventilation operates in two distinct systems - the open and the- f!)
dosed, _'4"
Ine open system uses axial flow fans fitted in the inlet and exhaust trunks.
The tnmks may have separate cowls or be incorporated into sampson posts or
masts. The air is supplied along trunkjng and dUds to the bottom of the hold.
~ I
~- /1+ 11 ;
.--r:- _. r ._~--'_l-"~f"~' " JII1 "
,j I

L_ t I t,,~=L~
-I· -r 7-- - e--

, ,

II~ "
'F f --- .,. 1 1 Figure 'J,() Cio~ed , IMIll);
pentiJatirm rySlem I j reClr('~
3 e:duwM air damper,
" dall t [!i'r, _~irJ[ellljrdampa,

r~'~~~~;' i Venti lation of refrigerated cargo holds

R f' rated c;lfgo holds ret:.Juirc 3. carefully controneLl Jir-rcplacing system f~r
t • '_ .' ea:J:l~~dividual space. Cooled is sllpplicQ !() the- refrigerated no~d wlle~e ~:
- ---!
• •
11.1 ains he-at from ripening cargoes and entrains the ga-ses produced. ThIS 31.r I~
FiguJ'c 9.5 Open vI'ntiwtion s)'sJem. (a) normal d,.culotior/; g. •
t en ex aus'v" lod ,od a c:'teful balance must be maintained between lJllet and
U . • • '
(b) rel'er;ed crrcuwrirm - to pre-venT underdeck drculotl'o/1 at exhaust gas quantities, regardles~ or the outside chm~tlc comhtlOns.", olef
low Outside tempaalure One s '-stem achieve~ this by drawing outmJe aIr down to a blink of" l .
t ubes vi/ a central unit. The delmmidifled air thell passes lllto th.: cargo ,bold,',
The air is drawn from the top of the hold ju~t below the decks. The exhaust fans TIle exhaust gases are drawu from the h0 Id t1\fOU gh d.lIC.~, t· back to tne- "entra
can be reversed if condensation is likely near the deckheads, for example with a "t od ,.'", returned to the outside atmosphere. The lmkmg of mlet and I
low outside air temperature. Figure 9.5 shows the arrangement of the open uma ensures
valves ... " a constant ;lir supply at all times
. to t 1If h\dF"
0 .
l!!,Ur" . .
mechanical ventilation system.
arrangement of such a system.
The closed system recirculates air and a contfulled amount of fresh ail l:an be
admitted. The ventilating air is distributed around the hold and cargo, fonning P ar t "", IypD~ of shin have their associated GlIgO ventilation problemS,e,g,"
It.:U ar .. ~ t' f d" 1 ct"n, '"
an insulating wall or curtain between the two. Ex.haust air is drawn from the • li li· ff shi.r~ and the vehicle exhau~t umes urlllg 03 I "
rO -on, 10 0 , 1 "I t The partlcul:H
boltom of the hold. This system affords every possible mode of cantm] and is discharging. Bulk. carriers umally only require natura venti a l(JIi, . , to
widely used in somewhat varied forms. Figure 9.6 shows the c\-osed ventilation problems for each ship type must be considered early on at the deSign stage
~ystem. ensure a suitable system is provid~u.
190 Ventilation Ventilation 191

Inlel ao,

Conl<ol "'''1

.til, Hp".. 9.8 (Ie[rl ModI/'ll".'" sf>au w:mi/<I'

llfill}ol medium prl"S5I1<" <I.Ylal flo ..'

l 'j~--'
HYllTl> 9.9 (bottom Itlt) Machillt?,

spurr "l"JltilaliOfI uiin~ 10...• p,rJSll«. ~fltll
po ...· Ian and hi~h prtffUrr rtnrn/upl
',' --'---I ffYl'''' 9.10 IIx.>rtom ri~ltll Ma(hinr,y
spa(l" "tnti/ariun Ilsin~ mt'diutll pressu,r
<I.rial flQ'" [at/J and a Ih'OI,~h lru/lkjn~

"" "",.
~, • --'~

Machinery spaces ~
The machinery space fequires an air supply for the operation of boilers.
combustion engines. compressers, etc.. and to lIlainlain a satisfactory climatc for "
the operating staff to work in. I
Certain machinery consumes or requires air for its operation and sufficient air I
at as Iowa temperature as practically possible should be provided. Underpressure
occurring in Ihe machinery space will affect the efficiency and performance of
l-- "
J --l
internal combustion engines. Overpressure may lead to leakage of hOI air illlo
the accommodation. Ventilalion is also necessary to remove the heiH generated
within the machinery space and thus provide a reasonable climate for staff !o
work in, This very difficult task is achieved by the provision of ducled supplies rovides air through ducls to outlets at the various platforms.. Figure 9.10
of fillered but uncooled air to as lIlany regions:ls possible. P:lrlkular areas such Pses medium pressure axial now fans to provide a through trunklllg system 10
as workshops and control rooms. being sl11all. may be :lir conditioned and more ~he various outlels at the various platforms. This method has proved 10 be th~
feadily provided with an acceptable working c1imale. best. A diagrammatic arrangement o~ m~.dium pressure a:<i:ll now fans an
Various systems of air supply to the machinery spaces and casing are in use lrunking in a Inat:hinel)' space is shown In "'gllrl' 9,11.
and are shown in Figures 9.8 9./0.
Figure 9.8 utilises a medium pressure axial now fan supplying air down a
lrunking. which is proportionally released at the various platfonn levels and Control rooms
exhausts through Ihe top of the casing. Figurr 9.9 uses a low pressure axial The prOVISion of control rooms in most modern machinery spaces e~~ures c~os:
now fan to supply air into the casing area. Also. a high pressure cenlrifugal fan careful control of the climate in such spaces, often with lhe pTOV1Slon 0 alT
Ventilation 193

\ conditioning in addition 10 ventilation. This climate control provides tht

personnd wilh 3. Cum(ollable working area isolated (rom Ihe main m3chinery
sp;la. Also. dchc:Jle equipment in need of careful climatic conuol is able 10
receive it. The satisfactory opcral.ion :lOd continuous per(onuanct of modern
control equipment requires a carefully controlled environment which. by using
3. control room. call be achieved.
A ~parate dueted supply is led inlO the control room and usually through a
filtering ~iT<onditiul1ing plant or unit which is SCi to function aUlomatically
wilh controls located in the' control room_ A match~d exhaust will r~move stale
warm air from the connol room_ FiX'IN' 9. J2 shows such an arrangemenl.


= Inltl
~ fi~d_

r-; 0
0 -
I' ~..
BINI (lKlc

-----'--------------------.J-- C- ,

Sllfl1 ,
fiX'Jn' 9. / J MachjlltrJ' rp«l' I'('miltllion _ di4J(rQmmQlir rurant:rmtr/t ~lrilflCt


An ...""ly
Ian _duel'....


Wlrtlto;ll~ _


f- ..
c.nlrit"lP l


Eltnrioll 01 rrunlcirlg

~ Shvl·oll Ol)eflled from ~ ~i..
flap upper deck Oller

LongitudInal <ntsI'Ill'ille
Bonotn .nell
Figurt' 9. J 2 Control room Vt"rilan"ofl Fi1:Ure 9./3 PlJmproom venn-/ariM
Ventilation 195
194 Vemilation

Tank~1 pumprooms lequirt \'~nlil:uion to cany away poisonous cargo fumes

r~suhing from leaking glands 01 pipe join IS. T11~ working climate in this spac~
well below d~ck level must also be comfortable for any pc-rsonnel present.
Mechanical exhausting of air is achk\'~d by the uSC' of axial flow fans and
tmnking. The trunkin& dr:Jws from th~ pumproom floor and ~metg~ncy intakes
at a height of2.15 m from the working platform. These emergency intakes must
be filled with dampers which can be opened or closed from the wealher deck or
the working pl;lIform. The fan motors are located in the machinery space and
drive the f;lns lhrough gastight seals in lhe bulkhead. Supply is through cowls or
lounes at the top of the pumprOOIll. An arrangement is shown in Figure 9.1 J.

Double.bottom tanks

Ventilalion of doubk-bollom tanks is provided by means of an air pipe situated

rcmote from Ihe filling pipe and usually at the high~St point in the tank to avoid

Slandifd A S A, ISO lIangll!

FiflUre 9. J.s lIixh "e/veir)' ~as ,'e" ri"g I'al,·t

A .." ll.i$h
";'~ l'llt'<!
During loading and discharging of lhe cargo t~e \'entil~t~on req~irements are
considerable. Air must be drawn in or removed m quantities eqUivalent. to the
cargo oil discharged or loaded. In addition, during th~ loading operaUon the
hydrocarbon vapours issuing from the tank ~ust be dlS~ned well above th.e
= deck. This is achieved by the use of high velOCIty gas ventmg valves. One t~pe: ~s
shown in Figure 9.15, The arrangement consists of a fixed cone around whIch I.S
a movable orifice plate. A counlerweight holds the orifice plale closed until
P,,,onq led 10 1.,"~
sufficient gas pressure builds up to lift the plate. TIle gas is throuled through
the orifice and issues at high velocity, dispersing into the atmosphere well above
the deck. During discharge the cover is opened and a linkage from the cover
FjKl.tre 9.14 Ai, pipt' ht'ad holds the orifice plate in the fully open position.
unvenlilated pockets. The air pipe is led up to the weather deck to a gooseneck
or patenl type of head. Air pipes from fuel tanks arc positioned in low risk areas
and have flame $Crun g3uzes fitted (Fig"re' 9.14). Types of ventilator head
Various different Iypes and arrangements of ventilator head are in usc. Figure
Cargo tanks 9.16 shows a selection of the more common designs.

Ventilation of cargo lanks avoids overpressure or partial pressure conditions

whkh could occur during loading and unloading of cargo, Temperature
fluctuations during a voyage could have a similar effect. Vapour pipelines from
the cargo halch arc led to pressure/vacuum relief valves which are usually
mounted on a standpipe some distance above the deck. Individual vent lines are
fitted for each tank on large lankers and a common venting line is led up a masl
or sampson post on smaller vessels.


Organisations and
, -' /
V,",ut-to< ,n
Nfl A
open llOSu,on

/' ,"Io$ed Dv ""Pw'ng

r~~~r---'-l;;;;d The construction of merchant ships is considerably influenced and regulated by

R ,I~
own cove< pille]
TI'I'eilded a number of organisations and their various requirements.
windle Gaule filled Classification societies. with their rules :Ind regulations relating \0
Ve-n!;IJI;Ofl Ifunlo;in9 classification, provide a set of st:lndards for sound merchant ship construction

I , -SllIM pipe
which have developed over many years. lllCse rules aTe based on experience.
practical knowledge and considerable research and investigation.
The International Maritime Organisation (IMO fomlerly IMCO) is an inler-
national organisation which is attempting 10 develop high standards in every
C'M$·ltttfH>fJl/l ........
aspect of ship construction and operation. II is intended ultimately to apply
these stanoards internationally to every ship at sea.
A vast :J.moont of legislation is applied to ships and is usu:J.lly administered
I Declo; 101..'
Sul»O<l ban by Ihe appropri:J.te government department. The load line rules and tonnage
measurement are twO p3rticular legislative requirements that are outlined in this
fIlled IOCcwn
{{'-::"",,:>'\JlI\ P"le

Classification societies
A classification society exists to classify Of "3rrange in order of merit' such ships
I I 3S are built according to its rules or are offered for classification. A classed ship
is therefore considered to have a particular standard of seaworthiness. There are
Figuf? 9./6 V~ntilalor hmds". (a) ""ODStflee k Iype;
classification societies within most of the major maritime nations of the world
and some are listed below:
(bl musJ"oom type; leJ jUf"d mush
Q~f" ~m
Uoyd's Register of Shipping (UK).
Ameritan Bureau of Shipping (USA).
Bureau Veritas (France).
Det Norske Veritas (Norway).
Germanischer Uoyd (Germany).
Registro lIaliano (Italy).
Register of Shipping (USSR).
Nippon Kaiji Kyokai (Japan).
198 Organwuion and Reguldtion Organiliation and Regulation 199
Consultation blClween the societies takiCs place on mattcn of common illterest . .' inin the names, classes and general infonnation
fhrough the [nlerTl~tioJlal ASSodation of Clas~iflCatiml Societies (lACS). Register of Ships ~s a ~ook c~nt~IO ~'s Register of Shipping., and also particuLars
The classif[(.atiol1 societics oper~te by publishing rules and regulations relating COllcernmg. the ships classed y y hi - the world of 100 tons g,ro~ (a
of aJI known ocean-gOlJlg merdlant s ps III
to the structural eflkiency ~nd the rdiabilily of the propelling machinery and
equipmenL These rules an~ the result of years of expcrience, research and ulpacity measure) and upwanls, _ _ cd by the society in requiring, all vessels
investigatio[J into ship design Olnd (Qllslrudion_ They are ill fact a set of The maintaining of ,talJd~rd). IS ensm ecial surveys are also required every
standards There is no compulsion all a shipowno ro have his ship da~sincd. t.o
tourlI,we ;mn~al
veaTS homsur'''Yd~
tIe lJ 0,Ct 0ex, "thmel1~~~~~~;~y for classification. More detail with
Howe,'er, the insurance premiums de-pend h'ry rlluch upon the class ofa ship-
the higher the standard the lower the p!.emiuTll. Also, hy being c1as~ifled a s!J.ip regard to tbese surveys is given in Cdlttap~e~tla~·an <lssigning authoritv. This means
is shown to be of sound COllstwl:tion and a safe mean~ of transport for cargo or Ih "ety is also empowere o .... t; f h
acts 3S the agent for t he goYemm cnt ~n,tering
, ,

