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CONTENT;-

1.INTRODUCTION.
2.ACUTE TOXICITY AND IT’S TREATMENT
3.CHRONIC TOXICITY
4.DEFLUORIDATION METHOD
5.ADVANTAGE AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF FLUORIDES
6.CONCLUSSION.
INTRODUCTION
Prolonged use of fluoride at recommended
level does not produce harmful physiological
effect in human.
Excessive ingestion of fluoride over short
period of time produce acute toxicity.
Excessive ingestion of fluoride over long
period of time produce chronic toxicity.
W.H.O has recommended optimum level of
fluoride in drinking water as 0.5 to 1.0ppm
ACUTE TOXICITY;-
1.The amount of 35 to 70 mgF/kg body weight
of soluable fluoride is to be lethal.
2.This is equivalent to 5 to 10 gms of sodium
fluoride for an adult weighing 70kg or 1.0 to
2.0 gm sodium fluoride for a child of 15kg.
3.Acute toxic effects are characterised by;-
nausia
vomiting
diffuse abdominal pain
diarrhoea
excessive salivation
TREATMENT;-
1 vomiting should be induced with syrup of
ipeac or digital or mechanical by stimulation
of tongue or throat.
2.Subsequent effect should be made to
decrease the absortion of fluoride by
administering fluoride binding liquid like warm
water, calcium hydroxide liquid ,anta acid
cointaining alumunium or magnesium
hydroxide.
3.The affected individual should be hospitalised
and stomach should be throughly washed with
additional lime water.
CHRONIC TOXICITY;-
1.Chronic toxicity is due to a long term
ingestion of a smaller amount of fluoride
which usually effects the hard tissue and
kidney.
2. Chronic toxicity effects of excessive
fluoride ingestion are;-
EFFECTS DOSAGE DURATION

DENTAL FLUOROSIS 2 times optimal Until 5


years(Excluding
third molars)

SKELETAL 10-25mg/day 10-20 years


FLUOROSIS

KIDNEY DAMAGE 5-10mg/day 6-12 months


DENTAL FLUOROSIS

Girl with severe skeletal


fluorosis in Jharkhand
Lethal and safe dosages of fluoride for a 70
kg adult

CERTAINLY LETHAL DOSE( CLD)


