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Disciplina

Literatura em Língua Inglesa IV


Coordenador da Disciplina
Prof.ª Salete Nunes


4ª Edição

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Créditos desta disciplina

Coordenação
Coordenador UAB
Prof. Mauro Pequeno
Coordenador Adjunto UAB
Prof. Henrique Pequeno
Coordenador do Curso
Prof.ªSâmia Alves Carvalho
Coordenador de Tutoria
Prof. J oão Tobias Lima Sales
Coordenador da Disciplina
Prof.ªSalete Nunes

Conteúdo
Autor da Disciplina
Prof.ªSalete Nunes

Setor Tecnologias Digitais - STD
Coordenador do Setor
Prof. Henrique Sergio Lima Pequeno

Centro de Produção I - (Material Didático)
Gerente: Nídia Maria Barone
Subgerente: Paulo André Lima / J osé André Loureiro
Transição Didática
Dayse Martins Pereira
Elen Cristina Bezerra
Fátima Silva Souza
Hellen Paula Pereira
J osé Adriano Oliveira
Karla Colares
Viviane Sá de Lima

Formatação
Camilo Cavalcante
Elilia Rocha
Emerson Mendes Oliveira
Francisco Ribeiro
Givanildo Pereira
Sued de Deus Lima


Publicação
J oão Ciro Saraiva
Design, Impressão e 3D
André Lima Vieira
Eduardo Ferreira
Iranilson Pereira
Luiz Fernando Soares
Marllon Lima


Programação
Andrei Bosco
Damis Iuri Garcia


Gerentes
Audiovisual: Andréa Pinheiro
Desenvolvimento: Wellington Wagner Sarmento
Suporte: Paulo de Tarso Cavalcante





Sumário

Class 01: 20TH Century American Short Story – Ernest Hemingway ................................................ 01
Tópico 01: Hemingway and the Lost Generation .................................................................................. 01
Tópico 02: Hemingway’s “Hills Like White Elephants” ....................................................................... 05
Tópico 03: Hemingway’s “A Clean, Well-Lighted Place” .................................................................... 08
Tópico 04: Analysis of Film Versions ................................................................................................... 10

Class 02: Twentieth Century American Poetry ..................................................................................... 13
Tópico 01: Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 13
Tópico 02: Modernism ........................................................................................................................... 15
Tópico 03: The Beat Generation ............................................................................................................ 25
Tópico 04: Contemporary Poetry ........................................................................................................... 30
Tópico 05: Interconnections ................................................................................................................... 37

Class 03: Twentieth Century American Drama ..................................................................................... 40
Tópico 01: Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 40
Tópico 02: Arthur Miller ........................................................................................................................ 42
Tópico 03: The Trial of Arthur Miller : an article by J ohn Steinbeck ................................................... 45
Tópico 04: Tragedy and the Common Man - an essay by Arthur Miller ............................................... 48
Tópico 05: A View from the Bridge – Introduction ............................................................................... 49