that ite soC! I certam {) t e

paS~eIlgers There is no connedioll betweeTi the insurance companies anu tlle . . ' e-, . the load me ru es,
f or sh'Ippmg,
c1.assification wcielies. m-alldatory reqUlrements
The opc-ration Jnd organisatiun of LJoyd\ Register 'Of Shipping, the oldest
classification society, ",ill JiUW be considered. ThmughOLlt this book all
references 10 claSSification sudety rules are to thuse of LlOYd's Register of
Shipping, This Socidy is run Ily J general corTlmitree composed of members of trade has led finally to the organisation of
llaturc of selborn~
the world community and the industry which jt Snves. National committees are
formed in many (llUntfies for liaison pllrpO>-C>-. A technical COmmittee advises
The international
a.n interna IOna
I body
'0 provide mtcrgovernmen
tal c;--operation on matters
U ~ the aUi;,nic-e>, of tne United Natious
. 1- shippin, amI t e seOl I\'Uer '" ,1
the gener<Jl cummitlee ,)n tedmical problems connecled with the society's concemlllg S1IPS, " ,_ ' .. I (1~'10} fOfll11Orly 1\-leO was forme",
business and any proposed alterations in tile rules. The society publishes it> the Illterllatiolw] \1.antlll1( Orgdnlsall~1 th nrst assembly mel in London in
Following its formal approval by 21 stale" e I
;Rules and Rcguhltions for the Classification of Ships' in book form, which is
updated as neCC-Ssary, and also 'Extr-ac1s' fmlll the~e niles and 'Guidance Notes' 1959., . in out many studies, producing detailed recom-
rdating to morc specifk stluctures and equipment. The society employs [MO, IS responSIble for carry d' d o'Nding fonowing conventions, man-
d . d eloving standu ~ an pr.. , Ih.
surveyors who ensure compliancc wit h the TIlJe~ hy attendancc during men a Ions, ev , clion outfitting and operation. e reqUlIe-
construction, repairs and maintellJnc(" IhrougItout the life of dassed ships. datol}' requirements f7 ~l.~~~~~::::eIflationa1Convention for the Safety of Li~e
To be classed with Lloyd's. apPlIJval is n~cessary for the constIll(;tionaJ plans, men ts ~uch as those 0 t ~ hen ado ted by the government of the vessel s
the materials used and tile C011structiOilai methods and standards, as observed at Sea only become mandator)' W P f involvement by IMO can be seen
Iegi~tered country. Some of the many areas 0
by the surveyor. The rules govfrnillg the :scallllings of the ship'.; structure have
been deve!r.lped from theoretiC,ll Ind ('mpiric-al considerations. Llllyd's wlJect in the following list:
inform,Hion on the WIlUfe and <:aus-e of all ship casu~Ities. Analysis of this
(I) Navigationale-quipment.
information uften result, in modifications to the rules to produce a structure
(2) Ufe·saving equipment, is wlE~id-ered tIJ be -a-dequate, Much research alld ill\'estigaliort is aIs-o
(3) Personnel tf-aining. .
carried DUt by tllC society. bIding likewise to modificatiolls <Jnd amendments to (4) Tanker construction and equipment.
the rules.
(5) Fire s-afety in ships.
The assigning of a da£s then follows acceplancc by the general wmmittee of
(6) Radio comll1unkatiorls.
the surveyor's report on the ~hip The highesl clas, awarded by Lloyd's is lOO + (7) Search and rescue techniques.
AI. This is made up as fOJ!llW,
(8) Suhdivision and stability,
(9) Carriage of dangerous goods.
100 A refers to the hull when bUilt to Ow highest standards laid down ill the
rules. (IQ} Marine pollution.
refers to the E'quipment, such as the anchors and cahles, being in good Items (4) and (5) will now be examined in some detail, since they embody
and effide-nt condition.
+ indk:.Jtes thal the ,essel has b(en built under the supervision of the
many aspects affecting the construction of merchant ships.
socict~/, SurveyUIs.

It is also usual to name the type of ship foll owmg the classification, ego Tanker construction and equipment
+- I 00 AJ Oil Tanker. Machinery i, al,o sUf'leyed and the notation lMC (Uoyd's , ' o f oil tankers will continue to be a source of
Machiaery Certificate) is U$ed where the machinery has been built a.ccording. to The constructlon i!,nd eqUipment ,",., of oil ha" h,en and are still being,
the society's rule, and satisfactorily proved nn sea trials This information , " . elargequanlts ,
much mvestlgatlon SlnC f d d hips Efforts are being made with the
regarding the classitkation of a ship is eJltered ift the Register of Ships. The discharged fJllm damage~ o.r. oun ~:ti S of' the sea (and shore} by oil Two
ohie(t of preventmg or limIting po on
200 OrganiHltion and Regulation Organisation a.n.d Regulation. 20!
panicular avenues of <lpproach are currently being adopled The tlrst deals wltll Tlle-nnal clild slrlJ..:tur<l1 boul1llarics al-e usc- d ',0 sep:lr~ tc: tiLe aCCOIUJlWlbliUfl
preventing the escape of the cargo oj] ill the- event IIf ~I collision tlr grounding_ s)~I('e~ rrom the re:;t oftbc :;hip. ,
3 1\~ 11~C 01 CUl1lhustibk materials i:; to he n:strlded . I d I .., ....,,_
The se-cond appmach is 10 altempt to limit sLet, of cenlre tanks and Wing tanks.
The first arrangement utilises segrega1ed or dean bJllast tanks (SBT lH C8T).
4. i \ IlV t'Ire sIlilU Id b e det'cUd
~ contained ' 'I lid . - lC w lere 10 o<.<.ur,,_
extlllgul~ d f
Proposals for the fitting of double·bottom tanks over the\) rank length and 5 Ac~ess must be pl()vided lo enable I-ile fig.hllll!\ and a pro~cl·le me~ms I)
Wing ballast tilnks have been put forward.1hese tanks arc t{J be segregated, that
i.s, for the carriage of clean water ballast only. The second method aims at () ~\~~l:~l;~·intlamm"bk CHg.O -VarlllH exi:;ts the pos~il1ility of ils igllition IllUst be
restricting cargo tank sizcs 10 50000 m' [Or centre tanks and 30 000 m~ for III inimis_cd.
Wing tanks. This would limit the extent of pollution in the event of damage to
n particular tank.. Variuus definitions ilTt: gi"VCtl for the special telms used. Non-co)11husti'o]C
Other proposals following the 1973 Marine Pollution. Convention which are matcrial m8aJlS LI material \-\ hid.l neither b urn~ nor gi'{~<;_0 E1 tJ~ tlam maol", vajJo;,,:s
now in force includc: in a sufficient quantity trJ sdf·lgl1lte wilen heated to .1:,:>0 C III iHl approved t ..
Anl-' ,,,her maleltlll is combustihle. A standard ftlc test i, "vhen sp~c:tm~n'i of t]-:e
, n docks ·He expo\.\'d in a ksl furnace 10 a particular tcmpera-
(1) For new crude carriers over ::!OOOO deatlwooight tonnes, segregated banast I,
reevan t l)I.J Ikl Ha. d''v,.... ,
tanks (SBT}, crude ui] washing (COW) and an iller! gas system (JCS;' wi]) ture lill;] cerl:Jin peril\d of r.illle_
be required. rhc 'A' Cl.ass division'i me those dil'isiollS fOmlc-d hy bulk.heads and dc-cks
(2) For -existing crude c:Jrrier~ O\'cr 40000 deadweigllt lonnes, CBT, SBT- whicb comply with the following.:
01 cow will be required.

(3-) For existing .:rude carriers over 70000 deadw-eight ttlnnes, lCS will be 1. The-v shaUne construded of steel or otller equivalent material.
mandatory, .., Thc;" shall be suilably stiffened. . . .. .
3. TileI' sh.all he cOll'itructcd to prevent the passlige of smoke aIld name for a
(4) For products carriers over :20000 deadweight tonnes, IGS will be
required. onc:!1(Jur standard nrc test. . .
4 Th.e]' Illust be insulated such tl1at the unexposed side_wlllllOt nse Illorenl~n
(5} For products carriers over 30000 deadweight tOl1Oes. SBT will he
required 139°C or any point more than 180°C above the tcmperature ",~nhl~
times as foUmvs: Class /\ -60, 60 mmutes: A-JO. ],0 mtnl.JleS, A -1), l)
minutes: A-O, 0 millute~.
Crude oil waJ:hillg

With this system, cargo lanks are equipped with fixed washing machines through The 'W Class division~ are those divisions l"ormc:d by bulkheads which are, COll~
whkh crudc oil (cargo) is pumped, Thc uil spray impinges all the lank ., .(od co prevent tlle r>as,ag" of fi-ame for a hall-hour st:mdard fIre test. rhey
sruc" ~ . I IJ90C-r
extremities and frees the sludge \.vhich has separated DUt during shipment. Crude must lIC UlSU 1a t,d ~" L '-' tJle- Ul1cxp(}~ed
~u 'h"t .. , side win not .nse . Illore t Lall __ .,rl'. u
.any ' ( ~")~o(~" ,,"
pOlll .,I-.ov~v the original tcmper8ttlre witfUll tlmcs as [ollnw~. lISS
oil washing can therefon' mean m-orc cfficient discharge of cargo, while also .

being a useful aid to the load·un-top cleaning system. H--15, 15 minutes and BO, 0 mlnutf5. _ . 0
The 'C' Class divisions ate made of non-<.;omh-tlstible matenals but meeL II
other rcquirements.
Fire Safety in ships The main veltical zones an: those section, into which Lhe hull, -\Uperst~t1et~re
and deckbOl.Jses me divided by ':'\' Class divisions, lhc mean \engt1-l of whiCh
I'ire [\l sea i<; an evcr-presem and much feared hazard. For pa%enger ships the :;llOUld not ex.c:ccd 40 m. - 1
The hull, supcrstruclure, bulkheuUs. decb und deckhouscs m~st be of stee OJ
·ccommendations, rules am] r~guliltiom following the 1()74 fmemanonl11 Crm-
other material which has structural a.J1d firc integrity properties equlvalenl tn
'e/'enee on the SafeD-' of Life at Sea ale extcns.ive. They cover the many aspect~
)f detection, restrictiOII awl extinguhhing of fires. Cargo ships, panicul.n]y ilJ sted_ Pipe materials aiTe-eleli by heat must not be used for nutl~ts near the
waterline. The use of combustiole matcnals should be kepi to lHl absQlute
,he accommodation arc as, must likewise huve arrange men t:; [0 deal with I1res,
The arrangcments fm fire protection, by virtue of det.ails oJ arrangemc-nt of millimum. Pjints, varnishes, elC., with a nitIOcel1ulos.e base musi. not be used ...
:omtruction, a, detailed in the 1974 lmernar.ional Confernrce on Safety of Life The hun, superstructure and (lcckhouscs must be SU?dlVlde~ , .1I1to matn
vertical fire miles of 40 m length or less_ "A' Class fire·reSlStmg dlVl~lOns are to
rt Sea und Uoyd's Rules, <If(: applicahle tu passenger ~Jlips carrying more than
\6 passengcrs ilnd eargo ships of more than 4000 tonnes gross. The following be u-sed from deck to deck and shell or other houndaric~. 'A' Clas~ h.ound~ry
Jrincip-les are the basis of the regulations bulkheads above thc hulkhead del:k should, where pDssible, be U1 hne WIth
walcrtight bulkheads below. _ _ _.
. The use of tllcrmal and structural boundaries to divide the <;Ilip into main .
Any ()pemng~ I. l'A' l, ('loco "'uJkhead~
,,-.,~ u _ must. be made good ., Jar. tne-reSlStmg
vertical zones, Ilumoses. Dampers must ile fitted IT! vent trunks and ducb <Ina shuuld be ope,
202 Organisation an.d Regulation Orgnnisatiol1 and Regulation 203
able from c-ith;or side of lh.c l:Julkhead; irHlk:u.tors should also fl{: fi',0ct n loadcd, willi adequate stability and strcngth. A nUTr.ber of terms aud dimensions
'A' '-'I ~ ,,'- . U()(H,,,'III
'- ass :,ulkhc~ds must be as fire resistant .as tlie ant.! .,hol.ilJ IJ.C" are used in the -computation of frcrhoard.
c~~able .oj heing llpcncd from <:ithcr side by one person. Fire d()or~ must 11c-
sdl-closlng, even ill <In indiJll'd posi1ioll 01 3.5". Freehomd deck, This is the upperm{lSl continuous deck exposed to the
Ot~er bulkh('ad~ in main H'rli-cal fire lO]1t~ rnU,1 he (If 'B"Clas;; firc-retardillo we-ather and thc sea v.-hich has permanent means for the watertight closure of
m<tlenal. BoundaT)' bulkheads (lnJ dcc'k.'i .'.epar'lting the JC~'l)lllmndijli()n froll~ all exposed openings on th-e dcck and in the side shell below.
, . . or cargo
- Sp,ICCS, or m:ilo.:hinocIY
_. . ''Ilace:; must be A - 611 ('I'
. <iSS 1-'ue-rC,jstlTl~
?lv:slons. I)<'ck covcnng~ wlthm the aCl,;oJllmodJ.tiulj spaces should be of lI11n'. Dl'ck fine, This is a horlzonul tine 300 mIll Long and 2S mm wide which is
Ignitahle marc-flal. positioned umidship~ port and starboard, The upper edge of the line is located
, ,St.airw.1Y., and Uft, ~rc 10 he sled-framed ;md "",'itllin enc!osul'e, funned by level with the uppn surface of the freeblJa.rd deck plating on the outcr shell.
,ft (lass c11Vlswm. Sdj·clo~lIlg dums witll positive means uf closure should be all OP:lllllgS, and be as effective asthe bulkhead in ",..]lk:h fitted. lor fire Length. The freeboard length is the greater of the following two measure-
CO!ltammcnt. C.~ll;[I)1 slatH)I.lS, slH:h as the radio foarn. bridge, etc. must b.c ments: (I) on a W4JerliIle at 8570.- of the least muulded depth. 96% of the length
surruunded by. A -class dIVI,IOns. Skylights in mJchi!J()'ty SPilCc, sholllil have along the waterline; or (2) on the same W.ale-lLille, the distance from the fore side
means of cklsmg (rom outside the spa<.:e and alsu sleel Sliii·lt I of the stem to the axis of the rudder stock.
attached. - , ers permunent y
. Ventilation systems .other than carg{) and illdchincry spaces must haye t\\.'o Breadth Measured:l\ amidships, [his is the ma:>;lrnum hreadth to the moulded
Jlldcpcnde~1t control pomt: where all machinery can he stopped ill the e\{ent (Jf a line.
fire ..Ma-elullCry ,space velllllallOll must he capable oi being stopped from ouhide
~h~ ,;pac~. All IOkts and ou,!-cts lllllst be able [0 Ile dosed from oubide the IJepth moulded. This is the vertical distance between the upper edge of the
~pace, I~lr Spaces 1Il thc accommodatio1l behind ceilings, Linings. etc. must be keel and the upper edgc of the freeboard deck beam measured at the ship's
htt~d "', Jth draught stops nol morc than 14 m IIp<trt, side.
The .abovc arrangements ar-e made hJ ensure that in the: event of, r-
boa d I' 't ill b 'il <l lre on Displacement. TlJis lli the moulcteod displacement of the ship, elle-!uding
r S lip I IN e contamc witltin the Lune in which it uccur- Ark n I '
thcn be made i f ' h I f' ~, IpS CJIl bossingg-, measured at 85* Cfthe least muulded depth.
, . 0 ex mgUl, t te Ire or, at ",'orst, escape. Stairways 3!ld lift trunks
act as dnmneys \.l-'hlCh encDurage the fire and ',\' Cla~s bulkheads arc used he!'c
to ensure that tl115 does not occur. Block coefficient. This is determined using the values of ;lisplacement, length.
breadth and a V'lhle of dr'lught which is 85% of the leust moulded depth, i.e.

