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JAY SHREE KRISHNA

Niels Henrik David Bohr

(7 October 1885 18 November 1962):-

was a Danish physicist who made fundamental contributions


to understanding atomic structure and quantum mechanics,
for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922.
Bohr married Margrethe Nrlund in 1912, and one of their
sons, Aage Niels Bohr, grew up to be an important physicist
who, like his father, received the Nobel prize, in 1975.
Q:-01 AMCZGM 5ZDF6] GD}GM an[ T[GL DIF"NF ,BMP

AMCZ[ T[GF 5ZDF6] v GD}GFDF\ .,[S8=MGG[ 5ZDF6]S[gN=GL VF;5F; RMSS;


V\TZ[ JT]"/FSFZ DFU"DF\ RMSS; UlTXlSTDF\ 5lZE|D6 SZTM J6"jIM CTMP
DIF"NF ov
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sZf

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{vF& mi(ht) p\:20}

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Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson,


(30 August 1871 19 October 1937) was a New Zealand physicist

who became known as the father of nuclear physics. He


pioneered the orbital theory of the atom through his discovery
of Rutherford scattering off the nucleus with his gold foil
experiment. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in
1908.

Karl Ernst Ludwig Marx Planck, better known as Max


Planck (April 23, 1858 October 4, 1947) was a German
physicist. He is considered to be the founder of quantum
theory, and one of the most important physicists of the
twentieth century. Planck's monumental accomplishment that
he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918.

01

Rutherford

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Q-02: jI VG[ lJlSZ6GM l:JEFJ ;DHFJMP (Dual nature of matter and radiation)

VYJF

sVf 5|SFXGF\ S6 VG[ TZ\UGL l5|S'lT ;DHFJMP


sAf 5|SFXGF\ OM8MGGL XlST VG[ VFJ'lT JrR[GM ;\A\W ;DHFJMP

sVf 5|SFX H[ lJn]TR]\ASLI lJlSZ6M TZLS[ VM/BFI K[4 T[GL 5|S'lT V\U[ ;F{ 5|YD .P;P 1900 DF\
D[S; %,FgS (Max Plank) gFFDGF J{7FlGS[ VF 1F[+G[ ,UTF 5|IMUMGF\ VJ,MSGMG[ ;DHFJJF
5|SFXG[ S65|S'lT K[ V[D HFC[Z SI]"P
tIFZAFN 5|SFXG]\ jIlTSZ6 VG[ lJJT"G H[JL 38GFVMG[ VFWFZ[ 5|SFX TZ\U5|S'lT WZFJ[ K[ V[J]\
lJWFG :JLSFZJ]\ 50I]\P
CI]HLg; GFDGF J{7FlGS[ 5|SFXGM TZ\U 5|S'lTJFNGM l;wWF\T ZH] SIM"P

{ 1901}

tIFZAFN .P;P 1902 DF> VF<A8" VF.g:8F.G GFDGF\ J{7FlGS[ 5|SFX FZF WFT]DF\YL D]ST YTF
.,[S8=MGGM VeIF; SIM"P 5|SFXGL VF V;Z ccOM8M.,[lS8=S V;Zcc TZLS[ HF6LTL K[P VF 5|IMUMGF
VJ,MSGMG[ ;DHFJJF DF8[ 5|SFXG[ S65|S'lT K[ V[D DFGJ]\ 50I]\P
J{7FlGSMV[ V\TDF\ :JLSFI]" S[4 cc5|SFX S6 VG[ TZ\U V[D A\G[ 5|S'lT WZFJ[ K[Pcc
5|SFXGF VF S6MG[ OM8MG TZLS[ VM/BJFDF\ VFjIFP
sAf

D[S; %,FgS[ 5|SFXGF OM8MGGL XlST (E) VG[ T[GL VFJ'lT JrR[GM ;\A\W GLR[ 5|DF6[ ZH] SIM"P
E= hv

HIF\4

h = %,FgS VR/F\S
v = 5|SFXGL VFJ'lTP
E=

5Z\T]4 v = C

HIF\4

= TZ\U ,\AF.
C = 5|SFXGL UlTP

hC

V[S DM, OM8MGDF\ ;DFI[,L pHF"G[ V[S VF.G:8F.G SC[ K[4 H[G]\ D]<I4
NE =

NhC

YX[P HIF\4 N = V[JMU[0=M VF\S = .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 18 April 1955) was a Germanborn theoretical physicist. He is best known for his theory of
relativity and specifically massenergy equivalence,
expressed by the equation E = mc2. Einstein received the 1921
Nobel Prize in Physics "for his services to Theoretical
Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the
photoelectric effect."
02

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Q-03: TZ\U 5|Sl' TJFN SM6[ ZH] SIM"P


jvib lKi[
Q-04: ccOM8M .,[lS8=S V;Zcc SMG[ SC[ K[ m

5|SFX FZF WFT]DF\YL .,[S8=MG D]ST YJFGL V;ZG[ OM8M .,[lS8=S V;Z SC[ K[P
Q-05 V[S DM, OM8MGDF\ ;DFI[,L pHF"G[ X]\ SC[ K[ m T[G]\ D]<I H6FJMP

V[S DM, OM8MGDF\ ;DFI[,L pHF"G[ ccV[S VF.G:8F.Gcc SC[ K[P H[G]\ D]<I NE =

NhC

YX[P

Louis-Victor-Pierre-Raymond, 7th duc de Broglie,


(15 August 1892 19 March 1987) was a French physicist and
a Nobel laureate. He also served as Perpetual Secretary of
the Acadmie des sciences, France. He won the Nobel
Prize in Physics in 1929.
Q-06: d- A|Mu,L ;DLSZ6 (De Broglie Equation) ;DHFJMP

JL;DL ;NLGL X~VFTDF\ 5|SFXG[ TZ\U 5|S'lT ;FY[ S6 5|S'lT 56 K[4 T[D :JLSFZFIF AFN .P;P 1924
DF NvA|Mu,L GFDGF O|[gR J{7FlGS[ jI TZ\UGL S<5GF SZLP
NvA|Mu,L l;wWF\T :- ccNZ[S UlTXL, S6 TZ\U 5|S'lT WZFJ[ K[cc4
ai miT[ T[GL N,L, CTL S[4 ccH[GL JQFM"YL TZ\U 5|S'lT :JLSFZFI[,L K[ T[G[ HM S6 5|S'lT 56 CMI4 TM
5KL H[GL JQFM"YL S6 5|S'lT :JLSFZFI[,L K[ T[G[ TZ\U 5|S'lT 56 CMJL HM.V[Pcc
VF TZ\UM jI TZ\U (Matter Wave) TZLS[ VM/BFI K[P
NvA|Mu,LV[ UlTXL, S6 ;FY[ ;\S/FI[,F jI TZ\UGL TZ\U ,\AF. DF8[ = h ;DLSZ6 TFZjI\]4
mv
H[ jI v TZ\U ;DLSZ6 TZLS[ VM/BFI K[P
jI v TZ\U ;DLSZ6GL TFZJ6L o
%,FgS ;DLSZ6 VG];FZ OM8MGGL XlST (E) VG[ T[GL VFJ'lT (v) JrR[GM ;\A\W o E = hv
VF.gF:8F.G[ ;F5[1FJFN l;wWF\T (theory of relativity) G[ VFWFZ[ OM8MGGL XlST (E) VG[ J[UDFG
(p) JrR[GF[ ;\A\W o
HIF\4 p = OM8MGG]\ J[UDFG
E = Cp aiyi[
C = 5|SFXGL UlTP
E = hv = Cp
E=

5Z\T] VFJ'lT v =

hC = Cp

=
03

h
p

Fi[rN - 12

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(mv) D]SJFDF\ VFJ[ TM4
h
= mv

HIF\4 m = UlTXL, S6G]\ N/

v = S6GL UlTP
VF ZLT[ ZH] YI[,M NvA|Mu,LGM VFW]lGS lJRFZPPPPPPPPPP
ccNZ[S UlTXL, S6 TZ\U 5|S'lT WZFJ[ K[cc4

H[ NvA|Mu,L l;wWF\T TZLS[ VM/BFI K[P

Q-07: NvA|Mu,L l;wWF\TG[ 5|FIMULS ;DY"G S[JL ZLT[ D?I]=\ m

NvA|Mu,LV[ ZH] SZ[, VFW]lGS ;\S<5GF 5|FIMULS ZLT[ 5]ZJFZ SZJ) H~ZL CTLP
H[D 5|SFXGL TZ\U 5|S'lTG[ ,LW[ T[G]\ lJJT"G (diffracton) VG[ jIlTSZ6 (interference) YFI K[4
T[D HM4 UlTXL, S6M 56 TZ\U 5|S'lT WZFJTF CMI TM4 T[DG]\ pN lJJT"G YJ]\ HM.V[P
.P;P 1927 DF> 0[lJ;G (Davison) VG[ UD"Z (Germer) GFDGF J{7FlGSMV[ lGS, WFT]GF\ :Ol8SGM
p5IMU SZL 1FvlSZ6MGL H[D UlTXL, .,[S8=MGG]\ lJJT"G SZL XSIFP
---VFD4 NvA|Mu,LV[ ZH] SZ[, VFW]lGS lJRFZ ccNZ[S UlTXL, S6 TZ\U 5|S'lT Friv[ K[4cc 5]ZJFZ YIMP
Q-08 0[lJ;G VG[ UD"Z J{7FlGSMV[ UlTXL, .,[S8=MGG]\ lJJT"G S. WFT]GF :Ol8SGF

p5IMU FZF SZL XSIF m


0[lJ;G VG[ UD"Z J{7FlGSMa[ lGS, WFT]GF :Ol8SGM p5IMU SZL 1FvlSZ6MGL H[D UlTXL,
.,[S8=MGG]\ lJJT"G SZL XSIFP
Q-09 cc5|SFXGF\ TZ\UM VG[ jIMGF TZ\UMcc v ;DHFJMP (Light waves and Matter waves)

5|SFXGF TZ\UM VG[ jIGF TZ\UM JrR[ AFZLS TOFJT K[P


jIvTZ\UM ZMlH\NF HLJGDF\ VG]EJTF 5|SFXvTZ\UM4 wJlGvTZ\UM S[ 5F6LGF TZ\UM H[JF GYLP
jI TZ\UM VJSFXDF\ S6M D/JFGL ;\EFJGF JW]DF\ JW] SIF\ K[ T[ NXF"J[ K[P VFYL T[cc;\EFJGF TZ\UMcc
(Waves of probability) K[P
vL) ai TZ\UM avkiSmi> kNi[n) g(tni[ mig< dSi<vti hi[viY) t[n[ 5FI,M8 TZ\UM pN kh[viy K[Pcc
Q-10 UlTXL, .,[S8=MGGL TZ\U 5|S'lTGM p5IMU X[GL ZRGFDF\ YI[,M K[ m

UlTXL, .,[S8=MGGL TZ\U 5|S'lTGM p5IMU .,[S8=MG DF.S|M:SM5GL ZRGFDF\ YI[,M K[P
Q-11 3G 5NFYM"GL ;5F8LGL ZRGFGM VeIF; .,[S8=MGGL S. 5|Sl' TG[ VFEFZL K[ m

3G 5NFYM"GL ;5F8LGL ZRGFGM VeIF; .,[S8=MGGL TZ\U 5|S'lTG[ VFEFZL K[P


04

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lJJT"G Y. XS[ K[P
Q-13 ccp0TF lJDFGG[ NvA|Mu,L l;wWF\T ,FU] 50TM GYLPcc v SFZ6 VF5MP

jI TZ\UMGL S<5GF VlT ;]1D UlTXL, S6M 5]ZTL DIF"lNT K[P

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DF5L XSFTL GYLP
aiY), 5|DF6DF\ JWFZ[ JHG WZFJTF UlTXL, 5NFYM" NFPTP p0TF lJDFG DF8[ T[ p5IMUL GYLP
Werner Heisenberg (5-12-1901 1-02-1976) was a German
theoretical physicist, best known for asserting the uncertainty
principle of quantum theory. He made important contributions to
quantum mechanics, nuclear physics, quantum field theory, and
particle physics. He was awarded the 1932 Nobel Prize in Physics.
Q-14 CF.hGAU"GM VlGl`TTFGM l;wWF\T ;DHFJMP (Heisenberg's uncertainity principal)

