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realuri istoriis damdgeni


saqarTvelos sapatriarqos mudmivmoqmedi komisia
mitropoliti anania jafariZe
saepiskoposoebi istoriul iveriaSi
Tbilisi 2014
rekomendebulia stu-is saredaqcio-
sagamomcemlo sabWos mier.
**.**.2014, oqmi #*
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ge__o oc_ooc eJ_geo
ce_egg_c ceoe_oe_c J_JogJ_Jgo _Jocoe
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eZRvneba
akademikos
iveri frangiSvilis
xsovnas
`sulni da sulni marTalTani
Sen gaqeben ufalo~
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saerTaSoriso samecniero wreebSi amJamad damkvidrebulia umarTebulo Tval-
sazrisi, TiTqosda iverebi (ivirebi) ewodebodaT ara mxolod qarTvelebs, aramed
somxebsac, e.w. somex-qalkedonitebs (`pravoslavnaia enciklopedia~, t. III, moskovi, 2001, gv. 326, 327, v. aruTinova-
fidaniani, grigol pakurianis ti pikoni, erevani, 1978, rus enaze, misi damowmebani vikipediis Sesabamis da sxva saenciklopedio statiebSi, mag. `somexi
qalkedonitebi~, fond `haiazgis~ enciklopeda da sxva). iberiis Temis, taosa da aseve, misi mimdebare re-
gionebis mosaxleoba cxaddeba somex-qalkedonitebad, am mxareebidan gamosuli wmin-
da mamebi da qarTveli didebulebi ki eTnikur somxebad (mag. Tornike erisTavi da
sagvareulo Cordvanelebisa, grigol bakurianis Ze da sxvani), Sesabamisad am mxareTa
qarTuli kultura, eklesia-monastrebi _ somxurad. samxreT saqarTvelosa da mis
mimdebare regionebSi, ZiriTadad tao-klarjeTSi mcxovrebi qarTvelebis somex-qalke-
donitebad gamocxadeba gaamyara saerTaSoriso avtoritetis mqone organom `pravo-
slavnaia enciklopediam~. saqarTvelos samxreT nawilSi mcxovrebi qarTvelebi anu
iverebi somex-qalkedonitebad gamoacxades istoriuli konteqstebidan amoglejili
informaciis manipulirebis Sedegad, mtkicebiT, rom TiTqosda isini qarTvelebi iyvnen
ara eTnikurad, aramed mxolod saeklesio-kulturuli TvalsazrisiT da mas Semdeg
iwodnen `qarTvelebad~, rac qalkedonuri aRmsarebloba miiRes. cxadia es aris Teo-
ria, romelic amJamad iwodeba `qarTizaciis Teoriad~. am sakiTxs ikvlevs winamde-
bare wigni. wigni `arian-qarTli~ mkiTxvels sTavazobs vrcel gamokvlevas, mravali
qarTuli da ucxouri wyaros damowmebiT, romelic aCvenebs, rom sinamdvileSi tao-
basiani, da serTod `iberiis Temis~ teritoria, qarTvelTa istoriul sacxovriss
warmoadgenda, mas azon-farnavazis epoqaSi erqva arian-qarTli da is Zveli iveria
iyo. strabonis cnobiT aRniSnuli samxreTis teritoriebi (pariadredan gogarenas
CaTvliT) iberiam dakarga Zv.w. II s-Si armeniis mefeTa eqspansiisas. miuxedavad mita-
cebisa, am miwa-wylze mcxovrebi mkvidri qarTvelebi (iberebi) gaqristianebis Semdeg
mtkiced icavdnen marTlmadideblobas, xolo imis Semdeg, rac 726 wlis manaskertis
krebaze somxurma eklesiam sabolood miiRo monofizituri aRmsarebloba, gawyvita
yovelgvari kavSiri somxur eklesiasTan da daubrunda deda qarTuli eklesiis wiaRs.
wignSi moyvanili mravali istoriuli, geografiuli, eTnografiuli Tu lingvis-
turi masalis damowmebiT, damtkicebulia, rom araqsis xeobisa da tao-basianis mo-
mcveli iberiis Temis miwawyali qristeSobamde IV-III ss-Si iwodeboda `arian-qarT-
lad~ da aq qarTveloba (iverebi) yovelTvis mkvidr mosaxleobas Seadgenda. Semdgom-
Si maT aqve daafuZnes kidec mravali qarTuli saepiskoposo _ valaSkertisa, arzru-
misa, karisa, anisisa da sxva, romelTagan zogierTi XVI-XVII ss-Sic ki funqcionireb-
da. wigni gankuTvnilia specialistebis, studentebisa da mkiTxveli sazogadoebi-
saTvis.
mitropoliti anania jafariZe, 2014
sagamomcemlo saxli `teqnikuri universiteti~, 2014
ISBN 978-9941-**-***-*
http://www.gtu.ge/publishinghouse/
yvela ufleba daculia. am wignis arc erTi nawili (iqneba es teqsti, foto, ilustracia Tu sxva)
aranairi formiT da saSualebiT (iqneba es eleqtronuli Tu meqanikuri), ar SeiZleba gamoyenebul
iqnas gamomcemlis werilobiTi nebarTvis gareSe.
saavtoro uflebebis darRveva isjeba kanoniT.


redaqtorebi: saxeli gvari
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Sesavali
XX saukunis dasawyisSi saqarTvelos eklesiis avtokefaliisaTvis
brZolisas ruseTis wm. sinodSi ganacxades: `saqarTvelos eklesias
Zvel dros arasodes gaaCnda srulyofili avtokefalia, misi iSviaTi
Tavisufleba meryevi iyo, amitomac, XIX s-is dasawyisSi, rus xelisu-
falTa mier misi TavisTavadobis gauqmeba saeklesio samarTlebrivi sfe-
rodan ar gamosula da ukanono qmedebad ar unda Sefasdeso~.
amis damadasturebel erTerT faqtad warmoadgines ucxour wyaro-
ebSi daculi cnobebi, romlis mixedviTac antioqiis eklesiam iberi-
is eklesias ramdenjerme mianiWa avtokefalia (VIII saukuneSi, nikon
SavmTelis cnobiT, Semdeg, XI saukuneSi, balsamonis cnobiT, amasTanave,
misi avtokefalia V saukunidanac ivaraudeboda zogierT wyroze
dayrdnobiT).
balsamoni iberiis eklesiis avtokefalias antioqiis patriarq pe-
tres saxelTan akavSirebda, romelsac XI saukunis moRvawed miiCnev-
dnen. es petre V saukunis petros mkawvrali iyo Tu XI saukunis pe-
tre III, mainc, am erTmaneTisagan gansxvavebuli cnobebiT iveriis ek-
lesiis avtokefalia meryevi da arastabiluri gamodioda, rac saSu-
alebas aZlevda ruseTis wm.sinods, rom sakiTxi ar Seetana dadebi-
Tad gadasawyvet sakiTxTa siaSi.
am realobidan samarTlebrivi gamosavali xangrZlivi samecniero
muSaobis Sedegad 1906 wels moZebna uwmidesma kirion II-m.
kirionis kvleviT istoriulad arsebobda ori iveria (iberia), erTi
mcxeTisa, meore ki mdebareobda ufro samxreTiT _ araqsispireTSi,
amasTanave is moicavda tao-basiansa da aseve vanis tbisaken mimarTul
areebs (Semdgomi iberiis Temis miwa-wyals).
wm. kirionis mtkicebiT meore iveriis eklesias erT periodSi mou-
povebia avtokefalia, romelic maleve daukargavs, Semdeg ki aRudge-
nia, ase, rom `meryevi~ iyo ara mcxeTis iveriis avtokefalia, aramed
e.w. `meore iveriisa~.
kirionis TvalsazrisiT, mcxeTis iveriis eklesias avtokefalia Zvel-
Tagave hqonda mopovebuli da mas avtokefalia arasodes daukargavs,
Sesabamisad, antioqiam VIII saukuneSi ara mas mianiWa avtokefalia, aramed
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`meore iverias~, romelic saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebrivi sferos ga-
reT mdebareobda, im teritoriaze, sadac bizantiam Semdgom, XI sauku-
neSi, `iberiis Temi~ daarsa.
`meore iveria~, rogorc iTqva, tao-basianidan TiTqmis vanis tba-
mde gadaSlili miwa-wyali iyo. mis saeklesio uflebebs Seexeboda
moRweuli antioqiuri cnobebi iveriis eklesiisaTvis avtokefaliis
miniWebis Sesaxeb.
am `meore iverias~ qarTul wyaroebSi `zemo qveyanani~, zogjer ki
`aRmosavleTi~ erqva (is moicavda valaSkert-bagravandis, tvarcata-
pis, abniqis, taos, basianis, Sirakis, aragawis, kotaikisa da sxva mimde-
bare olqebs).
n. adonci, mcire aziis cnobili mkvlevari, aRniSnul miwa-wyals
uwodebs _ `armeniis iveriul zols~. qarTvelebis es istoriuli ter-
itoria `armeniad~ iwoda mas Semdeg, rac is miitaces somexTa mefeeb-
ma qristeSobamde II saukuneSi, rogorc amis Sesaxeb mogviTxrobs stra-
boni _ `mogviTxroben, rom warsulSi armeniis patara qveyana gafar-
Tovda artaqsiasa da zariadrias omebis Sedegad. isini iyvnen antioq
didis mxedarTmTavrebi, misi damarcxebis Semdeg ki mefeebi gaxdnen. maT
erTad gaafarToves TavianTi samflobelo, CamoaWres ra irgvliv mcx-
ovreb xalxebs olqebi. kerZod, iberebisagan miitaces pariadres
mTiswineTi, xorZene da gogarene, romelic kiris (mtkvris) meore mxare-
saa, xalibebs da mosinikebs CamoaWres kareniti da qserqsene, mcire ar-
meniis mosazRvre nawilebi~ (straboni, geografia, XI, 14, 5).
am cnobidan Cans, rom e.w. `meore iveria~ moicavda pariadresa da
gogarenas Sua mdebare xorZenas. amJamad xorZenasa da gogarenas mde-
bareoba, Cveni azriT, arasworad ganisazRvreba, radganac ar eTanadeba
strabonis cnobebs. strabonis cnobiT xorZene pariadresa da mtk-
vars Sua iyo moqceuli, xolo gogarena mdebareobda mtkvris `iqiT~
anu mis marcxena sanapiroze. xorZena, strabonis cnobidan gamomdinare,
mdebareobda pariadresa da gogarenas Sua anu pariadredan mtkvramde,
e.i. moicavda araqsis xeobis nawils.
straboni gogarenas mdebareobis Sesaxeb wers Tavisi geografiis XI
wignSi _ `armeniaSi mravali mTa da zegania, sadac Znelad izrdeba vazic
ki, aseve dablobebi, romelTgan zogi uxvmosavliania, magaliTad araq-
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sis veli, romelzec araqsi mimdinareobs albaneTis sazRvramde da Cae-
dineba kaspiis zRvaSi. am velis iqiT mdebareobs sakasena, romelic al-
baneTs aseve mtkvriT esazRvreba. mis Semdeg mdebareobs gogarena~.
straboni am cnobaSi kidev erTxel azustebs, rom gogarena mtkvris
marcxena sanapiroze mdebareobda, kerZod ki sakasenas iqiT. gogarenasa
da sakasenas Sua mtkvari gaedineboda. amJamad vikipediis cnobiT aRi-
arebulia, rom sakasena utikis olqis Crdilo nawils erqva, Tanamed-
rove ganja-mingeCauris olqSi. mis iqiT gogarena mdebareobda, maSasa-
dame gogarena moicavda daaxloebiT Tanamedrove Saqis olqs da rogorc
iTqva is mtkvriT isazRvreboda, masa da pariadres Sua iberiuli olqi -
xorZena mdebareobda, maSasadame xorZena erT dros aRniSnul araqsis
dablobs moicavda.
rogorc aRiniSna, `meore iveria~ tao-basianisa da mis momijnave
regionSi mdebareobda araqsis mimarTulebiT vanis tbisaken.
armeniis iveriuli anu iberiuli zoli taodan vidre avanamde aR-
wevda. sxvadasxva, maT Soris berZnul wyaroTa (straboni, konstan-
tine porfirogeneti da sxva) cnobebiT is qristeSobamdec qarTvel-
Ta sacxovrebeli iyo da mis Semdegac.
Cvens naSromSi gamokvleulia, rom e.w. `armeniis iberiuli zoli~
iyo istoriuli qarTuli regioni, romelsac qristeSobamde `arian-
qarTli~ ewodebida (rogorc aRiniSna, erT periodSi es teritoria
moicva iberiis Temma, bizantiis imperiis erTerTma administraciul-
ma erTeulma).
armeniis mier mitacebis Semdgomac es teritoria (taodan avanamde
da valaSkertamde mdebare miwa-wyli) garkveulwilad mainc ibere-
biT, e.i. qarTvelebiT darCa dasaxlebuli da amitomac mas `armeniis
iberiuli zoli~ da `iberiis Temi~ uwodes.
arian-qarTlis istoria aseTi yofila: daaxloebiT Zv.w. III sauku-
neSi armenielTa Zlieri talRis Semosvlis Semdeg istoriuli xorZe-
nesa da misi mimdebare regionis, anu arian-qarTlis mmarTveli zeda
fena (mefis Ze azos meTaurobiT) ufro CrdiloeTiT gadanacvlebu-
la, magram arian-qarTlis mosaxleobis ZiriTadi nawili adgilzeve
darCa Tavisi iberiuli TviTSemecnebiT, Tumca maTi armenizaciis pro-
cesi gaRrmavda, gansakuTreiT Zv.w. II saukunedan, rac iberielTa es
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miwa-wyali armenielTa mefeebma artaqsiam da zariadrem sabolood
miitaces. adgilze darCenili mkvidri qarTuli mosaxleobis armeniza-
cia sxvadasxva xarisxisa iyo sxvadasxva regionSi, zogan Rrma, zogan
ki zedapiruli.
miuxedavad amisa, saukuneTa Semdeg, da X s-Sic ki, konstantine por-
firogenetis cnobiT, araqsis marcxena sanapiros mxare kvlav ibere-
bis sacxovriss warmoadgenda da iberebis teritoriad iwodeboda.
Cveni kvleviT, Semdgomad imisa, rac Zv.w. II s-Si pariadres mTiane-
Tis kalTebi, xorZena da gogarena armenielebma iberebisagan miitac-
es (straboni, geografia, XI, 14, 5), es vrceli regioni anu arian-
qarTli sam nawilad gaiyo, mTavari nawili moicva e.w. `didi armeniis~
olqebma - airaratma da e.w. `maRalma armeniam~, meore nawili _ klar-
jeTi, mcxeTis qarTlis saxelmwifoebriv sivrceSi moeqca, xolo misi
mesame nawili, romelsac `bolo klarjeTisa-zRvispiri~ ewodeboda _
romaul-bizantiuri mitacebebis obieqti gaxda.
ase, rom arian-qarTlis sivrce danawilda, misi erTi didi olqi ar-
meniis saxelmwifos nawilad iqca, xolo zRvispireTi, Tavisi region-
ebiT, romaul-bizantiur sivrceSi moeqca.
ukve somxur olqad gardaqmnil airaratSi (romelic, Tavis dros,
arian-qarTlis umTavresi nawili iyo) araqsispira miwebis didi nay-
ofierebis gamo aRmocenda armeniis yvela dedaqalaqi, tigranoker-
tis garda (romelic gacilebiT samxreTiT mdebareobda).
aq (armeniis iberiul zolSi), qarTuli tomebis (taoxebis, fa-
sianebisa da aseve qald-xald-xalibebis) istoriul qveyanaSi, mi-
uxedavad misi armeniaSi moqcevisa, qveynis mosaxleobis mkvidri naw-
ili inarCunebda Tavis iberiul identobas. es kargad gamoCnda ar-
abul epoqaSi, roca aqaurma mosaxleobam, basiansa da aseve, mis me-
zobel taoSi, srulad aRidgina Tavisi namdvili erovnuli vinaoba
anu qarTveloba.
es gvaZlevs safuZvels varaudisa, rom qarTvelTa erTian xalxad
Camoyalibebis procesi dawyebuli iyo istoriuli iberiuli olqebis
dakargvamde saukuneebiT adre, Zv.w. VI-V ss-saTvis (da maTi saxelm-
wifo iyo arian-qarTli), amitomac ukve Camoyalibebulma qarTvelma
xalxma ucxo (anu armeniul) saxelmwifoSic SeZlo Tavisi erovnul-
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qarTuli identobis dacva Zv.w. II saukunedan vidre ax. w. VIII s-mde da,
SemdgomSi (rogorc iTqva, arabobis Semdgom), ufro metic, man (arme-
niis iberiuli zolis mkvidrma qarTvelobam) erovnuli saxelmwifo-
ebriobac ki aRidgina taosa, basiansa da mimdebare mxareebSi.
unda vifiqroT, rom jer kidev xalibTa (qaldebis) vrcel miwa-
wyalze (sadac aRmocenda arian-qarTlis saxelmwifo), qristeSobamde
VI-V saukuneebSi formirda qarTveli anu iberieli xalxi sxvadasxva
qarTuli tomebis konsolidaciis Sedegad, am mosazrebis mamtkicebel
wyarod unda miviCnioT strabonis cnoba pariadres, xorZenasa da
gogarenas iberiulobis Sesaxeb. megasTenes cnoba pontos zRvis am
aRmosavleT mxareebSi iberTa cxovrebis Sesaxeb Zv.w. VI s-Si, nabuqo-
donosoris epoqaSi, hekatos miletelis (Zv.w. VI s.) cnoba qarTvelTa
konsolidaciis didi xarisxis Sesaxeb, roca is kolxebs mesxur toms
uwodebs da sxva.
pariadres kalTebi, xorZena da gogarena ( jer kidev e.w. `didi ar-
meniis~ Camoyalibebamde) iberebisa iyo, ris Sesaxebac strabonma miuTi-
Ta (strabonis es cnoba Cveni kvlevis ZiriTadi dasayrdenia, amitomac
Cven mas Zalze xSirad vaxsenebT).
rac Seexeba zogadadqarTul (qarTvelur) eTnoss, misi formireba
gacilebiT adre dawyebula xorZenas, gogarenas, pariadresa da mim-
debare olqebSi, romelTa teritoria emTxveva qaldebisa da im qarTu-
li tomebis vrcel sacxovriss, romelic qsenofontem aRwera Tavis
naSromSi.
rogorc iTqva, xorZena pariadredan mtkvramde iyo moqceuli, araq-
sispireTSi. mas Semdgom airarati ewoda (marTalia, amJamad xorZenad
miiCneva mcire olqi arzrumis regionSi, magram strabonis cnobaze
dayrdnobili Cveni mtkicebiT, is did teritoriaze, md. mtkvramde iyo
ganfenili. pariadres kalTebidan mtkvramde ganvrcobili iberebis is-
toriuli miwa-wyali araqsis xeobasa da Worox-evfratis saTaveebs moi-
cavda. is proqarTuli tomebis, maT Soris xalib-qaldebisa da fasian-
ebisa samSoblo iyo, iqve cxovrobdnen taoxebic. am miwa-wyalze qseno-
fontes dros sxvadasxva qarTuli tomebi saxlobdnen xalibebis saer-
To hegemonobiT).
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Cans, kidev ufro adre, Zv.w. IX-VI ss-Si kolxebisa da xalibebis am
miwa-wyalze Camoyalibda erTiani, daunawevrebeli protoqarTuli eT-
nosi da mis safuZvelze Zv.w. VI-V ss-Si _ qarTveli xalxi. misi saxelm-
wifo arian-qarTli armenielTa Semosevebis gamo sabolood daiSala
pariadres, xorZenasa da gogarenas dakargvis Semdgom.
am erTiani qarTuli saxelmwifos (arian-qarTlis) daSla-gauqme-
bam saTave daudo qarTveli xalxis kidev axal tomebad daqucmace-
bas, Camoyalibda zanebisa da svanebis jgufebi Zv.w. II-I ss-Si. am mo-
sazrebas exmianeba is faqti, rom am tomebis Sesaxeb wyaroebi cnobebs
am droidan iZlevian.
rogorc aRiniSna, qarTuli eTnosis dezintegraciis procesisaTvis
xeli unda Seewyo armeniuli tomebis Casaxlebas maT miwa-wyalze, rac
sabolood dasrulda Zv.w. II saukuneSi, roca armenielTa mefeebma
pariadre, xorZena da gogarena iberebs waarTves.
es iyo arian-qarTls samefos saboloo gaqroba.
iqamde erTi saukuniT adre, rogorc iTqva, arian-qarTlis mefis
Zem, Cans gamouvali mdgomareobis gamo, Tavisi saxelmwifos xerxema-
li, samxedro elita da zeda fenis erTi nawili, ufro CrdiloeTiT
gadaanacvala da Caasaxla Tanamedrove saqarTvelos teritoriaze
egriswylidan-hereT-albaneTamde.
Zv.w. III-I aTaswleulebSi, Cans, ramdenjerme Sedga da jgufebad
daiSala e.w. protoqarTuli eTnosi matarebeli fuZeqarTuli enisa,
masSi Semavali tomebis konsolidacia-integraciisa da piruku pro-
cesebis Sedegad. am eTnosis SigniT, Cans mudam mimdinareobda axali
tomebis warmoqmnisa da Zvelebis gaqrobis procesi, Tumca mTlianobaSi
is Tavis identobas inarCunebda. rogorc aRiniSna, Zv.w. IX-VI ss-Si is
kidev erTxel Sedga.
pontospireTSi iberebis cxovrebas adasturebs Zv.w. VI s-is avtoris
megasTenes cnoba, romlis mixedviTac libiis mezobeli iberebis erTi
nawili VI s-Si mefe nabuqodonosorma ayara da daasaxla pontospireTSi.