Class 04: Twentieth Century American Drama (Part 2)....................................................................... 52
Tópico 01: Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 52
Tópico 02: A View from the Bridge – Act 1 .......................................................................................... 54
Tópico 03: A View from the Bridge – Act 2 .......................................................................................... 57
Tópico 04: A View from the Bridge – Stage Version ............................................................................ 59
Tópico 05: A View from the Bridge – Film Version ............................................................................. 61
Tópico 06: Glimpses of Another View .................................................................................................. 64
TÓPICO 01: HEMINGWAY AND THE LOST GENERATION
MULTIMÍDIA
Ligue o som do seu computador!
Obs.: Alguns recursos de multimídia utilizados em nossas aulas,
como vídeos legendados e animações, requerem a instalação da versão
mais atualizada do programa Adobe Flash Player
©
. Para baixar a versão
mais recente do programa Adobe Flash Player, clique aqui! [1]
PALAVRA DA COORDENADORA DA DISCIPLINA DE LITERATURA EM LÍNGUA
INGLESA IV
Para assistir ao vídeo acesse o ambiente Solar.
1.1 INTRODUCTION
English Literature IV is a course which will explore the American
Literature of the twentieth century in terms of three main genres: short
story, poetry and drama. Thus, a selection of the works of some of the most
representative authors from this period will constitute the required reading
material for the course.
The reading of short stories, poems and plays will be followed by the
analysis of adaptations/translations of such literary works into other art
forms/ media, such as films, videos, songs, etc.
Fonte [2]
This first lesson of this course focuses on the genre short story.
Most literary critics and scholars, who have studied this genre in the
twentieth century, seem to agree that the American author who best
developed the short story in this period was Ernest Hemingway. Harold
Bloom, a famous contemporary American critic, states that:
Brief fictional prose narrative. It usually presents a single
significant episode or scene involving a limited number of characters.
The form encourages economy of setting and concise narration;
character is disclosed in action and dramatic encounter but seldom fully
LITERATURA EM LÍNGUA INGLESA IV
CLASS 01: 20TH CENTURY AMERICAN SHORT STORY – ERNEST HEMINGWAY
1
developed. A short story may concentrate on the creation of mood
rather than the telling of a story. Despite numerous precedents, it
emerged only in the 19th century as a distinct literary genre in the
works of writers such as E.T.A. Hoffmann [3], Heinrich Kleist [4],
Edgar Allan Poe [5], Prosper Mérimée [6], Guy de Maupassant [7], and
Anton Chekhov [8].
Fonte: Britannica Concise Encyclopedia
http://www.answers.com/topic/short-story [9]
It could be argued persuasively that Hemingway is the best short-story writer
in the English language from Joyce's Dubliners until the present. (BLOOM, 2011,
p. 3)
Hence, we will study two short stories by Hemingway in this lesson.
1.2 LOST GENERATION
When studying an author it is of utmost importance to understand the
historical and literary context in which he lived and produced his works. In
order to study Hemingway's short stories, one must refer to a period and a
place that not only influenced his writing, but also played a decisive role in
terms of defining what he wrote and how he did it. This period is the 1920's
and the place is Paris.
In the 1920's, the world had just gone through the World War I (1914-
1919). The effects of the war were devastating. A whole generation of young
people was absolutely disillusioned and trying to figure out a meaning for
life. Among them were many expatriate Americans who stayed in France
after the war, or arrived there in the early 20s.
A number of American young writers were part of that group of
expatriates, including Gertrude Stein, Ezra Pound, F. Scott Fitzgerald and
Ernest Hemingway. The last two ones were to become the icons of this Lost
Generation.
Lost Generation, in general, the post-World War I generation,
but specifically a group of U.S. writers who came of age during the war
and established their literary reputations in the 1920s. The term stems
from a remark made by Gertrude Stein [10] to Ernest Hemingway [11],
"You are all a lost generation." Hemingway used it as an epigraph to
The Sun Also Rises [12] (1926), a novel that captures the attitudes of a
hard-drinking, fast-living set of disillusioned young expatriates in
postwar Paris.
The generation was "lost" in the sense that its inherited values were no
longer relevant in the postwar world.
Encyclopedia Britannica
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/348402/Lost-
Generation [13]
2
The two main representatives of the Lost Generation:
STOP AND CHECK
Click on the link below the picture of Ernest Hemingway to
learn about this American writer.
Fonte [15]
ERNEST HEMINGWAY (CLICK HERE)
"Hemingway now is myth, and so is permanent as an image of
American heroism, or perhaps more ruefully the American illusion
of heroism. The best of Hemingway's work, the stories and The Sun
Also Rises, are also a permanent part of the American mythology.
Faulkner, Stevens, Frost, perhaps Eliot, and Hart Crane were better
writers than Hemingway, but he alone in this American century has
achieved the enduring status of myth." (BLOOM, 2005, P. 125)
FURTHER READING
Are you interested in learning more about Hemingway? If
so, click on the link below. The text will also be available in
"Material de Apoio".
Ernest Miller Hemingway
(1899 – 1961)Fonte [14]
Francis Scott Fitzgerald
(1896 – 1940)Fonte
3
Ernest Miller Hemingway (click here) (Visite a aula online para
realizar download deste arquivo.)
FONTES DAS IMAGENS
1. http://www.adobe.com/products/flashplayer/
2. http://www.google.com.br/search?
hl=en&biw=1069&bih=725&gbv=2&tbm=isch&sa=1&q=literature&oq=litera
ture&aq=f&aqi=g10&aql=&gs_sm=e&gs_upl=45667l48755l0l10l10l0l1l1l0l3
81l2154l0.4.3.2
3. http://www.answers.com/topic/e-t-a-hoffmann
4. http://www.answers.com/topic/heinrich-von-kleist
5. http://www.answers.com/topic/edgar-allan-poe
6. http://www.answers.com/topic/prosper-m-rim-e
7. http://www.answers.com/topic/guy-de-maupassant
8. http://www.answers.com/topic/anton-chekhov
9. http://www.answers.com/topic/short-story
10. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/564945/Gertrude-Stein
11. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/260825/Ernest-
Hemingway
12. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/573581/The-Sun-Also-
Rises
13. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/348402/Lost-
Generation
14. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e1/Ernest
_Hemingway_1923_passport_photo.TIF.jpg/210px-
Ernest_Hemingway_1923_passport_photo.TIF.jpg
15. http://www.biografiasyvidas.com/biografia/h/fotos/hemingway.jpg
Responsável: Profª. Salete Nunes
Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual
4
TÓPICO 02: HEMINGWAY’S “HILLS LIKE WHITE ELEPHANTS”
READING AND LISTENING TO THE SHORT STORY:
HILLS LIKE WHITE ELEPHANTS
Hills near Zaragoza, Spain
Fonte [1]
This story is part of the collection Men Without Women, published in
1927. Here Hemingway employs his art of dialogue in the most radical way,
once the presence of the narrator is almost completely removed. As Paul
Lamb explains,
What, then, were Hemingway's technical accomplishments in the writing of
dialogue? They can be summed up in three phrases: minimum speech with
maximum meaning; the elevation of banality into art; and the blurring of
distinctions between the genres of drama and fiction. To achieve these goals, he
removed or subtilized the controlling presence of the author's voice and
incorporated into dialogue the techniques of his non-dialogue prose: indirection,
juxtaposition as a means of having meaning derive from proximity, irony,
omission, repetition, the objective correlative, and referential ambiguity. In
doing so, he met the challenge of writing modern dialogue: representing the
dynamics of real-life speech. After Hemingway, writers would have the option
of making dialogue illustrative or constructive, and of having their characters
show themselves in ways hitherto only revealed by other methods. (LAMB, 2011,
p. 71)
READING THE STORY
Click on the following link to read the story. After reading it, answer the
questions in Practice 1.
Hills Like White elephants (click here) [2]
PRACTICE 1
After reading "Hills like White Elephants", answer the questions
below.
1. The way that the conversation of the couple is "transcribed" by the
author seems to denote that they are going through a/an
LITERATURA EM LÍNGUA INGLESA IV
CLASS 01: 20TH CENTURY AMERICAN SHORT STORY – ERNEST HEMINGWAY
5
1. adventurous summer trip feeling very happy to be together
2. point in their relationship in which their dreams are all coming true
3. difficult situation, but keeping a very harmonious relationship
4. moment of crisis and an overwhelming sense of misunderstanding
2. The connection of the title with the main theme of the story could
be stated in terms of the drawing of a parallel with the
1. other elements of the setting
2. singular situation of the couple
3. couple and the people in the station
4. drinks the couple orders
CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.
1 - D
2 - B
LISTENING
LISTENING TO THE STORY
Click on the following link to listen to "Hills like White Elephants".
After listening to it, answer the questions in Practice 2.
Hills Like White Elephants (click here) [3]
PRACTICE 2
After listening to "Hills like White Elephants", answer the questions
below.
1. Contrasting elements mentioned in the setting, like "the country
was brown and dry" and on the other side "fields of grain and trees" may
be said to establish an opposition between
1. ancient and new
2. warm and cold
3. dark and bright
4. barren and fertile
2. The couple's choice to have this conversation at a train station may
imply/hint that they
1. felt it was just natural, as they were travelling
2. did not feel comfortable to discuss the issue privately
6
3. had to part soon, so a decision was urgent
4. were eager to get rid of the 'white elephant
CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.
1 - D
2 - B
FONTES DAS IMAGENS
1. http://records.viu.ca/~lanes/hills.htm
2. http://pt.scribd.com/doc/94569/Hills-Like-White-Elephants
3. http://www.miettecast.com/authors/hemingway-ernest/
Responsável: Profª. Salete Nunes
Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual
7
TÓPICO 03: HEMINGWAY’S “ A CLEAN, WELL-LIGHTED PLACE”
READING ANOTHER SHORT STORY BY HEMINGWAY: A CLEAN,
WELL-LIGHTED PLACE
Fonte [1]
This short story was published in the collection Winner take Nothing
(1933). It constitutes another very good example of Hemingway's style and of
the themes that are recurrent in many of his works. According to H. P.
Werlock,
Spare and short, "A Clean, Well-Lighted Place" develops almost entirely by
dialogue. The narrative depends on the reader's ability to provide the
framework of existential despair (see EXISTENTIALISM) and NIHILISM, the
encounter with the cultural wasteland, and loss of faith. For many it is the
seminal story in Hemingway's short story catalog, the quintessential
illustration of his theory of omission. It is one of his most anthologized short
stories. (WERLOCK, 2010, p. 145)
READING THE STORY
Click on the following link to read the story. After reading it, answer the
questions in Practice.
A Clean, Well-Lighted Place (click here) [2]
PRACTICE
After reading “A Clean, Well-Lighted Place”, answer the questions
below.
1. Through the conversation between the two waiters, it can be
inferred that the younger waiter
1. is in a hurry that specific night because his wife is waiting for him in
bed, but he is a very understanding person when it comes to dealing with
older people
2. is not able to grasp the existential issue involved in the old man's
attitude of desperation in relation to his own life
3. feels that getting old is just an avoidable process and that he can
picture himself in the future as he observes the old man in his loneliness
LITERATURA EM LÍNGUA INGLESA IV
CLASS 01: 20TH CENTURY AMERICAN SHORT STORY – ERNEST HEMINGWAY
8
4. admires and respects old people for their wisdom and dignity, but as
the old man has stayed for too long in the cafe, he has lost his temper
2. When the old man, in an attitude of despair, tried to put an end to
his own life, the person who saved him was
1. a close relative who takes care of him
2. a stranger who had never seen him before
3. his wife's niece, who was visiting at that moment
4. his wife, who arrived just in time to cut the rope
3. In the older waiter's monologue toward the end of the story, when
he paraphrases the Lord's Prayer using the Spanish word nada, one can
find the expression of the
1. absolute meaning of religion
2. meaninglessness of life
3. ability to create out of nothing
4. belief in human goodness