.P;P 1927 DF\ CF.hGAU" GFDGF J{7FlGS[ VlGl`RTTFGM l;wWF\T GLR[ D]HA ZH] SIM"P
l;wWF\T:- ccUlTXL, VlT ;]1D S6G]\ VJSFXDF\ :YFG VG[ T[GL UlT RMSS;F. 5]J"S V[S;FY[ GSSL
SZL XSFTF GYLPcc
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VF U6TZLDF\ gI]8GGF lGIDMGM p5IMU YFI K[4 H[G[ ,LW[ VJSFXDF\ p0L ZC[,F lJDFGG]\ SM. V[S
;DI[ :YFG VG[ T[GL UlT RMS;F.5]J"S GSSL Y. XS[ K[ T[YL VD]S ;DI 5KL T[ lJDFG SIF\ CX[ T[
56 UlTGL lNXF VG[ UlTGL HF6SFZLG[ VFWFZ[ GSSL Y. XS[ K[P
VFYL4 I]wW NZdIFG VFSFXDF\ p0TF N]xDGGF lJDFGG[ HDLG p5Z UM9J[,L TM5DF\YL KM0[,F TM5UM/F
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VF l;wWF\T VG];FZ4 HM ;]1D S6G]\ :YFG GSSL SZJF TZ\U ,\AF.GF lJlSZ6MGM p5IMU SZJFDF\
VFJ[ TM DFl5T D]<IDF\ VMKFDF\ VMKL H[8,L VlGl`RTTF ZC[ K[P
VFYL4 HM :YFGGF\ D}<IDF\ VF VlGl`RTTF B}A H VMKL SZJL CMI4 TM :YFG GSSL SZJFDF\ VFJ[ tIFZ[
p5IMUDF ,[JFTF lJlSZ6GL TZ\U ,\AF. B]A H GFGL CMJL HM.V[P
5Z\T] J[UDFG P =

CMJFYL VF 5|SFZGF\ lJlSZ6MGM OM8MG B}A H p\R]\ J[UDFG WZFJ[ K[P


05

5ZDF^JLI A\WFZ6 VG[ ZF;FIl6S A\W

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B]A JWL HFI K[P
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J[UDFG 56 GSSL SZJ]\ CMI4 TM J[UDFGGF\ D}<IDF\ VlGl`RTTF\ JWL HFI K[P
VF ;DLSZ6 NXF"J[ K[ S[ V[S VlGl`RTTF 38F0JF HTF\ ALHL lGl`RTTF JWL HFI K[P
VFD4 ccVlT ;}1D S6GF :YFGGF DFl5T D]<IDF\GL VlGl`RTF ( X) VG[ T[ 5|IMU FZF D[/JFTF
J[UDFGGF D]<IDF\GL VlGl`RTTF ( p) GM U]6FSFZ VMKFDF\ VMKM h/4 H[8,M VYJF JW] CMI K[Pcc
x

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4

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Erwin Rudolf Josef Alexander Schrdinger (12 August
1887 4 January 1961) was an Austrian theoretical physicist

who achieved fame for his contributions to quantum


mechanics, especially the Schrdinger equation, for which he
received the Nobel Prize in 1933 with P.A.M. Dirac

Q-15 zMl0gHZ TZ\U ;DLSZ6 ;DHFJMP

.ZlJG zMl0gHZ (Ervin Schrodinger) GFDGF J{7FlGS[4 . . T[GF ;DIYL ,UEU V[S;M JQF" 5]J["
lJl,ID C[lD,8G GFDGF J{7FlGS[ 5|:YFl5T SZ[,F
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2

x2

y2

z2

8 2m
h2

( E-V )

= 0

HIF\4 x, y, z = 5ZDF6]DF .,[S8=MGG]\ :YFG NXF"JTF SF8["lhIG lGN["XF\S


m = .,[S8=MGG]\ N/
E = .,[S8=MGv5|M8MG 5|6F,LGL S], XlST
V = l:YlTH XlST
06

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p\krN 1

Fi[rN - 12

= TZ\U lJW[I4 H[ ;FDFgI TZ\UGF S\5lJ:TFZ ;FY[ ;DFGTF WZFJ[ K[P


2

x2 = ;DLSZ6GM pS[, XMWJF

5Z SZJFGL UFl6TLI lS|IFP

VF ;DLSZ6 5ZDF6] VG[ V6]G[ ,FU] 5F0L XSFI K[P


p5I]"ST ;DLSZ6 CF.0=MHG 5ZDF6]G[ ,FU] 5F0JFDF\ VFJ[ tIFZ[ m, VG[ V HF6LTF\ D]<IM K[P
HIFZ[ E VG[

ni D}<IM V7FT K[P

VF ;DLSZ6DF\YL
Q-16

GF VG[S pS[, D/L XS[P 5Z\T] AWF H pS[,M :JLSFI" CMTF GYLP

GF\ :JLSFI" pS[,GL XZTM H6FJMP

!P

SM.56 V[S lA\N]V[

G]\ D]<I OST V[S H CMJ]\ HM.V[P

ZP

SM.56 lA\N]V[

#P

SM.56 V[S lA\N]YL ALHF lA\N] TZO HTF\

$P

S[gN=GL VFH]AFH]GF ;DU| VJSFXDF\ .,[S8=MG D/JFGL S], ;\EFJGF V[S CMJL HM.V[P

G]\ D]<I VG\T (infinite) G CM. XS[P

G]\ D]<I 5lZlDT CMJ]\ HM.V[P

G]\ D]<I ;TT lGIDLT 56[ AN,FJ]\ HM.V[P


sKey : V[S VG\T ;TT AN,FI T[GL ;\EFJGF V[Sf

Q-17 SF8["lhIG lGN["XF\S VG[ UM/LI W|]JLI lGN["XF\S JrR[GM ;\A\W NXF"JL
R, , JrR[GM ;\A\W NXF"JMP

total

VG[

5ZDF6]DF\ .,[S8=MGG]\ :YFG SF8["lhyG lGN["XF\S PPPPPPPPPPPP (X, Y, Z,) FZF NXF"JL XSFI K[P VG[ UM/LI
W|]JLI lGN["XF\S (Spherical Co-ordinates) (r, , ) J0[ 56 NXF"JL XSFI K[4
H[ VFS'lT FZF NXF"J[, K[P

ah)> aikZ(t di[ri[.


SF8["lhIG lGN["XF\S (x, Y, z) VG[ UM,LI W|]JLI lGN["XF\S JrR[GM ;\A\W sVFS'lT HF6SFZL DF8[ K[Pf
07

5ZDF^JLI A\WFZ6 VG[ ZF;FIl6S A\W

p\krN 1

Fi[rN - 12

IFD E]lDlT FZF (x, y, z) GF (r, , ) ;FY[ ;\A\W GLR[ 5|DF6[ D/[ K[P
x

r sin

.cos

r sin

.sin

r cos

VF ;\A\WMGM p5IMU SZL SF8["lhIG lGN["XF\S WZFJTF zMl0gHZ ;DLSZ6G]\ UM,LI W|]JLI lGN["XF\S
WZFJTF ;DLSZ6DF ~5F\TZ SZJFDF\ VFJ[ K[P
VG[ T[ ZLT[ ,BFI[,F ;DLSZ6GF R, V,ULSZ6GL ZLTYL V[JF +6 EFU 5F0JFDF\ VFJ[ K[4 S[
H[YL NZ[S EFU OST V[S H R, D}<I (r, , VYJF ) WZFJTM CMIP
VF +6 ;DLSZ6DF\4

r R, ;FY[ ;\S/FI[,\] lJW[I R FZF4

5|6F,LG]\ S], TZ\U lJW[I


total

total

R, ;FY[ ;\S/FI[,\] lJW[I

FZF4 VG[

R, ;FY[ ;\S/FI[,\] lJW[I

FZF4 NXF"JFI

VF +6 38S TZ\U lJW[I ;FY[ GLR[GM ;\A\W WZFJ[ K[P

=R
Q-18 zMl0gHZ ;DLSZ6DF\ SF8["lhIG lGN["XF\S X, Y, Z VG[ UM/LI lGN["XF\SM r, ,

JrR[GF ;\A\WM H6FJM m


X = r sin

.cos

Y = r sin

.sin

Z = r cos

Q-19 zMl0gHZ ;DLSZ6DF\ H 5ZDF6] VG[ OST V[S H .,[S8=MG WZFJTF VFIG DF8[
E G]\ ;DLSZ6 H6FJMP
En =

BHADRAS

v 2 2mz2e4
n2h2

VU" q .,[S8=MG

HIF\4 m =
Z=
h=
n=
e=

ChemicoNews
UN declares 2011 as International

.,[S8=MGG]\ N/4
5ZDF6]\ S|DF\S4
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X}gI l;JFIGL 5}6F"\S ;\bIF
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Year of Chemistry

New York, Paris, 30 December 2008 - The 63rd General Assembly of the United Nations has
adopted a resolution proclaiming 2011 as International Year of Chemistry, placing UNESCO and
the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) at the helm of the event. The year
2011, the 100th anniversary of the award of the Nobel Prize in chemistry to Mme Maria
Sklodowska Curie, will also provide an opportunity to celebrate the contribution of women to
science. The Year also marks the 100th anniversary of the founding of the International
Association of Chemical Societies (IACS), which was succeeded by IUPAC a few years later.
08

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5ZDF^JLI A\WFZ6 VG[ ZF;FIl6S A\W

Q-20 AMCZGF\ CF.0=MHG 5ZDF6] GD}GFGL 1FlTVM H6FJMP

AMCZ CF.0=MHG 5ZDF6]\ J6"58 p5ZYL E DF8[ TFZJ[,]\ ;DLSZ6 zMl0gHZ ;DLSZ6DF\YL D/TF
En GF\ ;DLSZ6G[ ;DFG VFJ[ K[P

AMCZ ;DLSZ6DF\ D]SFI[,M 5}6F"\S n D]bI SJMg8D VF\S TZLS[ VM/BJFDF\ VFjIM VG[ T[ H 5|DF6[
zMl0gHZ ;DLSZ6DF\YL E DF8[GF\ ;DLSZ6DF\ VFJTM 5}6F"\S n D]bI SJMg8D VF\S TZLS[ VM/BFI
K[P
VFD4 A\G[ 5wWlTVMYL 5lZ6FD ;DFG D/T]\ CMJF KTF\ AMCZ 5wWlT GLR[GF SFZ6M;Z BFDLI]ST
DFGL XSFIP
s!f

AMCZ 5wWlT S[8,F\S VG]DFG 5Z VFWFlZT K[4 T[DH T[ gI]8G IF\l+S 5Z VFWFZLT K[P ;}1D S6MG[
gI]8GvIF\+LSL ,FU] 50T]\ GYLP

sZf

AMCZ 5wWlTDF\ .,[S8=MGG[ S[gN=YL lGl`RT V\TZ[ JT]"/FSFZ DFU"DF\ 3]DTM S<5JFDF\ VFjIM K[P
JF:TJDF\ .,[S8=MG S[gN=YL SM.56 V\TZ[ ;\EJL XS[ K[P
Q-21 zMl0gHZ TZ\U ;DLSZ6GF VFWFZ[ CF.0=MHGGF .,[S8=MGGL XlSTGF\ :JLSFI" D]<IM
(En) DF8[G\] ;DLSZ6 ,BM4 VG[ V[S DM, CF.0=MHG 5ZDF6] DF8[ En G]\ ;]+ TFZJMP

aipN[ jiN)a[ C)a[


k[ el[kT^i[nn) SIktn&> sm)krN n)c[ m&jb C[.
-2 2m e4 z2
En =
n2h2
CF.0=MHG 5ZDF6] DF8[ Z = 1 CMJFYL (Z2 = 1)

zMl0gHZ TZ\U ;DLSZ6GF VFWFZ[ CF.0=MHGGF .,[S8=MGGF XlSTGF\ :JLSFI" D]<IM (En) GLR[GF\
;DLSZ6 FZF D/[ K[P
En =

-2 2me4
n2h2

p5"I]ST ;DLSZ6 1 DM, CF.0=MHG 5ZDF6]\GF .,[S8=MGGL XlST DF8[ NXF"JLV[ TM4
En =

-2 2me4N
n2h2

1 ag< = .. .. ... .. .. .. . . . . j&l


1 j&l = .. .. ... .. .. .. . . . . k[l[r)