`libiis~ qveynis qveS unda igulisxmebodes ara afrikis libia, aramed
vanistbispireT-mcire aziaSi mdebare qveyana `luvia~.
lursmul epoqaSi mcireaziis luvia cnobili saxelmwifo iyo, ro-
melic mdebareobda axlos im areebTan, sadac Semdgomi avtorebi kar-
duxebis sacxovriss miuTiTeben.
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Tu megasTenesa wyaros `libia~ igive qveyana `luviaa~, maSin, Cans,
Zveli avtorebi miuTiTebdnen, rom nabuqodonosorma iberebi ponto-
spireTSi Caasaxla ara afrikis anda dasavleTis libiidan, aramed mcire
aziis luviidan, rac realobasTan ufro axloa.
`luvia-lubaris~ qarTvelebTan kavSiris Sesaxeb weren epifane da
arqanjelo lamberti.
(arqanjelo lambertis mohyavs Zveli cnoba, rom `lubari~ erqva qveyanasa
da mTas araratis regionSi, anu Zvel urartuSi. is wers _ `grigol kedrene
amtkicebs, rom kolxidelebi noes mesame Svilis iafetis Camomavlobisani
ariano, es azri me sarwmunod mimaCnia, radgan somxeTis mTebi, sadac noes
kidobani gaCerda, mxolod ramdenime dRis savalzea kolxidas daSorebuli...
es ambavi SeiZleba davasabuTod wmida epifanes mowmobiT. es wmidani Tavisi
wignis _ `panarionis~ dasawyisSi, Semdegs wers- `roca noes kidobani araratis
mTebze, somexTa da qarTvelTa (kardiensium) qveynis Sua, lubarad wodebul mTaze
gaCerda, gaCnda adamianTa pirveli sacxovrebeli, da iq dargo winaswarmetyvel-
ma noem venaxi da Seiqmna iqauri binadari~. aq SesaniSnavia Semdegi sityvebi
epifanesi: lubaris mTianeTi `somexTa da qarTvelTa qveynis Sua~ (arqanjelo
lamberti, samegrelos aRwera, 2011, gv. 28 ).
lubari _ araratis maxlobel mTas erqva, kardienTa anu qarTvelTa qvey-
anaSi vanistbispireTSi, Cans luvia-libia qveyanasTan axlos).
amJamad, miCneulia, rom qaldea erqva trapezuntis samxreT mTian
regions, istoriulad ki, es qsenofontes naSromebidanac Cans, qaldebi
aRniSnulis garda gacilebiT did teritorias flobdnen, gadaSlils
karduxebidan vidre Sav zRvamde. am miwa-wyals (trapezuntidan) vu-
wodebT Cven qaldeas, xalibebis qveyanas (Sesabamisad Cveni qaldeas
qveS ar igulisxmeba mesopotamiis qaldea).
protoiberi xalxis tomebi karduxebi, qaldebi da xalibebi (qali-
bebi) Cans, naTesavurad ukavSirdebodnen urartus samefoSi dasax-
lebul xuritebsa da aseve im frigiul-mesxur tomebs, romelTac
brigebis saxeliTac icnobdnen, etimologiurad saxeli `iberi~ war-
moSobili unda iyos saxelisagan `brigi~ (brigi-berigi-beri-iberi;
brigi-rig-rg (ma-rg-ueli, ma-rg-ali) - gr (e-gr-isi, me-gr-eli, gur-
uli), brigi-grigi-georgi-georgien; an brigi-grigi-gogar/ena/-gugargi
(gugarqi), gargari, gagari da sxva).
12
amasTanave, aRsaniSnavia, rom `qaldevelebi~ _ qaldebi (xaldebi)
cnobili kolxebis Tanametomeni iyvnen, xolo, rogorc aRiniSna, heka-
tos miletelis Zalze mniSvnelovani cnobiT _ `kolxebi _ mosxuri
(mesxuri) tomia~.
g. meliqiSvilis azriT _ xalibi `qarTus dialeqturi varianti yofi-
la da momdinareobda uZvelesi, jer kidev daunawevrebeli erTiani
qarTuli eTnikuri jgufis arsebobis droidan~ (. ,
- , c. 411).
maT jgufs unda miekuTvnos sasperebic, romelTac protoqarTvele-
badac miiCneven, kolxebTan erTad. herodotes cnobiT Savi zRvidan
midielebamde mxolod isini (kolxebi da sasperebi) cxovrobdnen, maSas-
adame Zv. w. V saukuneSi, am arealSi somxebi jer kidev ar cxovrobdnen
(igulisxmeba araqsispireTi, Worox-evfratis saTaveebi, pariadres mTis-
wineTidan mtkvramde (gogarenamde) mdebare miwawyali), armeniuli tome-
bis Casaxleba am miwawyalze aqemenidebis epoqisaTvis daiwyo da aleqsan-
dre makedonelis droisaTvis iqauri qarTuli saxelmwifosaTvis sa-
frTxes qmnida, ramac, Cans aiZula aqauri mefis Ze azoni saxelmwifos
xerxemali (jaris, didebulebisa da xalxis erTi nawili) ufro Crdilo-
eTSi gadaeyvana da axali qarTuli saxelmwifo Camoeyalibebina. am dros
unda daekarga arian-qarTls araqsis xeoba ( Zv.w. IV s. bolosa da III s.
dasawyisSi, xolo pariadre, xorZena da gogarena Semdeg, Zv. w. II s-Si,
daukargavs).
megasTenesa da strabonis cnobebis urTierTSejereba uflebas gva-
Zlevs vifiqroT, rom somxebis Casaxlebamde trapezuntidan vanistbi-
spireTamde mcxovreb tomebs krebiTad iberebi erqvaT, radganac, me-
gasTenes cnobiT, aRmosavleT pontospireTi (e.i. istoriuli mxareebi
kolxeTisa) iberebiT iyo dasaxlebuli, xolo strabonis cnobiT pari-
adres kalTebi, xorZena da gogarena iberebisa iyo.
iberebiT Zalze didi areali yofila dasaxlebuli _ es iyo aRniS-
nul arealTan erTad samxreT kavkasia mimarTuli vanis tbisaken.
am regionSi mopovebuli arqeologiuri artefaqtebi miuTiTebs
erTiani kulturis arsebobis Sesaxeb, rac yarsis, TrialeTis, samTav-
ros, anisisa Tu artaanis midamoebSi mopovebuli masalidan Cans. xal-
ibebis epoqis arqeologiuri masala amas miuTiTebs _ `q. yarsis max-
13
loblad aRmoCnda brinjaos nivTebis ganZi Zv.w. I aTaswleulis dasawyi-
sisa, romelSic dasavlur da aRmosavlurqarTuli arqeologiuri kul-
turebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli sagnebi erTadaa Tavmoyrili.~ (d. mus-
xeliSvili, aRmosavlurqarTvel tomTa gaerTianebani... macne, istori-
is seria, 2012, 2. gv. 31).
es miuTiTebs, rom imJamad, daaxloebiT Zv.w. V saukunisaTvis es
erTiani kulturis mqone xalxi jer kidev ar iyo dayofili e.w. aRmo-
savlurqarTul da dasavlurqarTul jgufebad, dayofis procesi unda
dawyebuliyo gacilebiT gvian, nawilobriv Zv. w. II saukunedan isto-
riuli arian-qarTlis miwa-wyalze. magram maTi diferenciaciis xarisxi
didi ar unda yofiliyo, radganac maT maleve SeZles erTiani qarTu-
li saeklesio kulturis Camoyalibeba, I-V ss-Si, istoriuli mcxeTis
qarTlis miwebze (Savi zRvidan albaneTamde). diferenciaciis axali
procesi unda dawyebuliyo VI saukunidan, erTiani qarTuli saekle-
sio kulturis Camoyalibebis Semdgom, erTiani saxelmwifoebriobis
(dasavleT-aRmosavleT saqarTvelos momcveli qarTlis samefos) rRve-
vis kvaldakval yofil arian-qarTlSi mosaxleobis mkvidr fenas ad-
gilze darCenili iberebi qmnidnen.
sxva procesebi viTardeboda ukve armeniad wodebul yofil ibe-
riaSi, Zv.w II saukunis Semdgom, pariadresa xorZenasa da gogarenaSi
mcxovrebma iberebma, Tavisuflebis dakargvis pirobebSic ki, ukve ar-
meniad wodebul Tavis qveyanaSi, (somxeTSi) saukuneTa manZilze, gar-
kveulwilad SeZles qarTul-erovnuli cnobierebis SenarCuneba.
qristianobis ganmtkicebis epoqaSi, armeniaSi mcxovrebi iberebi IV
saukunidanve moeqcnen somxuri eklesiis iurisdiqciaSi, rac maT ar-
menizacias apirobebda, saboloo armenizaciisagan Tavis aridebas isini
imiT cdilobdnen, rom iswrafodnen, raTa mieRoT is sarwmunoebrivi
orientacia, romelic istoriulad zogadqarTvelTa erovnul sarw-
munoebad iqca, es iyo qalkedonitoba anu marTlmadidebloba.
xelsayreli momentis dadgomisTanave, ax.w. VI s-Si, iberebiT dasax-
lebulma tao-basian-avanis anu `meore iveriis~ olqma eklesiuri Tavis-
Tavadoba gamoacxada, gamijna ra Tavisi Tavi monofizituri dvinis
sakaTalikososagan da Tavis sarwmunoebad aRiara qalkedonitoba.
14
am regionis (ukve armeniis) mRvdelmTavarma, `avanis kaTalikosad~
saxeldebulma ioanem Seqmna qalkedonituri sakaTalikoso, Tavisi
TviTgamocxadebuli, axla ukve TavisTavadi saeklesio olqi (somxe-
Tis iveria anu armeniis iveriuli zoli) CamoaSora dvinis monofiz-
itur eklesias. da sanacvlod Seecada antioqiiis eklesiasTan dakav-
SirebiT samarTlebrivi saxe mieca Tavisi qmedebisaTvis, rac asaxa an-
tioqiurma wyarom. CvenTvis naTelia, rom antioqiur qronografSi ava-
nis sakaTalikosos `iveriis sakaTalikoso~ ewodeba, da igulisxmeba meo-
re iveriis anu tao-basian-ararat-Sirakis, mimdebare olqebis anu somxe-
Tis iveriuli zolis qarTuli (iveriuli) mosaxleobis eklesia.
`...didsa Wirsa Sina arian qristianeni, mkvidrni qarTvelTa (e.i. me-
ore iveriis) soflebisani, rameTu dRiTgan netarisa anastasi mRvdel-
mowamisaTa (VI s-dan) ara kurTxeul ars maTda kaTalikosi-mTavarepisko-
posi siZnelisaTvis gzaTasa. xolo man (Teofilaqte antioqiis patri-
arqma VIII s.) hyo kreba da ganaCina... raTa Sekrbebodnen episkoposni sam-
revlosa misisani (meore iveriisani) da akurTxevdnen kaTalikossa Jami-
Ti-Jamad... xeldasxmul hyo... erTi movlinebulTa monazonTagani, sax-
eliT ioane... amas antioqiis krebasa Sina gapatiosnda~ (q. c., I, gv. 226).
igulisxmeba rom anastasi mRvdelmowamis Tanamedrove ioane kogo-
vitelis Semdeg avanis (meore iveriss sakaTalikoso taxti daqvrive-
buli iyo, misi aRdgena aRarc miiCneoda saWirod, radganac somxuri
eklesia VII saukuneSi kvlav daubrunda qalkedonitobas da mxolod
VIII saukuneSi, 726 wlis somxur-monofizituri krebis Semdeg meore
iveriis iverebi kvlav gaemijnen somxur-monofizitur eklesias da
Txoves antioqias daxmareba, raTa mas kvlav aRedgina iverTa (e.i.
meore iveriis) qalkedonituri sakaTalikoso, aRsaniSnavia, rom am
dros konstantinopolSi xatmebrZoluri eresi mZvinvarebda, xolo
antioqiidan qristianebs xatTayvaniscemisaken mouwodebda ioane dam-
askeli. mniSvnelovania saxeli `ioane~, es avanis pirveli kaTaliko-
sisa da meore iveriis aRdgenili sakaTalikosos pirveli mRvdel-
mTavris saxeli iyo. aqedanac Cans, rom antioqia cnobda meore iveri-
is sakaTalikosos memkvidreobiTobas avanis sakaTalikososagan.
`qarTlis cxovrebis~ am CanarTis Sesaxeb jer kidev 1906 wels
gamoTqva Tavisi mosazreba kirion II kaTalikosma, rom es monaTxrobi
15
exeboda samxreT saqarTvelos tao-basianis mxareebis saeklesio mow-
yobas. misi wyaroa efem mcires naSromSi (`uwyeba mizezsa qarTvelTa
moqcevisasa~,1959) gamoyenebuli cnoba amoRebuli `xronografsa Sina
antioqias aRwerilsa~. Sav mTaze arsebuli am antioqiuri qronografiT
usargeblia XI saukuneSive nikon SavmTelsa da ufro adre VI s. is-
torikoss ioane malalas (episk. anania, saqarTvelos samociqulo ek-
lesiis istoria, 1998, gv. 93).
efrem mcires qronografidan gadmouweria _ `dReTa konstantine
skoris (741-775) mosaxelisasTa, antioqias patriarqobasa netarisa
Teofilaqtessa (744-751) movidnen qarTliT (iveriidan) mociqulad mon-
azonni orni da mouTxres netarsa Teofilaqtes, viTarmed didsa Wirsa
arian qristianeni mkvidrni qarTvelTa (iverielTa) soflebisani, rame-
Tu dRiTgan netarisa anastasi mRvdel-mowamisa antioqiel patriarqisa
(561-599) ara kurTxeul ars maTda kaTalikosi-mTavarepiskoposi siZnel-
isaTvis gzisa, rameTu agarianTagan veravin ikadrebs slvad. xolo man
bWobiTa krebisaTa _ mTavarepiskoposTa, mitropolitTa da episkopos-
Ta TvisTa misca qarTvelTa (iverTa) protreptikoni, romel ars ganxs-
niTi, raTa TviT maTisa sazRvrisa episkoposTagan xelni daesxmodin
JamiTi-Jamad kaTalikossa qarTlisasa (e.i. meore iveriis kaTalikoss)...
da xelT-dasxmul yo erTi amaT orTa maT missa movlinebulTa monazon-
Tagani saxeliT ioane mis Jamsa kaTalikosad maTda~ (efrem mcire, `uw-
yeba mizezsa~... 1959, gv. 9).
somxeTis iveriuli nawilis saeklesio TavisTavadobisaken swrafva
marTalia Seanela arabTa Semosevebma, magram sabolood mainc ver Cak-
la. VII-VIII ss-Si tao-basian-airaratis qalkedonitoba daufaravi iyo.
VIII saukuneSi am mxaris, anu `iveriis~ avtokefaloba kidev erTxel
aRiara antioqiam, razec werda kirion II, 1906 wels.
Cvenma Tanamedrove istorikosma v. goilaZem wamoayena Tvalsazrisi,
rom is `iveria~, romelsac VIII saukuneSi antioqiam avtokefalia mi-
aniWa iyo `afxazeTis sakaTalikoso~, am mosazrebas garkveul etapam-
de mec vuWerdi mxars, magram Semdgomma Ziebam damarwmuna, rom swori
iyo wm. kirion II.
VIII saukuneSi antoqiam aRiara ara afxazeTis anda mcxeTis, aramed
`meore iveriis~ saeklesio avtokefalia. XVII saukuneSi amave antioqi-
16
uri cnobiT usargeblia antioqiel patriarq makarioss, oRond mas
iveriis mefe daviT kurapalati miaCnia afxazeTis mefed. amis mizezi
is unda iyos rom afxazeTSi Crdilokavkasiel afsua CerqezTa gaba-
tonebamde sityvebi `afxazeTi~ da `iveria~ sinonimebad miiCneoda da
zogad qarTvelTa samyaros ewodeboda.
makariosis cnobiT _ `antioqiel patriarq Teofilaqtes dros mefe
daviTma antioqiaSi episkoposad xeldasasxmelad gagzavna mravali
pirovneba. gagzavnilebis didi nawili gzaSi yaCaRebma daxoces. ori
maTgani gadarCa... Teofilaqtem moiwvia kreba, romelzec gadawyda
afxazeTisaTvis (saqarTvelosaTvis, e.i. meore iveriisaTvis) daeniS-
naT damoukidebeli kaTalikosi...im pirobiT, rom igi moixseniebda
antioqiis patriarqebs... erTi maTgani ioane patriarqma kaTalikosad
akurTxa~ (v. goilaZe, qarTuli eklesiis saTaveebTan, gv. 204). sxva-
dasxva, maT Soris iahia antioqielis cnobiT, mefe daviT kurapala-
tis karze namdvilad iyvnen pirvelmRvdelmTavrebi kaTalikosisa da
patriarqis wodebiT. savaraudoa, rom taos anu meore iveriis kaTa-
likosisa wodebis amaRlebisaTvis VIII saukunis Semdeg kvlav gaigzav-
na antioqiaSi delegacia, romelmac meore iveriis kaTalikoss pa-
triarqis wodeba moupova, misi saxelic tradiciuli ioane yofila,
marTlac Cvenamde moaRwia warweram eklesiis kedelze, romelSic
qarTlisa da aRmosavleTis patriarqi ioane ixsenieba. meore iverias
aseve `aRmosavleTi~ erqva.
IX-X ss-Si `meore iveriis~ qarTvelobam mTlianad aRidgina erovnul-
sarwmunoebrivi TavisTavadoba, rasac am mxareebSi mohyva qarTuli
kulturis aRorZineba da taos `qarTvelTa~ samefos daarseba, misi
gaerTianeba danarCen saqarTvelosTan da sabolood ki saqarTvelos
saxelwifoebrivi aRmavloba.
saqarTvelos siZlieris epoqaSi dasavleT saqarTvelos uwodebd-
nen `qvemo iverias~, xolo tao-basianis mimdgom vrcel regions _
`zemo iverias~, `zemo qveynebs~, `aRmosavleTs~. rac Seexeba aRmosav-
leT saqarTvelos, is maT Soris (e.i. `qvemo~ da `zemo~ iveriebs Soris)
moqceuli centraluri regioni iyo da swored masTan SefardebiT
erqvaT am qveynebs `zemo~ da `qvemo~.
17
qarTuli teritoriebis es geografiuli saxelebi Seicvala XV-XVI
saukuneTa Semdeg, saqarTvelos danawevrebis Sesabamisad.
mas Semdeg, rac saqarTvelom dakarga `meore~ anu `zemo iveria~,
mxolod aRmosavleT saqarTvelos daerqva `zemo~ (zemo qveyana, zemo
mamulebi, zemo qarTli (mesxeTTan erTad), xolo `qvemo qarTli~,
daaxloebiT XV-XVI ss-Si, Tbilisis qvemoT mdebare miwebs ewoda (iqamde,
IX-XIV ss-Si, rogorc aRiniSna, `qvemo mamulebi~, `qvemo qarTli~, `qvemo
saqarTvelo~ dasavleT saqarTvelos erqva).
gaqritianebis Semdeg (meoTxe saukunidan) dasavleT saqarTvelo
qarTlis saeklesio iurisdiqciaSi Sedioda, amitomac, 1990 wels kon-
stantinopolma am sazRvrebSi aRiara `saqarTvelos eklesiis uZve-
lesi avtokefalia~.
am gansazRvrebaSi umTavresia fraza _ `uZvelesi avtokefalia~, rac
uZveles iurisdiqcias afiqsirebs Tavis sazRvrebSi.
Tuki dasavleT saqarTvelo konstantinopolis iurisdiqciaSi iyo
IV-X saukuneebSi, maSin, `saqarTvelos eklesiis uZvelesi avtokefalia~
mxolod aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mimarT yofila kanonikuri.
aseTi Tvalsazrisic ki ucnobi iyo magaliTad XX s-is dasawyisSi
kirion meorisa da patriarq leonides epoqaSi, maSin ruseTis sinods
aseTi kuTxiT davac ar dauwyia, mxolod sabWoTa aTeisturma epoqam
Sva es problema, kerZod ki kiTxvis niSani daisva qarTuli eklesiis
uflebebze dasavleT saqarTvelos mimarT IV-X saukuneebSi.
rogorc aRiniSna, kiron II-is TvalsazrisiT VIII s-Si antioqiam av-
tokefalia mianiWa ara dasavleT saqarTvelos, aramed `meore iver-
ias~, Sesabamisad, misi azriT, dasavleT saqarTvelo, IV saukunis Sem-
deg ara konstantinopolis, anda antioqiis, aramed mcxeTis eklesiis
iurisdiqciaSi Sedioda.
rac Seexeba e.w. `meore iverias~, misi azriT, is garkveul perio-
damde somxuri eklesiis iurisdiqciaSi Sedioda Tavis momcvel re-
gionTan erTad (anu yofili arian-qarTlis miwebTan erTad, airarat-
sa da imier tao-basianSi).
amis gamo, VI-VII saukunisaTvis, basian-airaratad wodebuli provin-
ciaSi SemorCenilma Zvelma iberebma inebes Tavis daRweva somxuri
saeklesio damokidebulebisagan, amis gamo gaemijnen somxuri eklesiis
18
gulis _ dvinis sakaTalikosos da damoukidebeli sakaTalikoso Camo-
ayalibes centriT avanSi.
misi anu avan-airarat-taos `iveriis~ eklesiis avtokefalia antio-
qiis sapatriarqom pirvelad VI s-Si aRiara, marTalia mas dvinma ma-
leve Seuwyvita damoukidebloba, magram saeklesio Tavisuflebis idea
aRorZinda da arabobis dros, VIII saukuneSi, antioqiam kidev erTxel
mianiWa mas (am `iverias~) avtokefalia (axla ukve misi centri iyo ara
avani, aramed imier tao). swored mis avtokefalias Seexeba Cvenamde
moRweuli e.w. antioqiuri cnobebi iveriis eklesiisaTvis avtokefali-
is miniWebis Sesaxeb.
sruliad daviwyebuli vrceli qarTuli regionis _ `meore iveri-
is~ _ istoriasa da warsuls Seexeba wigni `arian qarTli~.