4. The older waiter expresses his solidarity with the old man, showing
that he understands what it means to feel lonely and to wish for a "clean
well-lighted place" in order to temporarily escape from the darkness of
1. a sinful soul
2. a moonless night
3. life and ultimately of death
4. a disturbed mind
CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.
1 - B
2 - A
3 - B
4 - C
FONTES DAS IMAGENS
1. http://www.wordle.net/thumb/wrdl/3300548/A_clean%
2C_well_lighted_place
2. http://www.mrbauld.com/hemclean.html
Responsável: Profª. Salete Nunes
Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual
9
TÓPICO 04: ANALYSIS OF FILM VERSIONS
Fonte [1]
In Topic 4, you will watch the film versions of the stories you read in
Topic 2 and 3:
Hills Like White Elephants
A Clean, Well-Lighted Place
After watching a film version of each story you previously read, discuss
the questions related to the films in the FORUM.
FORUM A
Click on the links below to watch the film versions of Hills Like
White Elephants. After watching the films, discuss the following
questions in FORUM A.
Film versions for Hills Like White Elephants:
1. HILLS LIKE WHITE ELEPHANTS - Directed by Bruno Schiebel [2]
2. HILLS LIKE WHITE ELEPHANTS - Directed by by Yuriy
Mikitchenko and Sean Brown [3]
=>Watch the two film versions for "Hills Like White
Elephants" and establish a comparison between the film
versions and Hemingway's short story, considering the
following aspects:
1. Setting: Is the setting in the films similar to or different from the
setting in the story? How does that setting contribute to/is relevant to the
development of the story?
2. Characters: How does the process of characterization of Jig and the
American man show that the story unfolds in the 20s? If it doesn't, which
aspects do you have to indentify another time period?
3. Performance: Do you think that the performance of the actors was
able to convey the state of anxiety of the couple and the lack of ability to
communicate with each other that one senses when reading the story?
4. As to the end of the story, do you think that the way it was acted out
in the films gives the viewer any hint in relation to Jig's decision? Or does
it sound uncertain as it does to the reader?
FORUM B
LITERATURA EM LÍNGUA INGLESA IV
CLASS 01: 20TH CENTURY AMERICAN SHORT STORY – ERNEST HEMINGWAY
10
Click on the links below to watch the film versions of A Clean, Well-
Lighted Place. After watching the films, discuss the following questions
in FORUM B.
Film versions for A Clean, Well-Lighted Place:
1. A CLEAN, WELL-LIGHTED PLACE – Ash Blodgett [4]
2. A CLEAN, WELL-LIGHTED PLACE – Peter Hastic (PART 1 [5])
(PART 2 [6])
=>Watch the two film versions for "A Clean, Well-Lighted
Place" and establish a comparison with Hemingway's short
story, considering the following aspects:
1. Setting: Is the setting in the films similar to or different from the
setting in the story? How does that setting contribute to/is relevant to the
development of the story?
2. Characters: How does the process of characterization of the two waiters
and the old man reveal their traits as characters in the written story?
3. Performance: Do you think that the performance of the actors was able
to convey the contrasting attitudes of the waiters in relation to the old
man?
4. As to the end of the story, what aspects were omitted or are
different from the written story and what implication does that have for
the understanding of Hemingway's theme?
PORTFOLIO ACTIVITY
Choose one of the stories and one of its film versions and write a short
essay in which you analyze the adaptation process, taking into account the
elements/aspects suggested for discussion in the forum and adding further
comments on specific points, on choices of the directors to represent
Hemingway's story.
BIBLIOGRAPHY (CLICK HERE)
BLOOM, Harold. Bloom's Modern Critical Views: Ernest
Hemingway. New Edition. New York: Infobase Publishing, 2011.
______. Short Story Writers and Short Stories.(Bloom's 20th
anniversary collection). New York: Chelsea House, 2005.
DONALDSON, Scott (ed.) The Cambridge Companion to
Hemingway. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press, 1996.
GELFANT, Blanche H.( Ed.).The Columbia Companion to the
Twentieth Century American Short Story. New York: Columbia
University Press, 2000.
LAMB, Robert Paul. Hemingway and the Creation of Twentieth-
Century Dialogue.In: BLOOM, Harold. Bloom's Modern Critical
Views: Ernest Hemingway. New Edition. New York: Infobase
Publishing, 2011.
MONK, Craig. Writing the Lost Generation: expatriate
11
autobiography and American modernism. Iowa City: University of
Iowa Press, 2008.
QUINN,Edward. History in Literature: A Reader's Guide to 20th-
Century History and the Literature It Inspired. New York: Facts On
File, 2004.
SCOFIELD, Martin. The Cambridge Introduction to The
American Short Story. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,
2006.
STRINGER, Jenny (Ed.) The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-
Century Literature in English. New York: Oxford University Press,
1996.
WERLOCK, Abby H. P. . The Facts On File Companion to the
American Short Story. Second Edition.New York: Facts on File,
2010.
FONTES DAS IMAGENS
1. http://www.mundoeducacao.com/upload/conteudo_legenda/ca50cc9cd
1a95f938128f5f1d4ac9cfe.jpg
2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jAjJ4HE6woc
3. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TIA_k5G7stQ&NR=1
4. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hsnkIIlK6l0&feature=related
5. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7QAxqhkuZAU
6. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-UZaueA2V50&feature=related
Responsável: Profª. Salete Nunes
Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual
12
TÓPICO 01: INTRODUCTION
Fonte [1]
THE SECOND UNIT OF THIS COURSE FOCUSES ON THE GENRE POETRY.
CLICK HERE TO READ A DEFINITION OF POETRY.
POETRY, language sung, chanted, spoken, or written according
to some pattern of recurrence that emphasizes the relationships
between words on the basis of sound as well as sense: this pattern is
almost always a rhythm or metre, which may be supplemented by
rhyme or alliteration or both. The demands of verbal patterning
usually make poetry a more condensed medium than prose or
everyday speech, often involving variations in syntax, the use of
special words and phrases ( poetic diction) peculiar to poets, and a
more frequent and more elaborate use of figures of speech,
principally metaphor and simile. … Poetry is valued for combining
pleasures of sound with freshness of ideas, whether these be solemn
or comical. Some critics make an evaluative distinction between
poetry, which is elevated or inspired, and verse, which is merely
clever or mechanical. The three major categories of poetry are
narrative, dramatic, and lyric, the last being the most extensive.
OXFORD DICTIONARY OF LITERARY TERMS
Fonte: http://www.answers.com/topic/poetry#ixzz1OcxjUcn9
[2]
Twentieth century American poetry is characterized by a great variety
of trends and poets, reflecting the complexity and the multiculturalism of
modern and contemporary American society. However, some movements
can clearly be identified as broad categories that include most of other
classifications and tendencies: Modernism, Beat Generation and
Contemporary/Postmodern Poetry.
We are going to concentrate our readings on the works of three poets,
each representing one of these movements, respectively: William Carlos
Williams, Allen Ginsberg and Billy Collins.
FONTES DAS IMAGENS
LITERATURA EM LÍNGUA INGLESA IV
CLASS 02: TWENTIETH CENTURY AMERICAN POETRY
13
1. http://bernasvibethewayiseeit.files.wordpress.com/2013/01/poetry-
corner.gif
2. http://www.answers.com/topic/poetry#ixzz1OcxjUcn9
Responsável: Profª. Salete Nunes
Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual
14
TÓPICO 02: MODERNISM
Fonte
Modernism expanded the use of nonmetrical or irregular verse,
following a certain tendency in all the arts to liberate aesthetics from the
constraints of a way of thinking, of a paradigm considered outdated.
Modernist poets and poetry react especially productively to the period's pre-
eminent modes of avant-garde experimentation: manifestoes and the leading
techniques of modernist visual art, collage and abstraction. Responding to and
reinventing these avant-garde discourses and practices – not in any
conventional sense poetic – twentieth-century poets derive modernist poetry's
signal formal techniques: free verse, montage, juxtaposition, intertextuality and
linguistic abstraction.
(DAVIS& JENKINS, 2007, p. 29)
The poems of William Carlos Williams are representative of Modernism.
Let's read about this poet.
2.1 WILLIAM CARLOS WILLIAMS
William Carlos Williams
(1883 – 1963)
Fonte [1]
William Carlos Williams was born, lived all his life and died in
Rutherford, New Jersey. Nowadays he stands, together with Pound and
Eliot, as one of the main representatives of modernist American poetry. He is
the one who managed to use the language of everyday speech for poetry,
recording the "local" as a necessary first step to presenting the "universal"
During most of his life, Williams kept a balance between his successful
career as a doctor in his small town and his production as a poet. He was a
very versatile writer, for he wrote not only poetry, but also short stories,
plays and essays. He thought it was his duty to improve society, both through
medicine and writing.
Poetry does not hold a mirror up to nature, Williams argues, but, by a process
analogous to nature's own, transfigures nature into new, living form. The
contemporary poet must strive to heave the most seemingly insignificant,
'unpoetic' materials into the transfigured light of the imagination ('So much
depends / upon // A red wheel / barrow'), and he must also work to wrestle
LITERATURA EM LÍNGUA INGLESA IV
CLASS 02: TWENTIETH CENTURY AMERICAN POETRY
15
objects and emotions away from their traditional poetic associations, the 'crude
symbolism' that associates 'anger with lightning, flowers with love'.
(DAVIS& JENKINS, 2007, p. 183-184)
Now let's read some poems by William Carlos Williams.
The poems we are going to read are from two different moments: first
from his final collection of poems, "Pictures From Brueghel" (1962), and
then from earlier collections from the 1920s and 1930s.
POEMS
The poem Landscape with the Fall of Icarus is taken from the
collection Pictures From Brueghel, published in 1962, in which all the
poems are based on paintings by Pieter Brueghel (1525-1569). The book was
awarded the Pulitzer Prize for poetry just two months after the poet's death
in 1963.
A point to be highlighted in relation to these poems is style. And here it
is necessary to mention a poetic resource that is frequently used by Williams,
which is enjambment.
Enjambment or enjambement, the running over of the sense
and grammatical structure from one verse line or couplet to the
next without a punctuated pause. In an enjambed line (also called
a 'run‐on line'), the completion of a phrase, clause, or sentence is
held over to the following line so that the line ending is not
emphasized as it is in an end‐stopped line.
Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms:
http://www.answers.com/topic/enjambement#ixzz1OmPem1Zo
[2]
In Landscape with the Fall of Icarus, this type of verse contributes
to give the poem a sense of continuity all along the falling journey of Icarus.
The absence of punctuation and the very short lines also add to that
point/aspect. The description of the scenery, of the beautiful landscape in the
painting leads the reader on a descent towards the crucial moment in the
final stanza: Icarus drowning.
CHALLENGE
Observe the painting and answer these questions:
1. Where is Icarus?
2. How many other people are there in the painting?
Do they see the fall of Icarus?
16
Fonte [3]
CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.
After answering these questions, read the poem.
VERSÃO TEXTUAL
Landscape with the Fall of Icarus
by William Carlos Williams
According to Brueghel
when Icarus fell
it was spring
a farmer was ploughing
his field
the whole pageantry
of the year was
awake tingling
near
the edge of the sea
concerned
17
with itself
sweating in the sun
that melted
the wings' wax
unsignificantly
off the coast
there was
a splash quite unnoticed
this was
Icarus drowning
PRACTICE 1
Now that you have read the poem, answer these questions:
1. Among the people in the painting, who is mentioned in the poem?
2. Which verse/verses in the poem show(s) that the people did not
pay attention to Icarus fall?
CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.
1. From the people portrayed in the painting, only the
ploughman/ farmer is mentioned in Williams' poem.
2. As to the fact that people did not really pay attention to
Icarus' fall, it is clearly shown in the verse: a splash quite
unnoticed.
FURTHER READING
Click on the tabs below to read 2 other poems from the collection
Pictures From Brueghel.
Fonte [5]
THE HUNTERS IN THE SNOW (CLICK HERE)
by William Carlos Williams
18
The over-all picture is winter
icy mountains