HIF\4 m = .,[S8=MGG]\ N/ = 9.109 X 10 v28 U|FDP


23
N = V[JMU[0=M VF\S = 6.022 X 10
10
e = .,[S8=MGGM lJn]TEFZ =4.803 X 10 v e.s.u.,
v 27
h = %,FgSGM VR/F\S = 6.626 X 10
VU" ;[Sg04
n = X}gI l;JFIGL 5}6F"\S ;\bIF4
09

Fi[rN - 12

5ZDF^JLI A\WFZ6 VG[ ZF;FIl6S A\W

p\krN 1

En =

=
=

- 313.5
n2

2
Q-22 n SZTF

lSPS[,ZL DM, --1


2

G]\ D}<I JW] DCtJG]\ K[P v ;DHFJMP

G[ 5MTFG[ SM. EF{lTS VY" GYLP


G]\ D}<I WG (+) VYJF k6 () CM. XS[P
HIFZ[

GF\ D}<IM S[gN=GL VFH]AFH] VFJSFXDF\ H]NF\ H]\NF :YFGMV[ .,[S8=MG D/L VFJJFGL ;\EFJGF

S[8,L K[4 T[ NXF"J[ K[P VFYL4

SZTF

JW] DCtJG]\ K[P

Q-23 5ZDF^JLI S1FS VG[ VF^JLI S1FS ;DHFJMP

zMl0gHZ TZ\U ;DLSZ6 5ZDF6]G[ ,FU] 5F0L

GF\ :JLSFI" pS[, XMWJFDF\ VFJ[ VG[ T[G[ VFWFZ[

.,[S8=MG D/JFGL 95@ S[ T[GL JW] ;\EFJGF WZFJT]\ VJSFXLI 1F[+ GSSL SZJFDF\ VFJ[ TM T[
5|SFZGF VJSFXLI 1F[+G[ 5ZDF^JLI S1FS SC[ K[P
zMl0gHZ TZ\U ;DLSZ6 V6]G[ ,FU] 5F0L

GF\ :JLSFI" pS[, XMWJFDF\ VFJ[ VG[ T[G[ VFWFZ[

.,[S8=MG D/JFGL 95 @ S[ T[YL JW] ;\EFJGF WZFJT]\ VJSFXLI 1F[+ GSSL SZJFDF\ VFJ[4 TM T[
5|SFZGF VJSFXLI 1F[+G[ VF^JLI S1FS SC[ K[P
Q-24 SJMg8D VF\S (Quantum Numbers) V[8,[ X]\ m T[GF 5|SFZ ;DHFJMP

5ZDF6]DF\ .,[S8=MGG]\ S[gN=YL ;F5[1F V\TZ4 S1FSGM 5|SFZ4 .,[S8=MGGL :5LGGL lNXF H[JL DFlCTL
NXF"JTF VF\SG[ SJMg8D VF\S SC[ K[P
zMl0gHZ TZ\U ;DLSZ6DF\YL SJMg8D VF\S n, l, m pNEJ[ K[P 5Z\T] .,[S8=MGGF\ ;\5}6" J6"G DF8[
l:5G SJMg8D VF\S (s) GL 56 H~Z 50[ K[4 H[ zMl0gHZ TZ\U ;DLSZ6DF\YL pNEJTM GYLP
010

Fi[rN - 12

s!f

5ZDF^JLI A\WFZ6 VG[ ZF;FIl6S A\W

p\krN 1

l:5G SJMg8D VF\S o (s) (Spin Quantum number) :

.P;P 1925DF\ UFp0:DL8 VG[ pC,[GA[S GFDGF J{7FlGSMV[ V[S VJ,MSG ;DHFvti jNiy&> k[
CF.0=MHG 5ZDF6]GL lSZ6FJ,LG[ lJQFDF\U R]\ASLI 1F[+DF\YL 5;FZ SZTF VFS'lTDF\ NXF"jIF D]HA T[
A[ EFUDF\ JC[\RF. T[GF 5ZDF6]VM A[ lJ~wW lNXFDF\ UlT SZ[ K[P

H v 5ZDF6]

slJQFDF\U R]\ASLI1F[+DF\ H 5ZDF6]VMGL UlTPf


VF VJ,MSG NXF"J[ K[ S[ AWF H H 5ZDF6]\VM ;DFG R]\ASLI U]6 WZFJTF GYLP
VF 5|SFZGL V;DFGTF TM H ;\EJL XS[ HM S[8,FS 5ZDF6]VMGF .,[S8=MG T[GL WZL 5Z V[S lNXFDF
E|D6UlT SZTF CMI VG[ AFSLGF 5ZDF6]\VMGF .,[S8=MG lJ~wW lNXFDF\ E|D6UlT SZTF CMIP
VFYL .P;P 1925DF\ UFp0:DL8 VG[ pC,[GA[S GFDGF J{7FlGSMV[ ;]RjI] S[4
.,[S8=MGG]\ E|D6SM6LI J[UDFG WZFJ[ K[P VG[ VF J[UDFG 56 SJMg8LS'T YI[,]\ CMI K[P
VF U6TZL DF8[ l:5G SJMg8D VF\S (s) GL H~Z 50[ K[P
VF SJMg8D VF\S OST + 1q2 VG[ v1q2 V[D A[ H D}<IM WZFJ[ K[P
.,[S8=MGGL SM6LI UlTG[ ,LW[ pt5gG YTF R]\ASLI 1F[+ p5ZF\T .,[S8=MGGF WZLE|D6G[ ,LW[
.,[S8=MG VF\TZLS R]\ASLI U]6 WZFJ[ K[P
VF RFSDF+F A[ lJ~wW lNXFDF\ CMJFYL l:5G SJMg8D VF\SGF A[ D}<IM + 1q2 VG[ v1q2 CMI K[P
sZf

D]bI SJMg8D VF\S o (n) (Principal Quantum number) :


VF SJMg8D VF\S X}gI l;JFIGL SM.56 WG5]6F"S ;\bIF CMI K[P
T[GF FZF 5ZDF6] VG[ VFIGDF\GF .,[S8=MGGL S], XlST (En) GSSL YFI K[P
JW]DF\ 5ZDF6]DF\ H]NF H]NF n D]<IM vD[ .,[8=SMGG]\ S[gN=YL ;F5[1F V\TZ 56 GSSL YFI K[P
R] n D}<I WZFJTF[ .,[S8=MG S[gN=YL JW] N]Z V\TZ[ CX[P
VF SJMg8D VF\SG[ VFWFZ[ XlST v :TZ V[8,[ S[ S1FF GSSL Y. XS[ K[P
HM4

1 CMI4 TM K S1FF4 n =
3 CMI4 TM M S1FF4 n =
SM.56 XlST :TZDF\ n 5|SFZGL S], n2 S1FSM CMI K[P
n=
n=

2 CMI4 TM L S1FF4
4 CMI4 TM N S1FF TZLS[ VM/BFI K[P

H[D S[4 (#iji XlST :TZDF\ n G]\ D]<I 3 CMI TM T[DF 3 5|SFZGL S], (3)2 = 9 S1FSM CMI K[P
011

p\krN 1

Fi[rN - 12

s#f

5ZDF^JLI A\WFZ6 VG[ ZF;FIl6S A\W

SM6LI J[UDFG SJMg8D VF\S o ( l ) (Angular momentum Quantum number) :


D]bIM SJMg8D VF\S n ;FY[ ;\S/FI[,F VF SJMg8D VF\SGF D}<IM _ YL (n-1) ;]WLGF 5}6F"S K[P
H[D S[4 n = 4 DF8[GF\ l GF D]<IM 0, 1, 2, VG[ 3 CMI K[P
VF SJMg8D VF\SGF D]<I FZF S1FSGM VFSFZ GSSL YFI K[P

l GF D]<IM

S1FS

l G]\ D]<I .,[S8=MGG]\ SM6LI J[UDFG ;]RJ[ K[P SM6LI


J[UDFG WZFJTM .,[S8=MG SM6LI UlTG[ ,LW[ UlTH XlST WZFJ[ K[P

VF SM6LI UlT H XlSTG]\ D]<I .,[S8=MGGL S], XlST FZF DIF"lNT YT]\ CMJFYL l GF\ :JLSFI" D]<IM n
GF D]<I 5Z VFWFZ ZFB[ K[P

{Kis}

V[S SZTF JW] .,[S8=MG WZFJTF 5ZDF6]\GF .,[S8=MGGL S], XlST (n + l) FZF GSSL YFI K[P
s$f

R]\ASLI SJMg8D VF\S o (m) (Magnetic Quantum number) :


SM6LI J[UDFG WZFJTM .,[S8=MG R]\ASLI 1F[+ WZFJ[ K[P VF R]\AStJG]\ D]<I SJMg8D VF\S m FZF
GSSL YFI K[P VF R]\AStJGL pt5lT .,[S8=MGGF SM6LI J[UDFGG[ ,LW[ CMJFYL m GF :JLSFI" D]<IM
l ;FY[ ;\A\W WZFJ[ K[P
l GF SM.56 D]<I DF8[ m GL ;\bIF(2 l + 1) J0[ NXF"JL XSFI4 H[ + l .O.- l ;]WLGL X}gI
;lCT WG VG[ k6 5}6F"S ;\bIFVM K[P
H[D S[4 l = 3 CMI TM4 m GF\ D]<IM +3, +2, +1, 0, -1, -2, -3 YFI K[P
m GF D]<IMGL ;\bIF NZ[S 5|SFZn) kxki[mi> p[Ti kxki[n) ;\bIF GSSL SZ[ K[P

H[ T[ S1FS DF8[ m GF H[8,L ;\bIFGF D]<IM D/[ T[GL ;\bIFGL S1FSM H[ T[ S1FS WZFJ[ K[P
=> H[D S[4 s,-- S1FS DF8[l = 0 CMJFYL m = 0 OST V[S H D}<I D/[ K[4 H[ ;}RJ[ K[ S[ s- S1FS DF+ V[S
H S1FS K[P
=> p S1FS DF8[ l = 1 CMJFYL m GF\ +1, 0, -1 V[D +6 D}<IM D/[ K[4 H[ ;]RJ[ K[ S[ p S1FS +6 5[8F
S1FSM WZFJ[ K[4 H[G[ Px, Py, Pz J0[ NXF"JFI K[P
=> V[ H 5|DF6[ d S1FS DF8[ 1=2 CMJFYL m GF +2, +1, 0 -1, -2 V[D 5F\R D}<IM D/[ K[P H[ ;]RJ[ K[ S[
d S1FS 5F\R 5[8F S1FSM WZFJ[ K[4 H[G[ VG]S|D[ dz2, dxy, dyz, dzx, dx2 -y2 J0[ NXF"JFI K[.

=> vL) f S1FS DF8[ l = 3 CMJFYL m GF\ +3, +2, +1, 0, -1, -2, -3 V[D ;FT D]<IM D/[ K[P
H[ ;}RJ[ K[ S[ f S1FSDF\ ;FT 5[8F S1FSM CMI K[P

012

p\krN 1

Fi[rN - 12

5ZDF^JLI A\WFZ6 VG[ ZF;FIl6S A\W

Q-25 GLR[GL S1FSMDF\ SJMg8D VF\S n, I, m H6FJMP


(1)

3py

n = 3, l = 1, m = 0

(2)
(3)

4dz2 :
4px :

n = 4, l = 2, m = +2
n = 4, l = 1, m = +1

(4)

6s

n = 6, l = 0, m = 0

(5)

3dx2- y2:

n = 3, l = 2, m = -2

(6)

5pz

n = 5, l = 1, m = -1

(7)

3dxy :

n = 3, l = 2, m = +1

Q-27 SM6LI J[UDFG SJMg8D VF\SGF

D}<I FZF X]\ GSSL YFI K[ m


Q-28 V[S SZTF\ JW] .,[S8=MG WZFJTF
5ZDF6]\DF .,[S8=MGGL S],
XlST X[GF\ FZF GSSL YFI K[ m

Q-26 s S1FSG[ UM/ N0F H[JL XF DF8[ S<5JFDF\ VFJ[ K[ m T[ ;DHFJMP

zMl0gHZ ;DLSZ6YL n = 1, I = 0 D}<I DF8[ D/TF


D]HA K[P

GF :JLSFI" pS[, XMWJF DF8[G]\ ;DLSZ6 GLR[

n=1

l =0

1
a0

/2

S1FSMGF VFSFZ H[ T[ S1FSGF :JLSFI"