19
kari pirveli
arian-qarTlis istoria
Tavi I
arian-qarTlis xalxi da miwa-wyali
arian-qarTlis qveyana da sityva `qarTvelis~
etimologia
(qaldu-qaldueli-qarTueli)
sityva `qarTveli~, miRebuli TvalsazrisiT, ukavSirdeba mcxeTis
sanaxebSi mdebare `qarTlis mTas~, romelze mcxovrebTac, mTis saxe-
lis Sesabamisad, ewodaT `qarTvelebi~, Semdgom ki es saxeli TiTqos-
da ganivrco irgvliv mcxovreblebzedac.
sityva `qarTvels~ agreTve akavSireben sityvasTan `qarTa~, rac
SemosazRvrul adgils niSnavs. ZiriTadad aseTi iyo XX s. istori-
ografiis Tvalsazrisi.
ufro adrindel azrs gamoxatavs mixeil TamaraSvili: `sayovelTaod
miRebuli TvalsazrisiT, adgilobrivi tradiciis mixedviT, `saqarTve-
lo~ nawarmoebia sityvisagan `qarTlos~, iafetis badiSiSvilis saxelis-
agan, romelsac wilad rgebia es mxare. mis Svilebs mamis saflavTan fici
20
daudiaT, rom mamis adgilsamyofels `qarTloss~, anu `qarTls~ uwo-
debdnen, mis saxelisuflebo miwebs ki _ saqarTvelos~ (m. TamaraSvili,
qarTuli eklesia dasabamidan dRemde, 1995, gv. 38).
TamaraSvilis wignis weris dros jer naklebad iyo cnobili `mo-
qcevaY qarTlisaY~ da amitom ucnobi iyo qveyana `arian-qarTli~, ma-
gram am wyaros kargad icnobda daviT aRmaSeneblis moZRvrad miCneu-
li arsen beri, romlis Sromaze dayrdnobiTac sxvagvarad ixsneba
sityva `qarTvelis~ etimologia. is wmida ninos cxovrebaSi qarTvel-
Ta warmoSobis Sesaxeb wers: `Cven Svilni varT maT arian-qarTliT ga-
mosulTani da ena maTi vuwyiT~. arsen beri iqve aRniSnavs, rom arian-
qarTlis mosaxleobas `arian-qarTvelebi~ erqva.
amasve aRniSnavs `moqcevaY qarTlisaY~ da masSi gansxvavebulad war-
moidgineba qarTvelTa warmoSoba.
qarTvelebi, am wyaros cnobiT, ar Camoyalibebulan saqarTvelos
miwa-wyalze, e.i. qarTlosisagan, aramed farnavazis samefos Camoy-
alibebamde didi xniT adre, misi saxelmwifos samxreTiT arsebobda
qveyana `arian-qarTli~, romlis mcxovrebT, am wyaros mixedviTve,
erqvaT `arian qarTvelni~ anu `qarTvelni~.
wyaros cnobiT `arian-qarTlis~ mefis Ze da xalxis nawili aleqsan-
dre makedonelis epoqaSi Camosaxlda Tanamedrove saqarTveloSi da
isini, amave wyaros cnobiT, gansaxldnen ara mxolod mcxeTis areal-
Si, aramed mTel istoriul saqarTveloSi - egriswylidan hereTamde.
axali qveynis mosaxleoba `qarTvelebad~ iwoda imis gamo, rom isini
`Svilni~ (STamomavlebi) iyvnen - `arian-qarTliT gamosulTa~, anu arian-
qarTvelebisa, e.i. sityva `qarTveli~ mcxeTis gadedaqalaqebamdec ar-
sebobda da erqva arian-qarTlis mosaxleobas.
`arian-qarTlis~ saxelwodebis mqone qveyna ucnobi iyo `moqcevaY
qarTlisaYs~ xelnawerebis aRmoCenamde (XIX s. bolo (1888 w.) da XX s.
dasawyisi), Tumca ki es sityva (arian-qarTli) erTi-orjer ixsenieba
kidec Zvel wyaroebSi, magaliTad IV s-Si wmida nino Tavis cnobil
locvaSi brZanebs, rom `arian-qarTlidan~ gamosuli qarTvelTa war-
marTi winaprebi RmerTis nacvlad kerpebs cemdnen Tayvans, XII s-Si
`arian-qarTls~ ixseniebs mematiane arsen beri da wers, rom Cven, qar-
Tvelebi, pirdapiri STamomavlebi varT `arian-qarTlis~ xalxisa,
21
qarTuli ena ki is enaa, romliTac metyvelebda `arian-qarTlis~ mo-
saxleoba.
`qarTlis cxovrebaze~ ufro Zveli wyaros, `moqcevaY qarTlisaYs~
mixedviT, rogorc iTqva, `arian-qarTvelebi~ mefis Ze azonis meTau-
robiT, Tanabrad gansaxldnen `egriswylidan hereTamde~. wyaro aRni-
Snavs: `da Tana hyvanda aleqsandres mefesa azoY, Ze arian-qarTlisa me-
fisaY, da mas miuboZa mcxeTai sajdomad da sazRvari daudva mas hereTi
da egriswyali da somxiTi da mTa crolisa da warvida~ (Zveli qarTuli
agiografiuli literaturis Zeglebi, I, 1964, gv. 81).
egriswyali da crolis mTa _ sasazRvro niSnulebia azonis sax-
elmwifosi, isini azonis xalxis, anu arian-qarTvelebis axali gansax-
lebis sazRvrebicaa.
am wyaros mixedviT, egriswyalTan mcxovrebi egriselebi (anu dasav-
leT saqarTvelos mosaxleoba) da hereT-crolis mTas Soris mcxovre-
bi (aRmosavleT saqarTvelos) mosaxleoba erTi xalxia _ `arian-qar-
TvelTa~ STamomavlobaa.
hereTi, egriswyali, somxiTi da mTa crolisa is sasazRvro werti-
lebia romelTa Sorisac cxovroben `qarTuelni~, maTi Zveli samSob-
lo ki arian-qarTli iyo.
maSasadame `moqcevaYs~ mixedviT dasavleT saqarTvelos mosaxleo-
ba (egriswyalTan mcxovrebni), aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mosaxle-
obasTan erTad _ erTi xalxia da maTi saxeli qarTvelebia.
meore mxriv, am wyarosagan arsebiTad gansxvavdeba `qarTlis cxov-
rebis~ koncefcia, romlis mixedviTac `qarTvelebi~ qarTlosis STa-
momavlobaa, megrelebi `egrosisa~ da a.S.
Zalze Rrma da sagulisxmo gansxvavebaa.
garkveulia, rom qarTlis cxovrebis is cnobebi, romelnic Seexe-
bian e.w. kavkasielTa da qarTvelTa eTnarqebis urTierTobas, Sedge-
nilia movses xorenacis `istoriis~ gavleniT, albaT, monRolebis
Semdeg, radganac arsen beri XII s-Si `eTnarqTa~ Teorias ar icnobda,
xolo `moqcevaY qarTlisaYsa~ aris I aTaswleulis wyaro, romelic
sinas mTazec ikiTxeboda IX-X ss-Si. `moqcevaYs~ cnobebi gacilebiT
uZvelesia, `qarTlis cxovrebis~ krebuli ki ufro mogvianebiTaa Sed-
genili.
22
maSasadame, sityva qarTvelis etimologia aseTia: `qarTveli~ _ `ari-
an-qarTvelTa~ STamomavals niSnavs. mas etimologiuri kavSiri ara aqvs
arc sityva `qarTlosTan~ da arc sityva `qarTasTan~.
azonis Semosvlamde klarjeTi `arian-qarTlis~ qveyanaSi Sedioda,
mas azonis mama marTavda, mis samxreTiT mdebare miwebTan erTad.
mematiane arian-qarTls im miwaze aTavsebs, romelic qristeSobam-
de VI-V ss-Si qaldebiT (xalibebiT) iyo dasaxlebuli, maT qveyanas
`qaldu~ erqva. aqedan unda davaskvnaT, rom qarTveli _ qaldus qvey-
nis mcxovrebs unda niSnavdes (qaldu-qaldueli-qarTueli). Zvel-
qarTul wyaroebSi Cveni xalxis saxelia `qarTueli~ (da ara `qarTve-
li~), qaldu-qarTu-qarTueli.
safiqrebelia, rom qaldus qveyanas aseve erqva saxeli `ariani~,
mis mcxovrebT ki qalduelni anu qarTuelni, Sesabamisad arianis qvey-
nidan gamosul xalxs erqva `arian qarTuelni~ (etimologiurad, Ti-
Tqosda SesaZlebelia sityva `xorZenadan~ sityva arianis miReba -
xorZena, xorZiani, arZiani, ariani. Tu CavTvliT, rom rTuli Tanxmovan-
Tjgufi `rZ~ (rz) iSleba _ `r~ da `Z~ Tanxmovnebad, aseT SemTxvevaSi
sityva xorZenadan SesaZlebelia arianisa da arZianis miReba [arZe,
aRniSnul regionSi, cnobil qalaqs erqva arzrumTan axlos]) straboni
xorZenas iberTa qveynad miiCnevda, gogarenasa da pariadres mTianeT-
Tan erTad, romelnic armeniam miitaca qristeSobamde II saukuneSi.
qarTvelTa warmoSobis Sesaxeb Zvelma qarTulma istoriografiam
wamoayena ori Tvalsazrisi.
`qarTlis cxovrebis~ mixedviT qarTveloba kavkasiaSi Camoyalibda
kavkasielTa saerTo winapar Targamosisagan, romlis Svilebma haosma,
qarTlosma da sxvebma saTave daudes kavkasiis sxvadasxva xalxebs.
gansxvavebulia `moqcevaY qarTlisaYs~ Tvalsazrisi, romlis mixed-
viTac `qarTvelebi~ (`arian-qarTvelni~) Tanamedrove saqarTveloSi
damkvidrebamdec erTi warmoSobis xalxi iyo da saqarTvelos sam-
xreTiT _ `arian qarTlSi~ cxovrobda.
`moqcevaY qarTlisaYs~ Teoriis mixedviT egriselebi, svanebi da
e.w. qarTebi STamomavalobaa arian-qarTlis xalxisa, radganac arian-
qarTlidan wamosulma mefis Ze azonma arian-qarTlidan wamoyvanili
mosaxleoba Tanabrad ganasaxla `egriswylidan hereTamde~ anu Tan-
amedrove saqarTvelos mTel teritoriaze.
23
arian-qarTlis eri
arian-qarTlis mdebareoba amJamadac kvlevis sagania.
n. xazaraZis TvalsazrisiT, romelsac mniSvnelovans uwodebs akad.
g. giorgaZe, arian-qarTli mdebareobda tao-basianis mxareebisaken.
`n. xazaraZis koncefciiT arian-qarTli, iseve rogorc mosxike klar-
jeTisa da mis samxreTiT mdebare tao-basianis mxareebis aRmniSvneli
termini iyo, ekleci-anZianZora-steri ki am didi regionis samxreT sazR-
varTan dRevandel erznjanis zeganze mdebare qalaqebi~ (g. giorgaZe,
n. xazaraZe. kavkasiur-axlo aRmosavluri krebuli, 2001, gv. 13).
rogorc aRiniSna, arsen beri, daviT aRmaSeneblis moZRvari, Tavis
`wmida ninos cxovrebaSi~ werda _ `Cven Svilni varT maT arian-qarTliT
gamosulTani da enai maTi vuwyiT~.
I aTaswleulSi qarTveloba darwmunebuli yofila, rom isini iyvnen
`arian-qarTlidan~ gamosuli xalxis STamomavalni da agreTve ima-
Sic, rom qarTuli ena yofila igive ena, rac `arian-qarTvelTa~ ena
(maSasadame, maTi Tvalsazrisi gansxvavdeboda `qarTlis cxovrebis~
koncefciisgan, rom magaliTad, qarTuli ena TiTqosda saqarTvelo-
Si Camoyalibda sxvadasxva enebis aRrevis Sedegad).
`wmida ninos cxovrebis~, `qarTlis cxovrebisa~ da `moqcevaY qar-
TlisaYs~ saerTo koncefcia SeiZleba ase warmovadginoT:
arian-qarTlis qveynidan Tanamedrove saqarTveloSi Camovida me-
fis Ze azoni Tavis samxedro elitis TanxlebiT, maT Seqmnes axali
saxelmwifo, magram wyarosave cnobiT, arian-qarTvelTa Camosvlamde
mkvidr, adgilobriv Zvel qarTul mosaxleobas, ukve hqonia saxelm-
wifos mowyobis niSnebi, hyavda mmarTvelebi da, dinastiac _ e.w. mcxe-
Teli mamasaxlisebis ojaxi. am ojaxis wevri farnavazi moaxerxebs
Camosuli samxedro aristokratiis elitis nawilis mimxrobas, mkvi-
drTagan ki jaris Seqmnas da SeebrZoleba azons. azoni marcxdeba da
gadadis Tavisi mamis qveyanaSi, anu `arian-qarTlSi~ _ wyarosve cno-
biT esaa klarjeTi da mis samxreTiT mdebare mxareebi (Sesabamisad,
tao, karini, basiani da a.S.). farnavazi aqac amarcxebs azons, laSqravs
arian-qarTlis samxreTis mxareebs punqt anZoreT - anZianZoramde da
brundeba Sin _ mcxeTaSi.
24
erTi sityviT, `arian-qarTlSi~ igulisxmeba vrceli qveyana tra-
pezuntidan (`zRvispira didi qalaqidan~) _ karnu-qalaqisa da anZian-
Zoras (dRevandel erzinjanis zegnis) CaTvliT.
es is mxareebia, romelTac erqvaT qaldea-speri-tao-basiani da misi
momijnave olqebi, is qveyana, sadac qsenofontem qarTveli tomebi
aRwera, qveyana, romelsac strabonis cnobiT hqonda mxareebi _ xorZe-
na, pariadre da gogarena, iberielebiT dasaxlebuli kuTxeebi, romel-
nic armeniam CamoaWra istoriul saqarTvelos qristeSobamde II s-Si.
Zv.w. II saukunemde es mxareebi Sedioda iberiaSi. miuxedavad isto-
riuli kataklizmebisa, is (speri-tao-basiani) X-XI ss-Sic iberebiTve
anu qarTvelebiT iyo dasaxlebuli (aristakes lastiverteci, isto-
ria, 1974, gv. 183).
parxaris mTa p. ingoroyvas azriT aris pontos mTebi md. kelkit
Cais SesarTavidan Ralisamde da dasavleT evfratamde. s. janaSias
azriT pariadre, skidisi da mosxis mTebi aRmosavleT pontos qedis
nawilebia (iqve, e. cagareiSvilis komentari, gv. 182).
tao-arzrumis regioni gvian drosac ki qarTvelebiT yofila dasax-
lebuli, amis Sesaxeb cnobas arqanjelo lamberti iZleva XVII s-Si. is
wers _ `saqarTvelos samefo gavrcelebuli iyo iranis mxriT Tavrizam-
di da TurqeTis, anu ukeT vTqva, samcxis mxriT _ arzrumamdi. kolx-
idisaken ki saqarTvelos samefo aRwevda kafamdi, romelic xerson-
esSia. arzrumis qalaqis maxloblad axlac moipoveba qarTuli sofle-
bi. uwindel droSi TviT am qalaqSi ijda qarTveli episkoposi, arzru-
melad wodebuli. kolxidis gareT, afxazebisa da jiqebis qveynebSi,
mSvenieri taZrebi dganan qarTulad aSenebulebi da qarTulis zed-
warwerebiT, magaliTad anakofiaSi da biWvinTaSi aris kolxidis, guri-
isa da imereTis patriarqis sajdomi. iranis mxriTac, TviT Tavriza-
mde, rogorc qarTuli eklesiebis, ise qarTuli soflebis cxadi kva-
li dResac Cans~ (a. lamberti, samegrelos aRwera, 2011, gv. 29).
arian-qarTlis erTi nawili xorZenesa da pariadris mTianeTis kalTe-
bze unda yofiliyo ganfenili. klarjeTi, vaxuStis cnobiT, am mxa-
reebis nawili iyo (vaxuStis cnobiT Zvelad klarjeTSi Sedioda tao,
basiani, speri da maTi irgvlivi qveynebi).
25
strabonis cnobiT qaldebi xalibebis memkvidreebi iyvnen. iv. jav-
axiSvilis azriT, qarTvelebs uZveles xanaSi qaldiaSi unda ecxovraT
(ix. iv. javaxiSvili, qarTuli eris istoria, I, 1960, gv. 412).
`moqcevaYs~ cnobiT, rogorc iTqva, qarTvelebi `arian-qarTvel-
Ta~ STamomavlobaa, xolo iv. javaxiSvilis azriT, qarTvelTa winaprebi
Tavdapirvelad qaldeaSi cxovrobdnen. maSasadame qaldea _ `arian-
qarTlis~ nawili iyo. p. ingoroyvas azriT qaldea iyo `samxreT kol-
xeTis~ zogadi saxelwodeba (p. ingoroyva, giorgi merCule, 1954, gv.
268). Tu es asea, maSin aRmoCndeba, rom arian-qarTlis nawili iyo sa-
mxreT kolxeTi.
mociqulTa epoqaSi, I-II ss-Si iberia gaZlierda, imdenad, rom somex
mefeTa taxti zogjer qarTvelTa xelSi iyo, safiqrebelia, rom am
droisTvis iberiam armeniisagan ukanve daibruna CamoWrili xorZene
da gogarena, pariadres kalTebTan erTad, arabobis dros, Cans, rom
qarTvelTa somxebSi asimilacia Senelda da qarTvelobam am mxareeb-
Si, anu istoriul arian-qarTlSi garkveulwilad SeZlo qarTuli enisa
da eTnikuri vinaobis SenarCuneba, amas miuTiTebs is, rom arabobis
Semdeg swored aRniSnul mxareebis mosaxleobis didi nawili ara `som-
xebad~ aramed `qarTvelebad~ acxadebda Tavs, imdenad, rom taoSi
Seiqmna kidec erovnuli saxelmwifo `qarTvelTa samefos~ saxelwodeb-
iT, romelic gafarTovda vanis tbis mimarTulebiT.
Tu ara basili keisris SemoWra da taos `qarTvelTa samefos~ dam-
arcxeba, albaT Zveli `arian-qarTli~ aRidgenda Tavis Tavs anu
qaldeadan vanis tbamde aRorZindeboda eTnikur qarTvelTa, am re-
gionis uZvelesi mkvidri mosaxleobis, saxelmwifo, qarTuli eniTa
da eklesiiT.
basili keisarma, Semdeg ki imperatorebma konstantinem, romonosma
da sxvebma gaafTrebiT ibrZoles qarTvelTa gasanadgureblad yofil
arian qarTlSi, romelsac imJamad `iveria~ (iveriis Temi) erqva.
Tumca, bizantielTa Semdeg Turq-seljukebmac ki ver SeZles iq
mkvidri qarTvelobis saboloo mospoba, XII-XVI saukuneebSi arzrumi-
dan-yarsamde da mimdebare mxareebamde qarTuli saxelmwifoebrioba
mainc arsebobda samcxe-saaTabagos saxelwodebiT, iqve mdebareobd-
nen qarTvel episkoposTa kaTedrebic _ karelisa, valaSkertelisa,
dadeSnelisa da sxvebisa.
26
unda davaskvnaT: tao-klarjeTi IX-X ss-Si ki ar `gaqarTvelda~
(rogorc es miiCneva qarTizaciis Teoriis mixedviT), aramed, am epo-
qaSi xorZenas, gogarenas da pariadres qarTvelobam aiRorZina Tavi-
si vinaoba, tao-klarjeTis `qarTvelTa samefos~ saxiT.
saboloo daskvna: azos epoqaSi qarTuli mosaxleobis nawilis Crdi-
loeTSi dasaxlebis Semdegac Zvel samSobloSi anu arian-qarTlSic
darCa maTi nawili da qarTvelebi iq kvlav agrZelebdnen cxovrebas.
arian-qarTlidan mosaxleobis erTi nawilis CrdiloeTSi gadasax-
leba iman ganapiroba, rom iqac maTi qarTveli Tanametomeni cxovrob-
dnen.
azonis mamis samefo
mkvlevari T. qemerteliZe eTanxmeba g. meliqiSvilsa da g. mam-
ulias, rom arian-qarTli sxva teritoriebTan erTad moicavda taosa
da spers (uTiTebs g. meliqiSvili `saqarTvelos Zveli istoriisaTvis~,
rusul enaze, 1959, gv. 278; g. mamulia, `klasobrivi sazogadoebisa da
saxelmwifos Camoyalibeba Zvel qarTlSi~, 1979, gv. 93).
misi azriT arian-qarTlis mefis Ze azoni iyo aqemenidebis same-
fos XVIII satrapiis erT-erTi mxaris mmarTveli, anda XIX satrapiis
gamgebeli (T. qemerteliZe. qarTlis iberiis samefos warmoqmnis
TariRis Sesaxeb, saqarTvelos xelovnebis muzeumi narkvevebi, t. VI,
2000, gv. 31).
SesaZloa aleqsandre makedonelma azons XIX satrapiasTan erTad
Caabara mis CrdiloeTiT mdebare qveynis gamgeoba da am saxiT Camoay-
aliba Canasaxi axali savaraudo satrapiisa _ mcxeTis iberiisa.