The load line rules - freeboard Block coefficient, Cb =
Length X Breadth X Draught

~~~ebOJld is lbe distance ll1eaSl~I.cJ hom th~' watcrline to the upper ed'i(c of the Superstrucmre. This is a structure of adequate strength on the fteeboard deck
ck platll1g _at lhe slde_ of the lr('ehouru_' ucck 3Ifl1dslll l", TI" I d I'me ni Ie-s set
,,(la which extends transversely to at least within 0.04 times the breadth from the
out , q unemcllt',I(H a mtnlInUtTl frcehuard wlikh tllust be indkMed 011 t.he ship's ~idc The snperstrut:lure length, S, is taken as the mcan length of that
slup s sld.c b.. ., a spc:clal 10<JJ ll1le mark Tilis minimUIll freeboaru is a stalll!{)[v part of Hie superstrudurc within tlte freeboard length of the ship,
requlTement U11d-er tll<': Merdl,mt Shipping (Loadli1ll') Rules of 19"'1'; TI ' I '
.areh d II 19 I - - ~'- leS<'IIlC:S
, asc Oil 1e 66 nternatliJnal Loadline COllveJitiun calkd 11V [)1(0 and
raulled by each of lll~ colll11ries taking part. ' Freeboard categories
wo If· I.minimum fr-ecboanl is reqUired
_. pl'incipaliv
. -to ensur'" t""·
. ... "Ll' -I" 01' "
~ IIp I~ sea·
r ly WIn! load-ed The mllllmum fweboard providc:s the ship ''''h ' In order to assign freeboards. ships are divided into Types A and B, Type A ships
of h ' I' h " ·d a rc:serv-e
" flse as it passe~ "';~"·o d "
uoyancy w lie- enables It [0 are those -designed specifical1y for the carriage of liquid cargoes in bulk. The
larel-d'- , .,,-Thrau"I,E"'''''',,~oan lUsremalll '
'bT r:'!- on
d- Its decks Tim rescrl-'~ hllOVanC\'
-, al<c.
i mplo ',' th
'" evesses j' cargo tanks have only small openings for access which arc closed by watertight
sta Illy an In the n"entof damage will enahle- it to remain aOoat i1H!l:finitelv covers of adequate strength. Type B ships are al1 those wnkh are not of Type
or at least fOl a tnne to dlee! l}le ('scupe of the: crew. ~' A. The greater freeboard requiled for tbe Type B ship may be reduced in certain
The- assigning of freeboalD full(IWS a calculalion which cOllsiJers the h' , circumstances. In ships whele steel hatch covers are fitted, special subdivision
length: breadth, depth and sheer, the density oj the Water und thc'arnollsn:Po~' arrangements exist, improved water freeing arrangements are provided and better
waterllght superstructures and other feaLurcs of the ship Additi'l j't', protection for the crew is given, a reduced freeboard is permitted. This reduction
oj as ' I ' . ona C01l( I 10m
, signmenl Jrt .a so made relatlllg to certain openinos and fitt! a TI 'h ' can re~ult in an almost equivalent value to that of a Type A ship. Whele this
assIgned b' . .- r " n " s , ie S ip IS
.- a lbS1C ffilntmum reeboard on the assumption that it' is correctly value is almost equivalent the notation Type B·IOa is used, indicating a 100'%
204 Organlsatir>n and Regulation
Orgrmisatian and Regulatiol1 20S
reduction I~f the freeboard differencc between Type~ A and B, Tho;;: notation
TYf1c B·60 is used where a 60';1c, reduction of freeboard difference is obtained.
an 85 m ship length and 1070 mm for all ship lengths greater than 122 :n0
Intermediate length deductions are- obtained by interpo!allon; .wlIh eHe-etlve
Bulk carriers particularly benellt from this reductiOll in freebOJnJ.
lengths less than 1.0f. the dedudinn is a percentage of the values glven,
The freeboard is detnmined from a i.::l]cu)aliol1 wl1ere iJ rabulal freeboard
figure hased nn the ship's length and type is adjusted hy se'Vcr:al corrections.
These corrcclions lire t{) .aecouIlt tor the v.aTiations between the actual ship and Sheer con-cetion
the standard ship on which the tabular freeboard is based
I The -differences be-tweeTl the actual sheer profile and a standard sh~er prof1Ie are
determined. Tlle correction is Ihen the- deficie-ncy or excess mulhplled by

A Type B ship of less th:an 100 In lell~th llaving superstructures with an effe-dive
(075. ~L)
length, E, of up to 35% of the freeboard length, L, may have its freeboard
increased by wht:re S is the mean length of the superstruct~rc. ,.
for a defickncv of sheer, the correction IS added t{) the freeboard. ~lth an

7.5 (100' (, -"i

r\,0.35 ,) millimetres
excess, a dcdwctjo~ is permitted where the superstructure covers O.lL af~ an,d
0.11. forward of midships f'm le$SeT lengths of superstructure, thc dedllctlOlllS
obtained by interpolation. A maximllm deduction of 125 mlTl per 100 TIl of ship
length is permitted.
where E LI the effective length of the superstructure, in metres. With the SUper.
strllcture length, S, known the cffective length, F, may be found from the load With the tabular value amended bv the cOffections, the freeboard value will
line rutes.
be that for the maxi-mum summer ·i1raught in sea W'..lief- This .·a/tlc may be
further amended if, for instance, the bow height is insuftlcient as defincd In the
rules. cargo pmts or openings are fitted in the sides below the freeboard deck or
Block coefficient co"cction
the shipowner requests a freeboard corresponding to a draught less than the
maximum permissible.
'rVhere t]l1:: actual block coefficient, C", of the ship cueeds 0.6&, the freeboard
,mended by the flush deck corrcction, if relevant. is multiplied by the ratio
Cb + 0,68 load line markings
The maximum summer draught, as determined above, is indicated by a load line
Cb is obtained as defined earlier.
mark. This consists of a ring of 300 mm outside: diameter and 25 mm wide,
intersected by a noriwntat line 450 rnm long and 25 mm wide. The upper edge
Depth cOlrection of this line passes through the centre of the ring. The ring IS pos~tioned. at
midships and at a distance below the upper edge of the deck lme which
corresp-onds to the assigned minimum summer freeboard. This value may not be
The formula for the freeboard depth, D, is given in the rules. Where D is greater
kss than 50 mm,
than the freeboard len,gth, L, divided by 15. the freeboard is increased by
A series -of bad lines are situated forward of the load line mark and these
denote the minimum freeboards within certain geographical zones or in fresh
wateL The summer load line is level with the centre of the ring and marked S.
The tropical T and winter W load lines are found by -deducting and adding,
where R "" L{O.48 for ships less than 120 m in length, or 250 for ships greater respecti'Ve1y, 1/48 of the summer moulded draught. For a shiP. of tOO ~ l:ng~
than 120 m in length, If D is less than 015 no deduction is made, except where Of I.ess a Winter North Atlantic (WNA) zone load line is permttted. This lIne 1S-
there is art enclosed superstIUcture extending 0,6L at midships. ntis deduction positioned at the winter freeboard plus 50 mm. The fresh water freeboaIds F
....auld be determined as for the flush deck correction. and IF are found by deducting from the summer Or tropical freeboard the
Superstructure co"ecrion Displacement in salt water
For an effecti'Ve length of superstructure, F, of 1.0 times the freeboard length, L, wh-ere TPC is the toones per centimetre immersion in salt water at the summer
:he freeboard may be reduced by 350 mm for :a 24 m ship length, 860 mm for load waterline.
206 (Hgtmisation and Regulation Organisation tmd Regulation 207
C=====~I Deck lin~ Superstructuore end bulkheads
, , Such buLkheads for Emclosed superstructures must be adequately conslructed.
,---300 mm----'
, Any openings. must have" minimum sill height of 380 mm above the deck,

Portable cOJ-'ers secured by tarpaulins


Substantial coamings. of mild steel lH equivalent material must be fitted to all

r- ~=11 '
hatchw<lYs. Minlmum neights are 600 illm in Position 1 aml450 mm in Position
230 T 2. Requirements must be met in respect of thickness of covers, strength, loading

iL of covers and beams, carriers or s-ocket design, cleats, battens, wedges, number
of tarpaulins and securing arnmgcmen ts.


540 mmforw<lrd_,' 1-230mm..j
Watertight steel corers

There are similar requirements forcoamings. but these may be reduced ill height
or dispensed with where the safety of the snip is not affected. Again require-
ments must be met in respect of cover strength. construction and watertight 1 (), 1 Load li"e- "'Ilrkin~ (all/rm:s 25 mm /hic-kr".s~'J
securing arrangements.

Tne~e markings arc shown in Figure IO_l. In .all cases, measurements are to
the IJpper edge of tae line.
Machinery space openings

Machinery space openings in Posit ian 1 or 2 must be effidently framed and

plated for strength. Openings are to have watertight doors with sill heights of
Conditions of assignment 600 mm in Position I and 380 mm in Position 2, All other openings are to have
attached steel covers which can be secured weathertight if required.
~:;s.tion was made earlier of t ne conditions of assignment relating. to freeboard.
e a~e certaln reqUIrements which must be met to ensLJrc tbe wate t-ght
of ope lungs and the ~bility of the ship to rapidly free itself of water 00 Ct' d Ok'" Other openings in freeboard and superstructure decks
Refe ill b d ' I S ec s.
renee w e rna e to two partIcular positions which are now defined.
Manholes an-d scuttles (portholes.) must have covers fitted to efficiently secure
Position t, E.xpose~ rreeboard, SUpers.1IUcture and raised quarter decks within them. All doorways are to have a minimum sill height of 600 mm in Position I
one·quarter of the ShLp s length from the forward perpelldicular. and 380 mm in Position 2. All openings other than hatchways, machinery space
openings, manholes and seuttles, where in an exposed position, must be enclosed
by a stIu.;ture of equivalellt strength and watertightness to an enclosed super-
Position 2, Exposed superstILIcture decks outside one-quarter af the ship's
length from the forward perpendicular.

Structural strength and stability Coamings 011. ventilators must be 900 mm above deck in Position 1 and 760 nun
in Position 2. Where exposed to severe weather or in excess of 900 mm high,
Th~ ship i& required to have the necessary structural strength for the f b d ooamings are to be suitably bracketed to the surrounding structure or deck.
assIgned. Certain criteria with regard to stability must be mot d
e. b.'
'" an an me mmg Some m-eans of permanent closure, either attached Of close by, is required for all
xpenment :must e ca.rned out III order to ell&Ure compliance. ventilators except those of height in ex.;ess of 4.5 m in Position 1 or 2.3 m in
Position 2.
208 (}rganisation and Regulation
Organisation and Regulation 209
Ai, pipes
IJlber means "f access 1("luiIed itl tl,e (lOllrse ,)1' tile-iT work mllst be provi(leol1
fOl till' en·...,

SpE!c~al conditions of assignment for Tvre A ships

Cargo ports and similar opening., ,Had/illlY1' caS/ilKS

An enclosed poop. bridge or >tilTldarl1 height or J dcckhouse of eqlliv.alcnt

Ally cargo port~ mUl! be fltled with lhJOrs and tr"lInc~ ",'hid, 1\1<lil11:ain th:
'-lrengih \\lid "eight llt\lS\ protect t\l<: l\\';l(:n(l\Cry ~asiI\.g. An cxrro~ed casing is
s!ruct~ral i:l-!ld watertight iflll:grity of the ship No door is to be fiHed With an'y
allo\\.,'cd withoul doors or with a dDuble-door arrangemenl. provided it is of
part 01 ItS opemng bela'>'.' the load line deLks
weathertight c-onstrllt:lion

<;cupp"rs, int"rs {lnd discharges

All di~l;harges from above or below Ill,", freebOJrd de 'k I 'I '
All exposed hatchways are to h<Jve efficient I'.,'atertight covers of ~te-el or
to have ff1 " I . l rum ~JiL 11\(.",-, s]lilces are
an e lelen lH!-n-return arrangemenl filled , , - . . ,
:ontrol are sp-ecificd <lccordillo to J " , . , rraJlgclJ1enlS and their equivalent strength material
I,aterline Manned 'I _ " tIe ~lscJlargc -r.hstanc<;; from lhe- SlllTHner Iliad
lCcessible' controls a~nal.: lInerl' spocc Inlets alll: olltkts ilr~ to Ila"", readily
)C l-ed .uirectly overbo~[~~lve poS1tlon IllUIGlturs, Scuppers from open spaces may Frecin.f!, arrangements

Opcn ,ails mU~L be fitted for at least half of the exposed length or the deck. The
upper edge of the ~h-ecr strake should be kept as low as possible. Where a trunk
lide scu (ties (porrholes)
connects parts of the Sllperstruetur~, open rails should be fitted at the perimeter
of the deck in way of the trunk.
:very side s-:uttle below lhe lreeboard uec\..: is to b~ fiiteu ·'in h-
llate or -deadlight which may !'le securelv closed and Illa ..... \ a, mgeo,c-over-
.;:uttles 111.1\.·J be fitted bolow 2 5".', Ill'"
' - . /G I
, b
1e S up s readth
wille-rtlght.' !\'() sIde
he greHter, above the load waterline or -~ min. whlchever is Protectiun. oj the crew

Where separate superstructures exist they should be connected hy a raised gang-

way at the level of the superstructure deck. An acceptable alternative would be
;reel'lg ports
a passageway below deck. With a sillgle superstrut:;ture, ade4uate safe
arrangements should for access to all work areas on the ship.
Vhe~e bulwarks on any exposed decks form wells h - ,
fficlCnt means for Iapidly freeing the decks ofwat l ey prmHled With
01 the determination of the freeing , I _ er, SpeClal formulae are gh'en
s height and the sheer of the deck area In re atlOn to the l~ngth of the b-ulwark, Tonnage
s close to the deCK as possible. T~~~i~~:~~~~~e-f of the Jre~Jl~-PQH should be
ear the lowest pOint of til" sh . 'h reemg area,s ould be IOl::ate-d Tonnage, as disc-ussed in this section, is a measure of cubic capacity where 1 t-on
_ .. eer curve \>, ere sheer eXlsts th d k represents 100 ft3 or 2.83 m3 • Trmnage is a measure of the ship's internal
lpemngs are restricted in height to "30 m,n bv b. b· I 011 e ec. capacity, with two values being used. The gross tonnage is the total internal
/h h - lars emg p .ae.ed acro h
_o~ja~~~e:.s or flaps are fitted to these openings they ~hould be P::Y:l1~~d capacity of the ship and the net tonnage is the revenue-earning capacity.
Tonnage values are also used t-o determine port and canal dues, safety equipment