.e

r/ao

HIF\ o a0 =

h2
4 me2

r = .,[S8=MGG]\ S[gN=YL V\TZ


GF D}<IGF VFWFZ[ GSSL Y. XS[ K[P

WZFl:YlTDF\ CF.0=MHG 5ZDF6]\GM .,[S8=MG 5|YD XlST :TZ (n = 1) DF\ CMI K[P VF XlST:TZ V[S H
S1FS (n = 1, l = 0 DF8[f CMI TM 1s S1FS WZFJ[ K[P
DF8[G]\4 V[8,[ S[ 1s S1FS DF8[G]\ G]\ ;DLSZ6 ;]RJ[ K[ S[ T[DF VG[ R, D}<IM
GYL4 T[YL G]\ D]<I OST r R, 5Z VFWFZ ZFB[ K[P
VFYL S[gN=YL AWL H lNXFDF\ r V\TZ[ VFJ[,F\ lA\NV
] MV[ G]\ D}<I ;DFG D/[ K[4 T[YL T[ lA\N]VMV[ 2
GF D}<IM 56 ;DFG D/[P
ALHF XaNMDF\ SCLV[ TM4 ccS[gN=YL AWL H lNXFDF\ ;ZBF V\TZ[ VFJ[,F lA\N]VM 5Z .,[S8=MG D/L
VFJJFGL ;\EFJGF ;DFG CMI K[cc
.,[S8=MG D/L VFJJFGL ;DFG ;\EFJGF WZFJTF VF 5|SFZGF lA\N]VMDF\YL 5;FZ YTL V[S kipn)k
n = 1, l = 0

;5F8L S<5LV[ TM T[GM VFSFZ UM/ N0F H[JM CX[P

{kdbni f&l j[vi[}

VFYL n=1, l =0 D}<I WZFJTL 1s S1FSGM VFSFZ UM/ N0F H[JM S<5JFDF\ VFJ[ K[P
V[ H 5|DF6[ VgI XlST :TZMDF\ 56 l = 0 D}<I DF8[GF\ :JLSFI"

GF ;DLSZ6DF OST r R, D/[ K[P

T[YL l = 0 D}<I WZFJTF AWF H XlST :TZMDF\ V[S UM/FSFZ S1FS CMI K[4 H[G[ ns ;\7FYL NXF"JFI K[P
013

Fi[rN - 12

p\krN 1

5ZDF^JLI A\WFZ6 VG[ ZF;FIl6S A\W

Q-27 1s S1FSYL 2s S1FS S[JL ZLT[ H]NL 50[ K[ m OR tfivt aipi[ 1s S1FS an[ 2s S1FS

5ZDF6]DF V[JM lJ:TFZ S[ ;5F8L S[ HIF\ .,[S8=MG D/L VFJJFGL ;\EFJGF X}gI CMI T[G[ GM0
VYJF GM0, ;5F8L SC[ K[P
n

G]\ D}<I 1 SZTF\ JW] CMI4 TM T[GL S S1FSMDF\ (n-1) GM0 snode) CMI K[P

VFYL 1s k1FSDF\ GM0 CMT] GYLP VFD KTF\ H[ VJSFXDF\ .,[S8=MG D/L VFJJFGL ;\EFJGF 95@ S[
T[YL JW] T[G[ CN Z[BFYL NXF"JLV[4 TM 1s VG[ 2s S1FS VFS'lT D]HA NXF"JL XSFIP
2s v S1FS

1s v S1FS

Q-28
Q-29

GM0

p S1FSMGM VFSFZ :5Q8 SZMP


OR
p S1FSM XF DF8[ lNXFSLI U]6 WZFJ[ K[ T[ ;DHFJMP

sVf CF.0=MHG 5ZDF6]GF ALHF XlST :TZ (n=2) DF8[ GF RFZ :JLSFI" pS[, D/[ K[P
T[DF\GM V[S pS[, n=2, I=0 OST r R, p5Z VFWFZ ZFB[ K[P H[ 2s S1FS ;]RJ[ K[P
AFSLGF +6 pS[, l = 1 ,[TF m ni #iN m*yi[ + 1, 0, -1 CMI K[P
VF +6DF\YL A[ :JLSFI" TZ\U lJW[I r p5ZF\T VG[ R, WZFJ[ K[P HIFZ[ +LH] :JLSFI" TZ\U
lJW[I VG[ R, WZFJ[ K[4 T[YL T[GF FZF NXF"JTL pS1FSM lNXFSLI U]6 WZFJ[ K[P
VF +6 S1FSM V[SALHF ;FY[ 90_ GM B}6M AGFJ[ K[P
VF +6 S1FSMGF\ VFSFZ 0\A[<; VFSFZ U6JFDF\ VFJ[ K[P
VF +6[I S1FSM ;DXlSTS TYF ;lNX CMI K[P
GF\ +6 :JLSFI" pS[,MGF ;DLSZ6GM p5IMU SZL
+6 pS1FSMGF VFSFZ GLR[GL VFS'lT D]HA NXF"JL XSFIP

014

Fi[rN - 12

p\krN 1

5ZDF^JLI A\WFZ6 VG[ ZF;FIl6S A\W

Q-30 d- S1FSM XF DF8[ lNXFSLI U]6 WZFJ[ K[ T[ ;DHFJL d-S1FSMGM VFSFZ ;5Q8 SZMP

sAf l = 2 DF8[ m GF\ 5F\R D}<IM +2, +1, 0, -1, -2 CMI K[P VFYL l = 2 D}<I WZFJTF :JLSFI" TZ\U
lJW[IMGL ;\bIF 5F\R YFI K[4 H[ 5F\R dS1FSM ;]RJ[ K[P
GF :JLSFI" TZ\U lJW[IM 56 r, VG[

a[m #iN R, p5Z VFWFZ ZFBTF CMJFYL

5F\R dS1FSM lNXFSLI U]6 WZFJ[ K[P


T[DGM VFSFZ VlGIDLT 0A, 0\A[<; VFSFZ U6JFDF\ VFJ[ K[P
VF 5F\R dS1FSMGF VFSFZ GLR[GL VFS'lT 5|DF6[ NXF"JL XSFIP

Q-31 f S1FSMGL ;\bIF sVG[ VFSFZf H6FJMP

jvib lKi[.

f
kxkni aikir
jiNkir) miT[. . .
015

ai aikir ah)> di[ri[.

Fi[rN - 12

p\krN 1

5ZDF^JLI A\WFZ6 VG[ ZF;FIl6S A\W

BHADRAS WAIT AND WATCH


1 4s kxkmi> k[Tli ni[D C[?

fi[Ti[el[kT^)k asr a[Tl[ S&>?

2 El[kT^i[nn) k&l SIkt Sini vD[ nkk) Yiy C[?

D[v)sn an[ gm<rni[ rsiyNSiA#imi> fiLi[ jNivi[.

3 c&>bk)y kvi[Tm ai>k S&> dSi<v[ C[?

1s an[ 2s kxki[ni[ tfivt jNivi[.

4 S kvi[Tm ai>k ki[N[ smjiyi[?


5 Ap)n kvi[Tm ai>kn) Sky k)>mti[ lKi[.

10

ni[D a[Tl[ S&>?

11

#iN P kxki[ni[ a[k b)ji siY[ni[ K*Ni[ jNivi[.

6 aivZ(t an[ tr>g l>bieni[ s>b>F aipt& sm). lKi[.

12

kxk ki[n[ kh[viy?

ai p\i[ (vwiY)<ai[a[ Si[F) t]yir krvi an[ sih[b pis[Y) sici jvibi[ jiN) ckisvi.

Q-32 S1FSMGL ;F5[1F XlSTni[ k|m ;DHFJMP

5ZDF6]VMDF\ V[S H XlST :TZDF\ (n) H]NF H]NF 5|SFZGL S1FSMDF\ XlST S|D s < p < d < f CMI K[P
V[S H XlST :TZDF\ V[S H 5|SFZGL S1FSM ;DXlST 5]J"S CMI K[P
NFPTP ALHF XlST :TZDF 2s < 2p CMI K[P 5Z\T] 2px = 2py = 2pz K[P
H]NF H]NF XlST:TZMDF S1FSMGL XlSTGM S|D SJMg8D VF\S n VG[ l GF ;ZJF/FGF D}<IG[ VFWFZ[
GSSL YFI K[P
H[ S1FS DF8[ (n + l) G\] D}<I p\R] T[GL XlST JWFZ[ CMI K[P
HM A[ H]NF H]NF 5|SFZGL S1FSM DF8[ (n + l) G]\ D}<I ;ZB]\ CMI4 TM H[ S1FSG]\ n G]\ D}<I JWFZ[ CMI TM
T[GL XlST JWFZ[ CMI K[P
V[S H 5|SFZGL AWL H S1FSM ;\5}6" EZFI[,L CMI VYJF VW"EZFI[,L CMI4 TM 5ZDF6]G\] :YFILtJ
JW[ K[P
.,[S8=MG ZRGFDF\ lGIDM (Rules for electron configuration) :
The Aufbau principle (from the German Aufbau meaning "building up,
construction": also Aufbau rule or building-up principle) is used to determine the
electron configuration of an atom, molecule or ion. The principle postulates a
hypothetical process in which an atom is "built up" by progressively adding
electrons. As they are added, they assume their most stable conditions (electron
orbitals) with respect to the nucleus and those electrons already there.
Q-33

VFpOAFp l;wWF\T (Auf-bau Principle) :

5ZDF6]DF\ ZC[,F .,[S8=MG si] p\Ym ;F{YL VMKL XlST WZFJTL S1FSDF\ NFB, YFI K[P tIFZAFN S|DXo
p\RL pHF" WZFJTL S1FSMDF\ NFB, YFI K[P

S1FSMGL XlSTGM R-TM S|D GLR[ 5|DF6[GM K[ o

1s < 2s < 2p < 3s < 3p < 4s < 3d < 4p < 5s < 4d < 5p < 6s< 4f < 5d < 6p < 7s < 5f .
016

Fi[rN - 12

p\krN 1

5ZDF^JLI A\WFZ6 VG[ ZF;FIl6S A\W

Q-34 5F{,LGM lGQF[W l;wWF\T (Paul's exclusion Principle) :

ccSM.56 S1FS JW]DF\ JW] A[ .,[S8=MG ;DFJL XS[4 A[ SZTF\ JW] .,[S8=MG ;DFJL XS[ GCLPcc
VYJF
ccV[S H 5ZDF6]DF\ SM.56 A[ .,[S8=MGGF RFZ[I SJMg8D VF\S SNFl5 ;DFG CM. XS[ GCLPcc
Wolfgang Ernst Pauli (25 April 1900 15 December
1958) was an Austrian theoretical physicist noted

STAMP OF PAULI

for his work on spin theory, and for the


discovery of the exclusion principle. In 1945, he
received the Nobel Prize in Physics for his
"decisive contribution through his discovery in
1925 of a new law of Nature, the exclusion
principle or Pauli principle." He was nominated
for the prize by Einstein

Q-35 C]\0GM lGID (Hund's Rule) :

cc;DFG pHF" WZFJTL S1FSMDF\ .,[S8=MG XSI CMI tIF\ ;]WL VI]luDT ZC[JFG]\ J,6 WZFJ[ K[P
Ryirbid k|mS: l:5G ;DF\TZ ZC[ t[ r)t[ gi[qviy K[Pcc . . . . . . . V[8,[ S[4 ;DFG XlST WZFJTL
S1FSMDF\ 5|YD NZ[S S1FSDF\ V[SvV[S .,[S8=MG UM9JFI K[P tIFZAFN H .,[S8=MG I]uD AG[ K[P
Friedrich Hund (4 February 1896 - 31 March 1997) was a German
physicist from Karlsruhe known for his work on atoms and molecules.Hund
worked at the Universities of Rostock, Leipzig, Jena, Frankfurt am Main, and
Gttingen.Hund worked with such prestigious physicists as Schrdinger,
Dirac, Heisenberg, Max Born, and Walter Bothe. At that time, he was Born's
assistant, working with quantum interpretation of band spectra of diatomic
molecules.