`moqcevaY qarTlisaYs~ cnobiT azoni iyo ara mxolod aRmosavleT
saqarTvelos, aramed mTeli istoriuli saqarTvelos gamgebeli _ `egris-
wylidan~ albaneTamde, anu dasavleT saqarTvelo (aRmosavleTTan er-
Tad) mis mier imarTeboda. aseve gadmogvcems `qarTlis cxovrebac~.
aleqsandre makedonelis gardacvalebis Semdeg 323-316 wlebSi mdi-
nare araqsis Sua welze Camoyalibda e.w. `araratis~ somxuri saxel-
27
mwifo. iqamde es teritoria, istoriuli arian-qarTlis erTi nawili,
qarTvelebiT _ qarTveluri tomebiT iyo dasaxlebuli. qsenofonte
aq, araqsis xeobaSi, miuTiTebs fasianebisa da qaldebis, herodote _
alarodielebis cxovrebas. aq, Zv.w. VI s-is bolo meoTxedsa da Zv. w.
V s-Si alarodielebi da fasianebi saxlobdnen.
T. qemerteliZe wers _ `md. araqsis xeobaSi somxuri eTnikuri ele-
mentis masobrivi SeRweva Zv. w. IV saukunis pirveli naxevrisaTvis aris
savaraudo~ (iqve, gv. 36).
arian-qarTlis momcvel am miwa-wyalze somxebs SeRweva dauwyiaT
qristeSobamde IV saukunis dasawyisSi.
albaT maT Semosevas Tu gaeqca arian-qarTlis mefis Ze azoni da Crdi-
loeTiT gadasaxlda.
arian-qarTlis samefos miwa-wyalze somxebs CamouyalibebiaT aseve
kidev erTi somxuri samefo `mcire armenia~. is moicavda yofili XVIII
satrapiis teritorias, maT Soris taos nawils, spers, yara-sus zemo
dinebas (Zv.w. IV s-dan), iqamde am miwa-wyalze cxovrobdnen sasperebi,
matienebi da alarodielebi (safiqrebelia, rom mcire armeniis mkvidri,
adgilobrivi, qarTuli mosaxleobis eTnikuri saxe bolomde ar Secv-
lila da iq qarTvelebi kidev didxans cxovrobdnen, rasac miuTiTebs
faqtebi imisa, rom am regionis maxlobel, uSualod momijnave miwa-
wyalze VI-VII s-Si Camoyalibda `qarTvelTa samTavro~ (somexTa same-
fos SemadgenlobaSi), IX-X saukuneebSi damoukidebeli taos qarTu-
li samTavroebi, Semdeg `qarTvelTa samefo~. konstantine porfiro-
genetis cnobebidan Cans, rom X saukuneSic ki araqsis marcxena sanapi-
ros miwa-wyali iberebis saxelmwifoSi Sedioda, xolo arzrumi qar-
Tvelebs TaviaT qalaqad miaCndaT.
aristakes lastivertecis cnobiT basiani qarTuli qveyana iyo. taos
mefe daviT kurapalatis warmatebuli laSqrobebi vanis tbis mima-
rTulebiT, da am mxaris mis samefoSi gaerTianeba miuTiTebs, rom
araqsis marjvena sanapiros mxareebSic qarTvelebi jer kidev cx-
ovrobdnen da armenielebSi maTi asimiliaciis procesi ar iyo das-
rulebuli. am mxareebSi qarTvelTa eTnikuri identobis SenarCuneb-
isaTvis mniSvnelovani iqneboda faqti imisa, rom am areals esazRvre-
boda mcxeTis iberiis saxelmwifo. am mxriv aRsaniSnavia, rom I-II sauku-
28
neebSi gaZlierebuli iberia TviT somxeTis samefosac marTavda (fars-
man mefisa da misi Svilebis dros), rac `armeniis qarTuli zolis~
mosaxleobisaTvis qarTuli identobis gadarCenisaTvis didi stimu-
li iqneboda.
maSasadame, yofil XVIII satrapiaSi Zv.w. IV saukunisaTvis ori som-
xuri samefo Camoyalibda _ e.w. araratisa da mcire armeniisa. XIX
satrapiac ver acda somxur batonobas _ berZenTa da romaelTa mier
`dasavleT armeniad~ wodebuli miwa-wyali moicavda md. Woroxis zemo
da Sua dinebaTa qveynebis garkveul nawils (maT Soris taosa da sp-
eris nawilebs) da mdinare araqsis zemo dinebis auzs. tao da speri,
rogorc basiani, didxans, TiTqmis XV-XVI saukuneebamde da Semdegac
kvlav eTnikuri qarTuli qveynebi iyvnen, armenizaciis procesi am
qarTul mxareebSi SedarebiT neli iyo.
aleqsandre makedonels XVIII satrapia samarTavad gadaucia miTren
iarvandianisaTvis, romelic airaratis mefe iyo (iqve, gv. 36), maSasa-
dame savaraudod arian-qarTlis nawilic masve gadaeca.
T. qemerteliZe fiqrobs, rom radgan azonis mamis iaredosis saxe-
li msgavsia iarvandisa, amitomac isini naTesavebi iyvnen. Cveni azriT
maT orives (iarvandsa da iaredoss) saxelebi erqvaT qveynis `arianis~
saxelis mixedviT, kerZod am qveynis saxelis fuZe (e.i. `ar~) gadaq-
ceula am qveynis mflobelis sagvareulo saxelad. marTlac XVIII sa-
trapiis mmarTvelTa sagvareulo saxeli yofila iarvandianebi, iar-
vand _ saxelSi fuZe-Ziris nawilia `ar~ (i-ar-vand) iseve, rogorc
iaredosSi (i-ar-edos).
`ar~ fuZis mqone saxelebi aRniSnul regionSi mravlad iyo. to-
ponimi da hidronimi - araqsi, arsiani, arcni, arzne, arzrumi, arTvi-
ni, artaani, artanuji, Tu aras vityviT karinsa da karze _ arian-
qarTlis qveynis saxelis (arianis) Zveli naSTebi.
g. meliqiSvilma gamoTqva Tvalsazrisi, rom saxeli `somexi~ war-
momdgaria qveynis saxelisagan, `suxma~, romelic T. qemerteliZis
sityviT mdebareobda murad-sus dinebis CrdiloeTiT, dasavleT ar-
meniaSi. suxma-soxma-soxmi-somxi da aqedan somxiTi, somxiTari, somexi.
istoriulad ki suxmas xuritul qveyanaSi xuriti matienebi cxov-
robdnen.
29
rac Seexeba sakuTriv armenias, is aqemenidebis dros Sedioda XIII sa-
trapiaSi da mdebareobda vanis tbis midamoebSi, md. tigrosis zemo
dinebis regionSi md. boxtan-sus SesarTavamde. esaa qsenofontes `aR-
mosavleTi armenia~.
T. qemerteliZis azriT azoni mcxeTaSi gamefda 323-322 wlebSi
Zveli welTaRricxvisa, xolo 301 wels is daamarcxa farnavazma ar-
taanSi.
farnavazma amis Semdeg ilaSqra mcire armeniaSi (Zveli arian-qarT-
lis nawilSi) da aiRo misi mTavari qalaqi anikemaxi anu anZianZori,
saidanac ekelecis gavliT Sevida klarjeTSi. man `arian-qarTlis~
miwa-wyalze anu azonis mamulSi ilaSqra anZianZoridan _ klarjeTam-
de (SesaZloa anikemaxi iyo is qalaqi, sadac Semdeg daarsda kamaxis
saepiskoposo kaTedra).
samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos mkvidrni iwodebodnen ase _ `azna-
urebi~ (e.i. azonis politikuri memkvidreebi, STamomavlebi). qarTl-
Si ormefobis Jams (Zv.w. II-I ss.) mxolod aqauri erisTavebi ixsenebian
aznaurebad, Semdeg `aznaurebi~ - wodebriv fenad iqca (iqve, gv. 36).
saxelebi aznauri da azoni erTmaneTTanaa dakavSirebuli.
azoni mcxeTaSi 24 weli mefobda, T. qemerteliZe eTanxmeba sxvebs
da miiCnevs, rom 301 wels diadoqos antigones mokvlis Semdeg wina
aziis zedamxedvelobis ufleba mieniWa iqamde Trakiis gamgebels
lisimaqes. am droisaTvis selevkim ukan daibruna mesopotamiis gamge-
bloba. am cvlilebebma gavlena iqonia azonis bedzec. kerZod 301
wels misi mfarveli antigones mokvlis Semdeg azons aujanyda mcxe-
Tis mamasaxlisis Zmiswuli farnavazi (iqve, gv. 37). man orwliani brZ-
olis Semdeg mcxeTis taxti daiWira, mas mxars uWerda selevki, azons
ki lisimaqe. gamarjvebis Semdeg, rogorc iTqva, farnavazma azonis
mamuli qveyana anu arian-qarTli dalaSqra.
miiCneva, rom azonis mcire aziur warmoSobaze (istoriuli samxreT-
dasavleT saqarTvelodan) migvaniSnebs mis mier Semotanili gacisa
da gas kerpebi.
30
`azonis mamuli~
(yarsi, arzrumi, tao_basiani da mimdebare mxareebi)
arian-qarTli `azonis mamulad~ iwodeboda anu is (arian qarTli)
azonis mamiseuli qveyana, azonis mamis samefo iyo.
vaxuStis sityviT, azonis mamuli iyo tao-basian-arzrumis mxare
mimdebare teritoriebiT.
tao da mimdebare didi olqebi `azonis mamuli~ rom iyo, TviT
gviani drois osmalur wyaroebSicaa asaxuli.
vaxuStamde didi xniT adre, XVI s-Si, osmaluri samTavrobo wyaro
aRniSnul teritoriebTan dakavSirebiT Semdeg cnobas iZleva _ `aq
mdebare soflebis umravlesoba yandurals ekuTvnis, mcire nawili ki
azonis Svilebad cnobili aznaurebisaa~ (`Turquli wyaroebi samcxe-
saaTabagos istoriisTvis~, 1983, gv. 54). vaxuSti mTel am mxareebs
klarjeTs akuTvnebda.
wyaros mTargmnel-komentatori, c. abulaZe, aRniSnavs, rom vaxuS-
tis cnobiT, klarjeTi iyo ara farnavazis, aramed azonis mamuli,
anu arian qarTlis mefis, azonis mamis samefos nawili, romelic Sem-
dgom farnavazs iaraRis ZaliT daupyria.
amitomac vaxuSti aRniSnavda kidec _ `xolo klarjeTi ara ars wili
amaTi, aramed farnaoz daipyra Semdgomad azonis sikvdilisa~ (q. c., IV,
gv. 657). maSasadame, klarjeTi-tao-basiani _ azonis mamuli mxare iyo
da is farnavazma SemouerTa mcxeTis qarTlis samefos (kerZod, klar-
jeTi). aRsaniSnavia, rom vaxuStismieri ganmarteba klarjeTisa gan-
sxvavdeba amJamad miRebulisagan, kerZod, vaxuStis cnobiT klarjeTSi
Sedioda taoca da qaldea-zRvispireTic.
rogorc iTqva, basian-taoSi aznaurebs `azonis Svilebs~ _ TviT
XVI s-Sic ki uwodebdnen.
aRniSnul `yanduralis mamulSi~ c. abulaZis azriT, `ivaraudeba
arzrumis olqis aRmosavleT mxares mdebare yarsis olqis dasavleTi
nawili~ (es is mxarea, romelic grigol bakurianis Zem gadasca sa-
qarTvelos samefos). albaT, araa SemTxeviTi, rom am adgilebSi mde-
bareobs provincia saxelwodebiT `azordi~.
arzrumTan, `azonis mamulTan~, istoriulad dakavSirebulia Sem-
degi mxareebi:
31
`1. baiberdi _ mdebareobs md. Woroxis piras arzrum-trapizonis
gzaze, arzrumidan 100 km-is manZilze. adre Sedioda arzrumis olq-
Si, axla ki giumuSxanes sanjayia.
2. erzinjani _ olqi evfratis dablobze, arzrumidan dasavleTiT
176 km manZilze
3. alaSkerti _ mdebareobs aRmosavleT anatoliaSi, aliris olqis
sanjayia da 72 sofeli eqvemdebareba, alaSkertSi, sofel CangalSi,
arseboda qarTuli saepiskoposo kaTedra (ix. eqvTime TayaiSvili,
arqeologiuri eqspedicia kola-olTisSi da CangalSi 1907 wels,
parizi, 1938, gv. 78-80). ufro safiqrebelia, rom is iyo sxva qalaq _
`valaSkertSi~.
4. avniqi (abniqi) _ sofeli arzrumis olqis fasinleris (udris
basians) raionSi. Sua saukuneebSi ixsenieba avniqis cixe,
5. kavkasiZeebi _ taos feodalebi iyvnen da Sediodnen iSxnelis
samwysoSi. `sul sakavkasiZeo~ qarTlis kaTalikoss emorCileboda
6. ispiri (speri) _ mdebareobs md. Woroxis marjvena napirze. amJa-
mad arzrumis olqis erTerTi raionia.
7. olTisi (Turqulad olTi) _ axlandeli olTu, mdebareobs imi-
er taoSi, olTisis wyalze, daipyres osmalebma 1549 wels. amJamad
arzrumis olqis raionuli centria.
8. bingioli _ mTa, mis Crdilo kalTidan iRebs saTaves mdinare
araqsi.
9. basiani _ axlandeli fasinleri arzrumis olqSi, basianis cixe
osmaluri wyaroebis hasan kalea.
10. Cobanis xidi _ mdebareobs arzrumis olqSi, fasinleridan 15
km daSorebiT md. araqsis da kargafazaris SesarTavSi.
11. TorTumi _ arzrumis vilaieTis erT-erTi sanjayi.
12. iSxani _ amJamad arTvinis olqis sofeli.
13. fanaki _ igive bana, arzrumis olqis sofelia.
14. artaani _ mxare mtkvris zemo welze, Turqebma miitaces 1551
wels, amJamad yarsis olqSia.
15. kola _ igive `mcire artaani~, Turquli `gele~. adre Sedioda
yarsis vilaieTSi.
16. SavSeTi _ osmalebma daipyres XVI s-Si. amJamad aqvs ori Temi _
merie da imerxevi, Sedis arTvinis olqSi. SavSeTis raionSia istori-
uli tbeTi, axlandeli jevizli, winaT centri iyo saTleli.
32
17. artanuji _ mdebareobs artanujis wylis marcxena napirze,
arTvinis olqSi.
18. murRulis Temi maWaxlisa da maradidis TemebTan erTad Sedis
arTvinis olqis borCxas raionSi, iwodeba `giogTaSad~ (cnobebi moce-
mulia wignidan `Turquli wyaroebi samcxe-saaTabagos istoriisaTvis~,
Turquli dokumentebi TargmaniTa da gamokvleviT gamosca cisana
abulaZem, 1983, gv. 58).
aqedanac Cans, rom qarTuli basiani Seesabameba berZnul fasians,
Turqul fasinlers, mxares Teodosiopolisis anu arzrumis (karnu-
qalaqis) Zalze vrceli olqisa, romelSic ispiric da baiberdic Se-
dioda, Cans, istoriuli ziganas CaTvliT, romlis adgilas amJamad
gumuSxanea.
ziganas olqSi Sedioda fasisis, anu fasidis samitropolito Tavisi
4 saepiskoposoTi.
aRsaniSnavia, rom araqsis piras amJamadac mdebareobs q. fasinleri,
romelsac c. abulaZis rukis mixedviT, Seesabameba basiani, anu qala-
qi basiani amJamad iwodeba fasinlerad.
am qalaqze, anu q. basianze gadioda ZiriTadi gza, romelic olTis-
bana-artaanis gavliT javaxeTSi Sedioda. am gzas wyaroebSi `qarTlis
gza~ ewodeba. es gza mocemulia c. abulaZis rukaze (iqve, gv. 31). mxaris
didi kldianobis gamo is erTaderTi ZiriTadi gza iyo. amJamadac es gza
umTavresia. misi erTi monakveTi artaanidan SavSeTis gziT (artaan-ar-
tanuji) uerTdeba Woroxsa da Sav zRvas.
am gziT unda gaevlo artaanidan _ artanuj-SavizRvisaken, petrasken
mimaval xosros, radganac n. adoncis cnobiT, is Teodosiopolisidan,
anu arzrumidan (basianidan) gaemgzavra petraSi. es gza, c. abulaZis
sityviT, iyo `ZiriTadi samarSruto gza~ (iqve, gv. 30).
rogorc iTqva, fasisi erqva md. araqss k. porfirogenetis sityviT.
p. ingoroyvas azriT, fas, fasisi niSnavs wyals, mdinares, fasiani ki
wylian mxares, marTlac, basianis mosazRvre, mis samxreTiT mdebare
`bingioli~ iTargmneba rogorc `aTasi tba~ (iqve, gv. 30). `aTasi tbi-
Ta~ da mdinareebiT mdidari mxare marTlac wyliani, wyaluxvi unda
yofiliyo.
33
xalibTa `qaldus qveyana~ arian-qarTlis
safuZveli
( `moqcevaY qarTlisaYsa~ da strabonis cnobebi)
yvelaze uZvelesi qarTuli wyaros `moqcevaY qarTlisaYs~ mixed-
viT Tanamedrove saqarTvelos samxreTiT mdebare arian-qarTlis me-
fis Ze azonma safuZveli Cauyara `qarTlis samefos~. es momxdara
qristeSobamde IV-III saukuneebSi.
gvaqvs Tu ara romelime ucxouri wyaro, romelic gvaZlevs cnobebs
imis Sesaxeb, rom Tanamedrove saqarTvelos samxreTiT qristeSoba-
mde V-IV saukuneebSi namdvilad arsebobda raime qarTuli saxelm-
wifo, SeeZlo Tu ara iq mcxovreb mravalricxovan qarTul tomTagan
erT romelimes sxva tomebis konsolidacia da erTian saxelmwifod
Camoyalibeba?
aRniSnul epoqaSi iyo Tu ara romelime tomi gamokveTilad Zlieri?
Cven gvaqvs aRniSnuli epoqis saistorio wyaroebi, esaa qsenofon-
tes, strabonisa da sxvaTa cnobebi, romelTa dayrdnobiTac SesaZle-
belia msjeloba aRniSnul sakiTxze. esenia:
1. qsenofontes naSromi kiropedia _ romlis mixedviTac xaldebi
(xalibebi) iyo didi xalxi, fasianebi maTi gavlenis sferoSi Sediod-
nen, xalibebi fasianTa qveynis samxreTiTac ki ibrZodnen, Sesabamis-
ad isini vrcel teritorias akontrolebdnen _ trapezuntis maxlo-
beli qedebidan, vidre TiTqmis vanis tbamde.
2. strabonis cnobiT xalibebi didi xalxi iyo, radganac maTi
winaprebi troaSic ibrZodnen _ imJamindel xalibebs erqvaT aseve
aliZonebi (alazonebi). xaldebis anu xalibebis _ Tanametomeni iyvnen
karduxebi. isini vanistbispireTidan vidre SavizRvispireTamde cxov-
robdnen. kardux-xaldebis qveyana iyo erTi xalxis qveyana, romelic
n. adoncis sityviT somxebma or nawilad gakveTes.
3. megasTenes cnobiT iberebi nabuqodonosorma gadaasaxla libii-
dan SavizRvispireTSi. aq `libiis~ qveS unda igulisxmebodes ara af-
rikis libia, aramed qveyana `luvia~, romelic vanistbispireTSi mde-
bareobda. iberebi igive karduxebi unda iyvnen, romelTa erTi nawili
nabuqodonosorma vanistbispireTidan gadaasaxla Savi zRvispireTSi.
34
am gadasaxlebiTa da Tanametome xalibebisa da karduxebis urTierT-
SereviT safuZveli unda Cayroda `arian-qarTlis~ samefos. Tavis
mxriv, Cans, karduxebs mosxebis nawilad miiCnevdnen.
`moqcevaY qarTlisaY~ wers _ `da Semdgomad raodenisame Jamisa mov-
ida aleqsandre mefe yovlisa qveyanisa... da Tana-hyvanda aleqsandres
mefesa azoi, Ze arian qarTlisa mefisa, da miuboZa mcxeTa sajdomad da
sazRvari daudva mas hereTi da egriswyali da somxiTi da mTa crolisa
da warvida~ (`moqcevaY qarTlisaY~, Zveli qarTuli agiografiuli li-
teraturis Zeglebi~, I, 1964, gv. 81).
qarTli, rogorc am wyarodan Cans, jer kidev ar ewodeboda im
qveyanas, romelSic Camoyalibda axali saxelmwifo da romlis mefe-
dac dasva aleqsandre makedonelma azo. yovel SemTxvevaSi masze me-
matiane wers, rom azo iyo `pirveli mefe mcxeTas Sina~ (iqve, gv. 82),
e.i. ara qarTlisa, aramed mcxeTisa, iqamde qarTli azonis mamis same-
fos erqva (arian-qarTli). qarTli mcxeTis qveyanas azonis dros ewoda.
samefos sabolood Camoyalibebis Semdeg _ qarTlis mefe azons uwo-
des, magram, rogorc iTqva, Tavdapirvelad is iyo `mefe mcxeTas Sina~,
mcxeTa iyo dedaqalaqi, axali saxelmwifosi. am axali saxelmwifos
sazRvrebi aseTi iyo _ egriswyali, hereTi, somxiTi da mTa crolisa
(amJamad md. egriswyali gaedineba Tanamedrove afxazeTSi da is Cans
iyo md. RaliZga, bediasTan), farnavazi ukve am sazRvrebSi moqceuli
qarTlis mefe iyo.
qarTlis samefos hereTis sazRvarTan dakavSirebiT albaT, azosa
da farnavazis Jams hereTi ar ewodeboda Tanamedrove samxreT ka-
xeTs (bodbes qveyanas), rogorc miiCnevs sabWouri saistorio skola,
aramed hereTi mdebareobda mis gareT.
marTlac, rodesac farnavazma qarTlis samefo dayo administraci-
ul erTeulebad, Tanamedrove samxreT kaxeTSi mdebare `kxoeTi~ (ku-
xeTi), romlis mTavari qalaqi iyo bodisi (bodbe) kaxeTis saerisTa-
voSi Seiyvana (iqve, gv. 89), maSasadame bodbe iyo ara hereTSi, aramed
kuxeTSi.
wyaros `somxiTi~, gulisxmobs armeniis qveyanas, esaa qarTlis same-
fos samxreTi sazRvari, Crdilo sazRvarze `mTa crolisa~ mdebare-
obda. xolo klarjeTi jer kidev ar Sedioda farnavazis samefoSi, is
kvlavindeburad azos mamis arian-qarTlis samefos nawili iyo.
