Definition “ Biometrics is the identification or verification of human identity through the measurement of repeatable physiological and behavioral characteristics”

Categories of BIOMETRICS: Biometrics can be sorted into two classes:
• Physiological
Examples-face,fingerprints,hand geometry and iris Recognition,dna.

• Behavioral
Examples-signature and voice.

Basic characteristics of BIOMETRIC Technologies:
• Universality: Every person should have the characteristic. People who are mute or without a fingerprint will need to be accommodated in some way. • Uniqueness: Generally, no two people have identical characteristics. However, identical twins are hard to distinguish. • Permanence: The characteristics should not vary with time. A person's face, for example, may change with age. • Collectibility: The characteristics must be easily collectible and measurable. • Performance: The method must deliver accurate results under varied environmental circumstances. • Acceptability: The general public must accept the sample collection routines. Nonintrusive methods are more acceptable. • Circumvention: The technology should be difficult to deceive

Working principle :
Biometric devices consist of a reader or scanning device software that converts the gathered information into digital form, and a database that stores the biometric data with comparison with existing records.

• Enrollment Mode. • Verification Mode.

• Enrollment Mode:
A sample of the biometric trait is captured, processed by a computer, and stored for later comparison .

• Verification Mode:
In this mode biometric system authenticates a person’s claimed identity from their previously enrolled pattern.

Biometric Modalities:
• Fingerprint Recognition:
For fingerprint Recognition look at :
       Friction ridges. Core Crossover. Delta. Island Ridge Ending. Pore.


• Uses ridge endings ,bifurcations on a person’s finger to plot points know as Minutiae. • The number and locations of the minutiae vary from finger to finger in any particular person, and from person to person for any particular finger.

Finger Image

Finger Image + Minutiae


Face Recognition:
It involves recognizing people by there: • Facial features. • Face geometry.

Principle: Analysis of unique shape, pattern and positioning of facial features.

Voice Recognition:

• Voice recognition is not the same as speech recognition, it is speaker recognition. • Considered both physiological and behavioral. • Popular and low-cost, but less accurate and sometimes lengthy enrollment.

Styles of spoken input:
These system have three styles of spoken inputs:
• Text Dependent. • Text prompted. • Text Independent.

Iris Recognition:
Iris: • It is the coloured area of the eye that surrounds the pupil. • It is a protected internal organ whose random texture is stable throughout life. • The iris patterns are obtained through a video-based image acquisition system .

Iris Images:

Signature Verification:
• • Static/Off-line: the conventional way. Dynamic/On-line: using electronically
instrumented device. Principle:

The movement of the pen during the signing process rather than the static image of the signature.Many aspects of the signature in motion can be studied, such as pen pressure, the sound the pen makes.

Biometric devices:
• Optical fingerprint scanner:

• Personal fingerprint safes: These safes are revolutionary locking systems storage cases that open with just the touch of your finger.

Advantages of Biometrics:
• Biometric identification can provide extremely accurate, secured access to information; fingerprints, retinal and iris scans produce absolutely unique data sets when done properly. • Current methods like password verification have many problems (people write them down, they forget them, they make up easy-to-hack passwords) . • Automated biometric identification can be done very rapidly and uniformly, with a minimum of training . • Your identity can be verified without resort to documents that may be stolen, lost or altered.

Disadvantages of BIOMETRICS:
• The finger print of those people working in Chemical industries are often affected. Therefore these companies should not use the finger print mode of authentication. • It is found that with age, the voice of a person differs. Also when the person has flu or throat infection the voice changes or if there there are too much noise in the environment this method maynot authenticate correctly. Therefore this method of verification is not workable all the time • For people affected with diabetes, the eyes get affected resulting in differences. • Biometrics is an expensive security solution.

Security personnel look for biometric data that does not change over the course of your life; that is, they look for physical characteristics that stay constant and that are difficult to fake or change on purpose.

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