Q-36 yiyi aipi[:- ZF;FIl6S A\W, A\W ,\AF., A\W XlST

ZF;FIl6S A\W, ccV6]DF\ ZC[,F 38S 5ZDF6]VM JrR[GF HM0F6G[ ZF;FIl6S A\W SC[ K[Pcc
A\W,\AF., ccZF;FIl6S A\WYL HM0FI[,F A[ 5ZDF6]VM JrR[ RMSS; V\TZ CMI K[4 H[G[ A\W,\AF. SC[ K[Pcc
A\W XlST ccV6]DF\ ZC[,F ZF;FIl6S A\W TM0L 5ZDF6]VM D]ST SZJF VMKFDF\ VMKL H[ XlSTGL H~Z
50[ K[4 T[G[ A\W XlST SC[ K[Pcc
Q-37 V6]GF EF{lTS VG[ ZF;FIl6S U]6WDM" ;DHJF DF8[ X[GM VeiFF; H~ZL K[ m

V6]GF EF{lTS VG[ ZF;FIl6S U]6WDM" ;DHJF DF8[ ZF;FIl6S A\WGL 5|S'lTGM VeIF; H~ZL K[P
017

Fi[rN - 12

p\krN 1

5ZDF^JLI A\WFZ6 VG[ ZF;FIl6S A\W

Q-38 V6]\GF EF{lTS VG[ ZF;FIl6S U]6WDM" X[GF p5Z VFWFZ ZFB[ K[ m

V6]GF EF{lTS VG[ ZF;FIl6S U]6WDM" A\WGF 5|SFZ4 A\W ,\AF.4 VG[ HM V6] V[S SZTF JW] A\W
WZFJT]\ CMI4 TM T[ b>Fi[ JrR[GF B]6F p5Z VFWFZ ZFB[ K[P
Q-39 VF^JLI S1FS l;wWF\T ;DHFJMP (Molecular Orbital Theory) :

VF l;wWF\T D]l,SG VG[ C]\0 GFDGF J{7FlGSMV[ ZH] SIF"P T[DGF DT D]HA V6]GL VF^JLI S1FSG] \
J6"G 5ZDF6]GL 5ZDF^JLI S1FS H[J]\ H CMI K[P
H[ ZLT[ 5ZDF6]GF S[gN=GL VFH]AFH] .,[S8=MGG] \ ;\EFJGF lJTZ6 (probability distribution)
5ZDF6]\ S1FS FZF NXF"JFI K[4 T[ H 5|DF6[ V6]GF S[gN=GF\ ;D}CGL VFH]AFH] .,[S8=MGG]\ ;\EFJGF
lJTZ6 VF^JLI S1FS FZF NXF"JFI K[P
VF VF^JLI S1FSMDF\ .,[S8=MGGL UM9J6L VFpOvAFp4 5F{,L4 VG[ C]\0GF lGIDG[ VFWFZ[ SZJFDF\ VFJ[ K[P

TZ\U IF\l+SL VG];FZ VF^JLI S1FSMGL ZRGF H[ A[ 5ZDF6] JrR[ A\W ZRFTM CMI T[GF
:JLSFI" lJW[IMGF V[S3FT ;\RI sZ[BLI ;\U9Gf (linear combination) vD[ Yiy K[P
Firi[ k[ b[ H hieD^i[jn prmiN&> {Ha an[ Hb}ji[Diyn[ H2 aN&> bniv[ Ryir[. . .
1s (a) an[
1s (b) GM V[S3FT ;\RI GLR[ 5|DF6[ A[ ZLT[ Y. XS[ K[P T[YL A[ :JLSFI" VF^JLI
TZ\U lJW[I MO VG[ *MO ZRFI K[P
*MO = 1s(a) 1s(b)
MO =
1s(a) + 1s(b)
VCL\ saf VG[ sbf A[ CF.0=MHG 5ZDF6]ai[ DF8[ J5ZFT) s>Xiai[ K[P VCL ZRFI[,F A[
VF^JLI TZ\U lJW[IM A[ VF^JLI S1FSM J6"J[ K[P
FZF lGN["lXT YTL VF^JLI S1FSG[ A\WSFZS (bonding) VF^JLI S1FS
VG[
*MO FZF lGN["lXT YTL VF^JLI S1FSG[ A\W 5|lTSFZS (antibonding) VF^JLI S1FS SC[ K[P
MO

A[ 1s S1FSMGF\ 5}ZS ;\lDz6YL VF^JLI S1FS AG[ tIFZ[ T[ A\G[ 5ZDF6] S[gN=M 5Z KJFI[,L CMI
K[P VF VF^JLI S1FSGL XlST 5ZDF^JLI S1FSMGL XlST SZTF\ VMKL K[4 H[G[ A\WSFZS VF^JLI
S1FS (BMO) SC[JFI K[P
HIFZ[ A[ 1s S1FSMGF\ lJZMWS ;\lDz6YL 5ZDF^JLI S1FSMGL XlST SZTF\ p\RL XlSTJF/L
VF^JLI S1FS AG[ T[G[ A\W5|lTSFZS VF^JLI S1FS (ABMO) AG[ K[P
H2 V6]\DF\ A\G[ H 5ZDF6]GF .,[S8=MG GLRL XlST JF/L A\WSFZS VF^JLI S1FSDF\ EZFI K[4 T[YL
A[ H 5ZDF6] SZTF\ H2 V6]GL XlST VMKL YFI K[P
A\WSFZS VF^JLI S1FSDF\ .,[S8=MG EZFI4 TM A[ H- 5ZDF6]VM JrR[ VFSQF"6 lG5H[ K[4
T[YL A\W AG[ K[P
018

p\krN 1

Fi[rN - 12
Q-40

5ZDF^JLI A\WFZ6 VG[ ZF;FIl6S A\W

4 4 *, * V[8,[ X]\ m T[GL ZRGF VG[ ;DlDlT ;DHFJMP

HM S[gN=GL HM0TL A\W WZL VFH]AFH] H[ S1FS ;DlDlT WZFJTL CMI TM T[G[
;DlDlT WZFJTL G CMI T[G[

VG[ * VG[ H[

VG[ * VF^JLI S1FS SC[ K[P

s+fsvf lRgCM K[4 H[ lJn]TEFZ NXF"JTF lRgCM GYLP


aikZ(t saf VG[ sbf DF\ WZLG]\ E|D6 180_ s+f VG[ svf lRgCMGF :YFG AN,FTF GYL4 T[YL VF
VF^JLI S1FSM G/FSFZ ;DlDlT WZFJ[ K[P VF VF^JLI S1FSM

;\7FYL NXF"JFI K[P

aikZ(t saf DF\ A[ S[gN= JrR[GF 1F[+DF\ .,[S8=MGGL ;\EFJGF JW] CMJFYL VF 5|SFZGL VF^JLI
S1FS A\WSFZS VF^JLI S1FS s

b
MO

f TZS[ VM/BFI K[P

aikZ(t sbf DF\ S[gN= JrR[GF 1F[+DF\ .,[S8=MGGL ;\EFJGF VMKL CMJFYL VF 5|SFZGL VF^JLI
S1FSDF\ 5|J[XTF .,[S8=MG A\WGM 5|lTSFZ SZ[ K[4 T[YL T[G[ A\W 5|lTSFZS s *MOf SC[ K[P
aikZ(t scf VG[ sdf FZF NXF"J[,L VF^JLI S1FSM

5|SFZGL K[4 SFZ6 S[ A\W WZLG]\ 180_ B}6[

E|D6 SZTF\ TZ\U lJW[IMGF\ :YFG [ s+f VG[ svf lRgCMGF :YFG ] AN,FI K[P
aikZ(t scf DF\ A[ S[gN= JrR[GF 1F[+DF\ .,[S8=MGGL ;\EFJGF JWTL CMJFYL T[
A\WSZS VF^JLI S1FS s

MO

f K[P
019

5|SFZGL

p\krN 1

Fi[rN - 12

5ZDF^JLI A\WFZ6 VG[ ZF;FIl6S A\W

HIFZ[ aikZ(t sdf DF\ A[ S[gN= JrR[GF 1F[+DF\ .,[S8=MGGL ;\EFJGF 38TL CMJFYL T[
5|SFZGL A\W 5|lTSFZS VF^JLI S1FS s *MOf K[P
VF 5|SFZGL VF^JLI S1FSDF\ A[ S[gN= JrR[ GM0, ;DT, (nodal plane) CMI K[P GM0, ;DT,DF\
.,[S8=MG D/L VFJJFGL ;\EFJGF X}gI CMI K[P
Q-41 5ZDF^JLI S1FSMDF\ Z{lBS ;\U9GYL (LCAO)VF^JLI S1FSM AGJF DF8[GL H~lZTM ,BMP

;\IMHFTF 5ZDF6]VMGL 5ZDF6] S1FSM ;DXlSTS CMJL HM.V[P


;\IMHFTF 5ZDF6] XSI T[8,F V[SALHFGL GHLS CMJF HM.V[4 H[YL 5ZDF6] S1FSMGF\ V1F 5Z
;\lDz6 JW] 5|DF6DF\ Y. XS[P
;\IMHFTF A\G[ 5ZDF6]GL S1FSMGL ;DlDlT ;DFG CMJL HM.V[P
Q-42 tfivt aipi[. :

BMO

an[ ABMO

H.W.

BMO

ABMO

Q-43 VF^JLI S1FS lRTFZ VF5MP H2, He2


H2 V6]VM VF^JLI S1FS lRTFZ o
H prmiN&>
H2 aN&>
H prmiN&>

He2 V6]VM VF^JLI S1FS lRTFZ o


He prmiN&> He2 aN&>
He prmiN&>

* 1s

1s

* 1s

1s

1s

1s

1s
1s

b>F k|mi>k :c&>bk)y g&N:-

b>F k|mi>k :c&>bk)y g&N:020

p\krN 1

Fi[rN - 12

5ZDF^JLI A\WFZ6 VG[ ZF;FIl6S A\W

Q-44 A\W S|DF\S V[8,[ X]\ m T[G]\ ;]+ H6FJL T[GF 5ZYL D/TL DFlCTL H6FJMP

cclV6]GL ;F5[1F l:YZTF GSSL SZJFGF HyYFG[ A\W S|DF\S SC[ K[Pcc
A\WS|DF\S GLR[GF ;]+YL D/[ K[ o
A\W S|DF\S =

s!f
sZf
s#f
s$f
s5f

A\WSFZS VF^JLI
S1FSDF\ ZC[,F e-- GL
;\bIF

A\W 5|lTSFZS VF^JLI


S1FSDF\ ZC[,F e-- GL
;\bIF

(Nb Na)

A\WS|DF\S 5ZYL GLR[GL DFlCTL D/[ K[ o


A\W S|DF\SG\] X]gI VG[ k6 D]<I V6]GL ZRGFGL XSITFG[ nkir[ K[P
A\WS|DF\SG]\ WG D]<I V6]GL l:YZTF ;}RJ[ K[P
V[S VYJF NM- A\W S|DF\S WZFJTF V6]GL T],GFDF\ A[ VYJF JW] A\W S|DF\S WZFJTF V6]GF
lJEFHG DF8[ JW] XlSTGL H~Z 50[ K[P
A\W S|DF\SGF 5}6F"\S D}<IM V[SA\W4 lA\W VG[ l+A=W ;]RJ[ K[P
A\W S|DF\S VG[ A\W ,\AF. 5Z:5Z jI:T ;\A\W WZFJ[ K[P A\W S|DF\S JWJFYL A\W ,\AF. 38[ K[P
H[D S[4 H2 GL A\W ,\AF. H2+ GL A\W ,\AF. SZTF 8}\SL CMI K[P
Q-45 ;FDFgI TtJMGF l5ZDF6]S V6]GF\ VF^JLI S1FSMGF\ 5|SFZ VG[ T[GL ;F5[1FXlSTGM
VC[JF, VF5M (Molecular Orbitals & their relative energies)P
prmiN&>

CF.0=MHYL lGIMG ;]WLGF\ TtJMGF A[

prmiN&>

aN&>

5ZDF6]GF GHLS ,FJLG[ TtJDF\YL l

> *2pz

5ZDF^JLI VN>] rRFI tIFZ[ ZRFTL

*2px

VF^JLI S1FSMGF 5|SFZ VG[ T[DGL

2px

;F5[1F XlST GLR[ 5|DF6[ NXF"JL XSFIP

*2py

2px

2pz

2pz
2py

2py
2px

2py

*2s

VF^JLI S1FSMGL XlSTGM R-TM S|D


B2, C2, N2,
1s

<

< *1s <


2pz

2s

V6]VM DF8[ GLR[ 5|DF6[ K[P


2s

< *2s < (

2px

< ( *2px = *2py) < * 2pz

2s

2s

*1s

2py)

1s
021

1s

1s

5ZDF^JLI A\WFZ6 VG[ ZF;FIl6S A\W

p\krN 1

Fi[rN - 12

prmiN&>

aN&>

prmiN&>

5Z\T] O2 VG[ F2 V6]VM DF8[ VF S|D AN,FI


K[ H[ GLR[ 5|DF6[ K[P
2s << *2s*< ( <
2PX = 2PY)
<1s <*1s*1s<< 2s
2s
2pz
< ( *2PX = *2py) < * 2PZ
( 2PX = 2PY) <
( *2PX = *2py) <
* 2PZ

1s

O2, F2, Ne2 V6]VM DF8[=>

Q-46 VF^JLI S1FS lRTFZ aip) b>Fk|mi>k an[ c&>bk)y g&N jNivi[.
Li2,

Be2 ,

B2,

C2 ,

N2,

O2 ,

F2,

Ne2

[H.W.]

