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penalty points can be assessed for any single defect and that no linear meter can be assigned more than four points regardless of the number of defects within that piece. PENALTY POINT EVALUATION: Defects in both warp / fill directions will be assigned points under the following criteria. Defect Range Up to 3 inches > 3 inches < 6 inches > 6 inches < 9 inches > 9 inches WHAT IS A DEFECT? The length of the defect is used to determine the penalty points. Only major defects are considered. A major defect is any defect, if found on a finished product, would classify the product as a B-grade. Any defect of a continuous nature shall be assigned four points for each meter in which it occurs. Severe defects are assigned the maximum four points for each meter in which they occur. Example: Regardless of size, a hole would be penalized four points. Continuing conditions such as bare, side center side shading, roll to roll shading, narrow or irregular width, creasing, uneven finish shall be counted four points for every meter within the shipment that is found to contain these conditions, provided that the article that is to be made from this fabric is classified B-grade due to this fault. The maximum penalty for any one-meter shall not be more than four points. A minor defect is any defect that does not classify the product as B-grade because of either severity or location. When inspecting fabric before cutting, it is necessary to rate questionable defects as major, since the inspector will not know where the defect may occur on the item. Running Defects: Any major defect found to repeat and / or run in a continuous manner will constitute a running defect. All major running defects must be assigned four Points Evaluation 1 Point 2 Points 3 Points 4 Points
penalty points to every meter in the roll where it occurs. Full Width Defects: A full width major defect would cause that meter of fabric to be assigned four penalty points. Fabric Width: Fabric width will be checked minimum of three times during the inspection of a roll (beginning, middle and end of the roll). Rolls having width less than the specified are potential problems. In such cases width deviation of more than 1% would constitute a major fault. Overall, fabric width is measured from out side of the selvage to the outside of the opposite selvage. Roll Length: Rolls having meters less than that stated on the packing are a problem. Any roll having more than 1% lesser fabric than that specified is rejected. The entire shipment shall be rejected if the total measured meters in the sample audit are more than 1% short that what is declared on the packing. Splices: Rolls can be composed of several spliced parts. No roll shall be accepted that contains a splice less than twenty five ( 25 ) meters in length unless otherwise expressly accepted. Ensure that the 95% of the shipment contains 100 meter plus fabric length if the fabric is being used for made - ups. In case of piece goods, the fabric length and the number of splices / roll are strictly followed as per the requirement of the customer. Bow & Skew: No roll shall be accepted as first quality that exhibit bow or skew more than:
Maximum Bow or Skew Design Deviation Print/dyes 2.0% 2.0% 2.0%
Up to 45 inches 60 inches 90 inches and above
2.0% 2.0% 2.0%
The above is subject to change if buyer requires a tighter tolerance / nature of
design / end use of the fabric. Tolerance for bowed condition not affecting the full width will be fractionalized part of the maximums as stated above according to the area affected by the bow. Penalty points will not be assigned for fabrics found to have conditions of bowing in excess of the above stated tolerances but shall be noted in the inspection report. And if any fabric exhibits bow or skew where its end use becomes doubtful, then that fabric will be rejected. Fabric Odors: No roll shall be accepted that exhibits objectionable odors. Holes: All defects that break the fabric, regardless of size, shall be penalized a maximum of four points. A hole consists of two or more broken yarns. Common Fabric Faults: Although fabric faults are numerous but some of the common fabric faults are mentioned below: Abrasion Mark: A place in the fabric where the surface has been damaged due to friction or abnormally weakened by any operation through which it has been passed. Bow: When the filling yarns lye in an arc across the width of the fabric. Skew: Distortion in the construction of the fabric i.e. in the yarn that constitute the fabric. Crease: A fabric defect across the fabric width usually caused by a sharp fold. Oil Stain: Oil mark on the fabric. Dye Stain: An area of discoloration due to un- even absorption of colorant. Hole: A break in the fabric involving more than two yarns. Mispick: A pick not properly interlaced. Double Pick: Two yarns running simultaneously, mostly in the weft. Misprint: In printed fabrics, either missed, or partially missed, or incorrectly positioned relative to each other. Slub: An abruptly thickened place in a yarn. Screen Out: The appearance of a colored separation line in a printed design. Calendar Line: Sharp pressmark on fabric due to the calendar during the