in the background the return
from the hunt it is toward evening
from the left
sturdy hunters lead in
their pack the inn-sign
hanging from a
broken hinge is a stag a crucifix>
between his antlers the cold
inn yard is
deserted but for a huge bonfire
the flares wind-driven tended by
women who cluster
about it to the right beyond
the hill is a pattern of skaters
Brueghel the painter
concerned with it all has chosen
a winter-struck bush for his
foreground to
complete the picture
Fonte [6]
SELF PORTRAIT (CLICK HERE)
by William Carlos Williams
In a red winter hat blue
eyes smiling
just the head and shoulders
crowded on the canvas
arms folded one
big ear the right showing
the face slightly tilted
a heavy wool coat
with broad buttons
19
gathered at the neck reveals
a bulbous nose
but the eyes red-rimmed
from over-use he must have
driven them hard
but the delicate wrists
show him to have been a
man unused to
manual labor unshaved his
blond beard half trimmed
no time for any-
thing but his painting
2.2 POEMS: THE YOUNG HOUSEWIFE AND THIS IS JUST TO SAY
Williams embraced the concrete pictorialism of imagist poetry, mainly
in his earlier works, being also interested in exploring the interconnections
between painting and poetry. In general, his poems contain a very strong
visual appeal. That is especially true in the case of the poem The Young
Housewife, in which the reader can almost "see" her.
Listen to the poet reading this poem. The poem is copied
down for you to follow the poet's reading.
William Carlos Williams (1883-1963) reads his poem 'The Young
Housewife' for a Columbia Records 78 rpm disc in the series 'Pleasure
Dome: an audible anthology of modern poetry read by its creators," May
20, 1949.
The Young Housewife (1920)
At ten A.M. the young housewife
moves about in negligee behind
the wooden walls of her husband's house.
I pass solitary in my car.
20
Then again she comes to the curb
to call the ice-man, fish-man, and stands
shy, uncorseted, tucking in
stray ends of hair, and I compare her
to a fallen leaf.
The noiseless wheels of my car
rush with a crackling sound over
dried leaves as I bow and pass smiling.
Listen to the poet reading another poem. The poem is
copied down for you to follow the poet's reading.
William Carlos Williams reads his poem This Is Just To Say -
Recorded by Richard Wirtz Emerson in Rutherford, NJ, August 1950.
This Is Just To Say (1934)
by William Carlos Williams (1883-1963)
I have eaten
the plums
that were in
the icebox
and which
you were probably
saving
for breakfast
Forgive me
they were delicious
so sweet
and so cold
PRACTICE 2
After reading and listening to the two poems, do the following
activities:
1. Answer these questions about the poem The Young Housewife
21
a. Identify verses that picture the housewife as an object of desire or
that might imply desire/sensuality on the part of the speaker.
b. Which line(s) could be said to contain word(s) with and
onomatopoeic quality?
2. Write a parody of the poem This is just to say.
Parody: A ludicrous imitation, usually for comic effect but
sometimes for ridicule, of the style and content of another work. The
humor depends upon the reader's familiarity with the original.
Poetry Glossary: [7]
http://www.answers.com/topic/parody#ixzz1P66mAPDT [8]
Parody: A literary or artistic work that imitates the
characteristic style of an author or a work for comic effect or ridicule.
American Heritage Dictionary: [9]
http://www.answers.com/topic/parody#ixzz1P65wRfXO [10]
CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.
1. The verses in red are related to question 1.a. and the verse in
green is related to question 1.b.
At ten A.M. the young housewife
moves about in negligee behind
the wooden walls of her husband's house.
I pass solitary in my car.
Then again she comes to the curb
to call the ice-man, fish-man, and stands
shy, uncorseted, tucking in
stray ends of hair, and I compare her
to a fallen leaf.
The noiseless wheels of my car
rush with a crackling sound over
dried leaves as I bow and pass smiling.
2. Here are 2 examples of parodies of the poem This is just to
say.
This is just to say
I have read all
the mail
that was in
your inbox
and which
you were probably
thinking
were private
Forgive me
they were so tempting
and your
password known
By Renee
This is just to say
Forgive me
for leaving the plums
from my science project
in the icebox.
You probably
thought that
I was saving them
for breakfast.
The trash can
was so far away
and I
was so tired.
By Steve Faires
22
TIPS
Click on the link below if you wish to read more examples of parodies
for this poem.
http://somewhereinthesuburbs.wordpress.com/2008/04/21/this-is-
just-to-say/ [11]
FORUM
PART A:
1. Discuss the following questions about the poem The Young
Housewife.
a. Which verse/verses provide(s) us with hints as to the type of
relationship husband/wife?
b. What does the poem let us know about the role of women in the
1920s?
2. Read an excerpt from a poem by W. H. Auden (1907-1973), Musée
des Beaux Arts, that refers to the painting Landscape with the Fall
of Icarus, and compare it with Williams' version, taking into
consideration the 2 questions in practice 1 as a starting point for your
comments, and consider also:
a. Which verse/verses in Williams' poem express(es) the beauty of
the landscape?
b. In the painting, Brueghel brings to the foreground all the
exhilarating beauty of the landscape and places Icarus in a corner, almost
hidden from view, thus saying, somehow, that Icarus' fall was not of
importance for the surrounding world. In which verse/verses does
Williams express this idea? What about Auden's poem?
MUSÉE DES BEAUX ARTS (CLICK HERE)
W. H. Auden
About suffering they were never wrong,
The old Masters: how well they understood
Its human position: how it takes place
While someone else is eating or opening a window or just walking
dully along;
……
In Breughel's Icarus, for instance: how everything turns away
Quite leisurely from the disaster; the ploughman may
Have heard the splash, the forsaken cry,
But for him it was not an important failure; the sun shone
As it had to on the white legs disappearing into the green
Water, and the expensive delicate ship that must have seen
Something amazing, a boy falling out of the sky,
Had somewhere to get to and sailed calmly on.
23
FONTES DAS IMAGENS
1. http://www.uiowa.edu/~c008055/images/william-carlos-williams.jpg
2. http://www.answers.com/topic/enjambement#ixzz1OmPem1Zo
3. http://www.oxfordtimes.co.uk/resources/images/2218056.jpg?
type=articleLandscape
4. http://www.adobe.com/go/getflashplayer
5. http://www.artgalleryartist.com/pieter-bruegel-the-
elder/paintings/images/pieter_bruegel_pieter_-_caccioatori_nella_neve.jp
g
6. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/06/Jean_
Fouquet-_Portrait_of_the_Ferrara_Court_Jester_Gonella.JPG/380px-
Jean_Fouquet-_Portrait_of_the_Ferrara_Court_Jester_Gonella.JPG
7. http://www.answers.com/library/Poetry%20Glossary-cid-59568
8. http://www.answers.com/topic/parody#ixzz1P66mAPDT
9. http://www.answers.com/library/Dictionary-cid-59568
10. http://www.answers.com/topic/parody#ixzz1P65wRfXO
11. http://somewhereinthesuburbs.wordpress.com/2008/04/21/this-is-
just-to-say/
Responsável: Profª. Salete Nunes
Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual
24
TÓPICO 03: THE BEAT GENERATION
Beatnik - A person, especially a member or follower of the
Beat Generation, whose behavior, views, and often style of dress
are pointedly unconventional.
American Heritage Dictionary:
http://www.answers.com/topic/beatnik#ixzz1P72KfSN7 [1]
The two main writers of the
Beat Generation:
Jack Kerouac (prose) and
Allen Ginsberg (poetry)
Fonte [2]
The Beat Generation emerged in the context of post-1945 American
society, a period characterized by a culture of consumption and of
conformity with values that were very restrictive in terms, for example, of
aesthetic norms and moral issues.
A new generation of Americans viewed those values as a form of
repressive attitude and rebelled against them. In doing so, they challenged
several other aspects of American life, expressing their alienation and
eventually inventing a new form of youth culture that would have a long
lasting influence on the following generations.
According to Charters (apud CREIGHTON, 2007, p. 30-31)
"It was a rebellious group, I suppose, of which there many on campuses, but it
was one that really was dedicated to a 'New Vision'. It was trying to look at the
world in a new light, trying to look at the world in a way that gave it some
meaning. Trying to find values… that were valid. And it was through literature
all this was supposed to be done."
Although the Beat Generation continues to be identified as an American
phenomenon, it is important not to overlook its global dimensions.
FURTHER READING
Would you like to know more about the Beat Generation?
READ WHAT OTHER AUTHORS HAVE WRITTEN ABOUT IT. (CLICK HERE)
" …the Beat Generation is classified as a generation because its
writers were looking to break free of some of the constraints of an
older tradition (metrical poetry, for example). Their shared
philosophy also brings them together. To much of mainstream
America, their philosophy seemed to be an irresponsible anything-
for-a-kick ideal, but the writers saw themselves on a religious quest,
looking for sense out of the senselessness of modern life and trying
LITERATURA EM LÍNGUA INGLESA IV
CLASS 02: TWENTIETH CENTURY AMERICAN POETRY
25
to quiet their anxiety, as the world entered the looming danger of
the atomic age."( DITTMAN, 2007, P. 2)
"The Beat generation would graft itself into the San Francisco
renaissance, launch it and usurp it as a national spectacle by way of
jazz and scandal, flamboyant personality, charismatic literature, and
through the invention of literary-historical Beat fiction. With the
advent of the Howl trial in San Francisco in 1957, Beat generation
writers crossed the threshold from being a small contingent of an
obscure U.S. avant-garde, to becoming controversial symbols of a
new generation. Although the transformation seemed to happen in a
day, the Beats had long been building momentum, developing
their style, and waiting for an opening."( WHALEY, 2004, p. 10)
3.1 ALLEN GINSBERG
Allen Ginsberg is one of the main poets of the Beat Generation.
Allen Ginsberg
(1926 – 1997)
Fonte [3]
Ginsberg's parents were both schoolteachers, and his father was also a
poet. They participated in the bohemian life of Greenwich Village around the
1920s. Thus, Ginsberg had a background within which an ambition to be a
creative writer was celebrated. Although the first time his father read "Howl"
he was shocked, he also recognized that it was the expression of the great
talent of his son and later declared that he was an admirer of the young
Ginsberg poetry.
"Howl" is a poem of protest, outrage, attack, but at the same time of
affirmation, of a desperate search. The poet seems to go through an
underworld of darkness, solitude, while trying to achieve some sense of
union with others and with a certain spiritual element. It is filled with images
of destruction and starvation, persecution and alienation, but it also contains
images of illumination, some glimpse of a transcendent reality. Although full
of personal allusions, it is not reduced to them.
Ginsberg makes use of constant repetitions and parallel structures, which
make the poem sound very powerful. That is a poetic style that was
extensively first used in American poetry by Walt Whitman (1819-1892) and
that influenced most poets in the twentieth century, especially Ginsberg.
26
Allen Ginsberg
(1926 – 1997)
Fonte [4]
"… Howl and Other Poems (1956) gave rise to a censorship
trial that brought the beats into the public eye for the first time
and cast them as literary rebels prepared to test the limits of
censorship and social convention."
Gale Encyclopedia of US History:
http://www.answers.com/topic/beat-
generation#ixzz1OYT5cMDz [5]
PRACTICE 3
Read this extract (montage) of the poem (click here) (Visite a aula
online para realizar download deste arquivo.) and, through the analysis of
the verses starting with who, identify some features that characterize the
generation mentioned in the first verse (who they were, how they lived,
what they did).
Now see a video of John Turturro reciting this extract of HOWL in the
following link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Iyh3tVyuQNU
CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWER.
Here is a transcription of the verses starting with who, in which
the passages in red help us characterize the generation Ginsberg
mentions.
who poverty and tatters and hollow-eyed and high sat
up smoking in the supernatural darkness of
cold-water flats floating across the tops of cities
contemplating jazz,
who cowered in unshaven rooms in underwear,
burning their money in wastebaskets and listening
to the Terror through the wall,
who got busted in their pubic beards returning through
Laredo with a belt of marijuana for New York,
who ate fire in paint hotels or drank turpentine in
Paradise Alley, death, or purgatoried their
torsos night after night
27
with dreams, with drugs, with waking nightmares,