Q-47 T*>k ni[>F lKi[:-VF\TZ VF^JLI VFSQF"6 A/M (Intermolecular attraction forces)

viy& pdiYi[< t[n) VFNX" JT"6]SYL lJR,G NSi<v[ C[ t[ni VeIF;G[ VFWFZ[ JFG0ZJF<; GFDGF
J{7FlGS[ t[mi> V6]vV6] JrR[ pNEJT]\ lGA"/ VFSQF"6 NXF"jI]\P
VF lGA"/ VFSQF"6G]\ Vl:TtJ ALHF SM.56 ZF;FIl6S VFSQF"6 J0[ ;DHFJL XSFT]\ GYLP
T[YL T[G[ JFG0ZJF<; VFSQF"6 SC[ K[P

a[k V6]GL ;5F8L 5ZGF .,[S8=MG ALHF V6]GF S[gN=G]\ VFSQF"6 VG]EJ[ K[4 T[YL JFG0ZJF<;
VFSQF"A/ pt5gG YFI K[P
VF A/ ;FJ"l+S K[P aiY) aiyi[n)k 5NFYM"DF\ T[DH ;C;\IMHS 5NFYM" DF\ pN JFG0ZJF<;
VFSQF"6A/ 5|JT"T]\ CMI K[P
T[G]\ 5lZDF6 10 lSPS[P SZTF 56 VMK]\ CMJFG[ ,LW[ DM8[ EFU[ ALHF VFSQF"6A/MGF 5|EFJYL
-\SFI[,]\ CMI K[P
VF VFSQF"6A/ 4.5 Ao V\TZ ;]WL j 5|JT[" K[P
022

Fi[rN - 12

p\krN 1

5ZDF^JLI A\WFZ6 VG[ ZF;FIl6S A\W

VF VFSQF"6A/GL 5|A/TF H]NF H]NF 5NFYM"GF V6] JrR[ H]NL H]NL CMJFYL4 H]NF H]NF 5NFYM"GF
U,GlA\N]4 ptS,lA\N]DF\ TOFJT HMJF D/[ K[P
JFG0ZJF<; A/ 5|A/ CMI4 TM EF{lTS l:YlT 5|JFCL S[ 3G HMJF D/[ K[P
VF\TZ VF^JLI VFSQF"A/ GLR[GF 5lZA/M p5Z VFWFZ ZFB[ K[P
s!f

V6]VMGF VFSFZ

sZf

V6]DF\ ZC[,F .,[S8=MGGL ;\bIF

s#f

V6]VMGL ;\5S" ;5F8L

s$f

;Z[ZFX VF\TZ v VF^JLI V\TZP


Q-48 T*>k ni[>F lKi[:-CF.0=MHG A\W (Hydrogen Bond)

cc;C;\IMHS A\WYL HM0FI[, WGEFZLI CF.0=MHG VG[ VA\lWT .,[S8=MGI]uD WZFJTF vF&
lJn]Tk6 TtJM JrR[ lG5HTF VFSQF"6G[ CF.0=MHG A\W SC[ K[Pcc
;FDFgI ZLT[ N, O VG[ F GL lJn]T k6TF H SZTF\ JW] CMJFYL N, O VG[ F ;FY[ ;C;\IMHS
A\WYL HM0FI[, H C\D[XF WG lJHEFZLT CMI K[4 VG[ ji[ t[n) 50MXDF\ N, O VG[ F 5F;[
VA\lWT .,[S8=MG I]uD hi[yti[ t[n) JrR[ CF.0=MHG A\W ZRFI K[P H[G[ sPPPPf ;\7F J0[ NXF"JFI K[P
NH3, H2O, HF DF\ CF.0=MHG A\W VFS'lT D]HA NXF"JL XSFIP

Draw here:

5|JFCL HF DF\ CF.0=MHG A\W


023

Fi[rN - 12

p\krN 1

5ZDF^JLI A\WFZ6 VG[ ZF;FIl6S A\W

;D}C 15,16 VG[ 17 GF\ 5|YD TtJMGF CF.0=F.0 ;\IMHGM (NH3, H2O, HF) T[GL 5|JFCL
l:YlTDF\ 5|A/ CF.0=MHG A\W WZFJ[ K[P T[YL T[DGF U,GlA\N] VG[ ptS,GlA\N] V5[1FF SZTF\ p\RF
CMI K[P
CF.0=MHG A\WGL A\W pHF" 40 lSP H}PqDM, H[8,L K[P
CF.0=MHG A\WG[ ,LW[ 4_ ;[[P TF5DFG[ 5F6LGL 3GTF mh_im CMI K[P
0_ YL 4_ ;[P TF5DFGGF\ UF/FDF\ AZOGL 3GTF SZTF\ 5F6LGL
3GTF JW] CMJFYL AZO 5F6L p5Z TZ[ K[P
AZO V[ CF.0=MHG A\W WZFJTM 5F6LGM :Ol8S K[P
Q-49 CF.0=MHG A\WG]\ DCtJ ;DHFJMP (Importance of Hydrogen bond)

5F6LDF\ CF.0=MHG A\W ZRFTM CMJFYL ;FDFgI TF5DFG[ 5F6LG]\ AFQ5LEJG WLD]\ K[4 T[YL 5'yJLGL ;5F8L
p5Z DM8F 5|DF6DF\ 5F6L 8SL ZC[,]\ K[P
5|F6L VG[ JG:5lT SMQFDF\ 5F6LGM ;\U|C CF.0=MHG A\W ZR[ K[. t[niY) HDLGDF E[H 8SL ZC[ K[P
CF.0=MHG A\WG[ ,LW[ NJFVMGL V;ZSFZSTF JW[ K[ T[DH h05L AG[ K[P
;\HLJMGF :GFI]DF\ ZC[, 5|M8LGGF V6]VMDF\ --CONH {a[mieD} ;D}CG[ ,LW[ CF.0=MHG A\W ZRFI
K[4 T[YL :GFI]VMGL S[8,LS SFDULZL CF.0=MHG A\WG[ VFEFZL K[P
gI]lS,.S V[l;04 DNA, RNA JU[Z[ HLJ\T SMQFMDF\GF HLJZF;FIl6S V6]VMDF CF.0=MHG A\W
VlT DCTJGM EFU EHJ[ K[P
CF.0=MHG A\WG[ ,LW[ ;]TZFp SF50 SZTF\ S'l+D Z[;FJF/F\ S50F s8[Z[l,G JU[Z[f h05YL ;]SFI K[P
Q-50 WFT]VMGF\ U]6WDM" H6FJMP (Properties of Metals)

WFT]VMGL spiT) R/SF8 WZFJ[ K[P t[ Z6SFZ uRpn kr[ K[P


;FDFgI ZLT[ S96 :Ol8S ~5DF\ Vl:TtJ WZFJ[ K[P
WFT]VM lJn]T VG[ pQDFGL ;]JFCS CMI K[P
WFT]VM T6FJ56] VG[ 8L5Fp56FGM U]6 WZFJ[ K[P
WFT]VM V5FZNX"S CMI K[P
5FZM VG[ U[l,ID l;JFIGL AFSLGL WFT]VM 3G :J~5 WZFJ[ K[P
WFT]VMGF\ VFIGLSZ6 5M8[lgXIGF\ D}<IM GLRF CMI K[P
WFT] v :Ol8SDF WFT] 5ZDF6]GL VF;5F; 8 YL 12 5ZDF6]\ UM9JFI[,F CMI K[P
024

Fi[rN - 12

p\krN 1

5ZDF^JLI A\WFZ6 VG[ ZF;FIl6S A\W

Q-51 WFltJS A\W (Metallic Bond) ;DHFJMP

WFT]VMmi> VFIlGSZ6 5M8[lgXI, VMKM hi[y C[,


j[ ;}RJ[ K[ S[ ;\IMHSTF .,[S8=MG DF8[ WFT] 5ZDF6]G[
VMK\] VFSQF"6 K[P
T[DH ;C;\IMHS A\W AGFJJF DF8[ WFT]GF ;\IMHSTF v .,[S8=MG V5}ZTF K[4 T[YL A[ WFT]
5ZDF6]VM JrR[ ;C;\IMHS A\W AGTM GYL4 T[YL WFT]VMDF lNXFtDS U]6 HMJF D/TM GYLP
aiY). WFT] 5ZDF6]VMGF ;\IMHSTF v .,[S8=MG ;DU| :Ol8S DF8[ ;DFG U6FI K[P
VFJF .,[S8=MGG[ :YFGF\TlZT (Delocalised) .,[S8=MG SC[ K[P
:YFGF\TlZT .,[S8=MG :Ol8SDF\ 5MTFG]\ :YFG ;Z/TFYL AN,L XS[ K[P
VF WFT] :Ol8SDF WGEFZI]ST 5ZDF6] SG", [ Kernal - ;\IMHSTF el[. l;JFIGM 5ZDF6]GF S[gN=
;lCTGM WGEFZI]ST EFU] :YFGF\TlZT .,[S8=MG JFN/DF\ ZC[, WGEFZ I]ST UM/F~5[ J6"JL XSFIP
l:YT JLHlGIDM 5|DF6[ 5ZDF6] SG", WGEFZI]ST CMJFYL V[SALHF JrR[ VFSQF"6 CMJ]\ HM.V[4
KTF B]A H 5F;5F;[ UM9JFI[,F 5ZDF6]SG", VG[ :YFGF\TlZT .,[S8=MG JrR[n&> VFSQF"6A/
5ZDF6]SG",G[ E[UF ZFB[ K[P
WG EFZI]ST 5ZDF6]SG", VG[ T[GL VFH]AFH] UM9JFI[, .,[S8=MG JrR[G]\ VFSQF"6A/ H[ WFtJLS
A\W K[4 H[ 5ZDF6]SG",G[ XSI T[8,L VMKL HuIFDF\ ;DFI T[JL UM9J6 SZ[ K[P
T[DH 5F;5F;[GF SM.56 A[ UM/F~5 5ZDF6]SG",GL NZ[k HM0L JrR[ ;DFG V\TZ ZFB[ K[P
Q-52 .,[S8=MG v ;D]N= GD}GM (Electron sea model)

VF l;wWF\T D]HA WFT] :Ol8SG[ :YFGF\TlZT ;\IMHSTF .,[S8=MGGM ;D]N= S<5JFDF\ VFJ[ K[P T[DF
WGEFZI]ST 5ZDF6]SG",G[ TZTF S<5JFDF\ VFJ[ K[4 T[ V[SALHFGL GHLS UM9JFI[,F CMI K[P
VFJF\ WGEFZI]ST 5ZDF6]SG", JrR[ :YFGF\TZLT .,[S8=MG CFHZL CMJFYL VF :YFGF\TlZT .,[S8=MG
WGEFZLT 5ZDF6]SG", ;FY[ 5|A/ VFSQF"6 A/ WZFJ[ K[P
VFJF VFSQF"6A/G[ WFltJS A\W SC[ K[P
WFT]GF AWF H .,[S8=MG :YFGF\TlZT CMTF GYL4
5Z\T] H[ :YFGF\TlZT K[ T[ .,[S8=MG v ;D]N= VG[ WGEFZI]ST
5ZDF6] SG", JrR[ VFSQF"6 A/ WZFJ[ K[P
WG JLHEFZ I]ST SG",
WFltJS A\WGM .,[S8=MG ;D]N=GM GD}GM

.,[S8=MG
025

Fi[rN - 12

p\krN 1

5ZDF^JLI A\WFZ6 VG[ ZF;FIl6S A\W

Q-53 WFT]G]\ T6FJ56]\ VG[ 8L5Fp56]\ v ;DHFJM (Ductility & Malleability)