35
rogorc iTqva am saxelmwifos Tavdapirvelad `qarTli~ ar erqva,
aramed mas qarTli mas Semdeg ewoda, rac azom `arian-qarTlis~ same-
fodan Camoiyvana mosaxleoba saxelwodebiT `arian-qarTvelni~, da
isini ganasaxla mTel Tavis saxelmwifoSi egiswylidan hereTamde,
somxiTidan _ crolis mTamde. maSasadame, azos `arian-qarTvelni~ dau-
saxlebia rogorc dasavleT, ise aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi. am xalx-
is saxelma `qarTvelni~ misca saxelwodeba axali saxelmwifos xalxs
_ `qarTvelni~, xolo TviT saxelmwifos `qarTlis samefo~ daerqva,
radganac misi damaarsebeli `arian-qarTlis mefis Ze azo~ iyo. am
saxelmwifos daarsebis Semdeg ukve arsebobda ori `qarTlis same-
fo~, erTi iyo samxreTiT da mas `arian-qarTli~ erqva, meore ki iyo
CrdiloeTiT da misi dedaqalaqi mcxeTa iyo.
mcxeTaSi gamefebis Semdeg `ese azoY warvida arian-qarTlad, mamisa
Tvisisa, da warmoiyvana rva saxli da aTni saxlni mama-mZuZeTani da daj-
da Zvel mcxeTas. da Tana-hyvandes kerpni RmrTad _ gaci da gaim, da ese
iyo pirveli mefe mcxeTas Sina azoY, Ze arian qarTvelTa mefisa da mokv-
da. da Semdgomad misa dadga farnavaz~ (iqve, gv. 82).
Camoyalibda axali qarTlis samefo (mcxeTisa), xolo Zveli qarT-
lis samefo (`arian-qarTli~) gaurkvevel viTarebaSi aRigava pirisa-
gan miwisa. vin iyo misi mosaxleoba, sad mdebareobda is an ra bedia
ewia mis xalxs?
am kiTxvebs pasuxi gasca XII saukuneSi arsen berma, romelic daviT
aRmaSeneblis moZRvari yofila.
is werda, rom Zveli arian-qarTlis mosaxleoba iyo eTnikuri qar-
Tveloba da maT `arian-qarTvelni~ erqvaT. daviT aRmaSeneblis epo-
qis saqarTvelos ersa da Zvel `arian-qarTlis~ ers Soris pirdapiri
genetikuri memkvidreobiTi kavSiri yofila.
arsen beri wers _ `Cven Svilni varT maT arian-qarTliT gamosul-
Tani da enaY maTi vuwyiT~. maSasadame, qarTuli enac ki arian-qarTvel-
Ta ena yofila, maTi STamomavlebi _ qarTveloba iyo.
Cveni TvalsazrisiT arian-qarTlis samefo realurad arsebobda da
is warmoadgenda xalibebis (igive xaldebis) saxelmwifos, romelmac
SeZlo daaxloebiT Zv.w. 401-330 wlebSi taoxebis, makronebis, fasianeb-
isa da sxva qarTuli tomebis Tavis irgvliv konsolidacia da amis safuZ-
velze saxelmwifos Camoyalibeba.
36
401 wels xalibebis (xaldebis) tomi Tavisi TvaliT ixila qseno-
fontem, romelic saTaveSi edga berZenTa aTi aTas kacian razms, ro-
melic babilonidan saberZneTisaken mieSureboda.
es laSqroba Tavis or naSromSi anabazissa da kiropediaSi asaxa
qsenofontem. man gaiara fasianebis, xalibebisa da sxva qarTuli tome-
bis qveynebi. misi cnobiT xalibebi _ yvelaze meomari da saxelovani
xalxi iyo sxva tomTa Soris.
`kiropediisa~ da `anabasisis~ cnobaTa urTierTSejerebiT irkveva, rom
xalibebs//xaldebs, romelic yvelaze ufro meomar da mamac xalxad iT-
vleboda ara mxolod im mxareSi, aramed im tomTa Soris, romelTa miwa-
wyalzec elinebma gaiares (Gyr., III, 2,7; Anab., IV. 7.15), Tavisi hegemonia
da satomo saxeli samxreTiT sakmaod Sors gaevrcelebinaT~ (g. WeiSvili,
Zveli berZnebis TvaliT danaxuli istoriul-geografiuli procesebi
(qsenofonte da misi `kiropedia~, analebi, 2001, N1, gv. 10).
qsenofontes mtkicebiT qaldebi (xaldebi) omis JiniT iyvnen Sepy-
robilni (Gyr., III, 2,7), isini ibrZodnen da xSirad imarjvebdnen kidec.
fasianebis qveyana _ xaldebis gavlenis qveS iyo moqceuli, isini
akontrolebdnen Woroxis xeobasa da zRvispireTs.
ucxo TvalisaTvis qaldebi (xaldebi) Candnen dampyroblebad, ro-
melnic arbevdnen somxur soflebs, magram, rogorc Cans, isini (xal-
ibebi, igive xaldebi) Tvlidnen, rom piriqiT, somxebi SeiWrnen maT
miwa-wyalze, ukanonod waarTves saxnav-saTesi miwebi da gadaaqcies
mTagoriani qveynis mcxovreblebad, sadac saxnav-saTesi farTobebis
arqonis gamo siRaribeSi cxovrobdnen. amitomac, xaldebi iZulebulni
iyvnen Tavs dasxmodnen im somxur soflebs, romelnic maT yofil
miwa-wyalze amoizardnen. somxebi midiel-sparselTa mxardaWeris
gareSe aseT warmatebas ver miaRwevdnen. sparselebma daimorCiles
somxebi, xalibebi ki maTTan SedarebiT Tavisufalni iyvnen.
sparseTis imperiaSi somxebi imperiis erTgul xalxad iqcnen, mSvi-
dobian mcxovreblebad, miwis muSebad, romelTac imperiisaTvis Se-
mosavali mohqondaT. es somxebi fasianebis qarTuli tomis samxreTiT
cxovrobdnen. fasianebi ki, rogorc iTqva xaldebis gavlenis sfero-
Si moeqcnen, xaldebi fasianTa qveynis samxreTiT somxur soflebs
arbevdnen. amis gamo sparseTis Sahi SeSfoTebuli iyo (fasianebi araqsis
(fazisis) xeobaSi cxovrobdnen).
37
`kiropediis~ Tanaxmad, kiros didma (558-529) armeniis damorCilebis
Semdeg xaldebze galaSqreba gadawyvita (iqve, gv. 9).
xaldebis danaSaulad iTvleboda SeWra sparseTis imperiis sazRvre-
bis SigniT (radganac armenielebi ukve imperiis mcxovreblebad iTvle-
bodnen). am armenielebis dacva ki, SahebisaTvis mniSvnelovani saqme
iyo, ara erTi da ori Taobis manZilze.
SemdgomSi sparselebs gadauwyvetiaT armenielebsa da xaldebs
Soris mSvidobianoba CamoegdoT orive mxaris ekonomikuri interese-
bis gaTvaliswinebiT, kerZod xaldebisaTvis SeuTavazebiaT daemuSave-
binaT armenielTa mier xeldebuli saxnav-saTesi savargulebi, ris
sanacvlodac armenielebs SeeZlebodaT uSiSrad eZovebinaT Tavian-
Ti saqoneli xaldebis mTebis saZovrebze.
orive mxare daTanxmebula, magram realurad xaldebs ar Seuw-
yvetiaT ganmaTavisuflebeli omebi armenielTa winaaRmdeg da qseno-
fontes Tavisi TvaliT uxilavs fasianebis samxreTiT gaveranebuli
somxuri soflebi.
fasianebi, Cans, aSkarad Tu farulad mxars uWerdnen xaldebs arme-
nielebTan omisas, radganac fasianebi sparselebma armenielebs dau-
qvemdebares. fasianebi da xaldebi am saqmeSi konsolidirebulni Canan.
`fasianebis qveyana, romelic formalurad dasavleT armeniis sa-
traps tiribazs ekuTvnoda (Anab., VII, 8, 25) faqtiurad xalibebis gav-
lenis qveS moeqca, ufro samxreTiT xalibebi somxuri miwebis moTare-
SebiT kmayofildebodnen~ (iqve, gv. 10).
fasianebis samxreTiT aTobiT kilometrze iyo gadaWimuli gaveraneb-
uli somxuri soflebi. teritoria sparselebis TvalTaxedviT somxebs
ekuTvnoda, magram xalibebs es miwa-wyali Tavis sakuTrebad miaCndaT,
radganac somxebis dasaxlebamde iq TviTon cxovrobdnen, amitom somxe-
bi maT miwaze SemoWril mtrad esaxebodaT, amiT iyo gamowveuli xalibe-
bis Tavganwiruli omebi armenielebis winaaRmdeg.
fasianebi arzrumis arealSic cxovrobdnen da araqsis anu fazisis
xeobaSic, sadac Semdeg qarTuli provincia basiani iyo ganfenili
(arzrumidan qalaq agramde), mis samxreTiT, armenielTa mier dakave-
bul miwebze (TiTqmis vanis tbamde) SemdgomSi, mravali saukunis Sem-
deg, qarTuli saxelmwifos ganvrcobas (daviT III kurapalatis dros X
38
saukuneSi), Cans, safuZvlad edo iq SemorCenili mkvidri, Zveli, adg-
ilobrivi qaldeur-xaliburi warmoSobis mosaxleobis qarTul-erov-
nuli TviTSemecneba. erTi sityviT im mxareebis mosaxleobas X saukuni-
saTvisac ki jer kidev SemorCenili hqonda Tavisi qarTuli Zirebis ma-
xsovroba, qarTuli identobis elementebi.
qsenofontes dros taoxebisa da fasianebis konsolidacia Tavis
irgvliv namdvilad SeeZlo xalibebis mebrZol da imJamad gamarjve-
bul toms.
g. WeiSvilis TvalsazrisiT qsenofontes dros Tavisufali `xali-
bebi Woroxis xeobaSi cxovrobdnen~ (anabazisi, IV, 7.15-17, iqve, gv. 9),
miiCneva rom isini TorTomis xeobaSic cxovrobdnen, radganac aqaa
xoronimi `xaldoZori~ (iqve, gv. 9).
g. WeiSvilis azriT, `xaldoZori~ moicavda baiburTis mxares `anu
im qveyanas, sadac qsenofontes mixedviT skviTinebi cxovrobdnen~
(iqve, gv. 9).
xaldebis sacxovrisi im teritorias moicavda (Woroxidan basian-air-
aratis samxreTamde) sadac arian-qarTlis samefos arseboba moiazreba.
es, SeiZleba iTqvas, sxa teritoriebTan erTad Semdgomi mesxeTia Tavi-
si tao-basianiT Tu Woroxis xeobiT.
`eTnonimi `xaldi~ ZvelberZnebisaTvis `xalibis~ sinonims warmoad-
genda~ (iqve, gv. 9).
xaldebi rom saxelganTqmuli meomari xalxi iyo, amas strabonic
adasturebs _ misi cnobiT xaldebi trapezuntis zRvispireTis Ziri-
Tadi xalxi iyo.
strabonis cnobiT amisodan trapezuntamde zRviT iyo 2200 sta-
dioni, xolo trapezuntidan fazisamde 1400 stadioni. amisodan tra-
pezuntamde zRviT jer herakleasa da iazonis koncxebia, Semdeg ko-
tiora (farnakia) da kerasunti, romelsac mosdevs trapezunti da
trapezuntisTanave kolxida _ `trapezunti, mere kolxida, sadRac aqvea
zigopolisad wodebuli punqti~ (XII, III, 17).
(zigopolisi _ ziganaa, trapezuntis samxreTSi, istoriul kolxi-
daSi, sadac SemdegSi lazTa episkoposebis erTerTi kaTedra iyo).
ai, am viwro sanapiros `zemoT~ (e.i. trapezuntis samxreT mTianeT-
Si) cxovrobdnen qarTuli tomebi, da maT Soris strabonis mier gamor-
Ceuli qaldebi.
39
straboni wers, rom cnobili dasaxlebuli punqti zigopolisi kol-
xidaSi Sedioda.
strabonis rukaze zigopolisi ewodeba Semdgom ziganas, romelic
trapezunt-Teodosipolisis SemaerTebel gzaze mdebareobda. bizan-
tiur periodSi zigana qaldeas TemSi Sedioda. es iyo strabonis kolxi-
da (e.i. trapezuntis samxreTi da samxreT aRmosavleTi mxare _ tra-
pezunt-rize-xofas regioni da ara dasavleT saqarTvelo).
straboni wers _ `trapezuntisa da farnakiis zemoT cxovroben
tibaranebi, qaldebi da sanebi, romelTac uwin uwodebdnen makronebs,
aqvea mcire armenia, am adgilebis axlos cxovroben apaitebi, uwindeli
kerkitebi. am adgilebze gadaWimulia skidise, kldovani mTa, romelic
uerTdeba mosxur mTebs, romlebic kolxidis zemoT mdebareoben. mwver-
valebi uWiravT heptakometebs. pariadre sidenesa da TemiskirasTan
mdebare adgilebidan mcire armeniamde vrceldeba da hqmnis pontos
aRmosavleT napirs~ (straboni, XII, III, 18).
strabonisve cnobiT iberebis Tavdapirveli, Zveli sacxovrisi, ode-
sRac moicavda pariadres kalTebs, xorZenesa da gogarenas, romelnic
maTgan miitaca armeniam.
maSasadame, pariadre odesRac iberebis qveynis nawili iyo, paria-
dre ki Temiskisadan iwyeboda (amJamindeli Terme). strabonis dros
es mxareebi kvlav qarTuli tomebiT iyo dasaxlebuli, zemoTCamoTv-
lili tibaranebiT, qaldebiT, sanebiT (makronebiT), apaitebiT (ker-
kitebiT), heptakometebiT (mosinikebiT) da sxvebiT, Tumca am miwa-
wyals ukve armeniis nawilad miCnevdnen.
imis gamo, rom es iberebi (e.i. pariadres kalTebze mcxovrebi tomebi)
armeniam Zv. w. II s-Si CamoaSora iberias, isini aRmoCndnen iberiis
samefos gareT, Sesabamisad, erovnulad daucvelni.
am tomTa Soris straboni, rogorc iTqva, aRniSnavs qaldebis si-
Zlieres da maT miuZRvna Tavisi Sromis arc Tu mcire nawili. kerZod
strabonis azriT qaldebis winaprebi imdenad cnobili xalxi iyo,
rom monawileobdnen troas omSi da maT axsenebs homerosi.
straboni wers _ `exlandeli qaldebi Zvelad xalibebad iwodebod-
nen, ufro amaT Soris mdebareobs farnakia, romelsac zRvidan aqvs Se-
mosavali, pelamidebis Werisagan, xolo miwidan iRebs liTonebs, exla
40
rkinas, uwin vercxlsac, saerTod am adgilebSi sanapiro metismetad
viwroa, radgan iqve, zemoT aRmarTulia liTonebiT savse da tyiani mTe-
bi, muSavdeba ki cota. momTamadneebi Tavs irCenen liTonis mopovebiT,
xolo mezRvaurni _ mebadurobiT... vfiqrob amaT (xalibebs) axsenebs
poeti (homerosi) _ aliZonebad, `katalogSi~, paflagonielebis Semdeg:
`xolo odiosi da epistrofosi mouZRodnen aliZonebs, Soreuli ali-
bedan, sadac aris vercxlis sabado~ (str. XII, III, 20).
strabonis azriT qveyana xalibe anu alibe iyo qaldebis (xalibeb-
is) sacxovrisi `skepsiselic fiqrobs, rom saxeli Seicvala da ali-
bebidan miviReT xalibebi~ (iqve, XII, III, 20).
homerosi `alizonebs (aliZonebs) uwodebs xalibebs... zogni weren
alazonebs, zogni ki amazonebs. ... es aixsneba weriTi cvlilebiT, radgan
[efore] wers ase: `xolo alazonebs mouZRodnen odiosi da epitropo-
si~... (str. XII, III, 21-22).
straboni ekamaTeba maT, vinc fiqrobda, rom troelTa dasaxmare-
blad ar mosulan mdinare halisis gadaRmidan mcxovrebni, amitomac
strabonis epoqis erT-erTi cnobili mkvlevari roca fiqrobda, rom
haliZonebis sacxovrisi ar unda moeTavsebinaT md. halisis gadaRma,
straboni mas ar daeTanxma da gaakritika.
straboni mis Sesaxeb wers `ra mizezis gamo ar cnobs, rom md. hali-
sis gadaRmidan mosuliyo romelime mokavSire... ra daabrkolebda mo-
suliyo gaRma qveynidan, romelic aris levkosirebis iqiT... me vfiqrob,
rom araferi daabrkolebda, radgan arc egre Sors iyvnen, rom Zneli
yofiliyo iqedan mosvla~.
qaldebis Zvel qveyanas (xalibe, alibes) miucia saxeli qaldebi-
saTvis _ alazonebs ki saxeli miuciaT cnobili tomisaTvis _ ama-
zonebisaTvis (aseve qaldebisaTvis).
rogorc qaldebis, ise amazonebis sacxovrisi isazRvrebda md.
TemiskirasTan, sidenesTan, farnakiasTan axlos.
orive (qaldebi anu alazonebi da amazonebi) saxelganTqmuli meo-
mari tomi iyo.
strabonis rukaze, romelic Tan erTvis 1964 wels gamocemul mis
rusul Targmans, alizonebis (anu alazonebis) sacxovrisi kerasus-
farnas qvemoT mTianeTSia gansazRvruli pariadres qedis kalTaze.
41
straboni wers _ `farnakiisa da trapezuntis maxloblad mdebare
adgilebs zemoT arian tibarenebi da qaldeebi, vidre mcire armeniamde.
es ki sakmaod mdidari qveyanaa, mas iseve, rogorc sofenes, mudam ga-
nagebdnen Tavisi dinastebi, maTi qveSevrdomebi iyvnen qaldeebi da
tibarenebi, ise, rom trapezuntamde da farnakiamde vrceldeba maTi
xelisufleba, xolo rodesac gaZlierda miTridate evpatori, is gaxda
kolxidisa da yvela amaTi batoni~ (str. XII, III, 28).
rogorc vTqviT Zv. w. II s-Si armeniam iberiisagan miitaca pariadre,
amitomacaa, rom pariadresTan mcxovrebi tibarenebi da qaldeebi mcire
armeniis dinasts eqvemdebarebodnen trapezuntidan _ farnakiamde.
miTridate evpatorma es mmarTveloba Tavis xelSi aiRo da is kolxi-
dis mmarTvelic gaxda. es kolxida iwyeboda trapezuntis aRmosavle-
TiT, anu trapezunti erTmaneTisgan hyofda mcire armeniis dinaste-
bis miwas da kolxidas.
trapezuntidan _ farnakiamde (daaxloebiT Tanamedrove trab-
zonidan _ ordumde) mcxovrebi tibarenebi da qaldebi mcire armeni-
is gamgebel arqelaes epyra. strabonis dros is Secvala misma qvriv-
ma piTodorosma. kolxida rom trapezunts esazRvreboda Cans am uka-
nasknelis sagamgeblo teritoriis sazRvrebidan _ `tibarenebi da qal-
debi kolxidamde, farnakiamde da trapezuntamde upyria piTodoross,
romelic Wkviani qalia~ (str. XII, III, 29).
strabonis dros saxelovani qaldebi ukve dasustebulebi iyvnen,
isini Zlierebi iyvnen ori-sami saukuniT adre 401-330 wlebSi. qseno-
fontes cnobiT, rogorc iTqva, isini Zalze Zlierni iyvnen da Tavi-
anT gamgeblobas taoxebsa da fasianebzec avrcelebdnen.
kvleva aCvenebs, rom lazTa (e.i. alazonTa) saxelovani tomis sax-
eli qaldebs ukavSirdeba.
Sesabamisad arasworia, XX s-is istorikosTa TvalsazrisiT, TiTqos-
da Tavdapirvelad lazebi dasavleT saqarTveloSi cxovrobdnen, saida-
nac isini VII-VIII ss-Si trapezuntis regionSi gadasaxldnen.
araviTari wyaro ar arsebobs am mosazrebaTa dasamtkiceblad. es
mxolod varaudebia, maSin, rodesac straboni qaldebs pirdapir akav-
Sirebs alazonebTan.