who talked continuously seventy hours from park to
pad to bar to Bellevue to museum to the Brooklyn Bridge,
a lost battalion of platonic conversationalists jumping
down the stoops off fire escapes off windowsills
off Empire State out of the moon,
yacketayakking screaming vomiting whispering facts
and memories and anecdotes and eyeball kicks
and shocks of hospitals and jails and wars,

who loned it through the streets of Idaho seeking visionary
indian angels who were visionary indian angels,

who howled on their knees in the subway and were dragged off the
roof waving genitals and manuscripts,

who wandered around and around at midnight in the
railroad yard wondering where to go, and went,
leaving no broken hearts,
who lit cigarettes in boxcars boxcars boxcars racketing
through snow toward lonesome farms in grand-father night,
"The Ballad of the Skeletons"
The poem "The Ballad Of The Skeletons" was written in 1995. It was set
to music by Paul McCartney and Philip Glass.
MULTIMEDIA
Read the poem and click on the link to watch a performance of Paul
McCartney and Allen Ginsberg reciting the poem accompanied by music.
Allen Ginsberg & Paul McCartney
Live at the Royal Albert Hall, October 16, 1995.
28
The Ballad of the Skeletons (Click here) (Visite a aula online para
realizar download deste arquivo.)
FORUM
Part B: Now that you have read the poem "The Ballad of the
Skeletons", and watched the video, choose the speech of 05 skeletons
and explain why they are still meaningful nowadays.
FONTES DAS IMAGENS
1. http://www.answers.com/topic/beatnik#ixzz1P72KfSN7
2. http://1001buecher.files.wordpress.com/2012/07/beatlitmosaic4.jpg
3. http://t2.gstatic.com/images?
q=tbn:ANd9GcQPb9vip07chw34wRYo231uEC_cm0G2gWn5szOZfsLYN23J
5bsmuw
4. http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-DhwEDk_bCS0/UXAR7XgIdKI/AAAAAAAA
Fqw/ic3jdQ4CVfE/s1600/tumblr_m6jipwQFHz1qam3qao1_1280.jpg
5. http://www.answers.com/topic/beat-generation#ixzz1OYT5cMDz
Responsável: Profª. Salete Nunes
Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual
29
TÓPICO 04: CONTEMPORARY POETRY
Fonte [1]
Contemporary or postmodernist writers tend to use multiple styles and
approaches in their writing, and to argue against the possibility of
established meanings. Another feature is that they tend not to distinguish
between various kinds of art or different modes of expression, incorporating
photographs, illustrations, footnotes, bibliographies, parodies, just to
mention a few.
As a result of that trend, all aspects of daily life can be treated with
similar consideration and be part of the work of art, of literature, of poetry.
Billy Collins's poems are representative of Contemporary poetry.
4.1 BILLY COLLINS
Billy Collins
1941 –
Fonte
Probably the best way to introduce Billy Collins is giving him voice in
this poem in which he expresses his view of the teaching of poetry.
VERSÃO TEXTUAL
Introduction to Poetry
I ask them to take a poem
and hold it up to the light
like a color slide
or press an ear against its hive.
I say drop a mouse into a poem
and watch him probe his way out,
or walk inside the poem's room
and feel the walls for a light switch.
I want them to waterski
across the surface of a poem
waving at the author's name on the shore.
But all they want to do
is tie the poem to a chair with rope
and torture a confession out of it.
LITERATURA EM LÍNGUA INGLESA IV
CLASS 02: TWENTIETH CENTURY AMERICAN POETRY
30
They begin beating it with a hose
to find out what it really means.
William J. Collins (Billy Collins) was born in New York City in 1941. He
studied at the College of the Holy Cross and, for his M.A. and PhD. he went
to the University of California, Riverside. He taught for thirty-five years at
Lehmann College of the City University of New York. He has received many
awards, including the Mark Twain Award for Humor in Poetry, in 2005. He
was US Poet Laureate in the period 2001-2003 and New York State Poet
Laureate in 2004.
QUESTION
What is Poet Laureate?
CLICK HERE TO READ ABOUT POET LAUREATE.
Poet Laureate, a position created in 1937 for the purpose of
raising Americans' consciousness of and appreciation for the
reading and writing of poetry. The librarian of Congress, in
consultation with poetry experts and critics, appoints the poet
laureate for a one-year term. Serving from October to May, the poet
laureate receives a stipend of $35,000 funded by a gift trust.
Although the appointee is encouraged to pursue his or her own
projects while in residence at the Library of Congress, the laureate's
duties also include giving a lecture and a poetry reading. The poet
laureate also customarily introduces participants in the library's
annual poetry series, which dates back to the 1940s. In addition,
those holding the position often use the forum to bring their own
artistic and educational concerns to the fore.
Gale Encyclopedia of US History:
http://www.answers.com/topic/poet-laureate#ixzz1Ou1TIORB [3]
By the time Billy Collins was selected the nation's poet laureate in 2001, he
had produced a number of volumes of poetry that enjoyed both critical
success and an impressive level of popularity among readers from a wide
range of ages. In his position as laureate, it was the young adult audience he
most actively sought to reach, mobilizing a movement to reinvigorate poetry
in classrooms across America through a project he called Poetry 180, named
not only for the number of days in a typical school year but also for the
number of degrees in a complete about-face turn.
(BLANCHARD, 2007, p. 51)
Unlike many poets of his generation, Collins often uses humorous anecdotes
as the basis for his work. This sense of humor, tempered with wise
observation and skillful manipulation of image and story, attracts both an
academic and a nonacademic audience. Critics praise his craft, which
31
transforms the apparent superficial image or idea into verse that is
metaphysically and lyrically surprising.
(KIMMELMAN, 2005 p. 96)
4.2 POEMS
4.2.1 "THE LANYARD"
From The Trouble with Poetry,2005.
Read the poem The Lanyard (click here) (Visite a aula online para
realizar download deste arquivo.), and listen to the poet reading it.
PRACTICE 4
After reading and listening to the poem, answer the following
questions:
1. The humorous aspect of the poem lies mainly in the irony that
pervades it. What irony is that?
2. By the end of the poem, after weaving each stanza carefully through
the ironic statements, what is it that the poet manages to "seriously" imply
about mother/son relationship?
CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.
1. This poem leads the reader through different moments in
time: in stanza 1, the poet presents the context in which he wrote or
had the inspiration to write the poem. In stanzas 2 and 3 he goes
further back in time and explains to the reader the moment in which
he had made the lanyard, now subject of the poem. In stanzas 4, 5
and 6 (subject of this question) the poet lists a number of things,
great things that his mother did for him all along life, and pairs all
these deeds with the statement that what he gives her in return is
simply a lanyard. That's the great irony. That's what makes the
poem funny, because it sounds so absurd that you think you can
repay with such a 'useless' object someone who gave you life, took
32
care of your health, provided you with an education, prepared you
"to read the world".
2. In the final stanza, commenting on his mother's reaction
when receiving the lanyard, which leads us to understand that it was
an attitude of happiness and gratitude, the poet conveys the idea
that a mother does not expect/need great gifts from her children to
feel rewarded.
4.2.2 A PORTRAIT OF THE READER WITH A BOWL OF CEREAL
Now read the poem: "A Portrait of the Reader with a Bowl of
Cereal," from Picnic, Lightning, 1998.
When asked to explain his connection to readers, Collins explains, 'As I'm
writing, I'm always reader conscious. I have one reader in mind, someone who
is in the room with me, and who I'm talking to, and I want to make sure I don't
talk too fast, or too glibly. Usually I try to create a hospitable tone at the
beginning of a poem. Stepping from the title to the first lines is like stepping into
a canoe. A lot of things can go wrong.
(LEHMANN, G. http://jmww.150m.com/Collins.html)
In his books of poems Billy Collins usually includes a poem in which he
addresses the reader directly, as if having a friendly conversation. He talks
about this strategy just before reading the poem in this video.
Listen to his explanation and the reading of the poem.
Billy Collins at 2009 NWP Annual Meeting
A PORTRAIT OF THE READER WITH A BOWL OF CEREAL (CLICK HERE)
Every morning I sit across from you
at the same small table,
the sun all over the breakfast things—
curve of a blue-and-white pitcher,
a dish of berries—
33
me in a sweatshirt or robe,
you invisible.
Most days, we are suspended
over a deep pool of silence.
I stare straight through you
or look out the window at the garden,
the powerful sky,
a cloud passing behind a tree.
There is no need to pass the toast,
the pot of jam,
or pour you a cup of tea,
and I can hide behind the paper,
rotate in its drum of calamitous news.
But some days I may notice
a little door swinging open
in the morning air,
and maybe the tea leaves
of some dream will be stuck
to the china slope of the hour—
then I will lean forward,
elbows on the table,
with something to tell you,
and you will look up, as always,
your spoon dripping milk, ready to listen.
No specific activity will be assigned for you to do in relation to this poem
you have just read and listened to - A Portrait of the Reader with a
Bowl of Cereal. As the poet says in the last line, he expects the reader is
'ready to listen'. Thus, we expect that this sounds like an invitation for you to
continue reading his poems, and not only his, but poetry in all forms and
styles. As Shakespeare says through Hamlet, his most famous character,
"words, words words,…"
FURTHER READING
◾ Read more – Interview with Billy Collins for The Paris Review
Billy Collins, The Art of Poetry No. 83 (click here) [4]
◾ Read also (and listen to) – Litany
To listen (click here) [5]
34
TO READ
You are the bread and the knife,
The crystal goblet and the wine.
JACQUES CRICKILLON - Belgian poet (b. 1940).
You are the bread and the knife,
the crystal goblet and the wine.
You are the dew on the morning grass,
and the burning wheel of the sun.
You are the white apron of the baker
and the marsh birds suddenly in flight.
However, you are not the wind in the orchard,
the plums on the counter,
or the house of cards.
And you are certainly not the pine-scented air.
There is no way you are the pine-scented air.
It is possible that you are the fish under the bridge,
maybe even the pigeon on the general's head,
but you are not even close
to being the field of cornflowers at dusk.
And a quick look in the mirror will show
that you are neither the boots in the corner
nor the boat asleep in its boathouse.
It might interest you to know,
speaking of the plentiful imagery of the world,
that I am the sound of rain on the roof.
I also happen to be the shooting star,
the evening paper blowing down an alley,
and the basket of chestnuts on the kitchen table.
I am also the moon in the trees
and the blind woman's teacup.
But don't worry, I am not the bread and the knife.
You are still the bread and the knife.
You will always be the bread and the knife,
not to mention the crystal goblet and—somehow—the wine.
◾ Read also (and listen to) – Forgetfulness
To listen (click here) [6]
TO READ
The name of the author is the first to go
followed obediently by the title, the plot,
the heartbreaking conclusion, the entire novel
which suddenly becomes one you have never read,
never even heard of,
35
as if, one by one, the memories you used to harbor
decided to retire to the southern hemisphere of the brain,
to a little fishing village where there are no phones.
Long ago you kissed the names of the nine Muses goodbye
and watched the quadratic equation pack its bag,
and even now as you memorize the order of the planets,
something else is slipping away, a state flower perhaps,
the address of an uncle, the capital of Paraguay.
Whatever it is you are struggling to remember,
it is not poised on the tip of your tongue,
not even lurking in some obscure corner of your spleen.
It has floated away down a dark mythological river
whose name begins with an L as far as you can recall,
well on your own way to oblivion where you will join those
who have even forgotten how to swim and how to ride a bicycle.
No wonder you rise in the middle of the night
to look up the date of a famous battle in a book on war.
No wonder the moon in the window seems to have drifted
out of a love poem that you used to know by heart.
FONTES DAS IMAGENS
1. http://www.poetsgraves.co.uk/forum/styles/prosilver/imageset/rothko7
.jpg
2. http://www.adobe.com/go/getflashplayer
3. http://www.answers.com/topic/poet-laureate#ixzz1Ou1TIORB
4. http://www.theparisreview.org/interviews/482/the-art-of-poetry-no-
83-billy-collins
5. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=56Iq3PbSWZY&feature=related
6. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9w_Ve7-mhMU&feature=related
Responsável: Profª. Salete Nunes
Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual
36
TÓPICO 05: INTERCONNECTIONS
Recently (May 11, 2011), The White House promoted a poetry workshop
for students/poets from all over the country. Poets were invited to speak for
5 five minutes only (and had 5 more minutes to answer questions from the
students). In these 5 five minutes they were supposed to provide the
participants with advice they considered really relevant when attempting to
write poetry/become a poet.
Click on the link to watch the video of Billy Collins' participation (it
starts in minute 04:34) in the 'White House Poetry Workshop' (May 11, 2011)
and answer the question: what are the two pieces of advice that the poet
gives to anyone aspiring to write poetry?
Billy Collins at White House poetry workshop pt 1
CLICK HERE TO SEE THE ANSWERS.
1. Your voice has an external source. Your voice is lying in other
people's poetry; it is lying on the library shelves. To find your voice,
you need to read deeply. Of course you need to look inside for material
because poetry honors subjectivity, but to find a way to express that,
you need to look outside yourself, read widely, read all the poetry you
can get your hands on. And in your reading, you search for something,
for poets who make you furiously jealous. And then you start imitating
them.
2. Don't forget that poetry is play. Poetry is not a place to take
yourself more seriously than you take yourself in normal life. It's a