HIFZ[ WFT]GL ;5F8L p5Z A/ ,UF0JFDF\ VFJ[ tIFZ[ ;5F8L p5ZGF\ 5ZDF6] SG",DF\ :TZMG]\ :YFG
B;[ K[P ;FY[ ;FY[ VFH]AFH]GF :YFGF\TlZT .,[S8=MG JFN/ 56 B[\RFI K[P
VFD4 A/ ,UF0JFYL 5ZDF6] v .,[S8=MGGL ;F5[1F l:YlTDF\ S\. H O[Z 50TM GYL4 T[YL WFT]
T6FJ56]\ sTgITFf VG[ 8L5Fp56]\ sJW"lGITFf GM U]6 WZFJ[ K[P
Q-54 WFT]VMDF\ lJn]TG]\ JCG ;DHFJMP (Conduction of electricity in metals) o

Gn WFT]DF\ SM.56 A[ lA\N]VMV[ 5M8[lgXI, TOFJT :Y5FTF


SM. H ZF;FIl6S 5|lS|IF JUZ lJn]T 5|JFCG]\ JCG YFI K[P

A[ lA\N]VM JrR[ 5M8[lgXI,GM TOFJT :Y5FTF\ 5ZDF6]SG",


T[DH :YFGF\TZLT .,[S8=MGGM S], k6 EFU JW[ K[P
WFT]GL S], XlST JWTF\ :YFGF\TlZT .,[S8=MG JFCSGL WGAFH] TZO B;[ K[P HIFZ[ V[S .,[S8=MG
5MTFG]\ :YFG AN,L VFU/ JW[ tIFZ[ ALHF .,[S8=MGG[ 5MTFG\] :YFG AN,J]\ HM.V[P
VFD4 k6 EFU TZOYL NFB, YTF\ .,[S8=MG ;FY[ H WFT]DF\YL V[S .,[S8=MG B;L WG AFH]DF\
;DFI K[ VG[ .,[S8=MGGL ;\bIF VR/ ZC[ K[P
VF :YFGF\TlZT .,[S8=MGGF\ JCG ;FY[ WFT]JFCSDF\ JLHEFZG]\ JCG YFI K[P
VFD4 .,[S8=MGGL C[ZO[Z YIF JUZ lJn]TG]\ JCG YFI K[P
Q-55 WFT]DF\ pQDFG]\ JCG ;DHFJM (Conduction of heat in metals)

HIFZ[ WFT]GM V[S K[0M ALHF K[0F SZTF p\RF TF5DFG[


CMI tIFZ[ pQDFG]\ UZD K[0FYL 9\0F K[0F TZO JCG YFI K[P
UZD K[0FGF 5ZDF6]SG",GL ;Z[ZFX UlT XlST 5|DF6DF\
9\0F K[0FGF 5ZDF6]GL UlTXlST SZTF\ JW] CMI K[P
5ZDF6]SG",GL UlTXlST JWTFT[GL VF\NM,G XlST
56 JW[ K[P T[YL :YFGF\TlZT .,[S8=MGGL UlTXlSTDF\ JWFZM YFI K[P
XlST D[/J[,F :YFGF\TlZT .,[S8=MG J[UYL WFT] :Ol8SDF\ OZ[ K[P VG[ 5MTFGL XlST N]ZGF\
5ZDF6]SG",G[ VF5L TF5DFG JWFZ[ K[P
8]\S ;DIDF\ VFJL WFT] ;ZBL UZD Y. HFI K[P WFT]GM R/SF8 T[DH WFT] ;5F8L J0[ YT]\ 5|SFXG]\
5ZFJT"G :YFGF\TlZT .,[S8=MG FZF ;DHFJL XSFI K[P
026

Fi[rN - 12

p\krN 1

5ZDF^JLI A\WFZ6 VG[ ZF;FIl6S A\W

Q-56 XlST58 GD}GM (The energy band model) ;DHFJMP

XlST58GM GD}GM V6]S1FS JFNG[ VFWFZ[ ;DHFJL XSFI K[P


WFT]GF :Ol8S ,[8F.;DF\ 5ZDF6]VMGL ;\bIF JW] 5|DF6DF\ CMI K[P
;DFG XlST VG[ ;DlDlT WZFJTL 5ZDF6]vS1FSM V[SALHF ;FY[ ;\lDz6 (Overlapping) 5FDL
XlST58 ZR[ K[P
lJlJW XlST58DF\ .,[S8=MGGL UM9J6L WFT]GL ,F1Fl6STFVM NXF"J[ K[P
5ZDF6] S1FSMGF ;\lDz6YL ZRFI[,F XlST58FVM V[SALHF ;FY[ HM0FI[,F k[ V,U 56 CM. XS[P
DCtTD .,[S8=MG XlST WZFJTF\ XlST58G[ ;\IMHSTF 58 SC[ K[4 VG[ T[G] XlST:TZ GLR]\ CMI K[P
,3]tTD .,[S8=MG WZFJTF XlST58G[ JFCSTF 58 SC[ K[4 VG[ T[G]\ XlST :TZ p\R] CMI K[P
VF A\G[ XlST :TZMGF TOFJTG[ XlSTU[5 (Energy Gap Eg) SC[ K[P
WFT]VMDF\ ;\IMHSTF 58 VW"EZFI[, CMI VYJF ;\IMHSTF 58 VG[ JFCSTF58 V[SALHF ;FY[
HM0FI[, CMI TM T[GF SFZ6[ .,[S8=MG ;\IMHSTF 58DF\YL JFCSTF 58DF\ ;Z/TFYL H. XS[ H[
WFT]GL p\RL lJn]TJFCSTF DF8[ HJFANFZ K[P
VJFCSMDF\ ;\IMHSTF58 VG[ JFCSTF58 JrR[GL XlSTGM TOFJT B}A H JWFZ[ CMI K[P 5lZ6FD[
;\IMHSTF58 5ZGF .,[S8=MG JFCSTF58 5Z HJF XlSTDFG YTF GYLP Si VG[ Ge H[JF VW"JFCSDF\
;\IMHSTF58 VG[ JFCSTF58 JrR[GF XlSTU[5G]\ (Energy Gap Eg) D}<I VMK]\ CMI K[P
VW"JFCSMGF TF5DFG JWFZTF\ pQDLI XlSTG[ SFZ6[ .,[S8=MGG]\ ;\IMHSTF 58DF\YL JFCSTF 58DF\
HJFG]\ ;Z/ AG[ K[4 T[YL lJn]TJFCSTF NXF"J[ K[P

Q-57 h)ri[ SimiT[ (vj avihk hi[y C[?

CLZFDF\ VF A[ 58 JrR[ XlSTU[5 B}A H JWFZ[ K[4 5lZ6FD[ ;\IMHSTF 58DF\YL .,[S8=MG JFCSTF
58DF\ H. XSTF GYL4 H[ T[G[ VJFCS AGFJ[ K[P
027

5ZDF^JLI A\WFZ6 VG[ ZF;FIl6S A\W

p\krN 1

Fi[rN - 12
Q-58

;\SZ6 V[8,[ X]\ m VYJF 5ZDF6]S1FSMG]\ ;\SZ6 V[8,[ X]\ m


(Hybridization)P
cc5ZDF6]GL V[SYL JW] 5|SFZGL 5ZDF6] S1FSMGF s>lDz6YL ;DFG pHF" VG[ VFSFZJF/L S1FSM
pt5gG YJFGL S<5GF 5ZDF6] S1FSMGF ;\SZ6 TZLS[ VM/BFI K[Pcc
Q-59 PCl5 DF\ sp3d ;\SZ6 smjivi[.
(Hybridization)P
PCl5 DF\ S[gN=:YFG 5ZDF6] P( Z = 15) GL E}lD VJ:YFDF .,[S8=MG ZRGF

3s
P B*(m avAYi

3p

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p3 K[P

3d

[Ne]

PCl5 DF\ 5F\R ;C;\IMHS A\W AG[ K[4 T[YL OM:OZ; 5F;[ 5F\R VW"5}6" S1FSM CMJL HM.V[P

OM:OZ; 5ZDF6] YM0L XlST D[/JL ptT[lHT VJ:YFDF\ 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 .,[S8=MG ZRGF 5|F%T SZ[ K[P
3s
3p
3d
P u_i[Jt avAYi

[Ne]

VFD4 T[ ptT[lHT VJ:YFDF\ ;\IMHSTF S1FFDF\ 5F\R VW"5]6" S1FSM WZFJ[ K[P
OM:OZ;GL ;\IMHSTF V[S 3s, +6 3p VG[ V[S 3d S1FSM V[SALHF ;FY[ ;\lDz6YL ;DFG
XlSTJF/L 5F\R sp3d S1FSM pt5gG SZ[ K[P
H[DF\ OM:OZ;GL ;\IMHSTF S1FFGF 5F\R .,[S8=MG V[S ,[B[ UM9JFTF 5F\R VW"5]6" S1FSM sp3d AG[ K[P
H[GL ;FY[ 5F\R S,MlZG 5ZDF6]GL VW"5]6" 3pz S1FSGF ;\lDz6YL 5F\R ;C;\IMHS 5|SFZGF A\W
WZFJT]\ PCl5 G]\ V6]\A\WFZ6 ZRFI K[P
3s
3p
3d
PCl5 n&> b>FirN [Ne]
Cl

Cl Cl Cl
sp3d

VCL\ OM:OZ;GL S1FSMG]\ sp3d 5|SFZG]\ ;\SZ6n[ l)F[


PCl5 l+SM6LI lv5lZFDL0 ;\ZRGF WZFJ[ K[P

T[DF\ +6 Cl-P-Cl A\W V[S H ;DT,DF\ CMJFYL T[DGL


JrR[ B}6M 120_ CMI K[P AFSL A[ S,MlZG 5ZDF6] V[S
p5Z VG[ V[S GLR[ V[D 90_ GF\ B}6[ UM9JFI[,F CMI K[P

028

Cl

5ZDF^JLI A\WFZ6 VG[ ZF;FIl6S A\W

p\krN 1

Fi[rN - 12

Q-60 SF6 DF\ sp3 d2 ;\SZ6 ;DHFJMP


(Hybridization)P

SF6 DF\ S[gN=:Y 5ZDF6] ;<OZ (Z = 16) GL

E}lD VJ:YFDF\ .,[S8=MG ZRGF [Ne] 3s2 3p4 K[P


3s

3p

3d

S B*(m avAYi [Ne]


SF6 DF\ K ;C;\IMHS A\W AG[ K[4 T[YL ;<OZ 5F;[ K VW"5]6" S1FSM CMJL HM.V[P

;<OZ 5ZDF6] YM0L XlST D[/JL ptT[HLT VJ:YFDF\ [Ne] 3s1 3p3 3d2 .,[S8=MG ZRGF 5|F%T SZ[ K[P
3s

3p

3d

S u_i[Jt avAYi [Ne]


VFD ;<OZ ptT[lHT VJ:YFDF\ T[GL ;\IMHSTF S1FFDF\ K VW"5]6" S1FSM WZFJ[K[P
;<OZGL ;\IMHSTF S1FFGL V[S 3s +6 3p VG[ 3d S1FSM V[SALHF ;FY[ ;\lDlzT Y. ;\SZ6YL
;DFG XlST WZFJTL K sp3d2 VW"5]6" S1FSM pt5gG YFI K[4 H[DF\ ;<OZGL ;\IMHSTF S1FFGF K
.,[S8=MG V[S ,[B[ UM9JFTF K sp3d2 VW"5]6" S1FSM AG[ K[P
3s

SF6 n&> b>FirN

3p

3d

[Ne]

F
F F F F F sp3d2
H[GL ;FY[ C f,MlZG 5ZDF6]GL VW"5]6" 2pz S1FSGF ;\lDz6YL C ;C;\IMHS 5|SFZGF A\W WZFJT]\
SF6 G]\ V6]\A\WFZ6 ZRFI K[P sp3d2 ;\SZ6n[ l)F[ SF6 VQ8O,SLI EF{lDlTS ZRGF WZFJ[ K[P
s, p VG[ d S1FSMG]\ ;\SZ6 TYF V6]VMGF\ VFSFZ NXF"JTM SM9M NMZMP

;\SZ6GM 5|SFZ

5ZDF6] S1FSM

V6]GM aikir

pNFCZ6

dsp2

d + s + 2(p)

;DT,LI RMZ;

[Ni(CN)4]2-

sp3d

s + 3(p) + d

l+SM6LI l5LZFDL0

PCl5

dsp3

d + s + 3(p)

l+SM6LI l5LZFDL0

Fe(CO)5

sp3d2

s + 3(p) + 2(d)

VQ8O,SLI

SF6

d2sp3

2(d) + s + 3(p)

VQ8O,SLI

[CO(NH3)6]3+

029

Fi[rN - 12

5ZDF^JLI A\WFZ6 VG[ ZF;FIl6S A\W

p\krN 1

BHADRAS WAIT AND WATCH


1 FiIRvk b>F Sin[ aiBir) C[?

M kxkmi> el[kT^i[nn) k&l s>yi xmti lKi[.