42
saxeli alazoni (igive lazoni) safuZvelia satomo saxelisa lazi.
es saxeli _ lazi _ konkretulad bolo droisaTvis arc erT toms ar
erqva, magaliTad arzrumelebi lazebs uwodebdnen trapezuntis re-
gionSi mcxovrebT, da piriqiT, trapezuntelebi arzrumelebs. aqedan
Cans, rom lazonia, lazTa qveyana zogadad erqva vrcel regions,
sadac odesRac qaldebis xelisufleba vrceldeboda.
saxelisagan _ lazi _ unda iyos warmoSobili saxelebi arze, ara-
zani, arzena, arzes qveyana. es saxeli karduxebis mezobel qveyana _
`alzTanac~ unda iyos dakavSirebuli. saerTod karduxebisa da qalde-
bis saxelebis identurobac maniSnebelia maTi eTnikuri naTesaobisa.
karduxebi _ qsenofontes epoqaSi qaldebis msgavsad Zlier meomre-
bad iTvlebodnen.
strabonis cnoba iberielTa miwebis
armenielebis mier mitacebis Sesaxeb
(pariadres kalTebi, xorZene da gogarena)
straboni wers: `mogviTxroben, rom warsulSi armeniis patara qvey-
ana gafarTovda artaqsiasa da zariadrias omebis Sedegad. isini iyvnen
antioq didis mxedarTmTavrebi, misi damarcxebis Semdeg ki mefeebi gaxd-
nen. maT erTad gaafarToves TavianTi samflobelo, CamoaWres ra irgv-
liv mcxovreb xalxebs olqebi. kerZod, iberebisagan miitaces pariadres
mTiswineTi, xorZene da gogarene, romelic kiris meore mxaresaa, xali-
bebs da mosinikebs CamoaWres kareniti da qserqsene, mcire armeniis mo-
sazRvre nawilebi~ (straboni, geografia, XI, 14, 5).
antioqos didis sardlebi artaqsia da zariadri magneziis brZo-
laSi qristeSobamde 188 wels antioqosis damarcxebis Semdeg mefee-
bi gaxdnen da brZolebiT gaafarToves TavianTi samflobelo, ker-
Zod iberebisagan miitaces pariadres mTiswineTi, xorZene da gogare-
ne anu istoriuli arian qarTlis miwa-wyali, azonis mamis mamuli.
pariadres adgilsamyofeli cnobilia, xolo cnobas gogarenes adg-
ilsamyofelis Sesaxeb TviTon iZleva straboni. gogarena da gugarqi
43
ar iyo erTidaigive qveyana, kerZod gugarqi somxur wyaroebSi erqva
aRmosavleT saqarTvelos zogadad, ufro xSirad ki qvemo qarTls,
mtkvris marjvena sanapiroze. misgan gansxvavebiT gogarene mdebare-
obda ara mtkvris marjvena, aramed marcxena sanapiroze, anu mtkvris
iqiT, `meore mxares~ _ rogorc ambobs straboni _ `sakasenas Semdeg~.
gogarena mtkvris marcxena sanapiroze unda veZioT, am Ziebis dros
Cven gamogvadgeba strabonis cnoba `Sua iberiis~ Sesaxeb. Sua iberia
SemosazRvruli iyo kavkasiidan gamomavali samxreTisaken mimarTuli
qedebiT. Cveni kvleviT strabonis `Sua iberia~ qarTlis cxovrebis
`Sua qarTlia~, igive Sida qarTli SemosazRvruli suramisa da qarT-
lis samxreTisaken mimarTuli qedebiT. Tu arsebobda termini Sua
iberia, cxadia arsebobda aRmosavleTi da dasavleTi iberia, romel-
Ta mimarTac maT Soris moqceuli qveyana Suad, anu Sua iberiad iwode-
boda. aqedan gamomdinare aRmosavleT iberia unda rqmeoda Sida qarT-
lis momijnave kaxeTis regions. gogarena mis iqiT, anu kaxeTis mom-
ijnave mtkvris iqiT mdebare miwa-wyals unda rqmeoda anu Saqisa da
yabalas regionebs, dRevandel Saqisa da oguzis (varTaSenis) raio-
nebs, mingeCauris wyalsacavis iqiT. Cven es kvleva gvesaWiroeba, raTa
ganvsazRvroT xorZenas adgilsamyofeli, romelic arian qarTlis
guli, centraluri nawili unda yofiliyo.
xorZena, rogorc strabonis cnobidan Cans, pariadres mTiswineTsa
da gogarenas Sua mdebareobda. anu pariadresa da mtkvars Sua, radga-
nac mtkvris iqiT ukve gogarena iyo. aqedan gamomdinare, xorZena Ziri-
Tadad araqsis marcxena sanapiros qveyanas erqva mtkvramde, araqsis
saTavesTan gvianobamde SemorCa saxeli mcire provinciisa _ xorZiana.
Zv.w. II saukuneSi, xorZena vrceli qveyana iyo, araqsis saTavedan
mtkvramde gadaWimuli. maSasadame, pariadredan mtkvramde _ xorZe-
nas mTiani qveyana mdebareobda.
marTlac, araqsis marcxena sanapiros qveyana didxans iyo qarTve-
lebiT dasaxlebuli. konstantine porfirogenetis cnobiT sazRvrad
iberebsa da bizantielebs Soris X s-Sic ki mtkvari ido, erevnis qve-
yanas Sua saukuneebSic ki, zogierTi somexi mwerali `saqarTvelos~
uwodebda, basianisa da taos qarTvelobis Sesaxeb TviT somxuri wya-
roebi miuTiTeben, romelic qvemoTaa mocemuli.
44
maSasadame, artaqsiasa da zariadres iberebisagan miutacniaT paria-
dres kalTebis garda, araqsispireTi mtkvramde anu xorZene, mtkvris
iqiT ki gogarene.
es qveynebi qmnidnen arian-qarTls.
mitacebis Semdgom am mxareebSi daiwyo qarTvelebis armenizacia,
sxvadasxva saukuneSi sxvadasxva donisa.
armenizaciis procesi Senelda IX-X saukuneebSi. ganaxlda XI sauku-
neSi bizantiis imperatorebis basili II-isa da sxvebis iberiaSi omebis
Semdeg (im epoqaSi am mxareebs iberia erqva, xolo dRevandel saqarTve-
los im epoqaSi afxazeTad moixsenebdnen).
SavizRvispireTis regioni (igulisxmeba rogorc dasavleT saqarTve-
lo ise qaldea-arzrumis regioni), jer kidev qristeSobamde IV-III sauku-
neTa cnobebiT _ qarTvelebiT yofila dasaxlebuli babilonis mefe
nabuqodonosoris droidan (Zv. w. 604-562).
am informacias iZleva megasTene _ Zveli berZeni mwerali IV-III ss.
is wers pontos zRvis marjvena mxares nabuqodosoris mier iberTa
dasaxlebis Sesaxeb.
iberebi nabuqodosors libiidan SavizRvispireTSi gadmousaxlebia.
rogorc es mravaljer aRiniSneba am naSromSi, libiis qveynis qveS
unda igulisxmebodes vanistpispira qveyana luvia, romelic gaZliere-
buli iyo Zv.w. VII-VI saukuneebSi, es qveyana am droisaTvis frigiul-
mesxuri tomebiT iyo dasaxlebuli, romelnic Cans IV-III saukunisaTvis
ukve iberebad miiCneodnen.
iqamdec, saukuneebiT adre, d. musxeliSvilis daskvniT, es, area-
li, romlis gulsac arzrumis plato warmoadgenda, qarTvelebiT
iyo dasaxlebuli, sadac maTi saxelmwifoebrivi gaerTianebebi sauku-
neTa manZilze erTmaneTs cvlida.
is wers, taoelebis cnobili saxelmwifoebrivi gaerTianeba _ dia-
oxi (daiane), romelmac iarseba Zv. w. XII-VIII ss-Si, VII saukunisaTvis
Secvala xalibebis xalitum da Semdeg VI s-Si sasper-iberebma (d. musxe-
liSvili, aRmosavlel qarTvel tomTa gaerTianebani qarTlis same-
fos warmoqmnamde, macne, istoriis seria, 2012, 2, gv. 32).
maTi memkvidre iyo arian-qarTli, romelic IV-III ss-Si armenielTa
Setevis obieqtad iqca, Cans amis gamo mefis Ze azonma Tavisi samxe-
45
dro elitiT qarTvelebiTve dasaxlebul CrdiloeTis mxareebSi ga-
daitana saxelmwifos centri (armazSi).
arian-qarTlis qarTvelobisaTvis rTuli dro dadga, Tumca isini
TavianT erovnul vinaobas saukuneTa manZilze inarCunebdnen. arzrum-
tao-basianis regioni iveriad iwodeboda I aTaswleulSi da didxans
Semdegac.
azo-farnavazis Sidadinastiuri brZola
azo-farnavazis epoqis ori qarTlis samefodan arian-qarTls ufro
ganviTarebuli saxelmwifoebrioba hqonia da ufro Zlieri yofila
samxedro-ekonomikuri TvalsazrisiT, vidre mcxeTis qarTli.
Crdilo anu mcxeTis qarTlsac hqonia garkveuli saxelmwifoe-
briobis Canasaxebi: `mcxeTeli mamasaxlisis~ saxiT, romlis uzenae-
sobas cnobdnen sxva adgilobrivi didebulebi.
mcxeTis qarTlis dapyrobis Semdeg azons CrdiloeTis qarTvelTa
saxelmwifo mtkiced Camouyalibebia, magram Semdgom iq dawyebula
dinastiuri omi.
miiCneva, rom azo-farnavazis omi Sidadinastiuri brZolis niSniT
mimdinareobda, da rom farnavazi da azo saerTo dinastiuri saxlis
sxvadasxva ganStoebebs ganasaxierebdnen, romelTa Soris ufros-um-
crosobis principiT uflebebi da samarTavi teritoria iyo danawile-
buli (m. surgulaZe, bagrationTa samefo saxli, 1995, gv. 19). amave
saxlis wevri unda yofiliyo aseve egrisis erisTavi quji.
46
vaxtang gorgasali istoriuli
arian-qarTlis miwa-wyalze
msgavsad farnavazisa, vaxtang gorgasalmac ilaSqra istoriuli
samxreT iberiis miwa-wyalze, `azonis mamulSi~. Cans, vaxtangis mizani
iyo iberiisaTvis daebrunebina is miwa-wyali, romelic strabonis
cnobiT Zv.w. II saukuneSi armeniam Camoacala iberias (gogarena, xorZene
da pariadres kalTebi).
qarTlis cxovrebis cnobiT farnavazma qristeSobamde III saukune-
Si ilaSqra `azonis mamul~ klarjeTSi da ufro samxreTiT.
vaxuStis cnobiT, rogorc iTqva, klarjeTi moicavda ara mxolod
erT mxares, aramed uvrceles regions qaldea-trapezuntidan Woro-
xamde.
anZianZora istoriuli saqarTvelos sazRvarze mdebareobda.
sazRvars istoriul iberiasa da saberZneTs Soris mematiane aTav-
sebs anZianZorasTan (igive anZoreTTan) _ `warvida farnavaz da mo-
tyuena sazRvari saberZneTisa anZianZora da ekleciT Semoiqca~ (q. c.,
I, gv. 23).
sad mdebareobda anZianZora? g. meliqiSvili amasTan dakavSirebiT
wers _ `qarTlis samefos teritoriis samxreT-dasavleTiT ganvrco-
bas eTanxmeba wyaros cnoba farnavazis mier mcireaziuli olqebis
anZianZorisa da ekelecis (antik. wyaroebis akilesena, sofenas Crdi-
loeTiT evfratze mdebare olqi) dalaSqvraze (saqarTvelos istoriis
narkvevebi, I, 1970, gv. 455).
maSasadame, wyaros cnobiT farnavazis dros iberiis (qarTlis same-
fos) sazRvari gadioda anZianZorasTan, istoriul xorZenesTan, amiT
Cveni wyaro (q.c.) amarTlebs strabonis cnobas, rom Zv.w. II saukunem-
de iberiaSi (e.i. farnavazis samefoSi) Sedioda xorZene, gogarena da
pariadres kalTebi.
farnavazis Semdgom iberiis samefos daukargavs es teritoriebi,
magram maT dasabruneblad brZola grZeldeboda. amas miuTiTebs vax-
tang gorgaslis iq laSqroba: `waremarTa vaxtang Sesvlad saberZne-
Tad... warvida vaxtang pontos da moaoxrna gzasa qalaqni samni: anZore-
Ti, ekleci da steri da moadges laSqarni pontosa qalaqsa didsa zRvis
kidesa~ (q. c., I, gv. 160).
47
teqstidan Cans, rom vaxtangis dros aRniSnuli adgilebi ukve somx-
eTsa da pontoSi Sedioda, maSin roca farnavazis dros `sazRvari~
qarTlis samefosa da `saberZneTs~ Soris anZianZorasTan gadioda.
maSasadame, es teritoriebi iberias didi xnis dakarguli hqonda vax-
tangis dros, magram iqaur (e.i. xorZenesa da pariadres kalTebis)
mosaxleobas qarTuli eTnoidentoba da qarTuli enis codna jer
kidev SenarCunebuli rom hqonda sxva gamokvlevebidan Cans:
VII s-is somxeTSi olqi saxelwodebiT `xorZiana~ (es unda iyos
`xorZene~) mdebareobda karinTan (karaxpol-karnuqalaq-arzrumTan),
mis samxreT-dasavleTiT daaxloeboT 70 km. daSorebiT.
xorZianasa da karins Sua mdebareobda mananaRis (manralis) olqi
mardaRis (mardaliis) gverdiT.
xorZianasTan axlos, mis samxreT dasavleTiT daaxloebiT 40 km-Si
mdebareobda olqi saxelwodebiT _ anZiti. es unda iyos qarTuli
anZoreTi-anZianZora (sadac ilaSqres farnavazma da vaxtangma). pro-
vincia anZitSi tbasTan axlos iyo cixe-simagre egeRi (egeri). amave
saxelis qalaqi egegi (egeri) karin-arzrumTanac iyo. am qalaqis sax-
eli (egegi) egrisis saxels unda ireklavdes. istoriuli samxreT egrisi
am areals moicavda trapezuntis CaTvliT.
olq xorZianaSi gaedineboda amave `egr~ saxelis mqone mdinare `ege-
giki~ (mius gaili). xorZianaSi iyo cnobili punqti _ artalesi.
aRsaniSnavia, rom amJamindel TurqeTSi Zveli olqis anZitis adg-
ilas mdebareobs administraciuli olqi _ elazigi. sityvaSi `elazi-
gi (elaziRi)~ vfiqrob SesaZlebelia gamoiyos fuZe-Ziri `lazi~. sa-
xeli `lazi~, am mxareebisaTvis ucxo ar iyo. XI s-is dasawyisSi kon-
stantinopolis sapatriarqos lazikis eparqia am mxareebsac moicav-
da. aq axlos iyo lazikis eparqiis kerCanisis, xaxis, bizanasa da sxva
saepiskoposo kaTedrebi.
bizanasa da arzrums Soris mdebareobda olqi mananaRi anu manra-
lia (manarali), mas mardaRis (mardalis) olqisagan yofs `megeduxgis
mTebi~, am mTebs n. adonci xalxalis mTebs uwodebs, romelic manra-
liasa da mardalias erTmaneTisagan hyofda.
rogorc Cans, am mxareebSi eguleboda vaxtang gorgaslis cxovreb-
is avtors `saflavi didi moZRvrisa grigolisa~, somxurad bizanas
48
olqs ewodeba _ `ekegiaci~, es unda iyos vaxtangis cxovrebis ekleci.
am olqSi rukebze moniSnulia eklesia saxelwodebiT _ `surb grigor~.
xorZena, rogorc iTqva, strabons iberebis istoriul qveynad mi-
aCnda, romelic armeniam miitaca. iqauri mkvidri iberebis armeniza-
cias xeli gansakuTrebiT Seuwyo am mxareSi somxuri eklesiis ga-
Zlierebam. sabednierod vaxtangis dros qarTuli TviTSemecneba jer
kidev Zlieri yofila am mxaris sasuliero pirTa Sorisac ki, rac
kargad Cans vaxtangis cxovrebaSi.
sxvaTa Soris, xorenacis istoriaSic aris garkveuli miniSneba im-
isa, rom xorZenasa da taronis samRvdeloebam icoda qarTuli ena.
magaliTad, movses xorenaci wers _ `rac Seexeba mesrops, igi wavida
qarTvelTa qveyanaSi da madlis zegardamo miniWebiT maTac Seuqmna an-
bani vinme jalasTan erTad, romelic berZnuli da somxuri enebidan
Targmnida. xels uwyobdnen imaTi mefe bakuri da mose episkoposi. man
SearCia bavSvebi, gahyo isini or jgufad da moZRvrebad dautova Tavisi
ori mowafeTagani _ ter xorZenaci da muSe taronaci~ (movses xorena-
ci, somxeTis istoria, 1984, gv. 224). maSasadame, qarTveli bavSvebi
dayves or jgufad, raTa maT SeeswavlaT qarTuli anbani qarTuli
wmida werilis sakiTxavad. maT qarTuli enis mcodne maswavleblebi
esaWiroebodaT, aseTni ki yofilan xorZeneli mRvdeli (ter xorZenaci)
da taroneli muSe.
xorZene-taronis axlo mxareebSi qarTuli enis codnas isic miu-
TiTebs, rom v.goilaZis kvleviT iqve, arc Tu daSorebiT, q. edesa-
urhaSi yofila didi qarTuli kolonia Tavisi saganmanaTleblo kere-
biT. rukaze qalaqi edesia-urha mdebareobs olq andzitTan axlos,
mis samxreTiT 70-80 km. daSorebiT. vaxtang gorgasals `didi moZRvris
grigolis~ saflavis mlocveli mRvdlebi Zalze daexmarnen sarwmu-
noebrivi da politikuri sakiTxebis rkvevisas.
sabolood unda vTqvaT, rom armeniis mier mitacebul mxareebSi
didxans darCa qarTuli enis codna da qarTuli toponimebi (egri-
egrisi, iberia da sxva).
49
arian-qarTlis aCrdili
wm. grigol parTelis, somexTa ganmanaTleblis, cxovrebaSi aRniS-
nulia, rom mis mier qristianoba ganivrco mTel armeniaSi, qalaq
sataladan, xaldiisa da klarjeTis siaxlovidan _ masquTebamde, kaspi-
is sazRvar paitakaranamde, somexTa qalaqamde, amididan nizibinis
siaxlovidan korduenas CaTvliT midiamde.
kerZod, gaunaTlebia 16 samTavro _ angelTa saxlis mTavari, alz-
niqTa didi pitiaxSi, korduqis qveynis mTavari, gargaris qveynis
pitiaxSi, utielTa qveynis mTavari, zaravandisa da heris mxareTa
mTavari da sxvebi.
am siidan Cans, rom grigols uRvawia istoriul arian-qarTlis
miwazec, radganac es miwa-wyali grigolis dros ukve didi xnis mita-
cebuli iyo armeniis mier (Zv.w. II s-dan), da amitom mis mier ganaTle-
buli mTeli mosaxleoba ar iyvnen eTnikuri somxebi, Tumca ki maTi
olqebi armeniaSi iyvnen moqceuli.
magaliTad, utielebi _ albanelebi iyvnen sxva wyaroebis mixed-
viT, heris mTavris qveS Tu igulisxmeba Cveni istoriuli mxare here-
Ti _ arc misi mosaxleoba iyo somxuri. aseve qsenofonte karduxebs
ar miiCnevda somxebad, piriqiT, isini sxva avtorebis mier qarTvelTa
winaprebad miiCneoda. etimologiurad gargari da gugarqi msgavsia
da albaT eTnikuradac gargarelebi Tavdapirvelad qarTvelebi unda
yofiliyvnen, radganac fuZe `grg~ _ qarTvelTa eTnofuZea, misganaa
nawarmoebi ara marto sityva gugarqi, aramed `gurzen~, `gurj~, `geor-
gien~ da qarTvelTa sxva eTno-saxelebi.
`angelTa~ fuZeSic qarTuli eTnofuZiseuli Tanxmovanebia _ `gl~
(gr) _ rac uyuradRebod ar unda darCes, miTumetes, rom is sityve-
bis _ manglisis, algeTis da sxva fuZeebSic gvaqvs.
iv. javaxiSvils `kardu~ da tomis saxeli `karduxi~ erTi etimologi-
isad miaCnda. `kardu~, `qarTu~ _ sityva `qarTuelis~ safuZvelia. mis-
ganve unda iyos mcxeTis samefos saxeli `qarTli~.
episkoposi ibirbzxua, romelic agaTangelozis cnobiT wm. grigols
iverielTaTvis ukurTxebia, unda yofiliyo ara mcxeTis iveriis episko-
posi, aramed episkoposi armeniis iveriisa, tao-arzrumis momijnaved
50
mdebare miwa-wylisa anu istoriuli arian-qarTlis nawilisa, mis gver-
diT trapezuntis mimarTulebiT mdebareobda lazebis qveyana, romlis
episkoposic, am cnobiT, masve (wm. grigols) ukurTxebia, xolo klarje-
Ti, Tavisi zRvispiriT, ara wm. grigolis, aramed, wmida ninos sagan-
manaTleblo areals warmoadgenda somxuri wyaroebis cnobebiTve.