place to have fun with language; it's a place to play.
If you wish to see the complete workshop, here is the link: Poetry
Student Workshop at the White House
PRACTICE 5
LITERATURA EM LÍNGUA INGLESA IV
CLASS 02: TWENTIETH CENTURY AMERICAN POETRY
37
PORTFOLIO ACTIVITY
Choose one of these options:
1. Write a brief essay in which you compare the two poems you have
read based on Brueghel's Landscape with the Fall of Icarus, taking
into consideration the questions in Practice 1 and in Forum A, and
expanding your comments.
2. Write a brief essay in which you analyze the speech of at least five
of the skeletons in The Ballad of the Skeletons, discussing how,
through a single line of speech, the poet conveys a multiplicity of meanings
that apply to the specific figures being portrayed.
TIPS
Here are some links to videos, in case you wish to continue
having fun with poetry.
"Walking Across the Atlantic" by Billy Collins recited by a 3-year-old
child
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ahcrYHgK7wg&feature=related
[1]
Sweet Talk -- Billy Collins
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B0yn7nS_wuc&feature=related
[2]
Billy Collins - Consolation
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uXx5K6gfQBw&feature=related
[3]
The Conversation: Child Poet a YouTube Star
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D9Ur-S_mp_4&NR=1 [4]
BIBLIOGRAPHY
38
BLANCHARD, M. L. & FALCETTI, C. POETS FOR YOUNG
ADULTS: Their Lives and Works. Westport: Greenwood Press, 2007.
CREIGHTON, David. ECSTASY OF THE BEATS: on the road to
understanding. Toronto: Dundurn Press, 2007.
DAVIS, Alex. & JENKINS, Lee M. (Eds.). THE CAMBRIDGE
COMPANION TO MODERNIST POETRY. New York: Cambridge
University Press, 2007.
DITTMAN, Michael J. MASTERPIECES OF BEAT LITERATURE.
Westport: Greenwood Press, 2007.
FERGUSON, M., SALTER, M. J., STALLWORTHY, J. (Eds.) THE
NORTON ANTHOLOGY OF POETRY. 5th.ed. New York: W. W. Norton
& Company, 2005.
KIMMELMAN, B. THE FACTS ON FILE COMPANION TO 20TH-
CENTURY AMERICAN POETRY. New York: Facts on File, 2005.
LEHMAN, David. THE OXFORD BOOK OF AMERICAN POETRY. New
York: Oxford University Press, 2006.
RASKIN, Jonah. AMERICAN SCREAM:Allen Ginsberg’s Howland the
Making of the Beat Generation. Berkeley: University of California
Press, 2004.
WHALEY, Preston. BLOWS LIKE A HORN: beat writing, jazz, style,
and markets in the transformation of U.S. culture. Cambridge, Mass.:
Harvard University Press, 2004.
WILLIAMS, W. C. THE COLLECTED EARLIER POEMS OF WILLIAM
CARLOS WILLIAMS. Norfolk: New Directions Books, 1951.
FONTES DAS IMAGENS
1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ahcrYHgK7wg&feature=related
2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B0yn7nS_wuc&feature=related
3. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uXx5K6gfQBw&feature=related
4. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D9Ur-S_mp_4&NR=1
Responsável: Profª. Salete Nunes
Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual
39
TÓPICO 01: INTRODUCTION
The third unit of this course focuses on the genre Drama. Click here to
read a definition of drama.
Drama: the general term for performances in which actors
impersonate the actions and speech of fictional or historical characters
(or non‐human entities) for the entertainment of an audience, either on
a stage or by means of a broadcast; or a particular example of this art,
i.e. a play. Drama is usually expected to represent stories showing
situations of conflict between characters, although the monodrama is a
special case in which only one performer speaks. Drama is a major
genre of literature, but includes non‐literary forms (in mime), and has
several dimensions that lie beyond the domain of the literary dramatist
or playwright (see mise en scène). The major dramatic genres in the
West are comedy and tragedy, but several other kinds of dramatic work
fall outside these categories (see drame, history play, masque,
melodrama, morality play, mystery play, tragicomedy).
Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms
http://www.answers.com/topic/drama#ixzz1Pdib0W90
Twentieth century American drama tends to raise questions about the
pluralized and fragmented self, about the role of spatiality in the individual's
condition and position in society. Another tendency is the exploration of
drama's own conditions and processes of existence. All these aspects are
major modern/postmodern concerns.
Two main playwrights remain as center figures in the scene of American
drama in the twentieth century: Tennessee Williams and Arthur Miller.
Fonte [1] Fonte [2]
"During the years immediately following the Second World War, two major
playwrights, Tennessee Williams and Arthur Miller, dominated the American
stage. These playwrights were often interested in exploring social issues,
specifically the human costs of postwar industrial capitalism and the
contradictory nature of the American dream. Both essentially followed the
LITERATURA EM LÍNGUA INGLESA IV
CLASS 03: TWENTIETH CENTURY AMERICAN DRAMA
40
conventions of domestic realism, yet freely utilized anti-realistic devices in order
to most effectively convey their visions for the stage."
(SADDIIK, 2007, p. 40)
According to Miller,
"When I began writing, when Tennessee Williams began writing, we shared the
illusion that we were talking to everybody. Both of us wrote for the man on the
street. So consequently the architecture of our plays, the embrace of our plays,
their breadth, was in accordance with that conception. It was the very opposite
of an elitist theatre, the very opposite of an intellectual theatre."
(Miller, apud BLOOM, 2005, p. 116)
In this unit, we are going to study about Arthur Miller and read/start
discussing one of his most frequently performed plays both in the US and
abroad: A View from the Bridge.
FONTES DAS IMAGENS
1. http://hansenpublishing.com/assets/tw-4x4-web.jpg
2. http://www.literaryhistory.com/20thC/Other_Photos/Miller.jpg
Responsável: Profª. Salete Nunes
Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual
41
TÓPICO 02: ARTHUR MILLER
Arthur Miller (1915-2005)
Fonte [1]
Arthur Miller was born and grew up in New York City. His father was a
prosperous businessman until the Crash of 1929, after which the family went
through serious financial problems during the Great Depression.
Great Depression: the longest, deepest, and most pervasive
depression in American history, lasted from 1929 to 1939. Its effects
were felt in virtually all corners of the world, and it is one of the great
economic calamities in history. Economic activity began to decline in
the summer of 1929, and by 1933 real GDP fell more than 25 percent,
erasing all of the economic growth of the previous quarter century.
Industrial production was especially hard hit, falling some 50 percent.
Gale Encyclopedia of US History
http://www.answers.com/topic/great-depression#ixzz1Pmmhm9ND
The DEPRESSION period (1930s) had a great impact on Miller's sense of
himself, his family, and his society. During this period, he worked as a truck
driver, as a waiter, and as a clerk in a warehouse among other jobs. These
jobs made it possible for him to be in contact with the kind of working-class
people/characters who appear in his plays. His father's fall from financial
security and the way the people around him had to struggle to hold on their
place in society put Miller in a position of a keen observer of social relations.
Miller started writing plays in the period he was at the University of
Michigan (1934-1938). Nevertheless, success and recognition as a playwright
only came about a decade later, with the play All My Sons (1947), confirmed
with Death of Salesman (1949). In the sequence came The Crucible (1954)
and A View from the Bridge (1956). All these plays explore social themes,
and that is what came to be a distinguishing feature in Miller's works.
The author was involved in the web of MCCARTHYISM.
CLICK HERE TO LEARN WHAT MCCARTHYISM WAS.
LITERATURA EM LÍNGUA INGLESA IV
CLASS 03 :TWENTIETH CENTURY AMERICAN DRAMA
42
McCarthyism: Generally, the use of unscrupulous methods of
investigation against supposed security risks and the creation of an
atmosphere of fear and suspicion. Specifically, Joseph McCarthy was a
US senator for Wisconsin from 1946 until his death in 1957. He is
remembered for his demagogic crusade between 1950 and 1954 to root
out alleged communists and spies in American public life. As chairman
of the Senate Government Operations Committee conducting
investigations, he appalled observers by his coarse and brutal
behaviour. Witnesses were remorselessly bullied, currency was given
to wild and unsubstantiated charges, and evidence falsified. As a result
an ugly mood of national hysteria was created, the careers of
honourable men and women were damaged, and the reputation of the
United States abroad suffered badly. McCarthy operated at the height
of the Cold War when international communism could be reasonably
seen as a serious threat to the American way of life and many others
shared McCarthy's fears. Eventually, however, the senator overreached
himself in virulently attacking the Army on security grounds. He was
subsequently censured by his colleagues in the Senate and ended his
life as a broken and discredited figure.
Oxford Dictionary of Politics
http://www.answers.com/topic/mccarthyism#ixzz1PdZzfRYS
Miller supported various liberal and radical causes in the 1940's and
1950's and was called to testify about his political commitments before
HCUA (House Committee on Un-American Activities or HUAC - House Un-
American Activities Committee) in 1956 (this was also the year he married
Marilyn Monroe, from whom he divorced in 1961). And "while he willingly
answered all questions regarding himself and his own activities, he refused
to give the names of alleged communist writers with whom he attended a few
meetings in New York in 1947. He was cited for contempt for refusing to
testify and was blacklisted by Hollywood. In 1958, however, he was officially
cleared of contempt after a two-year legal battle." (SADDIIK, 2007, p. 50)
"His (Miller's) theater emphasizes the tragic conditions of human existence, a
theater that oftentimes depicts frustration, anguish, and failure as the
prevailing condition of people trapped by circumstances and the crush of
overwhelming forces in their society or within their own psyche.… His plays
offer hope and solace for a world desperately seeking to find a glimmer of hope
in a world of darkness. In spite of his tragic vision and brutally honest
confrontation with the dark forces of human depravity, Miller's plays show the
possibility for redemption, transcendence, even triumph in the face of seemingly
overpowering odds and adversity most inimical to human enterprise and
achievement. Miller's theater is not escapist in nature, but neither is it fatalistic,
pessimistic, or nihilistic. It is a drama of hope not despair, transcendence not
reduction, and, above all else, the limitless potentialities and possibilities of the
human spirit."
(CENTOLA, 2007, p. 201)
43
FURTHER READING
Click here to read an interview with Arthur Miller.
Arthur Miller, The Art of Theater No. 2 – Spring 1966
http://www.theparisreview.org/interviews/4369/the-art-of-theater-
no-2-arthur-miller. [2]
FONTES DAS IMAGENS
1. http://www.bydewey.com/miller3.jpg
2. http://www.theparisreview.org/interviews/4369/the-art-of-theater-no-
2-arthur-miller
Responsável: Profª. Salete Nunes
Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual
44
TÓPICO 03: THE TRIAL OF ARTHUR MILLER : AN ARTICLE BY JOHN STEINBECK
John Steinbeck (1902-1968)
Fonte [1]
John Steinbeck (1902-1968), one of the greatest American novelists of
the twentieth century, winner of the Novel Prize in Literature in 1962, wrote,
in 1957, an article for Esquire Magazine in which he vehemently defends
Arthur Miller in relation to his trial from the HUAC's sentence of contempt
of congress.
TIPS
Click on the link to read Steinbeck's article, "The Trial of Arthur
Miller".
http://www.oocities.org/tleeves/huac.html [2]
PRACTICE 1
Now that you have read the article by Steinbeck, answer these
questions:
1. Along the article, written in a perfectly woven sequence of
arguments to show the absurdity/irrationality of the decision of the
committee against Miller, Steinbeck develops his reasoning using parallel
sentences / structures and juxtaposing opposing ideas, which make his
arguments really powerful. Identify some instances of this stylistic
strategy.
PARALLELISM in sentences refers to matching grammatical
structures. Elements in a sentence that have the same function or
express similar ideas should be grammatically parallel, or
grammatically matched. Parallelism is used effectively as a rhetorical
device throughout literature and in speeches, advertising, and
popular songs.
Example: Reading is to the mind what exercise is to the body.
Joseph Addison
LITERATURA EM LÍNGUA INGLESA IV
CLASS 03 :TWENTIETH CENTURY AMERICAN DRAMA
45
http://www.cliffsnotes.com/Section/What-is-parallel-structure-
in-writing-.id-305408,articleId-27144.html
JUXTAPOSITION is a literary device that is used as an important
tool in Literature to bring a dramatic effect to certain situations and
thereby make more of a mark for the work of art in its entirety. But
what does juxtaposition mean? Juxtaposition is the placement of two
concepts, characters, things, events, ideas, phrases, settings or words
side by side in order to draw a contrast, create suspense, bring about
a rhetorical effect, compare, or as a tool for character development.
http://www.buzzle.com/articles/juxtaposition-in-literature.html
2. At a certain point in the text, Steinbeck is quite satirical/ ironical
about the almost absolute power of the congress to interfere in a citizen's
life. Identify a paragraph /paragraphs in which this occurs.
3. Steinbeck mentions other laws in his country that had to be
abolished either because people rebelled against them or because they
were found to be really unjust. Find these examples in the text.
4. The author also mentions situations in other countries in which
certain laws provoked a reaction from people in his own country, as if they
were at a higher level in relation to that sort of attitude. Cite examples.
CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.
1. The people I knew were not and are not, in my estimation,
traitors to the nation. If they were, I would turn them in instantly.If
I give names, it is reasonably certain that the persons named will be
called up and questioned. In some cases they will lose their jobs,
and in any case their reputations and standing in the community
will suffer. And remember that these are persons who I honestly
believe are innocent of any wrongdoing. Perhaps I do not feel that I