2 nieT^i[jnni aN&ni[ aikir jNivi[.

brf ki[n[ l)F[ Gn C[?

3 s>kr kxki[n) siyti jNivi[.


4 1 kg el[kT^i[n =_______mi[l el[kT^i[n

H2 an[ He2 mi> ki[ni[ b>F k|mi>k vF& C[?

10

b>F Fr) ki[n[ kh[ C[?

5 (mY[n an[ O2 mi> smin miT[ ki[ni[ v[g vF& hS[?

11

C2 aN&ni[ c&>bk)y g&N jNivi[.

6 PCl5 mi> s<krN jNivi[.

12

m&y kvi[>Tm ai>kn) upyi[g)ti lKi[.

vg<K>D ni[>F :-

BHADRAS LAUGHING LINE


The children had all been photographed for school pictures, and the teacher was trying to persuade them
each to buy a copy of the group picture.
"Just think how nice it will be to look at it when you are all grown up and say, 'There's Jennifer; she's a
lawyer,' or 'That's Michael, he's a doctor.'"
A small voice at the back of the room rang out, "And there's teacher; she's dead."
030

5ZDF^JLI A\WFZ6 VG[ ZF;FIl6S A\W

p\krN 1

Fi[rN - 12

o AC]lJS<5L 5|`GM o

MCQs

HM .,[S8=MGGF :YFGDF\ VlGl`RTTF X}gI 6P

R]\ASLI SJMg8D V\S X]\ ;}RJ[ K[ m

CMI TM4 T[GF J[UDFGDF\ VlGl`RTF

A.

S1FSG]\ SN

A.

X]gI CMI

B.

S1FSGM VFSFZ

B.

/2

SZTF\ JW] CMI

C.

S1FSG]\ VJSFXDF VFrKFNG

C.

/4

SZTF\ VMKL CMI

D.

S[gN=LI l:YZTF

D.

VG\T CMI

7P

GJM NFB, YTM .,[S8=MG V[ S1FSDF\ HFI

2P

.,[S8=MGGL TZ\U 5|S'lT 5|FIMlUS ZLT[

1P

K[P HIF\vv

SMGF FZF RSF;JFDF\ VFJL m

A.

(n + I)

A.

NvA|MU,L

B.

VF.G:8F.G

B.

(n + I) ,3]tTD

C.

UD"Z

D.

zMl0gHZ

C.

(n + m) DCtTD

CMI

3P

J[UG[ V[S ;DFG DFGLV[ TM GLR[GF 5{SL D.

(n + m) ,3]tTD

CMI

SMG[ ;F{YL GFGL NvA|MU,L TZ\U ,\AF. 8P

;Ml0IDDF\ ZC[,F\ V\lTD .,[S8=MG DF8[

;FY[ ;F\S/L XSFI m

R]\ASLI SJMg8D V\S S[8,M CMI K[ m

A.

.,[S8=MG

B.

C.

vS6

D.

4P

5|M8MG

A.
C.

T[GL TZ\U ,\AF.GF


9P
D]<IM ;DFG CMI
5ZDF6]DF .,[S8=MGG]\ :YFG TYF XlST

3
1

DCtTD CMI
CMI

B.
D.

2
0

HIFZ[ 3d S1FS ;\5}6" EZF. HFI K[ tIFZ[


.,[S8=MG XFDF\ NFB, YFI K[ m

XFGFYL NXF"JL XSFI m

A.

4p

S1FS

B.

4s S1FS

A.

5ZDF6]\ S|DF\S B.

5ZDF6]\ N/

C.

4d S1FS

D.

4f S1FS

C.

gI]8=MGGL ;\bI D.

SJMg8D VF\S

10P

5f

5P
A.

5ZDF6]\GM D]bI SJMg8D V\S X]\ NXF"J[ K[m


A.
k[Wn&> kxiY) a>tr

B.

:5LG SMl6I J[UDFG

C.

S1FSLI SMl6I J[UDFG

D.

S1FSGF VJSFXDF\ VFrKFNG

p5S1FFDF\ ;DF. XSTF DCtTD

.,[S8=MGGL ;\bIF

C.

9
8

11P

s, p,

B.
D.

18
14

TYF d S1FSMDF\ DCtTD .,[S8=MGGL

;\bIF S[8,L CM. XS[ m


A.

Z 5|tI[SDF\ Z B.

Z4 $ VG[ &

C.

Z4 # VG[ 5 D.

Z4 & VG[ !_

031

Fi[rN - 12

5ZDF^JLI A\WFZ6 VG[ ZF;FIl6S A\W

p\krN 1

TYF m = +1 WZFJTL p !)P S1FSGM VFSFZ SMGFYL lGl`RT YFI m


A.
:5LG SJMg8D VF\S
S1FSDF\ DCtTD .,[S8=MGGL ;\bIF S[8,L B.
R]\ASLI SJMg8D V\S
CX[ m
C.
V[lhdI]Y, SJMg8D V\S
D.
D]bI SJMg8D V\S
A. Z
B.!Z
C.&
D.!_
Z_P GLR[GF 5{SL SJMg8D V\SMGL S. UM9J6
!#P 3svS1FSDF\ GM0GL ;\bIF S[8,L CX[ m
XSI nY) m
A.
V[S
B.
+6
A.
n= 2, l = 0, m = 0, s = +1/2
!ZP

n = 6, l = 1

C.

V[S56 GCL D.

A[

n= 2, l = 1, m = +1, s = +1/2

B.

!$P SM5ZGM 5ZDF6]\ S|DF\S Z) K[P T[GL 4s-- C.


S1FFDF\ S[8,F .,[S8=MG CX[ m
D.
A.!

!5P

B. Z

C. #

D. $

n = 2, l = 1, m = -2, s = -1/2
n= 3, l = 2, m = -1, s = -1/2

Z!P

S,MlZG 5ZDF6] VI]luDT .,[S8=MG DF8[


SJMg8D V\SMGL S. HM0L ;FRL K[ m
A.

GLR[GF 5{SL SJMg8D V\SMGL S. UM9J6


VXSI K[P
n= 2, l = 0, m = 0, s = +1/2

A.

n = 2, l = 1, m = 0

B.

B.

n = 2, l = 1, m = +1

n= 2, l = 1, m = -1, s = +1/2

C.

n = 1, l = 1, m = 1, s = +1/2

C.

n = 3, l = 1, m = -1

D.

D.

n = 3, l = 0, m = 0

n= 3, l = 2, m = 2, s = +1/2

ZZP

m = 0 JF/L d--S1FSDF\

!&P VF5[, .,[S8=MlGS A\WFZ6 SIF lGIDGM


E\U SZ[ K[P 1s22s22px22py22pz0
A.

VFpOAFpO l;wWF\T

B.

C]g0GM lGID

C.

5Fp,LGM lGQF[W l;wWF\T

D.

T[ ;FR]\ K[P
SZ[ K[ m

A.
C.

4px
4dx2 y2

B.
D.

4dxy
4d z2

!(P ;<OZ 5ZDF6]\DF\ +!qZ :5LG WZFJTF


pS1FSDF\ S[8,F .,[S8=MG CMI m
A.
C.

0
4

B.
D.

S1FSGM 5|SFZ SIM CX[ m


A.
C.

Z#P

!*P n = 4, l = 2 VG[ m = - 2 S. S1FS GSSL

2
6

ZC[,F\ .,[S8=MGn)

dyz
B.
dxy
dz2
D.
dx2 -- y2
m = 0 JF/L p--S1FSDF\ ZC[,F\ .,[S8=MGGM

S1FS 5|SFZ SIM CX[ m

A. dyz B. px C. dz2 D. V[S56

Z$P

nh)
D]bI SJMg8D V\S # DF8[ S], S[8,L S1FSM
;\EJ K[ m

A. 14

Z5P

B. 9

C. 4

D. 18

D]bI SJMg8D V\S ;FY[ ;\S/FI[, S],


.,[S8=MG ;\bIF S[8,L CM. XS[ m

A.
C.

n2
n2 + 2

Z&P

H[ TtJ DF8[ ;F{YL ACFZGL S1FSGF SJMg8D


V\SM n = 2, l = 0, m = 0, s= +1/2 CMI TM
T[ TtJ SI]\ CX[ m

A. B
032

B. Be

B.
D.

2n2
n2 + 1

C. Li

D. C

Fi[rN - 12

Z*P
A.
C.

5ZDF^JLI A\WFZ6 VG[ ZF;FIl6S A\W

p\krN 1

s = - R]\ASLI :5LG SJMg8D V\S #$P

WZFJGFZ 3d- S1FS DF8[ DCtTD .,[S8=MG


;\bIF S[8,L CM. XS[ m
A.
5
14

B.
D.

7
10

GLR[GF 5{SL SIM VG]R]\ASLI K[ VG[ 1/2


A\W S|DF\S WZFJ[ K[ m
H2
F2

C.

B.
D.

N2
H2 +

#5P
HM n > 4 D]bI SJMg8D V\S WZFJTF TtJM
S]NZTDF\ ;\EJ G CMT TM S[8,F\ TtJMG]\ A.
C.
Vl:TtJ CMT m
#&P
A.60
B. 32
C. 64
D. 84
Z)P GLR[GF 5{SL SI]\ NvA|MU,L ;DLSZ6 K[ m A.

GF.l8=S VMS;F.0 (NO) GM A\W S|DF\S

A.

.YF., S,MZF.0 D. .YF., V[DF.G

Z(P

C.

= h / mv
h = /mp

B.

= h / mp

D.

m=v/h

#_P SIF lGID VG];FZ 5|YD NFB, YTM


.,[S8=MG BF,L S1FSDF\ VI]luDT ZC[ T[D
EZFI K[ m
A.

n + 1 lGID

B.

C]g0GM lGID

C.

5Fp,LGM lGQF[W lGID

D.

CF.hGAU"GM l;wWF\T

C.

2.5
3

B.
D.

2
1.5

CF.0=MHG A\W DCtTD XFDF\ K[ m


.Y[GM,

B. 0FI.YF., .YZ

#*P sp3d2 S1FSM


A.

QF8O,SLI

B.

5\RSM6LI l 5LZFDL0

C.

l+SM6LI l 5LZFDL0

D.

VQF8O,SLI

#(P pt,SG lA\N] SMG]\ JW] CX[ m


A.
C.

NH3
AsH3

B.
D.

SbH3
PH3

#!P GLR[GF 5{SL SI]\ A\WFZ6 C]g0GF lGIDGM #)P O2 V6]DF\ CFHZ VI]luDT .,[S8=MGGL
E\U SZ[ K[P
;\bIF
A.
B.
C.

1s2 2s2 2px1 2py1


1s2 2s2 2px2
1s2 2s2 2px1 2py12pz1

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AIEEE SYLLABUS UNIT 3: ATOMIC STRUCTURE
Discovery of sub-atomic particles (electron, proton and neutron); Thomson and Rutherford
atomic models and their limitations; Nature of electromagnetic radiation, photoelectric effect;
Spectrum of hydrogen atom, Bohr model of hydrogen atom - its postulates, derivation of the
relations for energy of the electron and radii of the different orbits, limitations of Bohrs model;
Dual nature of matter, de-Broglies relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle. Elementary
ideas of quantum mechanics, quantum mechanical model of atom, its important features, *
and *2, concept of atomic orbitals as one electron wave functions; Variation of * and * 2
with r for 1s and 2s orbitals; various quantum numbers (principal, angular momentum and
magnetic quantum numbers) and their significance; shapes of s, p and d - orbitals, electron
spin and spin quantum number; Rules for filling electrons in orbitals aufbau principle, Paulis
exclusion principle and Hunds rule, electronic configuration of elements, extra stability of halffilled and completely filled orbitals.

036

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