and manning requirements and are -n statistic31 basiS for measuring the siLe of a
country's merchant fleet. All ships prior to registry must be- measured according
'rOlection of the crew to their country's tonnage regulatiorts. The differences in the various measuring
systenlS have 1ed to ships having several tonnage values and to unusual designs
11.' exposed freeb.oard and superstructure decks must have bulw k . d which exploited aspects of tonnage measurement. The 1969 ]~10 International
iUS fitted at thelr perimeter with a minimum height of I .. ~ s or .gu,n Conference on Tonnage Measurement of Siljps led to .an international review of
itted the d k d I . , m.... nere ralls are
ec an ower rad spacmg must not exceed 230 rom d th il the subject and a r;ystem which will ultimately be universany adopted.
80 mm. Eff-ective protection and safety in the form of
210 Organisation il1Jd Regulation
Organisation and Regulation 211
Rffe-rence will now be made to the British liJllnage rlIeaSllremcnt SyStem and
also the 1969 (0I1ventitln mea~UreTTlent syslL:m. f.xem/rr<'d ~pat'CS

Th~;;~ l~e spaces wlli(h Jrc n01 rne~I~\lTed f'Jr the grllSS tonllage ~·~k\llali('n
Stich wa.;~'\ Illn be- ~b"H' <>r helow 1111' t<HHH)1,C dcck <lnd itldwk
British tonnage
(]) \\-11edhousc. cllartr<1Ilm. l"adirTl'lll,n, <lnc! nal'ig:llion aids (UOItI.
The current regulations governing tonnage measurcmenr ,lIe the Mereh,wt C) Spaces fined wiIh and fllr the lise of ll1a,~bil1cr~ 01 cUI1Jcm<'I~.
~hipj1lng_ (T-oJlnae-'t') Regul....tions 1967(1 I). 11H~ me::t,uremenl uf tonnage 0) Safety equipment ill1d hilrtl'l) Sp.K<::;,
talluws Irolll VarJOll.' sp<::dalist term, ~md values which will now be defined in (4) 51abilit} Lmks and Jllilchinery,
(5) (;alky ami ha!-;e 1')' SP;KI:~.
(6) Skylights. dDmes and trunks,
(7) Washing and s:mitary accmllllwuatiull furllliflg par! III tile dl:l-\ J«<1Ill
Tonnaxc deck This is the senmd deck, except In single· LIed: ships trllJdJtiol1

Dcduaed S(){l(:(:.1
Tunnage kngth. An. imaginary liM i" dmwn across Ihe :l-Ilip at the stern and
st-ern un the Inside of tlte hold frames iJT spJrring. The tunnage length is the The [{)flnage lJf th~sc ,pa~es must fil~t he meJ~d al1d nun then b·v J<:ddcted
dIstance between these Imes measured along the ship's centreline on the tonnage from the g:ross tOllnage lJr" tht: sll ip tn give lITe nd tOllJlage I:::xamples uf
deck. deducted spilces arc'
(1) \faster's a-ecomffiodation.
(2) (reR,' accommodatioll and an ~llowal).:e for pW\'ision s!ore~,
Tonnage depth This is measured frum the upper surface ofrhe tanktop to the (3) Chain locke-r, steering gear 'pal,;e. anc1H)1 ge,lI and cap<;t:J1l spaL'e
underSIde of the tonnage dCl;k Ci1 the centreline. with a deduuion of one-third (4) Space -COr safet)· equipmell1 and batteries helo\\' the Lipper \~eck,
of the camber. The height of flooring, d{)uble or single, is limited (S) Workshops and stOTerooms for rLlnlplTl~n. r!t:;:tricians, carpenter. and
(6) Donkey engille "tid c1{lllke., boilc! space if tlH'se arc' oUlside the
TUNnage brmdtll. The breadtJI of the sbi.p to the imide of the hold frame:> or machinery space.
(7) Pumprooms, where these are outside tne ma.;;hinery SpJL'e
(8) 'Vater haUast tanks, w~lere tbey aro{) for the ex.clu,ive carriage of wat<,r
b.a1l3st, 3 ma.\iJlturn limit of 19S" of the 2,105> tOlltuge is impos<:J.
UnJerdeck tonllage. This is the tonnage of the space bElow the tonnage deck. (9} Propelling power allcTIvance - this is the largest d-::dllcti{1TI and is
It is found by dividing the tOllnage iength into a specified 'number of parIs. At determined aU'0rding tu cenail) nileJi:; ,15 follows:
eilcn crosS-~ctiDll fmmed '0)' this diVision, the tonnage depth is similarly divided
If the machinery space tonnage is bel\veel1 l:en and 20S. of the guJSS lonn:;g:e.
up. The tonnage breadtlJ, at tl,esc points are then measureu. The measured
the pfLlpelling power allowance tS 32S"t- of the gro,s IOlImgc If tbe IlI8chiner~
dist.1nces are then put through Simps-on's rule to provide the urlJerdeck volumc
space tonnage is less than J 3'7 of 1he gms., tDnnage then the propdlillg. power
whJch is converted into a tonnage value.
allowance is the aJl10llnt expressed as a proportion of 32'1 of the f!ro>s !unnag:c
v,'here the mal'hiTlery space- tonnage- is more than 20~" of the gross tonnag,,- the
~ropel1in!!.. power ,,"l1ow,,"nce is 1-':; time, Lhe machinery space tonnage. There j,
":J'wss tonnage
a maximum limit of 550 of the ,HDSS ((}llIlage lell t!le ;)f(1;Jdhng pcnNer
allow,lTIce If any pJrt of the light alld air space is inclu(!cd m the grms t()nlla~e
fltis is tIle total of the underdeck tonnage and the ~onnage of the following rhen it may also be included itl the machinery space
Set forlilaxe
(I) Any tween·deck spaces hetweel\ the second anrl upper rlecks.
(2) Any 'odo"" 'poe" ,bo," Ih, opp" "eck. This i~ tile :amragc value obwined hy deducting fron; the glO" t\I[ll1Clgc lite total
(3) Any excess of hatchways over 0.5% of the groflS tonnage, v::tlue of the deducted spaces. The net \(11l[lage is considered to reprcserlt lh~
(4) At the shipowner's option and with the- surveyor's approval. any engine earning capacity of the ship. The tt:lTll net r<:gi!':tCr t011nage (~Rn is also used.
light and air s-paces- on ur above the upper deck.
TOlllwg(' lIIarkldu'I!I<'
[he term gross register tonn3ge (CRT) is also llsed.
The- tlJTln<lge mark scheme \vas devised h) cxempl from tonnage measure-mcrlt
the tween deL'k ,pace between tlle uppermost complete deck aad the second
212 Organisation and Regulation
deck. provided a special tOllnage dr"ught Illark was not submerged. The position
of this nlark on the ship's -'ide \.\ias tu ~enerally (;orrespIJnd to the draught
which \\-'uuld be obtained if the freehoard had been cakuLated Cor the second
deck being Ihe freeboard deck. A special l11iUk is u~ed and is shown in Fi?:/lJ'e
fU!. The position of Ihe mark on the ship·s $ide is g,i"'en in the amcndmcnt to
the load line mles dealin[l: with the tonnage mark lchclllC.
___ 3-00 ,,,,n ___

_ n(J".,C"- Corrosion and its Prevention

Figure) D,] 7of!{I(Jg" mark
(ailliriCS 25 mm lliitll/WSS)
The prevention of corrosioll on board ship is an immense onf'{)ing process
demanding the attention and skills of t:omidcrable numbers of pcrsonnel The
When the tonnagc mark is at or above the waterline the ship i~ considered ship because of its size. its phy,ical CIlvironmcn! alld tile TTlalcri;!ls 1I.led in its
10 !l.ave a modified tonllage When the tonnage mark is below the waterline the construction is subjcct. to attack from the . . ariOll'; funllS or corrosion
ship is cOJlSidercd to be at its full tll1l11age.
1969 Tonnage Convention Co[ro~ion i~ the wasting of metals by chemical {If cleTtr-lJchemical reactions with
their surroundings Erosioll is.a term often a,sodated with corrMion. and refers
Two IDnnage values, the gross and the net, arc u~ed. The . . arious positiom and
to the de~tru~tion of a meral by abrasion_ Emsion is therefore a mechanical
cxtcnt of l11eaSl1rem~nts of Icngth. breadth and depth ,lie defined and differ
wastage pw.ccss that exposes hare metal which can tlten c'-'rrode.
slightly from the British tonnage system. Excluded spat:es. a -c-argo space and
Iron ana steel corrode in an attempt to regain their oxide forlll which i5 in a
other terms are clearly defilled. The gros~ ttlIlnagc b computed frum an empiri-
balanced state with the earth's atmosphere:, This oxidising, or rusting as it is
cal formula, the terms uf which relale to the defilled tOlln:lge distances or La commonly termed, will take place whenever steel is expmcd to oxygen and
conwln ts which are dete rmined from the form ulae given. N el tonnage is ~imilarly
moi~ture, The prevention of corrosion therefore de-als with the isolation of sted
founll hy linlllhcr empiricat formula consisting of measurements and constants.
from its environment in order to stop this oxidation taking pla.ce,
The COllvention advocates the- me of thc term, 'U~S (~ross' and 'L:MS Net' as In addition, the presence of a ship almost l,;onst-antly in sca water enables an
dimensionless values instead ofgro~s and net tonnages in tom. The acceptance of
electrochemical reaction to take place on unprotected steel surfaces. A cOlTosion
this c(Il1VentiOll will remove \he tonnage mark. scheme whidl has been the
cell is then si:lid to have been formed. This is often referred to as a 'galvanic
subiect of much con tmve rsy . cdl'. since its wnent flow is a result of a potential difference between Iwo
metals (not necessarily different) in a solution such JS sea water. This current
ConsequenCl:s of the 1969 Convention How ,CSLlltS in metal being removed from the anode metal or positi.. . e de-drude,
while the cathodic metal or negati....e electrode is protected from corrosiun. Most
Gross tonnage measurements or VMS Gross are, in general, fairly close to those common metals can be arranged in what is known as a gal.. . anic series. according
val\le~ determined f{Om c'J.trcnt Iegt.\latiom•. ShijJs with la(ge ex.empted spaces to their electrical potential in sea water, as shown in Tablt' 11.1.
will have somewhat Larger gross. tonnages under the new mles. Net tonnages do A simple example of a corrosion cell would be a plate of copper and one of
show sigllificant v-ariations between the measured values for individual ships. Ore iron placed in a sea water solution and joined by a wire. Reference to Table 11,1
and bulk -carriers with their high density cargoes will have a reduced net tonnage will show that .copper will becollle the cathode ()[ protected end JIld the steel
under (he new rules. Again, ships with large exempted spaces will ha.. . e larger will become anodic and corrode. This is shown in Figure 11J The chemical
net tonnages under the new rules. reactions taking, place and the electmIl flow occurring will result in the ar."Iodic
Apart from the purely quantitative aspects, the uni-....ersal adoption of !he new metal combinmg with di"wlvcd (Jx.y~en to form its o;,table oxide form (mst).
rules wUl provide for safer ships. This is because construdional methods and Corrosion .can also o.ccur as a result of stress, either set up in the mate-riat
unusual design features will no longer be inOuenced hy tonnage measurement. during manufacture or as a result of its 'working' in the sea. The e{feds of stress
The task of measurement will he simpler. since the necess<try information can bc and fatigue are to provide area~ where cracking may occur. but even these
taken directly from plans. Thc levies drawn from tonnagc measurement will sometimes minute cracks cre<ltc conditions under which gal.. . anic corrosion will
require some adjustment bu.t will ultimately provide all conGemed with a clear, pro.ceed. The -combine-d action of the two has a considerable effect on the
precise hasis for their ;;harges. material.

214 Corrosion and its Preven'ion
Corrorion and its Prevention 215
types of corrosion prevention are usually complementary to one another in that
both are nonnally fitted on modem ships. Finally, it should be noted that a

I Go~
knowledge of the processes of corrosion can ensure the reduction or prevention
Graphite of conosion on board ship. particularly on the internal structure, by the use of
Silver good design and arrangement of structural members.
etuhodit or noble m('wlg Pusive sUlinless sU'ds
(pror«Ud marerial) Pusive h~h nickl'l alloys
Pusivl' nickd Paint
Silver solders
Copprr-nickl'1 alloys
Bronus Protective coatinp refer 10 the application of a suitable paint system. Paint is
Gunml'lal a mixture of \.bree ingredients - the pigment, the binding agent or vehicle and
Coppa the solvent. The pigment is responsible for the colour and covering capacity and
Bran (10/30)
Anivl' h;,h nickel aUoys
may also refer to certain additives, depending upon the properties required of
Anivl' nickd the final product. The binding agent or vehicle, depending on ils proportion in
MiU scak the paint. will decide the consistency and ease of application.of the paint. The
Naval brass and brass (60/40) solvent or thinner is added to make the paint flow easily.
Most paints consist of solid pigments. usually in a fmely divided form,
Lad-lin SOkll'TS suspended in a liquid binder or vehicle which when spread thinly over a surface
Activl' 51ainkss Srff!s: will eventually dry out. A thin dry film is then left adhering to the surface. The
CaSI iron 'drying' process associated with ships' paints is usually the evaporation of the
Iron and 51ffl solvent from the vehicle. Good ventilation is therefore essential and moisture·
Anodic (N ipob/~ m~rllJs Aluminium alloys
(<<1'7Odi"K _rerilll) Cadmium laden atmospheres are to be avoided during the drying process. The coating
Aluminium applied must also be thin to ensure that it dries out correctly. The appropriate

j line
M:lJ:nesium alloys
solvent is essential to ensure the correct drying time; tOO quick and blistering
can occur, too slow and the paint may end up immc~ed before it is dry.
The common vehle es m use are.

(I) Bitumen or pitch - bitumen or pitch in a white spirit solvent, or blends

Corrosion prevention of pitch with other materials.
(2) Oil based - vegetable drying oils. e.g. linseed oil. dehydrated caSlor oil.
The prevention ~f corrosion deals in the first place with the provision of an (3) Oleo-resinous - natural or artificial resins mixed into drying oils.
adequate protective coating for the ship's structural steel and its continued (4) Alkyd-resin - a special type of(3).
main.tenance.. Se~ondly. a means of preventing electrochemical wastage is (5) Chemical resistant - chlorinated rubber. epoxide resins and coal larl
required. which IS known as cathodic protection. The two distinctly different epoxide are examples.