have that right; that to name them would not only be disloyal but
actually immoral. The Committee then is asking me to commit an
immorality in the name of public virtue.
If I agree, I have outraged one of our basic codes of conduct,
and if I refuse I am guilty of contempt of Congress, sentenced to
prison and fined. One way outrages my sense of decency and the
other brands me as a felon. And this brand does not fade out.
2. There is no doubt that Congress has the right, under the law,
to ask me any question it wishes and to punish my refusal to answer
with a contempt charge. The Congress has the right to do nearly
anything conceivable.
It has only to define a situation or an action as a "clear and
present danger" to public safety, public morals, or public health.
The selling or eating of mince pie could be made a crime if Congress
determined that mince pie was a danger to public health--which it
46
probably is. Since many parents raise their children badly, mother
love could be defined as a danger to the general welfare.
3. The Congress had a perfect right to pass the Alien and
Sedition Act. This law was repealed because of public revulsion. The
Escaped Slave laws had to be removed because the people of the free
states found them immoral. The Prohibition laws were so generally
flouted that all law suffered as a consequence.
4. We have seen and been revolted by the Soviet Union's
encouragement of spying and telling, children reporting their
parents, wives informing on their husbands. In Hitler's Germany, it
was considered patriotic to report your friends and relations to the
authorities. And we in America have felt safe from and superior to
these things. But are we so safe or superior?
FONTES DAS IMAGENS
1. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e7/John_Steinbec
k_1962.jpg
2. http://www.oocities.org/tleeves/huac.html
Responsável: Profª. Salete Nunes
Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual
47
TÓPICO 04: TRAGEDY AND THE COMMON MAN - AN ESSAY BY ARTHUR MILLER
Fonte [1]
Click on the link to read Miller's essay, "Tragedy and the Common
Man" [2]
FORUM
PART A: Discuss the following questions with your classmates and
tutor in the forum.
1. How does Miller justify his view that the common man is as apt a
character for tragedy as the ancient kings and characters of a high rank, as
mentioned by Aristotle in his definition of tragic hero?
2. In which terms, then, does Miller define "tragic flaw"?
3. In Miller's view, where do the qualities in tragic plays, that
move/disturb us as human beings, stem from?
4. In which aspect, according to miller, does tragedy express the belief
in the perfectibility of man?
FONTES DAS IMAGENS
1. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/38/Arthur-
miller.jpg/200px-Arthur-miller.jpg
2. http://vccslitonline.cc.va.us/tragedy/milleressay.htm
LITERATURA EM LÍNGUA INGLESA IV
CLASS 03 :TWENTIETH CENTURY AMERICAN DRAMA
Responsável: Profª. Salete Nunes
Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual
48
TÓPICO 05: A VIEWFROM THE BRIDGE – INTRODUCTION
Fonte
The play A View from the Bridge is based on the true story of a
Brooklyn longshoreman who ruined his life by informing the Immigration
Bureau about two illegal immigrants from Italy. First written and staged on
Broadway in 1955 as a one-act play, it was not successful. Miller tried to
simply tell the story he himself had heard, but he later recognized it was too
direct and cold.
Thus, in 1956, he decided to rewrite it for a production in London. That's
when he made it into a two-act play. He also expanded some characters,
especially Beatrice and Catherine. It was then a great success not only in
London, but also in Paris. After that, the play has had many productions in
the US. Recently (2010/2011) it has had very successful revivals both in New
York and London.
A View from the Bridge is a play which bears a similarity to Greek
Drama , not only in its tragic approach, but also in the way it is structured,
with the figure of a narrator/commentator, who, somehow, plays the role of
the Greek chorus.
Greek Drama…
According to Aristotle, Greek drama, or, more explicitly, Greek
tragedy, originated in the dithyramb. This was a choral hymn to the god
Dionysus and involved exchanges between a lead singer and the chorus.
It is thought that the dithyramb was sung at the Dionysia, an annual
festival honoring Dionysus.
Tradition has it that at the Dionysia of 534 B.C., during the reign of
Pisistratus, the lead singer of the dithyramb, a man named Thespis,
added to the chorus an actor with whom he carried on a dialogue, thus
initiating the possibility of dramatic action. Thespis is credited with the
invention of tragedy. Eventually, Aeschylus introduced a second actor
to the drama and Sophocles a third, Sophocles' format being continued
by Euripides, the last of the great classical Greek dramatists.
Generally, the earlier Greek tragedies place more emphasis on the
chorus than the later ones. In the majestic plays of Aeschylus, the
chorus serves to underscore the personalities and situations of the
characters and to provide ethical comment on the action. Much of
LITERATURA EM LÍNGUA INGLESA IV
CLASS 03 :TWENTIETH CENTURY AMERICAN DRAMA
49
Aeschylus' most beautiful poetry is contained in the choruses of his
plays. The increase in the number of actors resulted in less concern with
communal problems and beliefs and more with dramatic conflict
between individuals.
Columbia Encyclopedia
http://www.answers.com/topic/drama#ixzz1PddPV6Ru
TIPS
Click on the link to watch a video of an interview with Arthur Miller
for BBC, in which he is talking about A View from the Bridge. [1]
FORUM
PART B: After watching the video, discuss the following questions
with your classmates and tutor in the forum.
1. According to Miller, in this extract of the interview, there is an
aspect which is implicit in tragedies in general. He even mentions Hamlet
and Macbeth to exemplify it. Which aspect is this?
2. How did Miller get to know the story that gives origin to the play?
3. Miller also explains the meaning of the title of the play. Why A
View from the Bridge?
4. And about the function of the character Alfieri, what does Miller
say?
BIBLIOGRAPHY
BIGSBY, Christopher. The Cambridge Companion to Arthur
Miller. Sixth Printing. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005.
BLOOM, Harold (Ed.). Modern American Drama. Bloom's
Period Studies. New York: Chelsea House, 2005.
BLOOM, Harold (Ed.). Arthur Miller. Bloom's Modern Critical
Views. New York: Infobase Publishing, 2007.
BORDMAN, G. & HISCHAK, T. S. The Oxford Companion to
American Theatre. 3rd. ed. New York: Oxford University Press,
2004.
BRYER, J. R. HARTIG, M. C. The Facts on File Companion to
American Drama. Second Edition. New York: Facts on File, 2010.
CENTOLA, Steven R. Arthur Miller and the Art of the Possible. In:
BLOOM, Harold (Ed.). Arthur Miller. Bloom's Modern Critical
Views. New York: Infobase Publishing, 2007. KRASNER, David (ed.).
A Companion to Twentieth-Century American Drama. Oxford:
Blackwell Publishing, 2005.
50
MEYERS, Jeffrey. A Portrait of Arthur Miller. In: BLOOM, Harold
(Ed.). Arthur Miller. Bloom's Modern Critical Views. New York:
Infobase Publishing, 2007.
OAKES, E. H. American Writers. New York: Facts on File,
2004.
SADDIIK, Annette J. Contemporary American Drama.
Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2007.
FONTES DAS IMAGENS
1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fVv_9jKRODI&feature=related
Responsável: Profª. Salete Nunes
Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual
51
TÓPICO 01: INTRODUCTION
Fonte [1] Fonte [2]
The fourth unit of this course focuses on the analysis of the play A View
from the Bridge, by Arthur Miller.
In terms of structure, A View from the Bridge is divided in two acts.
Although there is no formal division of scenes, they can quite clearly be
identified through the sequence of episodes in the story and also through the
interludes (in this case, a short time intervening between events), when the
narrator (Alfieri) appears to comment on the events or to give the audience
guidance to better understand other characters' attitudes, mainly Eddie's
(the protagonist). He not only narrates, explains, but also judges Eddie's
behaviour.
As already mentioned in unit 3, Alfieri's function is that of the Greek
chorus, an intermediary between the audience and the characters. His role as
a lawyer reflects this in-between space. He is both an insider and an outsider.
Here are the main characters in the play, illustrated by the cast of the
2010 Broadway revival of A View from the Bridge.
Fonte [3] Fonte [4] Fonte [5]
TIPS
If you wish to see the cast for the other characters in this Broadway
production, click here and watch a video in which they talk about their
roles. It starts at 1:28.
Opening Night: A View from the Bridge
http://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=IyVcPZ1chO0&playnext=1&list=PL4A2BA91FE5A9F2F5 [6]
LITERATURA EM LÍNGUA INGLESA IV
CLASS 04: TWENTIETH CENTURY AMERICAN DRAMA (PART 2):
A VIEWFROM THE BRIDGE – BY ARTHUR MILLER
52
FONTES DAS IMAGENS
1. http://www.angelfire.com/art/masks/images/mask430.jpg
2. http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3585/3323510096_9689066ed3_o.jpg
3. http://www.google.com.br/search?
hl=ptBR&biw=1360&bih=552&gbv=2&tbm=isch&sa=1&q=cast+of+a+view+
from+the+bridge&oq=cast+of+a+view+from+the+bridge&aq=f&aqi=&aql=
undefined&gs_sm=s&gs_upl=174417l177225l0l8l8l0l0l0l0l351l1990l1.1.3.3l
8
4. http://www.google.com.br/search?
tbm=isch&hl=ptBR&source=hp&biw=1088&bih=473&q=a+view+from+the
+bridge+cast+2010+boadway&gbv=2&oq=a+view+from+the+bridge+cast+
2010+boadway&aq=f&aqi=&aql=undefined&gs_sm=s&gs_upl=6985l29091
l0l55l55l6l36l39l0l441l3556l0.4.3.5.1l13
5. http://www.broadway.com/shows/view-bridge/photos/first-look-a-
view-of-bways-bridge-starring-scarlett-johansson-and-liev-
schreiber/143373/a-view-from-the-bridge-show-photos-scarlett-johansson-
jessica-hecht
6. http://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=IyVcPZ1chO0&playnext=1&list=PL4A2BA91FE5A9F2F5
Responsável: Profª. Salete Nunes
Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual
53
TÓPICO 02: A VIEWFROM THE BRIDGE – ACT I
Fonte [1]
Penguin Edition of A View from the Bridge.
All the references to pages are from this book.
In 'Tópic 2' you are going to read and analyze Act One of the play "A
View from the Bridge". In order to make the process of reference to the parts
of the play easier, we have done the segmentation of the acts into scenes. For
Act One, the division is as follows:
PROLOGUE: (Alfieri); pp. 1-2
SCENE 1: Eddie gets home from work bringing the news about the arrival
of Beatrice's cousins, two illegal immigrants from Italy; pp. 3-15
INTERLUDE: (Alfieri); p. 15
SCENE 2: The arrival of the cousins (Marco and Rodolpho) at Eddie's
home, where they are going to stay temporarily; Rodolpho´s singing of
"Paper Doll"; pp. 15-23
INTERLUDE: (Alfieri); p. 23
SCENE 3: Catherine and Rodolpho go to the movies (weeks later); pp. 23-
33
INTERLUDE: (Alfieri); p. 33
SCENE 4: Eddie is increasingly upset by the developing relationship
between Catherine and Rodolpho and visits Alfieri in search of legal
advice; pp. 33-37
INTERLUDE: (Alfieri); p. 37-38
SCENE 5: An evening at home – Catherine and Rodolpho's dancing;
boxing lesson; increasing tension; pp. 38-46
PRACTICE 1
LITERATURA EM LÍNGUA INGLESA IV
CLASS 04: TWENTIETH CENTURY AMERICAN DRAMA (PART 2):
A VIEWFROM THE BRIDGE – BY ARTHUR MILLER
54
After you finish reading ACT ONE of A VIEW FROM THE BRIDGE,
answer these questions:
1. In scene 1, what gives us hints that Eddie is extremely jealous of
Catherine, maybe not in a way appropriate for a father-like/uncle x niece
relationship?
2. When Eddie seeks Alfieri´s advice (scene 4), trying to find a way of
stopping Rodolpho and Catherine's relationship, Alfieri tries to make him
see that he has gone too far in his feelings for Catherine, but he refuses
to/is unable to see it. Identify evidence of this fact.
CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.
1. Eddie's speech lines on page 4.
2. ALFIERI, rising: But, Eddie, she's a woman now.
EDDIE: He's stealing from me!
ALFIERI: She wants to get married, Eddie. She can´t marry
you, can she?
EDDIE, furiously: What're you talkin' about, marry me! I don't
know what the hell you're talkin' about!
STOP AND CHECK
Read the lyrics of the song PAPER DOLL, which is sung by Rodolpho
in scene 2, and then click on the link to listen to a recording of it by
Michael Bublé. After that, answer the questions (1 and 2) about it in
FORUM A.
PAPER DOLL – BY MICHAEL BUBLÉ (CLICK HERE)
Paper Doll'
- written by Johnny S. Black, 1915
- lyrics as recorded by The Mills Brothers in 1942
I'm gonna buy a Paper Doll that I can call my own
A doll that other fellows cannot steal
55
And then the flirty, flirty guys with their flirty, flirty eyes
Will have to flirt with dollies that are real
When I come home at night she will be waiting
She'll be the truest doll in all this world
I'd rather have a Paper Doll to call my own
Than have a fickle-minded real live girl?
I guess I had a million dolls or more
I guess I've played the doll game o'er and o'er
I just quarrelled with Sue, that's why I'm blue
She's gone away and left me just like all dolls do
I'll tell you boys, it's tough to be alone
And it's tough to love a doll that's not your own
I'm through with all of them
I'll never fall again
Say boy, whatcha gonna do?
I'm gonna buy a Paper Doll that I can call my own
A doll that other fellows cannot steal
And then the flirty, flirty guys with their flirty, flirty eyes
Will have to flirt with dollies that are real
When I come home at night she will be waiting
She'll be the truest doll in all this world
I'd rather have a Paper Doll to call my own
Than have a fickle-minded real live girl
FONTES DAS IMAGENS
1. http://i43.tower.com/images/mm113412134/a-view-from-bridge-
arthur-miller-paperback-cover-art.jpg
Responsável: Profª. Salete Nunes
Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual
56
TÓPICO 03: A VIEWFROM THE BRIDGE – ACT 2
Fonte [1]
In 'Tópic 2' you are going to read and analyze Act Two of the play "A
View from the Bridge". In order to make the process of reference to the parts
of the play easier, we have done the segmentation of the acts into scenes. For
Act Two, the division is as follows:
Interlude: (Alfieri); p.
Scene 6: Christmas time(December 23rd); Catherine and Rodolpho first
time alone at home; Eddie's arrival and kisses; pp. 47-53
Interlude: (Alfieri); p. 53
Scene 7: December 27th; Eddie visits Alfieri again and is warned against
a radical attitude; pp. 53-54
Scene 8: Eddie and Beatrice's conversation; Marco and Rodolpho found