51
Tavi II
wyaroebis da literaturis mimoxilva
istoriuli arian-qarTlis miwaze mcxovrebi
qarTuli tomebis Sesaxeb
qsenofonis `kirosis anabasisi~
(qsenofoni, kirosis anabasisi, antikuri kavkasia, enciklobedia I, 2010)
qsenofontem (daaxl. Zv.w. 430-355) Tavisi berZenTa 10.000 kaciani
laSqriT 401 wels gaiara qarTul tomTa miwa-wyalze, misi mizani iyo
Savi zRvis navsadgurebiT jari samSobloSi daebrunebina. mas ar surda
omi am tomebTan, aramed mxolod maTi teritoriis gavliT zRvasTan
misvla, magram 10.000 kacs kveba esaWiroeboda.
qsenofonte mzad iyo produqti SeeZina da am tomebis winamZRolebs
Txovda misTvis bazari gaexsnaT, magram Tu ki bazars ar uxsnidnen,
iZulebuli iyo ebrZola da sursaTi ise moepovebina.
saerTod, mTeli es miwa-wyali ukve sparseTis imperias hqonda dapy-
robili, sparseTis Sahebi ki mxars uWerdnen iq mcxovreb armenielebs,
radganac armenielebi saxelmwifos mSvidobiani mcxovrebni iyvnen,
xolo qarTuli tomebi (karduxebi, xalibebi, xaldebi, taoxebi, mak-
ronebi, kolxebi, drilebi, mosinikebi, tabarenebi da sxvebi) sparselebs
ebrZodnen TavianTi miwa-wylis TavisuflebisaTvis.
jer midielebma, imJamad maTi mxedarTmTavris kirosi meTauro-
biT, Semdeg ki sparselebma moaxerxes am teritoriis saukeTeso sax-
navi miwebidan qarTvelTa tomis gandevna (kerZod ki xalibebisa) da
maT adgilebze armeniel miwaT-moqmedTa Casaxleba, rac, Cans qseno-
fonis meore wignidan, romelic kirosis sadideblad dawera (kiro-
pedia).
52
armenielebsa da qarTvel tomebs Soris daZabuloba iyo saxnav-
saTesi miwebis gamo, magram radganac sparseTi mpyrobeli qveyana iyo,
is Tanxebs ar iSurebda raTa armenielTa jari gaeZlierebina, rom-
lis meSveobiTac wesrigs amyarebda aRniSnul teritoriaze. am jar-
Si, qarTveli tomebis warmomadgenlebsac qiraobdnen. magaliTad
taoxebi da xalibebi dasavleT armeniis mmarTvelis, mefis megobar
tiribazis jarSi msaxurobdnen moqiravneebad (qsenofoni, kirosis ana-
bazisi, antikuri kavkasia, enciklopedia I, 2010, gv. 137).
qsenofonte TviTve wers, rom armenielebisagan gansxvavebiT, qarTu-
li tomebi _ karduxebi, taoxebi da qaldebi ar emorCilebodnen
sparselebs.
is wers: `Tu bazars ar gvixsnidnen, Cven TviTon movipovebdiT sur-
saTs, magram ara Tavxedobis, aramed aucileblobis gamo. karduxebs,
taoxebs da qaldebs, Tumca isini mefes ar emorCilebian da Zalian sa-
SiSnic arian, Cven mtrad movekideT, radgan bazars ar gvixsnidnen da
sursaTis warTmeva aucilebeli gaxda~ (qsenofoni, kirosis anabazisi,
iqve, gv. 137).
aRniSnuli tomebidan mxolod fasianebi da hesperitebi daimor-
Ciles sparselebma da maT mmarTvelad zemoT aRniSnuli tiribazi
dauniSnes (maTi miwebi saukeTeso iyo saxnav-saTesad).
`xolo karduxebi, xalibebi, qaldebi, makronebi, kolxebi, mosi nikebi,
koitebi da tibarenebi ki damoukidebelni iyvnen~ (qsenofoni, kirosis
anabazisi, antikuri kavkasia, eniklopedia I, gv. 137).
berZenTa jari gaemarTa CrdiloeTisaken da vanis tbis siaxloves
mis samxreT-dasavleTiT jer SexvdaT qarTvelTa tomi, romlis sax-
eli iyo _ `karduxebi~.
(saxeli `karduxi~ sityva `kardu~-saganaa miRebuli, xolo `xi~ _
mravlobiTobis mawarmoebeli sufiqsia. `kardu~ _ iyo saxeli xalx-
isa, romlisaganac nawarmoebia aseve saxeli `qarTu~ da sityva `qar-
Tueli~, e.i. `qarTus~ qveyneli. kardu da qarTu erTi fuZea, amito-
mac miiCneva, rom karduxebi _ qarTuli tomi iyo, romelic ebrZoda
maT qveyanaSi SeWril armenielebs da maT mfarvel sparselebs).
karduxebma ifiqres, rom sparselTa mefis megobari qsenofonte
da sparselTa mefis samsaxurSi myofi misi 10.000 kaciani jari ar-
53
menielTa mxardamWeri laSqari iyo. amitomac maT medgrad ibrZoles
berZenTa am jaris winaaRmdeg, ufro metic, bevrs ecadnen qsenofon-
te da laSqris meTaurebi, magram karduxebma piradi, sasaubro kon-
taqtic ki ar daamyares maTTan.
Semdeg saukuneebSi, karduxebma armenizacia-gasomxebisagan mainc
ver SeZles Tavis dacva, Tumca, armeniaSi SemdgomSic iTvleboda,
rom somxeTis provincia `korduk~-Si (kordvacis qedis samxreTiT,
vanis tbis samxreT-dasavleTiT), `kordik verin~-Si, `kordik mijin~-
Si da `kordik nerkin~-Si mcxovrebi tomebi _ ar iyvnen armenielebi,
maT tomobrivi sxvaoba hqondaT armenielebisagan.
karduxebis qveyanaSi Sesvlamde qsenofontes acnobes _ `mTebze
mimavali gza CrdiloeTiT romaa mimarTuli, karduxebTan migiyvanT,
isini cxovroben mTebSi, meomari xalxia da sparsTa mefes ar emorCilebi-
an. maT Tavs daesxa am mefis asoc aTasiani (120.000) jari da maTgan ukan
aravin dabrunebula (karxudebis mTebi miuvalia)~ (qsenofoni, kiro-
sis anabazisi, antikuri kavkasia, enciklopedia I, 2010, gv. 118).
aseve qsenofontes uTxres _ `elinma jariskacebma gaiges rom Tu
isini SeZleben karduxebis mTebis gadalaxvas da mdinare tigrosis saT-
aveebze misTvlas, mivlen armeniaSi~ (iqve, gv. 119).
karduxebis qveyanasa da armenias erTmaneTisagan sazRvravda mdinare
kentriti (iqve, gv. 120).
berZenma jariskacebma brZoliT gaiares karduxebis qveyana, qse-
nofonte wers, rom karduxebs hqondaT _ `mravalricxovani da mSve-
nieri saxlebi, savse sursaTiT. iq Rvino ise bevri iyo, rom siliT amole-
sil ormoebSi hqondaT Senaxuli~ (iqve, gv. 120).
karduxebi laSqrobisas da marSirebisas mRerodnen _ `Cqara wavid-
nen raRac simRerebis mReriT~ (gv. 121).
elinebma gadalaxes md. kentriti, meore napirze ukve armenia iwye-
boda. armeniis sparselTa samxedro xelisufals Tavis jarSi daqirave-
buli hyavda qarTuli tomebi xaldebisa da mardebis jariskacebi _
`isini iyvnen orontisa da artuxis moqiravneebi~ (iqve, gv. 121). mag-
ram maT (armeniul jars), saboloo jamSi berZnebTan ar uomiaT, ubra-
lod, akvirdebodnen maT moZraobas.
54
karduxebi ebrZodnen armenielebs, amitomac md. kentritis gadal-
axvis Semdeg rac berZnebma 5 farsangi (25 km) `iares armeniaSi vake
adgilze, aq karduxebTan omis gamo mdinaris axlos ar iyo soflebi~
(iqve, gv. 122).
Semdeg miadgnen did sofels, sadac satraps sasaxle hqonda, aqedan
10 farsangis (50 km) Semdeg iyo mdinare tigrosis saTave, aqedan 15
farsangSi (75 km) miadgnen md. teleboass, romlis napirebzec mrava-
li sofeli iyo, xolo qveyanas erqva dasavleT armenia, misi mmarTve-
li iyo mefis megobari tiribazosi (iqve, gv. 122).
aqedan berZnebma dablobze iares 15 farsangi (75 km) da miadgnen
soflebiT savse teritorias, isini elodnen rom Tavs daesxmodaT
tiribazi, romelsac Tavis jarSi hyavda moqiravneebi `xalibebi da
taoxebi~ (iqve, gv. 123). aqedan iares kvlav 75 kilometri da miadgnen
md. evfrats, romelic gadalaxes am mdinaris (e.i. evfratis) saTavis
axlos.
aqedan Sevidnen dablobSi, radganac zamTari idga, iares TovlSi
50 km da miadgnen erTerT sofels, aqedan 20 stadionSi (daaxl. 2 km-
Si) mdebare soflebSi ganawildnen mosasveneblad. maT uxvad miiRes
sasmel-saWmeli da sufrasTanac `maT barbarosul samosiani armeni-
eli biWunebi emsaxurebodnen~ (iqve, gv. 125). Semdeg `SeekiTxnen sof-
lis Tavkacs, ra qveyana iyo es? man ki miugo, rom es iyo armenia~
(iqve, gv. 125). ikiTxes romeli iyo mezobeli qveyana, upasuxes _ `me-
zobeli qveyana _ Tqvan man _ xalibebisaa, da iqauri gzac miaswavla~ (iqve,
gv. 126).
aqedan Cans, rom qarTul tomebs _ karduxebsa da xalibebs Soris
armenielTa SeWris gamo qveyanas ukve `armenia~ erqva, Tumca unda
vifiqroT, rom iqauri mkvidri mosaxleoba ZiriTadad armenizebuli
qarTvelebi iyvnen.
aRniSnuli gziT Sevidnen `mezobel~ anu xalibebis qveyanaSi.
amis Semdeg miadgnen md. araqss, romelsac qsenofonte `fasiss~
uwodebs (aRsaniSnavia, rom aTasxuTasi wlis Semdegac, X s-Si, kon-
stantine porfirogeneti araqss kvlav `fasiss~ uwodebda, romelic
imJamadac sazRvari iyo armenielebsa da iberebs Soris). araqsis xe-
obaSi somxebi ar cxovrobdnen.
55
`amis Semdeg, md. fasisis gaswvriv, elinebma iares Svidi gadasavali,
dReSi xuT-xuTi farsangi~ (iqve, gv. 126). e.i. sul gauvliaT 35 farsan-
gi, rac 175 km-ia. amis Semdeg kidev 10 farsangi (50 km) uvliaT da
mividnen adgilas `romelic vakeze eSveboda, sadac maT daxvdnen xalibe-
bi, taoxebi da fasianebi (fasiselebi)~ (iqve, gv. 126). e.i. im gziT, romelic
miaswavles xalibebis qveyanaSi, Semdeg ki fasianebis qveyanaSi.
e.i. fasisis gaswvriv maT uvliaT sul 45 farsangi anu 225 km. See-
brZolnen qarTvel tomTa laSqars, gaimarjves da Sevidnen taoxebis
qveyanaSi.
fazisis anu araqsis gaswvriv aRniSnuli 225 km xalibebis qveyana
yofila (rogorc zemoT aRiniSna) _ armeniis qveynidan berZnebi xal-
ibTa qveyanaSi Sevidnen, gaiares 225 km da miadgnen taoxebis qveyanas.
taoxebis qveyanaSi berZnebma gaiares 30 farsangi (150 km). aqedan Cans,
rom qsenofontes dros araqsis xeoba da Woroxis saTaveebi ar iyo
somxebiT dasaxlebuli.
taoxebis erT-erTi cixe-simagris aRebis dros `elinebi sazare-
li sanaxaobis mowmeni gaxdnen _ qalebi isrodnen bavSvebs ufskrul-
Si da TviTonac Tan mihyvebodnen, amgvaradve iqceodnen mamakacebic~
(iqve, gv. 128)
es Tavganwirva qarTvelebisa, samSoblosa da piradi Tavisuflebis
SesanarCuneblad, miagavs ebraelTa Tavganwirvas masadas cixe-sima-
gris dacvis dros ax. w. 70 wels, am ambidan TiTqmis 500 wlis Semdeg.
aqedan berZnebma iares 50 farsangi (250 km) kvlav xalibebis miwa-
wyalze. aqedan Cans, rom im tomTa Soris, romelTa qveyanazec maT
iares, yvelaze mravalricxovanni xalibebi iyvnen da, amasTanave, didi
miwa-wylis mqonni. am arealze _ araqsze da Woroxze _ somxebi ar
cxovrobdnen.
qsenofonte wers _ `Semdeg iares Svidi gadasavaliT ormocdaaTi
farasangi xalibebis miwa-wyalze. isini umamacesni iyvnen im tomebs
Soris, romelTa miwa-wyalzec gaiares. xalibebi xelCarTul brZolaSi
ebmebodnen elinebs~ (iqve, gv. 128).
`amasTanave mRerodnen da rokavdnen maSin, roca mteri maT uyureb-
da~ (qsenofoni, kirosis anabazisi, antikuri kavkasia, enciklopedia I,
2010, gv. 128).
56
xalibebisagan amis gamo `elinebma veraferi waiRes da ikvebebodnen
isev im pirutyviT, romelic taoxebs waarTves~ (iqve, gv. 128).
amis Semdeg berZnebi mividnen mdinare harpasosTan da Sevidnen
skviTinebis qveyanaSi, vakeze iares 20 farasangi (100 km) da Sevidnen maT
soflebSi. amis Semdeg gaiares kvlav 20 farasangi da mividnen `did,
mdidar da mWidrod dasaxlebul qalaqSi~, romelsac erqva gimniasi.
aqedan iares 5 dReRame da mividnen mTamde (misi saxeli iyo Teqe-
si), saidanac Canda Savi zRva.
aqedan gziT Sevidnen makronebis qveyanaSi, sadac gaiares 50 km da
miadgnen mdinares, romelic makronebis qveyanas skiTinebis (skviTineb-
is) qveynisagan yofda.
meore mxares meomari makronebi idgnen. berZenTa Soris aRmoCnda
tomiT makroni mona, romelmac SeZlo Suamavloba da berZnebi makro-
nebs daumegobra.
makronebis qveyanaSi iares sami dRis ganmavlobaSi kolxebis qvey-
anamde. kolxTa laSqari daamarcxes da Sevidnen soflebSi, sadac Taf-
lis fiWi Wames, romelTac maT didad avno, meore dRemde mTvralebs
hgvandnen da fexze dgoma ar SeeZloT.
aqedan berZnebma gaiares kolxebis soflebSi 35 km. da mividnen
zRvasTan mdebare `trapezusSi _ mWidrod dasaxlebul elinur qalaq-
Si, romelic sinopelTa dasaxleba iyo kolxebis qveyanaSi, pontos
evqsiniosis sanapiroze. aq, kolxebis soflebSi elinebma daaxloebiT
30 dRe dahyves~ (iqve, gv. 131) `da anadgurebdnen kolxiss (e.i. kolx-
eTs)~ (iqve, gv. 131).
imJamad kolxebis qveyanSi mdebareobda trapezunti.
qsenofonte ganarCevs `baris kolxebs~ da mTis kolxebs. pirvele-
bi berZnebs ar ebrZodnen. aqedan Seesivnen drilebis qveyanas. drilebi
iyvnen `pontospireTis yvelaze meomari xalxi~ (iqve, gv. 132). (drilebi,
Cans SemdgomSi TrialeTSi gadasaxldnen).
trapezusidan berZnebi elinur qalaq kerasuss miadgnen `sinonel-
Ta dasaxleba kolxebis qveyanaSi zRvis sanapiroze~ (iqve, gv. 133). e.i.
trapezuntica da kerasusic kolxebis qveyanaSi mdebareobdnen.
berZenTa jari kerasusTan orad gaiyo _ erTi jgufi gemebiT zR-
viT gaemgzavra (Cans trapezuntidanac gemebiTve micuravdnen), meo-
57
rem ki xmeleTiT ganagrZo gza da miuaxlovdnen `mosinikebis sazR-
vars~ (iqve, gv. 133).
mosinikebis tomi or mtrul jgufad iyo gayofili _ piriqiTel
mosinikebs mtrobdnen piraqeTa mosinikebi. piriqiTelebma samxedro
kavSiri Sekres berZnebTan piraqiTelebis dasamarcxeblad.
meore dRes isini movidnen `erTi mTliani xisagan gamoTlili sama-
si naviT. TiToeul navSi sam-sami kaci ijda~ (iqve, gv. 134). isini `dair-
azmnen da erTma maTganma simRera wamoiwyo, danarCenebma ritms fexi
auwyes da win gaswies~ (iqve, gv. 134).
isini berZnebTan erTad ekveTnen TavianT mter Tanatomelebs,
romelTac qalaqis dasaufleblad eomebodnen. maTi mefe am qalaqSi
erT maRal adgilas mdgar xis koSkSi (mosinosSi) ijda. is xanZris
dros ar gamovida koSkidan da daiwva meore mefesTan erTad, romel-
ic sxva koSkSi ijda. mosinikebs aRmoaCndaT puris didi maragi, am-
forebSi ki damarilebuli delfinis xorci. hqondaT uamravi maragi:
kakali, qoni, Rvino. gamarjvebulma berZnebma es aRebuli qalaqi Ta-
vianT megobar mosinikebs gadasces. aq ramdenime qalaqi iyo erTmane-
Tisagan 80 stadioniT daSorebuli (16 km). mdidar mosinikebs hyavdaT
moxarSuli wablis Wamisagan dasuqebuli bavSvebi `ganazebulebi da
metismetad TeTrebi~ (iqve, gv. 136).
qarTuli tomebi TeTrkanianebi iyvnen.
amis aRniSvna saWirod migvaCnia, radganac Zv. w. VI-V ss. cnobebiT
kolxebi `Savkanianebad~ an `muqkanianebad~ aRiwerebian, magram ukve V
s. bolodan kolxTa aRmweri mwerlebi, romelTac piradad naxes isi-
ni, aRar weren kolxTa muqkanianobis Sesaxeb.
mosinikebic TeTrebi iyvnen.
qsenofonte wers _ `isini cdilobdnen yvelas Tvalwin SekavSire-
bodnen heterebs, romlebic elinebs Tan mihyavdaT, radgan aseTi iyo
maTi adaTi. yvelani _ mamakacebica da qalebic _ TeTrkanianebi iyvnen...
sajarod akeTebdnen imas, rasac sxvebi ganmartoebiT sCadian... saku-
Tar Tavs elaparakebodnen, TavisTvis icinodnen da moyvebodnen xolme
rokvas, sadac ar unda yofiliyvnen~ (iqve, gv. 136).
berZnebma mosinikebis qveyanaSi `rva staTmosi iares da mividnen xal-
ibebTan, isini cotani iyvnen, emorCilebodnen mosinikebs da upirate-
58
sad rkinis damuSavebiT irCendnen Tavs, aqedan elinebi mividnen tibare-
nebTan. tibarenebis qveyana ufro vake iyo. maT zRvis sanapiroze gamagre-
buli dasaxlebebi hqondaT~ (iqve, gv. 137).
`elinebma or dReSi mSvidobianad gadalaxes es qveyana da mividnen
kotioraSi, elinur qalaqSi, sinopelTa mier tibarenebis qveyanaSi
daarsebul axalSenSi~ (iqve, gv. 137).
xalibebi, rogorc qsenofontes aRweridan Cans berZnebs Sexvdnen
3 adgilas, karduxebis Semdeg, armenielTa qveynis gadalaxvis Semdeg
da mosinikebis mezoblad zRvis sanapiroze (es ukanasknelni sustebi
iyvnen, danarCen or adgils mcxovrebni ki kargi meomrebi).
amitomac unda vifiqroT, rom is qveyana, romelnic armenielebs
eWiraT md. kentritidan araqsamde _ Tavdapirvelad xalibebis anu
qaldebisa iyo, da isini gagrZelebiT cxovrobdnen kotioradan araqsam-
de da kentritamde. isini, Cans, armenielebs daumarcxebiaT da amit-
om xaldebsa da armenielebs Soris didi omi iyo gaCaRebuli, rogorc
es qsenofontes meore naSromidan _ kiropediadan Cans, sabolood,
xalibebi mxolod zRvis piras darCnen, danarCeni maTi sacxovrisi
araqsidan kentritamde armenielebma daiWires.
rogorc iTqva, md. kentritidan berZnebma gaiares 25 km _ dausax-
lebel armeniaSi, 50 km-is Semdeg iyo tigrosis saTave. 75 km-is Sem-
deg miadgnen md. teleboass _ es iyo dasavleT armeniaSi. aqedan iares
dablobze 75 km, Semdeg kvlav gaiares 75 km. da miadgnen md. evfrats,
misi saTavis axlos. Semdeg dablobze iares 50 km. aq kvlav armeniis
qveyana iyo. aqedan iwyeboda xalibebis qveyana, miadgnen md. araqss
(faziss) (araqsis xeoba xalibebisa iyo imJamad), aq fasisis gaswvriv
iares 225 km. xalibebis qveyanaSi da miadgnen taoxebis qveyanas. taox-
ebis qveyanaSi iares 150 km. aqedan berZnebma kvlav 250 km iares kvlav
xalibebis miwaze da miadgnen md. harpasoss da Sevidnen skviTinebis
qveyanaSi, aqve vakeze iares 100 km amis Semdeg kvlav iares 100 km da
miadgnen qalaq gimniass. aqedan iares 5 dRe-Rame da miadgnen mTis
mwverval Teqiss, saidanac Canda zRva. aqedan iares 50 km da miadgnen
makronebis qveyanas, am qveyanaSi iares sami dRe-Rame da miadgnen kolx-
ebis qveyanas. iares 35 km da Sevidnen qalaq trapezusSi, da Semdeg
kerasusSi. es qalaqebi kolxeTis qveyanaSi mdebareobdnen. kerasus-
59
idan Sevidnen mosinikebis qveyanaSi. iares `rva staTmosi~ da mividnen
`sust xalibebTan~, aqedan Sevidnen tibarenebis qveyanaSi, gadalaxes
or dReSi da mividnen qalaq kotioraSi _ `tibarenebis qveyanaSi daarse-
bul axalSenSi~.
aqedan berZnebi gaemarTnen md. fasisisaken _ qsenofontes strat-
egosebma uTxres _ `umjobesia fasisisaken gacurva, raki xomaldebi
arian, fasianTa qveynis dapryoba. iq maSin aietis SviliSvili mefobda~
(iqve, gv. 137).
es bolo winadadeba Zalze abnevs mkvlevarebs, radganac qseno-
fonte md. fasiss axsenebs or adgilas. erTi fasisi iyo araqsi, said-
anac berZnebma gaWirvebiT CaaRwies zRvamde, amitomac isini, cxadia,
ukan aRar dabrundebodnen. amitomac Tavisi naSromis bolos nax-
seneb md. fasisis qveS qsenofonte sxva romeliRac mdinares gulisx-
mobs, romelsac aseve fasisi erqva.
qarTveli mkvlevarebi fiqroben rom es meore fazisi iyo md. rio-
ni, rasac Cven ar viziarebT, Cveni azriT qsenofonte am meore mdinare
fazisSi gulisxmobs md. kelkitis zRvasTan SesarTavs. aq zRvis napi-
ras koncxebs erqvaT heraklesa da iazonis koncxebi. mis axlos amJa-
madac arian punqtebi `fasinlerisa~ da `pazaris~ saxelwodebiT. md.
kelkitis SesarTavi marTlac axloa q. kotiorasTan da aqeTken iyo
samSoblosken mimavali berZnebis gza.
davajamoT qsenofontes jaris mier ganvlili gzis sigrZe _
md. kentritidan armeniis qveyanaSi berZnebma iares 25 km + 50 km +
75 km + 75 km (evfrati) + 50 km (araqsi) da miadgnen xalibebis qveyanas
araqsTan. e. i. armeniaSi sul iares 275 km.