All the above vehicle types are suitable for above·water use. Only types (1) and
(5) and certain types of (3) are suitable for underwater use, because of the
j Curr8'l now j need to resist alkaline deposits formed at the anodes of corrosion cells.

Anr;·folllillg painl

Fouling is the covering of a ship's underwater surface with marine organisms

such as green slime, weeds and barnacles. Fouling occu~ usually only when the
ship is at rest and is dependent on water temperature. salinity. the se:ason. the
place. etc.
The slower speeds of the larger tankers and bulk carriers has resulted in
increased fouling problems. since some marine organisms can survive and grow:at
speeds of 10-15 knots. The result of fouling is increased hull resistam::e and
Figurt JJ.1 Corrosion ull
subsequent loss of the ship's speed or increased fuel consumption.
216 Corrosion and its Prevention Corrorion rmd irs Prevention 217

Anti-fouling paints functi{)[l hy slowly rdea~ing a poisoll into the laminar sea s u pc" 'cue' u,,'

water layer swrrounding the ship. Ti!is S~a water soilible poison is toxic to marine
olganisms which rJlllst pass thmugJ.t::'is Laminar layer in order to attach them·
selves to the ship. The poi'i{)1l is released al a controlled raLe, determined by the
type of lOX in and also the lkgree ,,"Ild ratc (If solubility nfthe binder,
Two basically dilfcrcll( tyres uf anti-fouling puint curr~ntly exist - non-
po!ishillg 1111(.1 self-polislling. •
, ~:;, :,:, :, ~, -"':===-::':-=-;-;:l.:-::':::':=~=~~~=-~-~=~
- Top,icle,
Non-polishing anti-fouling may have either a solub-le or insoluble matrix, The
soluble matrix: consists mainly of rosill (colophon)-') which IS slightly sea·water Bnfll "'1'1-"

soluble. 111e Ilio-activc marc:ri~ls (poisons) are released in sea waler together VI'ith 8mlOf'l pl"l.ny
the binder. Ihe insoluble matrix: type uses a large proportion of po1ymeril; Figure ii. 2 !'nlicipa! pl1f"Ung oreaS
binders which are insoluble in sea water, The biu·a(;tive materials are released
together with otlier components ",.. !licl. act as leaching aids. This leaves behind a forms of trcatment are the underwater pl.ating and boot topping region, the top-
released layer of insoluble binueJ. The release rate of 1I1e bio-active materials in sides, the superstrue-ture and the weather deeks (Figure 11.2).
each type will decrease with time in -:;ervice of the vessclThc bio-active materials
will induJe cuprous oxide and organulin compounds.
Prr/lilrariorr tlild prill/ing
The amount or 'loading' of these materials is vilric:d according to tile vessel's
rcquiremenb. Sm<tll amounts would be [or vessels trading In cold and
Thc sUlface preparation of the steel platt' must iirst he good 111 {)flier to ensure
temperate climates witll short Idle periods alld long sailing times. Large amounts
the- sue'eelsful operation of tile- ~rplied (laillting sy~tell1 The steel plates used in
would be used for u vessel trading wor1d·'wide in warm climates with short·tu-
mcdium idle time and varled sailing periods. Different strengths uf binder result ship conslfl1ctiorL Jre fint shot-blasted to relTl(fVe all traces of rusting and mIll
ill the me of one· or two-cout svstems to achieve a particular dry film thickness. scale which may be present. The plating is thell immediately primed with a
The dry film thickness de-tcrmi;es the quantity of bio·active materials availahle quick-drying prefabrication primer This all takes place as part of a continuous
and the system life tIm;:. Por any particular dry docking illterval a suitable life: undercover process under contJolled conditions This coating is usually adequate
time must be selected. Tt should be noted that the hio·actiw materials ill the to pIOtect the plate- during the various fabrication rf{)ee"e~ leading to its
system are consumed faster during high speed sailing. ine-orporation into the hull of the ship. Final painting will progress with the
Self-polIshing anti·fouling is designed to wear down slowly while maintaining construction 01 the ship.
a bio-active in((:rfaec: between the coating and the watcr One type of this paint
uses a trio lily Itin copolymel hinder aJld reinforcing bio-active compounds whkh ()mlr:n<,,'ater areas
produce a synergistic (assisting one another) dfect with trihutyltin 1IIlti-foulallts.
The tributyltin copolymer produces lributyltin oxide (TBTO) in a hydrated The underwater and hoot copping pl<lting r~gion will have paint types applied
form by hydrol)'slS (iOilic dissociation) with sea watel. The reinforcing bio-adive af1cr consideration of the presence and type {ll cilthodk protection applied to
compOLlI1ds are comprised of cuprous oxides and organotill coillpounds. They the hull and the degree' of anti-corrosive and anti-fouling paint whkh is requiled.
leach <IS th;: triblityltin copolymcr rdeases its tributyltill content. The copoly. Highl\' alkaline conditions are to be found mar the anodes of cathodic
mer then becomes waler soluhle and is washed off. This renews lind activates protection sv,tems. and paing of an epoxide type ale therefore required to
the n;:x t layer of tribu ty hin molecules. resist thc:se 'chemical condLtiollS. Anti-foulirtg properties are also required for
The self-polishing rate is determined during paint manufacture by the nature paints used in this region to emit POiS011S tllat will kill the marine- org.anisms
of the copolymer binder. One manufactur-cr provides thlee self-polishing ratcs which ten-d to collect on ships' hulls. While fouling ill the main increases ship
whicll, together with tW{) possible degrees or fouling protection, results in six resistance there are certain bacteria which reduce sulphates in sea water and
possible types of coating. The fouling pJlJtectioll may be either 11 ormal or severe. release oxygen wllich can take part in the corrosion process. The anti-
The three self-polishing rates relate to low-to-rnediUlIl speed, medium-to·high fouling ploperties of a paint for the underwater regions are therefore important,
speed and vClY high speed hulls. The degree ofhull roughness acceptable il1crea~es TIle actual choice of paint type and its particular composition is usually made by
in the ~ame order and dry film thicknesses are 100 jJ.m, HO pm and 60 j.lll1 per the shipownel bearing the above factors in mind.
coat minimum respectively, The self·polishin~ r'dte wdl incle~se with ~peed and Modern practice makes little or no distinction between the paint used on the
loIverage hull roughness. bottom sl1ell and that used around the boot lopping region. The boot topping
region is. however, more likely to suffer damage due to mechanical abrasion
Painting the ship (erosion) and the action of waves. Some suitable vehicle types of paint for this
region would be bitumen or pitch, oleo-resinous cpoxide, coal tar/epox:id€- Tesin
The paint used must be appropriate for the degree of protection required at tlle and chlorinated rubber. A compatible primer would be applied first, then the
particular area or section of the ship. The principal areas requiring. different particular paint type and a final coat of anti-fouling paint if it is to be used.
218 C01TO~ion and its fuventiO/t Corroldon and its Prel'€ntion 219

Topsides and superstrnctures Two means of cathodic pmtectiun arc in general use on ships - tne sacriflda1
anode type .and the impresso::d current type, The sacrifldal antJde type {)f
T(Jpsides and superstructures are usually adequately coated with primer, an cathodic protection uses metals such as illuminium and zinc which form the
undercoat and a paint. Paint based un alkyd resins, modified alkyd anode of a C()rros~on ceB in preference to steel (see Table 11./). As a
resins and enamels arc used in this region_ Since appearance is of some conseq,'ence. these sacrificilll a1lodes lire gradually eaten. away and
importance, good colour- and gloss-retaining properties O'f the paints used on repiacemcnt after a period of time. The impress-ed wrreIlt -system provides the
these parts i~ essential. electric:>.l potential difference from the ship's power supply Hnoug.h an anode of
a 1ol'.g-life hig?ly corrosion-reSistant such as platinised titanium.

Weather dec ks Sa(;n"!icia[ amtde system

The- paint fln the weather deck area requires excepti.onally good resistance to Sacrificillt anodes <tre, in practice. arranged as blocks and are securely bolted or
we-ar and abrasion and Sume non-slip quality. The deck coating should also be- welded to tne ship's null by their steel. core 1:0 give a g.ood electTicai connedio1l.
resistant to any oils or carried as cargo or fuel. Initial protective Their metal composition is aluminium or zint. usaaily in alloyed form. They are
watings topped by grit-reinforced oleo-resinous p-aints have been used success- designed to CllSure uniform wcar~ng away and to provide a constant current to
fully, as have primers and chlorina ted rubber deck paints. Certain metalli.c finai the protected Sleel. 'The amOllllt of sacrificial anode material fitted to a ship's
coats have been tried With considerable success, more partiCUlarly on naval hull is based -on the wetted surface area of hull and a meas\lre of the hull's
vessels. The constant abrasio!J on weather decks from traffic, cargo handling and -elcctrk:al pot~ntial. Tile aJllflllnt of anode material should proVide a protective
seneral ship operation makes long-term protection by paint alone almost current of 12· 20 mAlm 2 _ Modem sacrificial anodes nave a life of 3-4 years
lmpossible. Self·sealing coatin,gs utili8ing epoxide resins have been used with before n:quiring replacement.
>orne success- on top of epoxide resin paint for a hard-wearing deck covering_
[mfJrened current Sl'stem
The impressed current system consists of a SallICe of direl.:t current, anodes,
Ballast, cargo/ballast and fresh water tanks requiTe spedal coati.ngs, depending apparatus for Illeasuring and controlling, tllc current afld a hi~ yuality inert
upon the nature of their contents. Treatments used include two coats of e-poxide protccti,'e coating around the areas orlile hull nearesr to the anodes. Continuous
resin or a three-coat phenolic resin·based paint, with care taken to enSUle con tJol of the impressed cunel1 t reguire-ll rn r adequate prntection va ries with tbe
compatibility with the tank contents. Fresh water tanks can be satisfacto~ily immersed area. the ship speed. the salinity of tne water and 1h-e c0l1di1ion uf the
protected by bitumen or tar paint~. Drinking water tanks must have a non-taint hull p<lintwork.. Modern equipmcllt is capable of aWlolllatic ClifTent control
coating such as artifu:::ial bitumen to BS 3416 Type 2. under an of these conditions, This control is usually obtailled hy the llse of
reference anodes positiuned some distance from the operating an()J~. If 100
Cathodic protection great a currcnt '.H~Je fo now it wu)d actually blister or destroy paint coatings on
lhe ship's hull. Around the lIrlodes a pwtective shield of epoxy resin is applied
When a metal is in contact with an electrolyte, e.g. the steel of a ship's hull In directly to lhe hllli for a radius of 1 III or more, sim;c 11ighly alkabne conditi-ons
lea water, small corrosion cells may be set up due to slight "'ar~ations in the
electrical pOtential of the met.a1's surfac~. Electric currents flow between the
iigh and low potential points, with the result that meta.! is corroded from the
p-oint where the current leaves the metal (the anode). At the point wllere the Ruooer stock C"ntrn·ler
:urrent re·enters the metal (the cathode) the metal is protected. Cathodic
protection operates by providing a reverse current flow to that of the corrosive
lystem. With current then entering the metal at every point, Le. the whole metal
mrface becomes a cathode, it is tnerefore .cathodically protected.
When the potential Qver the immersed hull surface is 0.SO-0 ..85 V more
rlegative than .a reference silver/silver cWoride electrode in the water nearby, I
then the hull IS adequately protected, Current density of the order of 20-100 "'",ode i\nD<1~
2 ,
mAim h usually suffident on a pamwd hull to reverse any L"orrosiO!J current Shalt qrou"dinq Refer""", Be/"r"ncr
md cease further metal corrosion. Currcnt density necessarily increases for a 3;s~m'olv onoo, anocle

pOO~I~ painted hull and therefore cathodic protection sllOuld be regarded as an

lddlhonal protection to painting and by no means a substitute. Fi;f!,llre 113 /"'wenetl run-em carlrodi<: pmu<:tioJI syflem
220 COffosion and its Prev~tion
Corrosion and its Prevention 221
arise near the anodes. An irnpres)e9_~1l~ren( system for a ship is shown in Figur(! ,
11.3. Details of an anode and a reference anode together with the ~offerdam

cable arrangements are given in Figures llA md 115 A propeller shaft bonding
arrangement must be fitted with impressed current systems to ensure propeller
protection (Figure 11.6).

"'A', ---.
Cathodi,· protection of tanks .:. "? \,

The cathodic protection of ballast md cargo/ballast tanks is only ever of-..!;,he

sacrificial anode type using aluminium, magnesium or zinc anodes_ The use of .'
aluminium and magnesium anodes is restricted by height ilInd energy limitations
to reduce the possibility of sparks from falling anodes. Magnesium and
aluminium anodes are nDt permitted at all in cargD oil tanks or tanks adjacent
, -./ /
to- cargD oil tanks. The anodes are arranged acrDSS the bottom of a tank and up
the sides, and only those immersed in water will be active in providing protective
current flow. Current density in tanks v~ries from 5 mA/m 2 for fully-wated
surfaces to about 100 mAim' fOl ballast-only tanks. Deckheads cannot be

~ ~-Fpo"y

,., ~
, ,

. "'
, c
, ~,"

'ii0 iJ

. ,,
,,, '.

, !
~' lAc'
! ,

__ Ca,,:e

\, ,, ,

, ,,
-- -+ ---,..,

Cov~r 'Ianw
, , .. ,,

F;IfU~" 11.4 Anode <l"<lngement: (11) I1n(Jde; (b) secrirJn