processing. Contamination: Colored fibers with the warp or weft fibers. POINT CALCULATIONS: The following fabric penalty point grading standards are to be used when inspecting fabrics. Individual Roll Points: All decisions are based on a square meter computation. The following is used to determine the point count for each roll. (Total points * 3937) / (Inspected meters * Fabric width (inches)) = Points per 100 square meter. Points: The total point count per contract fabric is calculated by: Adding the number of meters audited. Adding the number of points per linear meter. Then converting the above totals from points per linear meters to square meters. (Total linear meter points * 3937) / (Total inspected meters * Fabric width (inches)) = Shipment points per 100 square meter. The maximum approved points as per Textile Links & Controls for piece goods / made - ups fabric is 15 / 100 square meter. And for greige fabric it is 10 / 100 square meter. Or this could be followed as per the standards given by the customers. INSPECTION QUANTITIES: A minimum 10% quantity of fabric for each color way, design, fabric width or fabric construction listed against a particular contract must be inspected. In case, if any problem arises in any of the above style then it has to be reinspected another 10%. If the problem is still present and the points exceed the acceptable limit, the fabric lot is to be rejected. ROLLS SELECTION PROCEDURE:
The person inspecting the fabric must count the rolls of fabric against a particular contract & take out 10% of the fabric randomly in such a way that every color, design, fabric width & fabric construction is accounted for. FABRIC INSPECTION PROCEDURE: This procedure shows the steps necessary to ensure an effective fabric inspection quality control program: 1. Determine the fabric quantity to be inspected. 2. Select the fabric rolls for inspection. 3. Place the fabric roll / bale on inspection frame / table. 4. Cut off a 6-inch piece across the width of the fabric from the beginning of the roll. Mark this piece so that the inspector will know the right and left side of the fabric. Use the strip to check the shading side-to-side and end-to-end by checking it at least against the middle of the roll and once at the end of the roll. 5. Inspect for visual defects at a speed slow enough to find the defects. 6. Check that the roll contains the meters as stated by the Fabric Supplier. 7. Check for bowing & skewing in the fabric. 8. Major fabric defects are to be flagged by the Fabric Supplier. However, if any fault is not flagged already then it must be marked with a sticker or masking tape during inspection for its trace-ability and corrective action at cutting stage. 9. Record the faults of the fabric on the Fabric Quality Report. ROLL-TO-ROLL SHADE CHECKING SYSTEM: Textile Links and Controls suggests to use a format for the checking of all fabric shade variations from roll to roll. In this format water falls of different shades’ categories of different rolls is maintained and compared to each other to check the extent of the shading variation. If any shade requires special attention / treatment in the cutting, it is mentioned in the remarks column. If any fabric is out of tolerance with respect to the Master Sample or the shade variation extent among the rolls is out of tolerance, then the fabric is reject. The rejected fabric is sent back to Fabric Supplier for reprocessing / replacement. TOOLS FOR FABRIC CHECKING: The person who is responsible for fabric inspection must have the following facilities / equipments in good working condition. 1. Inspection frame with counter. 2. D - 65 light source (sunlight) / TL - 84 light source at the inspection frame as per the requirement of the customer.
3. Measuring tape & pair of scissors. 4. Stickers or masking tape to identify the faults. 5. Pick glass. 6. Digital Camera for taking reference snaps. 7. Master fabric sample or customer’s reference sample. 8. Textile Links and Controls fabric inspection form. ELIGIBILITY CRITERA FOR THE QUALITY INSPECTOR: 1. The person must be at least Graduate. 2. He or she must have a minimum of two year experience in the textile industry. 3. He or she must be well versed with the 4-point fabric inspection system. 4. He or she must be active and physically fit. 5. He or she must not be colorblind.
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