5-10 gm NAF

OR

32-64 mg F/kg
SAFELTY TOLERATED DOSE (STD) = ¼
CLD

1.25-2.5 gm NAF

OR

8-16 mg F/kg
DEFLUORIDATION;-
Defluoridation is ascientific means to improve
the quality of water with high fluoride
concentration by adjusting the optimum level
in drinking water.
METHODS
1. Adsorption and ion exchange method;-
Some substances adsorb fluoride ion by the
surface ,and it can exchange its negative ions
such as OH- group for fluoride ions reducing
the fluoride concentration in water.
This process depends on conditions like
ph, temperature ,flow rate ,grain size of the
material.
Commonly used materials;-
Activated Alumina(Al2o3)
Fluidized Activated Alumina
Activated Bauxite(hydrate of Al(OH)3)
Tricalcium phosphate (TCP)
PRECIPITATION METHOD ;-
In a high pH condition ,co-precipitation of
several elements in water with fluoride ions
form fluoride salts, thus the fluoride
concentration in water decreases.
These substances include;-
1. Alum (K Al(SO4)2.12H2O
2.Alum and lime(Cao)
3.Calcium chloride (CaCl2)
METHODS BASED ON MEMBRANE
SEPARATION;-
In industrialized world ‘reverse osmosis’ process
is well known.
All elements in water get diminished after
filtration.
This method is claimed to be the best water
purification process available.
Membrane Assisted Defluoridation Process
for Safe Drinking Water
INDIAN TECNOLOGY FOR
DEFLUORIDATION;-
1.NALAGONDA TECHNIQUE;-
This technique first developed in india in
1975,is the most simplest,least expensive and
easiest to operate of all the other methods of
defluoridation .
The first community plant for the removal of
fluoride from the drinking water was
constructed in the district of Nalagonda in
Andhra Pradesh ,in the town of Kathri,thus the
name of the tecnology.
PROCEDURE;-
Raw water is mixed with adequate lime and
alum. The amount of lime depends on the
alkalinity of the raw water.
Alum solution is added after the addition of
lime, stirred gently for 10 minutes and the
flocs formed are allowed to settle. The floc
formation and setting requires an houre.
Advantages of Nalagonda technology
1.This method can be used both at domestic
and community level
2.Operations are possible manually.
3.It is cost effictive .
4.Designs are flexible to use at different
location.
5.Defluoridation meets with the standard laid
down by the Bureau of Indian Standard.
COMBINED NALAGONDA AND CALCINED
MAGNESITE TECHNIQUE;-
This technique was introduced in Tanzania in 1985.
In this plant Nalagonda technique was passed
through a filter bed consisting of calcined
magnesite granules.
Fluoride was absorbed by the calcined magnesite
granules thus further reducing the fluoride
concentration in water.
There was a rise in pH over 10.0 and the treated
water needed adjustment befor drinking .
This method was found to be impractical for rural
regions
PRASANTI TECNOLOGY;-
In Indian villages this method of utilizing
Activated Alumina is found to be most popular
and cost effective material for defluoridation.
OTHER METHODS OF DEFLUORIDATION
1.FISH BONE CHARCOLE
Researches of the univesity of Roorkee
suggested practical application of fish bone
charcole as a method of defluoridation.
2.DRUMSTICK PLANT (MORINGA CLEIFERA)
It reduces the water turbidity and has excellent
coagulating and clarifying properties,
Defluoridation properties is mainly due to
calcium and magnesium levels in the plant.
ASKALI- extract mycetial biomass
Researches of osmania University ,Hyderabad
demonstrated the ability of this material from
Aspergillus riger to bind fluoride from fluoride
containing water.
TRICALCIUM PHOSPHATE
It produce a complex chemical reaction in the
process of defluoridation.
ADVANTAGES OF FLUORIDE’-
1.Enhances enamel remineralization.
2.Under acidic conditions will decrease the rate
of enamel demineralization.lowers solubility
of enamel
3.Interfers with enzymatic process of bacteria.
4.Interfers with attachment of odontopathic
organisms to teeth.
SYSTEMIC FLUORIDE.
Source
1.drinking water or other beverages
2.fluoride tablet or lozenges
3.fluoride salts ,fluoride sugar
ADVANTAGES OF SYSTEMIC FLUORIDE IN
RECOMMENDED DOSE
1.low cost
2.no motivation or behavioural changes
nessary
DISADVANTAGES OF SYSTEMIC FLUORIDE;-
1.possibility of mild to moderate fluorosis if
fluoride are ingested inadvertently.
2.fluoride toxicity.
TROPICAL FLUORIDE
SOURCE
there are many source of tropical
fluoride available in the form of risens and
gels.
ADVANTAGES OF TROPICAL FLUORIDE IN
RECOMMENDED DOSE
1.do not cause flurosis
2.cariostatic for people of all ages
3.easy to use .
DISADVANTAGES OF TROPICAL FLUORIDE
1.person must remember to use.
2.per capita cost is high compared to water
fluoridation.
CONCLUSSION
Fluoride is a naturally occurring mineral that is
found in water and some foods.
Fluoride enhances the tooth remineralization
process. Fluoride found in a person's saliva will
adsorb onto the surface of a tooth where
demineralization (tooth decay formation) has
occurred. This in turn actually attracts other
minerals (such as calcium), thus helping to speed
up the degree of remineralization (reformation of
tooth mineral), thus helps to fight tooth decay.
But fluoride has toxic properties on the tooth and
the bone in the form of dental and skeletal
fluorosis , if ingested inadvertently.
K AR
N A B
AR .R.R.I
C