lh~oul:h anoue
222 CorrosiQrl and its Prevention

cathodically protected, since t,mks are rarely full: they are therefore given
adequate additional protectiv~ coatings of a suitable paint fm the upper 1.5 m
Df the tank

Corrosion prevention by good design 12

The third method of corrosion prevention is by good design based on a
knowledge of tht corrosion processes. Good design. therefore. should avoid the .,
trapping of corrosive agents or the setting up of corrosion cells in places wllkh
cannot be reached. are pourly ventilated. ur rarely protected ur maintained.
Surveys and Maintenance
Small pockets, crevices, etc.. where sail spray; water. etc .. can collect will
result ultimately in severe ru.sting. Since this involves an inuease in volume of
the material it will he followed hy distortion QT frao:;ture of tne stlllctllral
members. Scaling of slJcll -crevices by welding or concrete, or their avoidance in In C0J11rnC'>J1 with all machinery a ship requires regular overhaul and maintenafL(e.
the design stage. should he ensured. Dripping water as a r-c'Sult of poorly designed The particularly severe operilting conditions for an almost all·steel stll.lcture
discharge, {)[ scuppers should be avoided. Condemed mQisture on the underside necessitate constant attention to the: ~teelwork. The operations of berthing,
of encluscd ,(mctures will cause cOfIo~ioll and good design should ensure cargo loading ;.md discharge. [(lostant immersion ill sea water and the variety of
adequate ventilation ul these areas. Steel decks covered by wood will corrode climatic extremes encoUl1tered all take their toll on the structure and its
unless the steel is suitably protected and the wood is 'sealed' by a bitumen protective coatings. Th.e dassifi;;ation societies have requirements for
coating. All joints should be sealed by a suitabk filler and any baits through the examination or survey of the ship at set periods lhwughout its life. The nature
wood should have washers under the nuts to prevent the entry of water. Paint. and extent of the survey increases as the ship- be-wrnes older.
to be an effective protection requires an adequate thickness over the metal
sUlface. The surface should be made as accessIble as possible to enable good
coveral:1e al1d a uniform ttry paint thickness. Welding can be used to fill small Periodical surveys
crevices. however, any welded surface must be suitably prepared prior to
painting to enS-lile protection against currosion. Smooth rounded surfaces are All ships must have an annual sul"\.'e'. . , which is carried out by a surveyor
always easier to paint and less liahlc to damage and subsequent corrosion. employed by the dassific3Uon society. This survey should preferably take place
Tile atmosphere Qf machinery spaces and boiler rOOI11S, with the presence of in a dryduck but the period between in-dock surveys may be extended up to
heat. moisture o vibralion and fou1 air, presents ideal conditions for the corrosive 2'1% years. Slich an extension is permitted where the ship is coated with a high
process to take place. Surfaces should therefore be kept water-free and.a~ cool as resistance paint and an approved automatlc impressed current cathodic
possible by good drainage, insulation of steam pipes, ek" and good ventilation, protection system is fitted Tn-water surveys are permitted f-or ships which are
Inaccessible places such as machlnery seats should 1J-e well protected by paintln,g less than 10 years old and greater than 38 m in breadtll and have the paint and
before any machinery is fitted. Double-bottom tanks under boilers are some· (:athodic protllctjOl1 systems already referred te.. Special surveys of a more
times left empty and specially coated with heat-resistant paint. All double· rigorous nature are required every 4 years, Continuous surveys are permitted
botlum tanks shoul<! be re£Ularly inspected and maintained but only after where all the various hull compllrtments are examined in rotation over a period
adequate ventilation ha'; been ensured. Maintenance should take tne form of uf 5 years betweeo consecutive examinations.
painting with bitumastic paint mixtures or in some cases cement wash. Any During an ant~\.\~i~urvey the various closing appliances on all hatchw3ys and
double-bottom tanks regularly used for oil will have little or nQ need for otller hull openings through which water might enter must be checked to be in
corrosion protection. an effident condition. Water·clearing arrangements, such as seu ppers and bulwark
Two different metah in contact in tile prescm:e of an electrolyte such as freeing porls. must also operate satisfactorily. Guard rails, lifelines and gangways
rain, spray or condensatIon. can result in a corrosion cell. This can create are also examined.
problc:ms in areas where light alloy members such as aluminium are in contact \\!hen surveyed in drydock the hull plating is carefully examined fer any
with steeL as in the superstructure of passenger ships. ~Qdc:rn practice with ~uch signs of damage or corrosion. The sternframe and rudder are also examined for
joints is to use insulating fenules, such as neoprcne or SQme inert filler, between cracks. etc. The wear in the rudder and propeller shaft bearings is also measured.
lhe- metal surfaces_ Problems do 51j]] arise where such Joints are made by bolting The fire prote<:tion, derection and extinguishing arrangements for passMger
or riveting, and regular maintenance and attenti.on Is required_ ships are examined every year and for cargo ship'S every two years.
INhere stainless steel is used in a marine environment the passive mode should For a special survey, the requirements of the annu31 survey must be met
be selected. since it is <llmost immune to electrochemical action. together with additional examinations. A detailed examin-ation of structure by
" removing covers afld linings may be made. Metal thicknesses at any areas
224 Surveys and Maintenance 225
showing wast<lgc may have It) be chcdc:ed. The double-bottom and peak I:1l1ks ''''',
must be tested by fillh}g 10 the maximum service head .....ith water. "c decks.
casings and superstructures. logclher with any <lleas of discontinuity. must be
examined for cracks of'signs of failure. All escape rOliles from occupied or
working spaces must be checked, Emergency cOll1lnunio;atiOllS 10 the machinery

" .

space and the auxiliary steering position from the bridge must also be proved.
For tankers. additional special survey requirements include the inspection of
all cargo tanks and cofferdam spaces. Cargo tank bulkheads must be tested by
filling 10 the lOp of the hatchway of all or :l!lernate 1:lflks. The greater the age
of a mlp lhe grealer will be the detail of examination and testing of sus~ct
or corrosion.prone spaces.
Uqudied gas tankers have requirements for annual surveys. as mentioned
earlier, and several additional items. All tanks, cofferdams. pipes, etc., must be
gas freed before survey. Who:re the ma.'(imum vapour pressure in the tanks is
0.7 bar or less the inner tank surfaces are 10 be examined. In addition, the tanks
must be water tested by a head of 1.45 m above the top of the tank. All tank
level devices. gas detectors. inerting arrangements. elc .. must be proved 10 be
operating satisfactorily. The special survey requirements are as previously stated.
together with the examination internally and externally where possible of all
lank areas. Tank mountings. supports. pipe connections and deck sealing
arrangements must also be checked. Sa:mples of insulation, where filled, must be ROlal<nq
removed and the pia ling beneath examined. Pressure-relief and \'3cuum valves
must be proved to be efficient. Refrigeration machinery. where fined, must be

Hull surveys of very large crude carriers

The very size of these ships necessitales considerable planning and preparation PW1O<.Jltd
'.I~... ,ng pl~l.
prior 10 any sun·ey. large amounts of staging is necessary to provide access to
the structure. Good lighting. safe access and some means of t:ommunication are
also required. Surveys are often undertaken at sea. with the gas freeing of the \ .Jock~_
tanks being one of the main problems. In·water surveys of the ouler hull are also
done. Some thought at the design slage of Ihe ship should enable Ihe stern bush.
pintle and rudder bush clearances to be measured in the water. Provision should
also exist for unshipping the propeller in the water. Anodes should. be bolted to
the shell and therefore easily replaced. Blanks for sealing off inlets should be
35 n"n 'lOti umwa
carried by the ship. 10 enable the overhaul of shipside valves. The frame
markings should be painted on Ihe outside of the ship at the weather deck edge
to assist in identifying frames and bulkheads. An in·water survey plan should
be prepared by the shipbuilder. The hull plaling surface must be clean prior 10
--- l,ght

survey. This can be achieved by the use of rotary hand·held brushes which may
be hydraulically or pneumatically powered. In·water cleaning of the hull is
possible, with divel~ using Ihese brushes or specially designed boats with long
rOlaling brushes altached.
One particular system uses a 'Brush Karl'. This is a hydraulically·powered ~ A "bollie W!>llly 10 1J<l0vancv tank ""'====""''
vehicle with three brushing heads. It is driven by a diver over the surface of the
hull 10 clear the pJa!ing of all forms of marine fouling. The Brush Kart is shown
- ~
U,nll,llCal ubi.

in Figure 12.1. The sheU plating may then be surveyed by using an underwater Figurr 12.1 'Scan' utldtr_/tr sun'l'y I·thir/f' (from 'I4If"Nlocking of IDTKt ships'. in In·k'D/tr
survey vehicle such as the 'Scan' unit shown in figure J2. 2. The various camera MDinttnDnCf! Confurnrl'. 1975. b)' D.F. JonN)
!6 Surveys and Maintenance
lit5 enable dose scrutiny of all the areas of the shell plating by tne surveyor
'semng tile monitoring units. The Scan unit is fully manoeuvI<lbL over the
~lwili~. &
, SloIn>eys and M4jnte~~ fl ;;;'''.~ """T'

cracks or damage to the b1ade tips-. It is us-ual to O'xamine any tailshaft seals and
also measure the tailshaJt weardown.

\ Paintwork
xamination in drydock
The shell plating shOUld be examined for areas of paintwork whieh must be
he drydocking of a ship pTOvides a Tare opportunity for examination of the repaired. The whole surface of the shell will tnen be cleaned and prepared for
nderwater areas of a ship. Every opportunity ;hou~d th~iefQre ~ taken ~ the recoatirtg with paint. In some instances- tile hull may be cleaned down to the
lip's staff, the shipowner and tile classification society to examine the ship bare metal and completely recoated; most situations, however, will only lequire
loroughly. Some -of the more important areas are now listed. preparation of the surface fDr reeoating.

ht'll plaring Prepararion

'he snell plating must be-thoroughly examined fm any corrosion of welds, Several methods are used for cleaning. the ~hip's hull prior to rt'coatin~ Some of
amage, distortion and cracks at openings or discontinuities. Any hull attach- the more common ones will no.. be discussed
lents such as lugs, bllge keels, etc., must be checked for corrosion, security o-f Martual wire brushing and scraping steel scrapers usually takes place on
ttacllment and any damage. All openings for grids and sea boxes must also be the wet surface as the water le..el drops in the dock. The finish is poor, the
'xamined. operation slow and the effecti..eness ..aries accQrding to the ~k.m "nd effcHt of
the operatives involved. _
power discing or wire uses either all electrically or. pneumatt~al1y
"Athodic protection equipment driven machine which is hand held. The method is slow but pr'lVIdes a re1atiVely
good finish.. .
Sacrificial anodes should be checked for security of attaehment to the hull and High pressure water jelling 1; being. lncreasingly used (or hull cleamng. Water
the degree of wastage that has taken pLace. WLth impressed current systems the at pressures of 150-500 b3r is directed on to the hull b'y.a tubular steel. lance.
modes and reference anodes must be checked, again for security of attachment. The lower pressure is sufficient to remove weed fouhng growths, while ~e
The inert mields and paintwork near the anodes ShOllld be examined for any higher pressure will clean the hull down 'to the bare metal Th,e result~ from thlS
iamage or deterioration. method are excellent and very fast, although lime is lost while waiting for the
hull to dry. It is, however, a skilled operation reqUiring competent tlamed
personnel for efficient safe performance. _ '
Rudder Shot-blasting or abrasive-only cleaning utilises a Jet of abraslve at 5-7 bar
pressure fired from a nozzle on to the ship's hulL This .method rapidly produces
The plating and vwble strUcture of the rudder should be examined for cracks a clean dry surface ready for painting. The dusty, dITty nature of the work,
:and any distortion. The dialn plugs should be removed to check fot the entry of however, stops any other activities in the area. _
any water. Pintle or bearing weardown and clearances should be measured and Ab-rasive and water-blasting combines in effect the foregomg two methods
the security of the rudder stock coupling bolts and any pintle nuts should be and claims the advantages of each. The method is fast, dean and effect~ve, th~
ensured. abrasive speeding the cleaning and the water suppressing. the dust. Wtth thiS
method and water jetting, corrosion inhibitors are added te the water te allow
time between cleaning, drying and painting.

The surface should be carefully checked for cracks, particularly in the areas Painting
wh-ere a change of section occurs or large bending moments are experienced.
The successful application of paint requires the correct technique during