and arrested; Eddie accused; pp. 54
Scene 9: Marco and Rodolpho released from prison; Alfieri
advises /warns Marco; pp. 55-67
Scene 10: Wedding day; Fight between Eddie and Marco; Eddie's death;
pp. 67-72
Epilogue: (Alfieri); p. 72
PRACTICE 2
After you finish reading Act Two of A View from the Bridge, answer
these questions:
1. In Catherine's conversation with Rodolpho in scene 6, there is a
moment in which she expresses the dilemma she is going through: the fact
that she loves Eddie as a father figure, that she knows and understands
him so well and would not like to see him hurt, but, at the same time, the
fact that she is afraid of what he might do to prevent her from marrying
Rodolpho. Identify this in the conversation.
2. In his visit to Alfieri in scene 7, Eddie is desperate to find a way to
prohibit Catherine's marriage to Rodolpho. As Alfieri shows him that there
is nothing to be done, that he has to let her go, he (Alfieri) can clearly see
Eddie is going to risk all and call the immigration office. That´s when
LITERATURA EM LÍNGUA INGLESA IV
CLASS 04: TWENTIETH CENTURY AMERICAN DRAMA (PART 2):
A VIEWFROM THE BRIDGE – BY ARTHUR MILLER
57
Alfieri uses the argument that has to do with the code of honor in such
cases. What is that ultimate argument?
CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.
1. Catherine's speech lines on page 50.
2. The final part of Alfieri's speech on page 54 starting with,
"You won't have a friend in the world, Eddie!"
FORUM
PART A: Discuss the following questions with your classmates and
tutor in the forum.
1. Rodolpho sings a part of the song Paper Doll in scene 2. In which
sense is the song very to the point in relation to Eddie's feelings toward
Catherine?
2. In scene 5, after Eddie knocks Rodolpho down in the boxing lesson,
Catherine puts Paper Doll on the phonograph to dance with Rodolpho.
What´s the significance of that choice then?
3. What is the meaning of Eddie's kisses (Catherine and Rodolpho) in
scene 6?
4. In which way is the tragic ending also a statement made by Miller in
relation to what was going on (the McCarthy period) at that moment in his
country?
FONTES DAS IMAGENS
1. http://www.google.com.br/search?
hl=ptBR&biw=1088&bih=442&gbv=2&tbm=isch&sa=1&q=a+view+from+th
e+bridge+students+performance&oq=a+view+from+the+bridge+students+
performance&aq=f&aqi=&aql=undefined&gs_sm=s&gs_upl=61683l72046l
0l35l34l2l20l20l2l339l2083l1.7.2.2l12
Responsável: Profª. Salete Nunes
Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual
58
TÓPICO 04: A VIEW FROM THE BRIDGE – STAGE VERSION
Fonte [1]
Click on the links to watch a stage version of A View from the Bridge.
Then answer the questions related to it in FORUM B.
◾ View From The Bridge opening credits
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tjr9IEf2ZV4&feature=related
[2]
◾ View From The Bridge part 1/16
http://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=g4aLMNrdl5s&feature=related [3]
◾ View From The Bridge part 2/16
http://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=t1jQCmICx0Y&feature=related [4]
◾ View From The Bridge part 3/16
http://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=UMNPF0IoWq4&feature=related [5]
◾ View From The Bridge part 4/16
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nO324eN9Mbk&NR=1 [6]
◾ View From The Bridge part 5/16
http://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=HQluPcet6Xw&feature=related [7]
◾ View From The Bridge part 6/16
http://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=vbZ8QRwUR5s&feature=related [8]
◾ View From The Bridge part 7/16
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3u-
nXWWb2lA&feature=related [9]
◾ View From The Bridge part 8/16
http://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=YbSeGP3CkRc&feature=related [10]
LITERATURA EM LÍNGUA INGLESA IV
CLASS 04: TWENTIETH CENTURY AMERICAN DRAMA (PART 2):
A VIEW FROM THE BRIDGE – BY ARTHUR MILLER
59
◾ View From The Bridge part 9/16
http://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=m42UOygsTuo&feature=related [11]
◾ View From The Bridge part 10/16
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w1-TtZ-9Cfg&feature=related
[12]
◾ View From The Bridge part 11/16
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b7e97Txsvuo&feature=related
[13]
◾ View From The Bridge part 12/16
http://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=81wbujlCnD0&feature=related [14]
◾ View From The Bridge part 13/16
http://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=VZduhcmNsBc&feature=related [15]
◾ View From The Bridge part 14/16
http://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=g9ewSIG9_6o&feature=related [16]
◾ View From The Bridge part 15/16
http://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=6APjxXWNHSY&feature=related [17]
◾ View From The Bridge part 16/16
http://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=L4bWAhFhVBo&feature=related [18]
FONTES DAS IMAGENS
1. http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-kPHK6s5ttx4/TdY2x_OoaYI/AAAAAAAAAh
s/umvs24-yJzI/s1600/a%2Bview%2Bfrom%2Bthe%2Bbridge.jpg
2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tjr9IEf2ZV4&feature=related
3. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g4aLMNrdl5s&feature=related
4. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t1jQCmICx0Y&feature=related
5. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UMNPF0IoWq4&feature=related
6. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nO324eN9Mbk&NR=1
7. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HQluPcet6Xw&feature=related
8. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vbZ8QRwUR5s&feature=related
9. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3u-nXWWb2lA&feature=related
10. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YbSeGP3CkRc&feature=related
11. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m42UOygsTuo&feature=related
12. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w1-TtZ-9Cfg&feature=related
13. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b7e97Txsvuo&feature=related
14. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=81wbujlCnD0&feature=related
15. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VZduhcmNsBc&feature=related
16. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g9ewSIG9_6o&feature=related
17. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6APjxXWNHSY&feature=related
18. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L4bWAhFhVBo&feature=related
Responsável: Profª. Salete Nunes
60
TÓPICO 05: A VIEWFROM THE BRIDGE – FILM VERSION
Fonte [1]
Click on the links to watch a film version of A View from the Bridge.
Then answer the questions related to it in FORUM B.
◾ A View from the Bridge (Vu Du Pont ) - 1962 - Arthur Miller Play directed
by Sidney Lumet part 1
http://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=Jv52hDtDMYA&feature=related [2]
◾ A View from the Bridge (Vu Du Pont ) - 1962 - Arthur Miller Play directed
by Sidney Lumet part 2
http://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=YNzmyB7wv7Y&feature=related [3]
◾ A View from the Bridge (Vu Du Pont ) - 1962 - Arthur Miller Play directed
by Sidney Lumet part 3
http://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=ohAX20HUWwg&feature=related [4]
◾ A View from the Bridge (Vu Du Pont ) - 1962 - Arthur Miller Play directed
by Sidney Lumet part 4
http://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=X_FTn04EULo&feature=related [5]
◾ A View from the Bridge (Vu Du Pont ) - 1962 - Arthur Miller Play directed
by Sidney Lumet part 5
http://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=oIncYVy53Uk&feature=related [6]
◾ A View from the Bridge (Vu Du Pont ) - 1962 - Arthur Miller Play directed
by Sidney Lumet part 6
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_Z77m2S-
iP0&feature=related [7]
◾ A View from the Bridge (Vu Du Pont ) - 1962 - Arthur Miller Play directed
by Sidney Lumet part 7
LITERATURA EM LÍNGUA INGLESA IV
CLASS 04: TWENTIETH CENTURY AMERICAN DRAMA (PART 2):
A VIEWFROM THE BRIDGE – BY ARTHUR MILLER
61
http://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=DEbb8PzFYtk&feature=rel ated [8]
◾ A View from the Bridge (Vu Du Pont ) - 1962 - Arthur Miller Play directed
by Sidney Lumet part 8
http://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=lSvhQAPE7KM&feature=related [9]
◾ A View from the Bridge (Vu Du Pont ) - 1962 - Arthur Miller Play directed
by Sidney Lumet part 9
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S3OzyoIeEp4&feature=related
[10]
◾ A View from the Bridge (Vu Du Pont ) - 1962 - Arthur Miller Play directed
by Sidney Lumet part 10
http://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=QX8EraOvkoo&feature=related [11]
◾ A View from the Bridge (Vu Du Pont ) - 1962 - Arthur Miller Play directed
by Sidney Lumet part 11
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aL5LJhUz-z8&feature=related
[12]
◾ A View from the Bridge (Vu Du Pont ) - 1962 - Arthur Miller Play directed
by Sidney Lumet part 12
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EiHVAXkrIrs&feature=related
[13]
FORUM B
After watching the stage production and the film production
of "A View from the Bridge", discuss the following questions
with your classmates and tutor in the forum.
1. In relation to the stage version, how does the setting match the
description provided in the opening page? What is different? Is anything
left out? Does it really make a difference?
2. In the stage version, how does the fact that Alfieri's role is played by a
woman affect the overall interpretation of the character? Does it change
the way Eddie relates to him (her)?
3. In relation to the absence of the narrator in the movie, what are some
of the things that the viewer is left without knowing because of his
deletion?
4. As to the end of the movie, how does it differ from the play? How does
that alter the interpretation of the final scene?
PORTFOLIO ACTIVITY
Choose one of the video versions of A View from the Bridge (stage
production or film production) and write a short essay in which you
compare it to the text of the play. Take the questions in FORUM B as
starting points and move on exploring other aspects that called your
attention, showing how they keep/don't keep the focus on the text.
62
FONTES DAS IMAGENS
1. http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-AmfDpMMlmtU/TahGr0HfuGI/AAAAAAAA
FRE/3aMHFcvNwCU/s1600/view-from-the-bridge%2Ba.jpg
2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jv52hDtDMYA&feature=related
3. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YNzmyB7wv7Y&feature=related
4. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ohAX20HUWwg&feature=related
5. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X_FTn04EULo&feature=related
6. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oIncYVy53Uk&feature=related
7. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_Z77m2S-iP0&feature=related
8. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DEbb8PzFYtk&feature=related
9. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lSvhQAPE7KM&feature=related
10. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S3OzyoIeEp4&feature=related
11. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QX8EraOvkoo&feature=related
12. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aL5LJhUz-z8&feature=related
13. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EiHVAXkrIrs&feature=related
Responsável: Profª. Salete Nunes
Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual
63
TÓPICO 06: GLIMPSES OF ANOTHER VIEW
Fonte [1] Fonte [2]
In “Tópic 6”, we have included a few links for videos related to the 2010
Broadway revival of A VIEW FROM THE BRIDGE. They are really just
glimpses, as the entire play is not available to be viewed online. Have fun
watching them!
Theater Talk: "A View from the Bridge" with actor Liev Schreiber and
director Gregory Mosher.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0FN6Vr7GajA [3]
Show Clip - A View from the Bridge - "You Don't Know Nothin"
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4hY6IKXrc6s&feature=related [4]
Show Clip - A View from the Bridge - "He's Like a Chorus Girl or
Something"
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o3yQSjjiug4&NR=1 [5]
Show Clip - A View from the Bridge - "You Can't Be So Friendly, Kid"
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5FH29Wno448&NR=1 [6]
Show Clip - A View from the Bridge - "You Can't Act the Way You Act"
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=comkyLdZUU0&NR=1 [7]
Show Clip - A View from the Bridge - "I'm Not a Baby"
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0JdCRyUciTQ&NR=1 [8]
BIBLIOGRAPHY
BIGSBY, Christopher. THE CAMBRIDGE COMPANION TO
ARTHUR MILLER. Sixth Printing. New York: Cambridge University
Press, 2005.
BLOOM, Harold (Ed.). MODERN AMERICAN DRAMA. Bloom's
Period Studies. New York: Chelsea House, 2005.
BLOOM, Harold (Ed.). ARTHUR MILLER. Bloom's Modern
Critical Views. New York: Infobase Publishing, 2007.
LITERATURA EM LÍNGUA INGLESA IV
CLASS 04: TWENTIETH CENTURY AMERICAN DRAMA (PART 2):
A VIEWFROM THE BRIDGE – BY ARTHUR MILLER
64
BORDMAN, G. & HISCHAK, T. S. THE OXFORD COMPANION TO
AMERICAN THEATRE. 3rd. ed. New York: Oxford University Press,
2004.
BRYER, J. R. HARTIG, M. C. THE FACTS ON FILE COMPANION
TO AMERICAN DRAMA. Second Edition. New York: Facts on File,
2010.
CENTOLA, Steven R. Arthur Miller and the Art of the Possible. In:
BLOOM, Harold (Ed.). ARTHUR MILLER. Bloom's Modern Critical
Views. New York: Infobase Publishing, 2007. KRASNER, David (ed.).
A Companion to Twentieth-Century American Drama. Oxford:
Blackwell Publishing, 2005.
MEYERS, Jeffrey. A Portrait of Arthur Miller. In: BLOOM, Harold
(Ed.). ARTHUR MILLER. Bloom's Modern Critical Views. New York:
Infobase Publishing, 2007.
OAKES, E. H. AMERICAN WRITERS. New York: Facts on File,
2004.
SADDIIK, Annette J. CONTEMPORARY AMERICAN DRAMA.
Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2007.
FONTES DAS IMAGENS
1. http://www.playbill.com/images/photo/v/i/viewfrombridgemarquee46
0b.jpg
2. http://encrypted-tbn2.gstatic.com/images?
q=tbn:ANd9GcRVnc5V3bllZHmEJqguSLlnDF8E_JB0nlKCtAUGYXYwJruS
cQVN
3. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0FN6Vr7GajA
4. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4hY6IKXrc6s&feature=related
5. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o3yQSjjiug4&NR=1
6. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5FH29Wno448&NR=1
7. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=comkyLdZUU0&NR=1
8. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0JdCRyUciTQ&NR=1
Responsável: Profª. Salete Nunes
Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual
65