painting and roii:able conditioIl-S during which the allplication. takes place_
Propeller PElinting should take place in warm dry weather but not ill dtrect sunlight.
The presence of moisture in the air or on the metal surface may d~~age th~
The cone should be checked for s.ecurity of attachment and also the rope guard. paintwork or slow down its curing process. Where poor COndttlOn~. at
The blades should be examined for corrosion and cavitation damage, and any unavoidable, spedally formulated paints for curing under these- conditionS
228 SuTlleys and Mainterumce

should be used The- use of shelters or awning~ perhaps supplied with warm air
will greatly improve curing and adllCsinn of the paint. Any scuppel" discharges
or ovcrnows which may direct wa{er on to the surfllce to be painted should be
blocked or diverted herore wurk is begun.
The principal methods of paint application are the aide-ss spray, th~ air·
assisted spray, the roller and the brush. Brush <lnd roller applicaHon is employed
where rough surfaces exist and small ofte-n inaccessible areas are to be covered.
The method is slow, labour intensive and difficult with certain types of paints,
Air-assi~ted spraying has been largely replaced by the aidcs5 spray technique for
which most modern paints are formulated. Airle5s spray is the faste~t and Principal Ship Dimensions
cleanest application method. High huild materials life suitable for this method of
application with dry film thicknesses up to 300 pm possible in one application.
Throughout the preparation and painting of a ship the need for good, safe,
and Glossary of Terms
suitable means of access is paramount. Freedom of movement to maintain the
appropriate distances for water jetting and paint spraying, for example, is
essential. hee·standing scaffolding is used to some extent and also hydraulically
operated mobile platforms. Principal ship dimensions
A final mention on the subject of safety is required. Paints in their various •
[DIms can be- poisonous, skin irritants and of a highly inflammable nature. A ship is defined and described in size, shape and furm by a number of particular
Adequate protection and vefltilation is therefore flecessaT)'. In addition, care is terms, which are listed below and some of which are shown in Figure 13,1.
required in the location and operation {)f equipment to avoid the possibility of Forward perpendicular. An imaginary line drawn perpendicular to the waterline
fires and explusions. Most manufacturers apply their own symbols to paint at the point where the forward edge of the stem intersects the summer load
containers to indicate the various hazards, in addition to any mandatury require- line.
ments on labelling. After perpendicular, An imaginary line drawn perpendicular to the- waterline,
either {I) where the after edge of the rudder post meets the s.ummer load
line, or (2) in cases where no rudder post is fitted, the centreline of the
rudder pintles is taken.
Length between perpendiculars (LBP). The distance between the forward and
after perpendiculars, measured along the summer load line.
Length overall (LOA). The distance be-tween the extreme point~ of the ship
forward and aft.
Amidships. The point midway between the forward and after perpendiculars. A
special s.ymbol is used to represent this pointJFigure 13.1).
Extreme breadth. TIle maximum breadth over the extreme points port and
starb-oard of the ship.
Extreme draugllt. The distance from the waterline to the underside of the keel.
Extreme depth. The depth of the ship from the upper deck to the underside
of the keel.

Moulded dimensions are measured to the inside edges of the plating, i.e. they are
the frame dimensions.
Base line. A hori7.0otalline drawn along the top edge of tne keel from midship&.
Moulded breadth. The greatest breadth of the ship, measured to the inside edges
of the shell plating.
Moulded draught. The distance from the &ummer load line to the base line,
measured at the rnid~hip sectiOll.
Moulded depth. The depth of the ship from the upper deck to the base line,
measured at the midship section.
Half-breadth. At any particular section half-breadth distances may be given sinoe
a ship is"'symmetricalabout the longitudinal centreline.
Principal Ship DirnemiOJIS arid Glos:sary 7'enns
Freeboard. The vertical distance from tlte summer load waterline t-o the top f
the freeboard deck plating, measUIed at the ship's side amidships. The upp:'.
mas!: complete de4. exposed to the weather and the sea is normally the
freeboard deck, The freeboard deck must have pennanent means of dosl.l re of
all openings in it and below it.
• Sheer. The curvature of the deck in a longitudinal direction. It i~ measured
between the deck height at midships and the particular point on the deck.
Camber. The curvature of the deck in a transverse direction. Camber is measured
b.-tween the deck height at the anlre and the deck height al the side,
Rise of 11001. The height of the bottom shell plating above the base line. Rise
of floor is measured at the moulded beam line"
• ,
~ -~
Bilge radius. The radius of the plating. jOining tne side shell to the bottom shell .
It is measured at midships.
Plat ot keel. The WIdth of the horizontal portion of the bottom shell, measured
¥ transversely.
" Tumblehome. An inward curvature of the: midship side shell in the region of the
, • upper deck .
Flare. An outward curvature of the side shell at the forward end above the
•< waterline.

• ·9
Rake. A line inclined from the "Vertical or horizontal.
Parallel middle body. The sfl!p's length for which the midship section is constant
.3 .;; in area and shape.
" •

t " T ~
< Entrance. The imntersed body of the ship forward of the parallel middle body.
i;; > ~ - 0
• Run. The immersed body of the ship aft of the paralLel middle body.
•,• 3 l
§ Displa~ement. The weight of the ship alld its contents, measured in tonnes. The

~ ~
value w.iJI vary accordin,g to the ship's draUght.
Ughtweight. The weight of the ship, in tonnes, complete and ready fOJ sea but
withoul crew, passengers, SIDres, fuel OJ cargo Dn bDard.
Deadweight. The difference between the displacement and the lightweight at
, ,• any given draUght, again meaSured in tonnes. Deadweight is the weight of
~ cargo, fuel, stores, etc., that a ship can carry.
Tonnage. A measure of the internal capacity of a ship where 100 ft J or 2.8:3 m 3
represents I ton. Two values are currently in use - the gross tonnage and the
I- net tonnage. ~

Glossary of terms
Aft. In the direction of, at, OJ near the stern.
Aft peak. A watertight compartment between the aftermost watertight bulkhead
i and Ine stern.
Athwartship. ]n a direction across. the ship, at right·ang.les to the f-ore and aft
Ballast. A weight of Liquid positioned in a ship- to change the trim, increase the
draught or improve the seaworthinesS-.
Bilge. RoundeC: region between the side and shell plating; (he space where watCJ
wllects after draining down [rom cargo holds, et-::.
Bitter end. The enu of the anchor cable which is secured in the chain locker by
the dench pin.
IJbrIensJons and GloUQ1')' o{l'erms ljj
232 Prlndpll1 Ship Dimensions and GloUQ1')' Temu
Bollard. A pair of short metal columns on a rigid baseplate which are used to Intercostal ,ts. non<ontinuolls.
secure the mooring ropes or wires. Offsets. n;",COtllPoSCd of separa~e ,p2forfl1 ' .
Bow. The forward end of a ship. au b
cO-Qrdinates ~a shiP s centreline of the ship.
t oard In d' f lllthe .
Bracket. A plate which is used to rigidly connect a number of structural parts: it Pantin . .a treclion aw y rO faship'S platlllg. .
is often triangular in shape. Pi II g. The In and out movement 0 pes of rudder swmg.
Break. The paint at which a side shell plating section drops to the deck below, p n e. The hinge pin on which cer t2in tfacing forward.
such as the poop or forecastle. Son. The [eft·hand side ura ship .... he~. place of a mast to support derricks.
Bulkhead, aft peak. The first major transverse watertight bulkhead forward of Samso~ POSt. A rigid vertical post use I~ural items ofa ship. e.g. frames. girJers.
cantllngs. The dimensions of the stru c
the sternframe. pi "
Bulkhead, collision or forepeak. The foremost major watertight bulkhead. Seu Jtlng. ell.'. water. rain water Of condensation.
Cofferdam. A void or empty space between two bulkheads or floors which Se Ppcrs. Deck drains to remove se~tem of machinery or c:qUlpmeni.
prevents leakige from one to the other. at. The structUTa! support for an.1 ship which has adequate strength. free·
Cowl. The shaped top of a natural ventilation trunk which may be rotated to Sea\\,onhy. A term used to descnbe a and deliver its cargo in good condition.
draw air into or out of the ventilated space. board and stability in order. to ca~h projectS oUlboard from the ship and
IJreep tanks. Tanks which extend from the shell or double bottom up to or Spectacle frame. A large casllng W shaft in a twin sclew ship. The caSlin~ is
supports the end of the propeUer
beyond the lowest deck. They are usually arranged for the carriage of fuel oil plated into the surrounding sheD.. h facing forward.
or water ballast but may be filled with hatches and used for cargo. Starboard . Then"gh t -h an d 51'deofash1pw the en head of a mast. sampson post or
DeviJ's claw. A stretching screw with two heavy hooks or claws. It is used to Stays. Wires or ropes from the deck to
secure the anchor in the hav.rse pipe. b 'd t r prevent movement.
__ ~m to proVi ~ supJK>.rd 0 ._, which replaces tWO narrow plates in adjal;ent
Dog. A small metal fastener or clip used to secure doors. hatch covers. etc. S tlCiUer strake. A sll1g1e WI e p.. e
Erection. The positioning and temporary fastening together of units or strakes. -
fabricated paru of a ship prior to welding. Stem. The after end of a ship. . 'rr I"
Fabrication. The various processes which lead to the manufacture of structural Stiffener. A nat bar. section or built-up section used to Sll en p aung.
paru for a ship. Tarpaulin. A tough waterproof canvas-type cloth cover used to cover non-
Fair. To smoothly align lhe adjoining parts of a ship's struclUre or its design watertight hatch covers.
lines. TiUer. A casting or forging which is keyed to the rudder stock :lOd used to tum
F.airlead. An item of mooring equipment used to maintain or change the the rudder. .. r b d 10
direction of a rope or wire in order to provide a straight lead to a winch Toppmg" Wlte. " .......d to raise , lower or fIX the posttlon 0 a oom an
" A Wlt...-.
drum. support it. . r h h" "
Flange. The portion of a plate or bracket bent at right-angles to the remainder: Transverse. A direction at right-angles to the centrehne 0 t e s Ip or an Item
to bend over at right angles. of structure in lhis position.
Flat. A minor section of internal deck often without sheer or camber. also Tripping bracket. A nat bar or plate fitted to a deck girder, stiffener, beam. etc.,
known as a platform. to reinforce the free edge. . r
Forepeak. A watertight compartment between the foremost watertight bulkhead Trunk. A passage extending through one or more decks to proVlde access 0
and the stem. ventilation to a space. . .
Forward. In the direction of. at, or near the stem. Tunnel. A watertight access passage surrounding ~~e propeller shaf~ w~lch IS
Frame. A transverse structural member which acts as a stiffener to the shell and filled on a ship where the machinery space is pOSItioned towards midships.
bottom plating. Tween decks. The upper cargo stowage compartments or the space between any
Gasket. A joint. usually of flexible material. which is positioned between metal twO adjacent decks. .
surfaces to prevent leakage. Uptake. A metal casing or large bore piping which carnes eud1aust gases up
Gooseneck. A fitting on the end of a boom or derrick which connects it to the through the funnel to the atmosphere. . '.
mast or post and permits a swivel motion. Web frame. A deep-section built·up frame which proVldes additional strength to
Grommet. A ring of soft material positioned beneath a nut or bollhead the structure.
to prOVide a watertight join!. WeU. A space into which bilge water drains.. . . .
Gudgeon. A solid lug on the sternframe or rudder which is drilled to take the Winch. A machine which utiUses the wmdmg or u~wmdmg of rope or
pintle. wire around a barrel for various cargo and mooring duties.
Gusset plate. A bracket plate usually positioned in a horizontal or almost Windlass. A machine used for hoisting and lowering the anchor.
horizontal plane.
Holds. The lowest cargo stowage compartments in a ship.
Inboard. In a direction towards the centreline of the ship.
232 PrinctpaJ Ship Dimen.dolU and Glossary Terms Principal Ship Dimensions and Glossary a/Terms 233
Bollard. A pair of short melal columns on a rigid baseplate which are used to Intercostal. Composed ofseparale parts. non<ontinuous.
secure the mooring ropes or wires. Offsets. The co-ordinales of a ship's form.
Bow. The forward end of a ship. Outboard. In;j direclion 3\9.;))' from the centreline of the ship.
Bracket. A plate which is used 10 rigidly connect a number of struClural parts; it Panting. The in and OUI movement of a ship's plating.
is orten triangular in shape. Pinde. The hinge pin on which certain types of rudder swing.
Break. The point at which a side shell plating section drops 10 Ihe deck below, Port. The left·hmd side of a ship when facing forward.
such as the poop or forecastle. Samson post. A rigid vertical post used in place of a mast to support derricks.
Bulkhead, aft peak. The first major transverse watertighl bulkhead forward of Scantlings. The dimensions of the struclural items of a ship. e.g. frames. girJers.
the stemfnme. plating. elc.
Bulkhead, collision or forepeak. The foremost major watertight bulkhead. Scuppers. Deck drains to remO\'e sea .....aler. rain waler or condensation.
Cofferdam. A void or empty space between two bulkheads or floors which Seat. The structural support for an ilem of machinery or eqUlpmenl.
prevents leakage from one to the other. Seaworthy. A lerm used to describe a ship which has adequate strength. free·
Cowl. The shaped top of a natural ventilation trunk which may be rotated to board and stabililY in order to carry and deliver its cargo in good condition.
draw air into or out of the ventilated·spacc. Spectacle frame. A large casting which projects outboard from the ship and
Deep tanks. Tanks which extend from the shell or double bottom up to or supports the end of the propeller shaft in a twin screw ship. The casting is
beyond the lowest deck. They are usually arranged for the carriage of fuel oil plated into the surrounding shell.
or water ballast but may be fitted with hatches and used for cargo. Starboard. The right.hand side ofa ship when facing forward.
Devil's claw. A stretching screw with IWO heavy hooks or claws. It is used to Slays. Wires or ropes from the deck 10 the head of a mast. sampson post or
secure the anchor in the hawse pipe. boom to provide support or prevent movement.
Dog. A small metal fastener or clip used to secure doors, hatch covers, etc. Sfealer slrake. A single wide ilate which replaces two narrow plates in adjal;ent
Erection. The positioning and temporary fastening together of units or strakcs.
fabricated parts of a ship prior to welding. Stem. The after end of a ship.
Fabrication. The various processes which lead to the manufacture of structural Stiffener. A flat bar. section or built·up section used to stiffen plating.
parts for a ship. Tarpaulin. A tough waterproof canvas·type cloth cover used to cover non·
Fair. To smoothly align the adjoining parts of a ship's structure or its design watertight hatch covers.
lines. TaBer. A casting or forging which is keyed to the rudder stock 3nd used to tum
F.air~d. An item of mooring equipment used to maintain or change the
the rudder.
direction of a rope or wire in order to provide a straight lead to a winch Topping wire. A wire used to raise, lower or ftx the position of a boom and to
drum. support it.
Flange. The portion of a plate or bracket bent at right-angles to the remainder: Transverse. A direction at right·angles to the centreline of the ship or an item
to bend over at right angles. of structure in this position.
flat. A minor section of inlernal deck often without sheer or camber. also Trippinl bracket. A flat bar or plate fitted to a deck girder, stiffener, beam, etc ..
known as a platform. to reinforce the free edge.
Forepeak. A watertight compartment between the foremost watertight bulkhead Trunk. A passage extending through one or more decks to provide aCcess or
and the stem. ventilation to a space.
Forward. In the direction of. at, or near the stem. Tunnel. A watertight access passage surrounding the propeller shaft which is
Frame. A transverse structural member which acts as a stiffener to the shell and fitted on a ship where the machinery space is positioned towards midships.
bottom plating. Twoe:en decks. The upper cargo stowage compartments or the space between any
Gasket. A joint. usually of flexible material. which is positioned between metal
two adjacent decks.
surfaces to prevent leakage. Uptake:. A metal casing or large bore piping which carries e\haust gases up
Gooseneck. A fitting on the end of a boom or derrick which connects it to the through the funnel to the atmosphere.
mast or post and permits a swivel motion.
Web frame. A deep-section built·up frame which provides additional strength to
Grommet. A ring of soft material positioned beneath a nut or bolthead
to provide a watertight joint. the structure.
WeD. A Space into which bilge water drains.
Gud~n. A solid lug on the stem frame or rudder which is drilled to take the
Winch, A machine which utilises the winding or unwinding of rope or
wire around a barrel for various cargo and mooring duties.
Gusset plate. A bracket plate usually positioned in a horizontal or almost WmdJass. A machine used for hoisting and lowering the anchor.
horizontal plane.
Holds. The lowest cargo stowage compartments in a ship.
Inboard. In a direction towards the centreline of the ship.

A-brackets. 104, IDS Bridge SlfUcture. 117
'A' class bulkhcids, 201. 202 Bulk carrier, 7-I 0, 180-184
Accommodation. 120, 121 BulkhC3d. 85, 87-90
Aft peak bulkhead, 87. 232 ',4,' cla5s. 201, 202
Afl end construction, 101-116 collision, 89, 232
Au pipe. 76.194, 208 conup.ted. 89-90, 126. 130, 170. 171
Aluminium, fonpak. 89, 232
alloys, 27, 28 IongitvdirW, 170
rMU, 27, 28 non'W:llertight,9O
seedORS, 28 oiltlahl, 85, 87.89. 1]0, J 70
Aluminium/steel conn«tions. 28. 222 lesting.90
Anchon and ables, 96-99 Ir.insvcrse,171
Anodes, 219-221 wash, 93-95, 130, 171
ArC wdding, 53-60 waterti.!hl,87-89
Assembly, 39, 40 Bulwarks, 128, 129. 173, 209
Butts, 77

'S' tins divisions., 201. 202

Ballast, 231 Cabin, 124
Pipinllsystcm, 148, 149 Cable clench assembly, 99, 100
tanks,148, ISS Cable Slopper, 97,98
eant, 102, 103
Cargo pumping system, 153-155, 180
Cathodic protection, 218-222. 226
dedi:. 82-83 Impressed curren I. 219, 220, 223
half, 83 of tanks, 220
Beam kn«. 18,79 sacrincial anode, 219
Ikndin&. cavitation, 108
eqWltion, 17 Chain locker. 97, 99
mommt, 14-16 CbssiflClltion societies, 197-199
Bil&c, 231 hull malerial teslS, 23, 26
kC'tI.80 ....dd tests, 68
mud OOlt,I47 Oench pin, 99,100
piping system, 146-148 Coamings, 85. 86 ....
strum box, 147 CotTerdam, 165, 173, 180, 232
Biner end, 231 Container ship, 10, 11
Block coefftcient, 203 Corrosion, 213
BoU-ofT, 178 cell, 213, 214, 222
Bollard, 137, 138.232 pnvcntion, 214, 222
Bottom ruuetufll. 73 C,anes,
in Iankers,167 dec::k, 144, 145
Bo...... 232 shipyard,49-50
bulbous,9S Crude oil washing (COW), 200
stopper. 97,98 Cruiser slem, 102, 103
thrust unit, 100, 101 Cutting prOCC$$eS, 68-71
236 Index Index 237
CUlling processes (rollt.) Floor (oorr/.)
ps.68-69 hopper tank. 172 Interlowernmental t.britime Consult;ative Paints (corll.)
pluma arc. 70 solid. 73-75 Organisation (IMeO). 20. 188. application. 227. 228
"'atertil:ht, 73-75 190-193 primil'lg. 41. 217
Flux. 54 International t.britimc: orpri'h:ation wehides.215
Dead.... cipll. 7.10.231 Fore end construetion. 92-95 (IMOI.197.199-202 I';aint.....ork.
Deck CDnt'. 144. 14S I'orec;mle. 117. 118 cnmin;tion.221
platform. 145.141 Fname.232 rtcoaling. 227
DeckhouSt'. 116. 117 anI. 102. 103 K«I.71-73 surface prep:&r.ltion. 41. 211
[kelts.81-85 $pt'Ctaek. 104.105.233 biJ&e.80.81 l:;anks. 218
b<'ams.82 ..-eb. 80. 171. 232 duet. 73 toPJide and superstructures. 217
prdcQ.83 I'r.lmc bender. 49 rht pbte, 72 undel"'"'llter areas. 217
platin,.82 FraminJ,78-80 Keel plate. n ..-uthcr docks. 217.218
stiffening. 82 at t:nds (oill;mkers). 171 Korl noz.zJe. III Panclline. SO. 5 1
Derrick rip. 141_144 combined. 79.80, 167.168.180 Panting. 19.9].233
heavy lift. 143. 144 lonl;itudinal. 79. 80,166,167.183 structure 10 resist. 93-95
s..... in~n~. 142 transverse. 79. 80, 166. 167. 183 L:tmellar tearing. 22. 67 Passenger ship. 10. 12
union purchase. 141. 142 Frccbollld. 202. 205. 2JI Lines plan. 31,33 Petroleum I\lls, 7. 176
yo-yo. 142. 143 calegorks. 203. 204 Liquefied gas tanken. 1. 174, 176. 180 Pillars. 90-92
Devil's cia...... 232 condilions of assignment. 206-209 natural ~a5. 7. 176-178 Pin ties. I 12-114. 23]
Discontinuities, 20.85.117 corrections. 204. 205 petroleum ~. 7. 178-180 Pipes.
Displacement. 4. 7. 231 Freeing POliS. 129.208 Uoyd's Register of Shipping, 23. 197. 198 air. 76.194. 208
Distonion. Funnel. 125, 126 Lo;ad lines. $Cunding. 76_77.152.153
correction. 65-61 markinp. 205. 206 Pitching. 13. 19
pn:..cnlion, 63-65 ruks.202-209 Plans. 32-]4
Doc:kin5bDckel,161,168.110 G;alvank krks. 213. 214 Loading. Pbte.
Doc:kin& p1u!- 16 Gap press." 7 dynamic. 16 b<'ndin,. 38
~.119.232 Gn ,,·e1dinl!. 51 local. IS. 19.83 cutting. ]8.43.44
000•• Gener31 ~o ship. 1-4 Slatie.15.17 eddy,lll
W3ten~hl. 157,160. 161 Girder. fa,Ulion, 1I 2
wealhcnight.117.119 cenlle, 72. 74. 167 prepal1ltion. ]8.4\
Double bollom. deck,83 Machinery seals. 13 I. 132 roUs machine. 41. 43. 41-48
longitudinally fr.lmcd, 15 longitudinal. 73 Main vertical (fire) zones. 201 S1l"3ightening.41
machincry spacc. 75-76 side. 73. 74.167 Manhole. 113 ~trinj(er. 82
tanks. 76 Gouginj(. 70- 71 Marilin plate. 73. 74 Platinj(.
uansvcrsdy frdmcd. 75 Gravity welder. 54-55 Masts.140 . deck. 82
Drain hat. 73. 74 Gross tonnagl·. 210.21 I Materials, shell. 77
Dra..... in)!. office. 32 Gudgeon. 112.232 handling. 40 Poop S1fuctUl"C. 117. 118
Duct keel, 73 Guillotine. 49 handllns equipmcnl. 49 Pounding. 19. 77
Gun .....a1e.77_78 preparation. 4 1 Products tanker. ISS. 165
Meehania;1 pbner. 44--46 Prol11e-culling machine. 44 ,
Edge prepar.ltion, 44--46. 60. 63 Mooring equipment. 1]6-139 Propeller. 107-111
Ek<:trodcs.54-56 HaJr41readth plan, 31. 33 Mould loft. 36 controllable pitch. 108-111
Enpneo:asin;..I25-127 Halch. <",amina-lion. 226, 221
ErCl;tion. 39. 5 I. 232 arlO I:Ink.171,173 fi"ed, pitch. 101. 108
Erosion. 213 coamin5. 85, 86 Natural pJ. 7. 174. 176 mountinjl. 108. 109
Eumin;Uion in dry dock. 226-228 rowers. 134-136 Nt'$tc:d pbtes. ]5. 38 ske..... back. 108
minor. 136. 137 NOlches.167.169 Tip Vorte:'O. Free. III
opt-nings. 84. 85 Notching press. 48 Voilh·Sneider. III
Fairin~. 32. 34. 36. 232 steel. 134-136. 207 Numerical conuol. 36-38 Pumpin~ and pipinJ arran~ments. 147 -ISS
Fairlead. 137-139.232 wooden. 134. 135. 207 Pumproom ..... nIUation.193. 194
multi~n~. 137. 138 Hawse pipe. 96-97 Punehinl: press. 48
panama. 137-139 Ho~inl:. 15. 16 OfrSt'ts. ]4. ]6. 37. 233
pedestal. 137, 138 Oilfbulkforc carrier, 180
roller. 137-139 Oil lanker. 4. 5. 7.165-174.199-200 Racklnjl. 18
Fire main. 148. ISO Ice strenj(thening. 80-81 Ore carrier. 7.9 Raisl'd. quarter deck. 117
Fire safety in ships. 200-202 Inelll!asplant.I74.175 Ore/oil carrier. 9. 180 Refri~crated t:cner.i1 cargo ship. 4
Flame pl;aner. 44, 45 In~1I plate. 84. 85 O"y-Qcct)'kne cuning. 69 Ring press. 47
Flal marltin. 73, 74 Insulation. O"yoQCl:t)'lenc wddinll. 52 Ruddcl.III-113.226
!'Iat pbte keel. 72 aeouuic,I57_159 axles. 112
Floor. thermal. 155.156 babnced. 103. 112
bnoekel.13_15 1n!t:rcoJtal. 73-75. 77, 133
f hints. 215-218 tarrier. 112-1 16
anti4ouun~. 215.216 uamin;ation.226
2:38 Index Index 239
Rudder (conI.) Stiffening, TilleI:. 116,117,233 VentiLation (c'.Jrlt.'
pintle,,112,11] bulld,,,ad,87 Tonn~g~, 2()')-211 ~inglcJuct wilh reheat, 18-6, lIn
~emi-h"l:mced, 111, i 12 de~k, I'll British,210-212 twin duct, 185, 186
slock 113,114 local luading:, 83 cOn\rcnti(ln i 969, 212 Venlilatm, 207
trunL,102-1I14 Still water bending mument (S-\\'BM), i5 decLl10 hcad,195,196
unha1a[l~ed, 111-113 Strain, 29, 3() gross. 210,211 Vibration pust, 1()4
Strake, 72, 77--78, 8.2: marL, 211, 212 Vibration, ship, 10, 1lI4, 108
Stress,28 30 noel, 211
Sacrificial anndes, "219. no compres,iw,28 Tr<lrlROm,
Sagging, 15, 16 proof, 3\ pust, 103 Water!i~ht dorm, 157, lbll_ 161
Samson posts, 141,233 shea,. 28 ~tem, ]\)3, Hl4 Weathe;tight dorm, 117, 119'
Scantlinp, 73, 3D, 2:03 tenslk,28- Transversc, 133 Web frame, 80, 171,232
Scri"ve board, 36 Stress-strain gr<lph, 30 d.:ck,81-83 Weld,
Scupper" 151, 2111:1, 233 Stresses, Trip-ping bacht, l:l3, 233 bad, 66, 67
tup, 155, 1.57 cnmpreRsive, 17 Tunnd,sh<lft,127,128 guod.66,67
Sea inkt box, 132, 133 dynamic, 1:8 Typ~s o[shi-p,,'-12 t~stiflg, 68
Sea tube~, 132, 133 lociliscJ, Hl-W types, 60-62
Seams, 77 1Qrrgitudirral, 1.5-11, 1 65 Welding, 52-58
Seats, 233 ship, 16 UMS grMs, 212 "utom;lli~, 55--56
S:cawo.thy,2,-233 te-n~ile, 16 UMS net, 212 back-step, 64. 6:5
S:e~ond:lIY barrier, 178-181 transverse, 17 Unit, 39,41 chain, 62
S.cction mndu11.1" 17 Stringer plate, 82 ele<:tric arc,S 3
Self-polislling antifouling paint, 216 Stringers, 167, liD c1eetrocle,,54-56
Shaft tunnel, 127,128 Strue-lure, Ventilation, 185-196,202 "lectIog;t" 5 7
Shear force, 14 16 duuble bottom, 73 accClmmodation, 185-, 186 electrosl"g, 56-57
Shedder plates, 11:!3, 184 tel re,ist pantillg, '93-95 cargo space, 186-190 g~s, 52
Sh",er plan, 32 [0 re,ist pounding, 77 cargo tanks, 194, 195 in termittent, 62
Sheerstrake, 77 SuIJa,semblj',39 corH.r\J1 [(loms, 191 193 manual, 53
Shell pbJing, 77-81 SupcIslructures, 20, 116,171,173,203 double-bMtom tanks, 194 n:eM inert gas (YHGj, 58 59
Shipyard. Sur~ei'S, 199, 223-226 mac1lineryspaccs, 190-193,202 plasma metal inert gas, 59, 60
layout, 38-39,42 armuai,223 mcchani<:a.l, po~itions, 54
wddill.g equipment. 51 hull "rVlCC. 214 dosed, ISS, 189 practice, 62--65-
~h()tblaning, 41, 227 in w-al~r, 223 open, 188 ,kip, tiA, 65
ling1e-hottom structure, 77, 169, 170 Wed:>l, 223, 224 [l<lluml.188 stud, 57-58
Slammiuj';, 19 non-insulated ~argo holds, 187, IS8- the-rmit,:59-60
Sounding pipes, 76-77,152,153 pumproom,193,1'H tungsten inert gas (TIG), 58
Spectade frames. 10-4, 105.233 Table of offset~, 36 refri.l'elitt~.(\ cargo ho1d~, 189 wandering, 64, 65
Spurling pip~, 9'7, 99 Tank top, 7(, singie du;;t, 185, Hl6 Windlass, 97, 1 37, 233
Stabilh~rs, 162-164 lank lyp~s,
fin, 162, 164 LNG, 176-178, 180 •
tank, Hi3, 164 lPG, 178-180
5taHcllS,31,33 Tanh.s,4 7
~lealcI ~trake, 78, 233 Tanh,
Steel, 20-26 balla~t, 148.155
casting>, 16 (leep, 129, 130, 232
nyugcnic, 25, 2& doub1~-bottom, 7{,-77

fini~hing tre~tm~nt, 21 Clopper, 180-182

furgings,26 segr("gatecl b:>llast (S BT), 200
l1it:her tensile, 24, 2:6 Tarpaulins, 134, 135, }07, H3
producti{ln, 2: I Tes!.
propertiC.l, 22:, 24 bencl,31
shi-p-lJ.uilding.23 dLlmp,31
~\aTHlald ~eoCti()m, }1 impact (Charpy), 3 \
"tern, 92, 93 temlle,19
Stern, Te,tin!, materials, 2!l
cruiser, 102, 103 Thruster. ]()O, 101
tramom, 103,104 azimllth,IOl
iternframe, Hill 104 dllcted jet, 10 1
examinati()'l,226 gill jet, 101
,terntube, 1G6, J 07 h;'(llCJ jet, 101
,tiffener, 75, 30, 233 tunnel, 100, 10J