Semdeg xalibebis qveyanaSi md. araqsis piras iares 225 km.
Semdeg taoxebis qveyanaSi 150 km,
da kvlav xalibebis qveyanaSi Sevidnen, sadac 250 km iares, mi-
adgnen md. harpasos,
da Sevidnen skviTinebis qveyanaSi, sadac iares 200 km qalaq gim-
niasamde. aqedan iares 5 dRe mwverval Teqisamde.
aqedan 50 km-Si mdebareobda makronebis qveyana, aq iares 3 dRe
da miadgnen kolxebis qveyanas, iares 35 km da miadgnen q. tra-
pezuss.
60
e. i. md. kentritidan trapezusamde berZnebma gaiares 275 km + 225
km + 150 km + 250 km + 200 km + 5 dRe + 50 km + 3 dRe + 35 km = 1185 km
+ 8 dRe.
Tu erT dRis gavlas berZnebi moundnen 20-30 km maSin 8 dReSi
isini daaxloebiT 200 km-s gaivlidnen, rac jamSi Seadgens sul 1385
km, anu daaxloebiT 1400 km.
maSasadame, qsenofontes jarma iara ase: is Sevida karduxebis qvey-
anaSi Tanamedrove qalaq mardinTan axlos ( TurqeTSi), iara Tanamed-
rove qalaq elazigis mimarTulebiT (amJamadac ki gza am mimarTulebiT
midis), aq jarma gadalaxa tigrosis erT-erTi Senakadi, romelsac
erqva kentriti, da miadga dasavleT armeniis qveyanas. am mdinaris
gadalaxvis Semdeg SemoxvdaT meore mdinare teleboasi (es unda iyos
Tanamedrove md. murati). amis Semdeg gaagrZeles gza armeniaSi da
miadgnen md. evfratis saTaves (es unda iyos evfratis Senakadi, romel-
sac amJamindel Turqul enaze ewodeba md. peri (Peri)) da Tanamedrove
qalaq tekmanTan axlos miadgnen md. araqsis anu fasisis saTaves da
iares mis gaswvriv, aq hqondaT SebrZoleba xalibTa, taoxTa da fa-
sianTa gaerTianebul laSqarTan da Sevidnen taoxebis qveyanaSi. taox-
ebis qveynidan gadavidnen Zliermeomari xalibebis (qaldebis) qveya-
naSi da miadgnen md. harpasoss, es unda iyos md. Woroxi. aq iyo skvi-
Tinebis qveyana da maTi qalaqi gimniasi (sadRac baiberdsa da giumiSx-
anes Soris), aqedan jari Sevida makronebis qveyanaSi, saidanac dain-
axes zRva, zRvis pirze ki kolxebi cxovrobdnen, maT qveyanaSi iyo
qalaqi trapezusi, aqedan laSqravdnen axlos mcxovreb drilebs. tra-
pezusidan jaris erTi nawili gemebiT, sxvebi ki fexiT gaemarTnen
kerasusisaken (giresuni), gaiares mosinikebis da susti xalibebis qvey-
anaSi, q. kotiorasTan miadgnen tibarenebis toms da gadawyvites ge-
mebiT da fexiT kelkitis SesarTavTan misvla, sadac fasianebi cx-
ovrobdnen da aietis STamomavali mefobda.
n. adonci pirdapir wers kidec, rom karduxebi, xalibebi, xaldebi,
fasianebi da sxva tomebi armeniis Tavdapirveli mosaxleni iyvnen,
Semdgom maT miwa-wyalze (daaxloebiT Zv.w. VI saukuneSi) SeiWrnen
armenielebi da or nawilad gayves es qarTuli mosaxleoba, kerZod,
armenielebi dasaxldnen maTi qveynis centrSi, amis gamo rogorc
61
samxreT ise Crdilo armeniaSi cxovrobdnen qarTvelebi, kerZod
samxreT armeniaSi _ kordus xalxi, Crdilo armeniaSi iverebi, dasav-
leT armeniaSi ki qald-xalibebi.
qarTuli miwebis es mtacebloba, strabonis cnobiT Semdegac gagr-
Zelebula, roca armeniam qristeSobamde II saukuneSi iberebisagan
miitaca piriadres kalTebi, xorZena da gogarena _ vrceli miwa-wya-
li dasavleT da Crdilo armeniisaken.
karduxebi da xalibebi (xaldebi) qarTvelTa tomebi, rom iyo, amis
Sesaxeb sxva uZvelesi wyaroebic werdnen.
kerZod megasTene werda, rom nabuqodonosorma iberTa xalxis erTi
nawili gadaasaxla libiidan pontos zRvis sanapiroze, iqamde ibere-
bi libielTa mezobelni yofilan.
rogorc iTqva, aq `libiis~ qveS igulisxmeba ara afrikis libia,
aramed vanis tbasTan mdebare lursmuli damwerlobis epoqis qveyana
`luvia~.
luvia vanis tbis samxreT-dasavleTiT mdebareobda, iq sadac
Semdgom karduxebi cxovrobdnen.
luvielTa mezobeli iberebis (anu karduxebisa da qaldebis) naw-
ili nabuqodonosors pontos zRvispireTSi gadausaxlebia.
am mosazrebiT Tu xsnidnen Zveli avtorebi faqts imisa, rom kar-
duxebsa da qaldebs (xaldebs), xalibebs da qaldevelebs (pontospireT-
Si mcxovrebT) erTidaigive satomo saxelebi, erTi zne-Cveulebebi
hqondaT (da Cans erTi enac).
qarTvelTa winapari qaldevelebi (xalibebi, igive alazonebi) kar-
duxebis Tanametomeebad miiCneoda, miuxedavad teritoriulad maTi
urTierTdaSorebisa.
qsenofontes uTxres, rom karduxebis qveyana aRwevda md. kentri-
tamde da tigrosis saTaveebamde. Semdeg ki armenia iwyeboda. Cven
zemoTaRniSnuli toponimikidan gamomdinare unda vifiqroT, rom
armenielebis SemoWramde xalibebis anu qaldebis qveyana iwyeboda
karduxebis mezoblad (amis naSTia toponimi alznik (Zveli alzis qvey-
nis saxelidan) da aRwevda SavzRvamde dasavleTiT da SesaZloa, aR-
mosavleTis mimarTulebiT, kaxeTis mdinare alaznamde, anu vanis
tbidan kavkasiis mTebamde kardus anu qarTvelTa Zveli qveyana iyo
ganfenili.
62
adoncis sityviT, rogorc iTqva, qarTvelTa am Zveli qveynis Sua-
gulSi SeiWra armeniuli tomebi (daaxloebiT qristeSobamde VI sauku-
neSi) da orad gayo qarTvelTa qveyana, amitomac rogorc armenielTa
samxreTiT, ise CrdiloeTiT qarTuli provinciebi mdebareobdnen.
eseni iyvnen _ somxebis samxreTiT mcxovrebi karduxebi da alznikis
xalxi, somxebis CrdiloeTiT mcxovrebi qarTlis mosaxleoba, somxe-
bis dasvleTiT mcxovrebi qaldeas xalxi _ lazebi. adoncis mosazre-
ba amJamad ignorirebulia somxur istoriografiaSi, magram is xsnis
arsebul Zvel faqtebs.
qarTuli qveynis uZveles centrSi armenielTa damkvidrebis ga-
mo qsenofontem bunebrivia jer qarTuli tomebis (karduxebis) qveyana
gaiara, Semdeg es centri, romelsac ukve armenia erqva, Semdeg ki
CrdiloeTiT da Crdilo dasavleTiT mas isev qarTuli tomebi Se-
xvda.
qsenofontes gza
1. qsenofonts jer Sexvda karduxebis mTebi, Semdeg ki tigrosis
saTave (qsenofoni, kirosis anabazisi, antikuri kavkasia, enciklope-
dia I, 2010, gv.119);
2. jer md. kentriti, mere md. tigrosis saTave (iqve, gv. 122);
3. md. kentriti `sazRvravs armenias karduxebis qveynisagan~ aq
aris veli (iqve, gv. 120);
`xaldebi Tavisufalni da mamacni arian~ (iqve,gv. 121);
md. kentriti unda iyos md. tigrosis erTerTi Senakadi anda misi
erTi nawili. oRond q. elazigis mimarTulebiT. esaa armeniisa da
karduxebis sazRvari.
4. mdinaris meore napiric vakea. mdinaridan 50 km-Si aris tigro-
sis saTave.
5. tigrosis saTavidan 15 farasangSi (1 farasangi 5 km.) _ 15 X 5 km.
= 75 km.) aris meore mdinare _ teleboasi. mis gayolebazea dasavleT
armenia.
63
teleboasi unda iyos md. muratis _ arawanis Senakadi.
6. aqedan 15 farasangi X 5 km. = 75-Si iyo md. evfrati
7. md. fazisi (araqsi) xalibebis qveyana.
iares md.fazisis gaswvriv 7 X 5 farsangi. 7 X 25 km. = 175 + 10 X 5
km. + 50 km. = 225 km. daeSvnen vakeze.
8. taoxebis qveyana 30 farsangi X 5 = 150 km.
9. xalibebis qveyana meorejer.
10. md. harparosi (Woroxi).
11. skviTinebi 20 X 5 km. = 100 km.
12. skviTinebi qalaqi gimniasi.
13. 5 dRe zRvis gamoCenamde.
14. makronebi mdinaremde 50 km.
15. mdinare sazRvravda makronebsa da skviTinebs.
16. 3 dRis gza.
17. kolxebi.
18. maTgan 2 farsangi X 5 = 10 km-Si _ trapezunti.
qsenofonte qaldebis Sesaxeb
da arian-qarTli
istorikosma g. WeiSvilma ganixila qsenofontes Sroma `kirope-
dia~, rogorc wyaro saqarTvelos istoriisaTvis.
Tavis am SromaSi (`kiropedia~), qsenofonte iseve, rogorc Tavis-
save `anabasisSi~ aRwers berZenTa 10.000 kaciani razmis laSqrobas
qarTuli tomebiT dasaxlebul mxareebSi Zv. w. 401 wels.
kerZod maT gaiares fasianebis, taoxebis, xalibebis da skviTinebis
qveynebi (g. WeiSvilis dakvirvebiT _ `eTnonimi `xaldi~ Zveli berZneb-
isaTvis `xalibis~ sinonims warmoadgenda~ (`analebi~ 2001, gv. 9).
yvela am tomTa qveynebs armenielebi esazRvrebodnen, romelnic
TandaTanobiT miiwevdnen samxreTidan CrdiloeTisaken farTo fron-
tiT da aviwroebdnen qarTul tomebs, erekebodnen maT ufro Crdilo-
eTis mimarTulebiT, kerZod saxnav-saTesi miwebi xalibebs aRar dar-
64
CaT, radganac ukve mTebSi cxovrobdnen armenielTa am miwolis Se-
degad.
Tavis mxriv, yvela es tomi da gansakuTrebiT xaldebi (igive xali-
bebi) Tavdauzogavad ebrZodnen armenielebs saarsebo sivrcis dasabru-
neblad, armenia, Tavis mxriv, ukve dapyrobili iyo sparsTa mier, amis
gamo sparseTis Sahi kiros didi xalibebis armenielebze (armenielTa
soflebze) Tavdasxmas ganixilavda, rogorc sakuTari imperiis sazRv-
rebSi SeWras.
amitomac `kiropediis~ Tanaxmad kiros didma (558-529) armeniis da-
morCilebis Semdeg xaldebze galaSqreba gadawyvita, raTa mSvidoba
Camoegdo somxebsa da maT mezobel xaldebs Soris~ (iqve, gv. 9)
qsenofontes Tanaxmad kiros didma Seariga armenielebi da xalde-
bi urTierTdaTmobaTa gziT.
g. WeiSvili wers _ `kiropediisa~ da `anabasisis~ cnobaTa urTierTSe-
jerebiT irkveva, rom xalibebs//xaldebs, romlebic yvelaze ufro meo-
mar da mamac xalxad iTvleboda ara mxolod im mxareSi, aramed im tom-
Ta Soris, romelTa miwa-wyalzec elinebma gaiares, Tavisi hegemonia da
satomo saxeli samxreTiT sakmaod Sors gaevrcelebinaT~ (iqve, gv. 10).
xaldebi igive qaldebia, etimologiurad Cans karduxebis da qalde-
bis saxelebi msgavsia:
`kardu~ anu `qardu~ `qald~ unda iyos. es fuZe aqvs qarTvelTa
TviTsaxelwodebasac _ `qarTu~.
qsenofonte qaldebis anu xaldebis sacxovrisisa da gavlenis didi
ganvrcobis Sesaxeb miuTiTebs kiropediaSi _ misi sityviT fasianebi
qaldebis gavlenas ganicdidnen, _ Tu gavixsenebT, rom fasianebis
sacxovriss SemdgomSi basiani ewoda, is didi teritoria iyo, moicav-
da Semdgomi arzrumisa da yarsis provinciebs da kidev ufro gaS-
lili iyo aRmosavleTiT _ valaSkertamde. aseTi didi arealis kon-
troli mxolod Zlier da meomar toms SeeZlo. fasisis anu araqsis
xeoba fasianebis iyo qaldebTan erTad.
g. WeiSvili wers _ `fasianebis qveyana, romelic formalurad dasav-
leT armeniis satraps _ tiribazs ekuTvnoda, faqtiurad xalibebis
gavlenis qveS moeqca, ufro samxreTiT xalibebi somxuri miwebis mo-
TareSeobiT kmayofildebodnen~ (analebi, N1, 2001, gv. 10).
65
Tu rukas davxedavT, vnaxavT, rom xalibebi Zv. w. V saukuneSi cdi-
lobdnen ekontrolebinaT is miwebi, romelic TiTqmis 1500 wlis Sem-
deg Tavis samefos SemouerTa qarTvelTa mefe daviT kurapalatma X
saukuneSi. es is iberiis miwebia Tavisi xorZeneTi da pariadres kalTe-
biT, romelic Zv. w. II s-Si iberias waarTva armeniam.
unda vifiqroT, rom Zv. w. V-IV saukuneebSi iberiulma tomebma qalde-
bis meTaurobiT SeZles konsolidacia da saxelmwifos Camoyalibeba,
romelsac `arian-qarTli~ erqva, romlis mosaxleobamac SeiZina eris
niSnebi, sakuTari eniTa da tradiciebiT.
yovel SemTxvevaSi arsen beri werda, rom qarTuli ena _ is enaa,
romelic arian-qarTlis samefoSi iyo ganvrcobili `Cven Svilni varT
maT arian-qarTliT gamosulTani da enai maTi vuwyiT~. anu qarTuli
ena arian-qarTvelTa ena yofila swored im teritoriaze, romelsac
xalibebi akontrolebdnen qsenofontes sityviT _ esaa fasianis vrceli
qveyana, aseve xorZene da pariadres kalTebi.
qaldebis sacxovrisi TviTon pariadres da mosxebis mTianeTi unda
yofiliyo. rogorc vTqviT straboni qaldebs aseve uwodebs `ala-
zonebs~, aqedan unda iyos warmoSobili satomo saxeli lazi. maTi es
TviTsaxelwodeba areklili unda iyos im vrcel regionSi, romelsac
qaldebi akontrolebdnen. rogorc iTqva, aq Cven gvxvdeba qalaqebi
erTi da imave fuZe-dasaxelebis mqoneni _ arzrumi (erzrumi), arzin-
jani (erzinjani), arze (awre) da sxva, aseve konstantine porfiroge-
netis sityviT artanujis qveyanas arzeni erqva.
Cemi azriT fuZe `arz~ miRebuli unda iyos qaldebis saxelwode-
bidan `alazoni~, `alaz~ anu `araz~ _ es fuZe am regionSi mraval
saxelSi gvxvdeba da yvelaze metadaa gavrcelebuli, TviT mdinare
araqsic ki `arazi~ erqva. `araz~-idan unda iyos arze, arzrumi, arz-
injani, arze (arwe) da sxva. amave regionis samxreTiT qalaq elazigis
saxelic mas unda ukavSirdebodes. aRsaniSnavia, rom Semdgomi elazigis
mxareebSi, romelsac anZianZora erqva, ilaSqra mefe farnavazma, roca
is ibrZoda arian-qarTvelTa mefis memkvidreobisaTvis. amave mxareebSi
ilaSqra aseve vaxtang gorgasalma. me vfiqrob, da Cans kidec, rom
farnavazi ibrZoda qarTlis saxelmwifo sazRvrebis gansamtkiceblad.
es sazRvari qarTlis cxovrebis avtors azonis mamiseuli memkvidre-
obis aRweris dros aq eguleboda.
66
rogorc iTqva, strabonis cnobiT, qaldebs aseve erqvaT saxeli _
`alizonebi~, `alazonebi~. qaldebs namdvilad rom erqvaT es saxeli
Cans uamravi toponimidan, romelic aRniSnuli sityvis fuZidan ga-
momdinareobs `alaz~(laz), `araz~, `arz~.
rogorc iTqva, es saxelebi `araz~ da `alz~ mdinareebs, soflebs,
qalaqebsa da provinciebsac ki erqvaT pontospireTidan vidre vanis
tbamde da kaxeTis mdinare alaznamde. magaliTad, erT-erTia pro-
vinciis saxelwodeba `alznik~ (somxurad _ `aRZnik~), romelic swored
karduxTa qveynis mezoblad mdebareobda da vrclad iyo gadaWimuli
e.w. covkis tbidan kordvacis mTebamde (provincia kordukamde), e.i.
karduxebis qveynamde vanis tbis samxreT-dasavleTiT, amJamadac ki
covkis tbasTan axlos Zvel qalaq melitenes (galatias) _ alazigi
hqvia, romlis fuZeSic `laz~-i zis.
am `laz~ _ `raz~ fuZidanaa gamomdinare ufro wvrili provinciis
saxeli `arzni~, romelic uSualod emijneboda karduxebis qveyanas,
kerZod ki `korduks~. am `laz-raz~ fuZidanaa gamomavali mdinareTa
saxelebi `arawani~, `razdani~ da SesaZloa aseve _ `alazani~. rogorc
iTqva, klarjeTsac arzena erqva
arawani _ vanis tbis sanapirodan iwyeba da muratis saxelwodebiT
q. elazigTan evfrats uerTdeba. mis samxreT sanapiroze iwyeba ti-
grosis saTaveebi.
qaldebma am regionSi, romelic SemosazRvruli iyo qalaqebiT _
Tanamedrove elazigiTi da Zveli valaSkertiT, olqma, romelSic Se-
diodnen md. kelkitis saTaveebi, md. xartiSi, nawilobriv yizil-ir-
maki, Semdgomi arzrumi da artaan-artanuji, Seqmnes qveyana `qaldu~,
igive `qarTu~, igive arian-qarTli. misgan ufro CrdiloeTiT Camoya-
libda qarTuli saxelmwifoebrioba da misi STamomavlobaa qarTveli
xalxi.
ivane javaxiSvilma gamoikvlia kidec, rom svanebis, megrebisa da
danarCen qarTvelTa winare samSoblo `qaldu~ _ qarTu iyo, Cans Camoy-
alibebuli mebrZol tom qaldeelTa mier, romelTac Semdgom laze-
bi ewodaT.
sabolood, Cven SeiZleba aseTi saxiT warmovidginoT qarTveli
eris Camoyalibeba _ wyaroTa Tanaxmad `nabuqodonosorma liviis gver-
67
diT mdebare iberiidan iberielebis nawili gadaasaxla da daasaxla pon-
tos zRvispireTSi~, rogorc ramdenjerme iTqva, aq naxsenebi `livia~
aris ara afrikis libia, aramed vanis tbis piras mdebare Zveli qvey-
ana `luvia~, xolo iberielebi ki igive karduxebi, qalduebia, romelnic
liviis gverdiT cxovrobdnen. am kardux-iberielebis nawili gada-
saxlda SavizRvispireTSi da iwodnen qaldebad (xaldebad) _ xalibe-
bad. amave dros SavizRvispireTis amave regionSi uwyveti nakadis saxiT
Semodiodnen sxva qarTveli tomebi pontospireTidan.
am qarTuli tomebis (fasianebis, hespertebis, taoxebis, mosinikeb-
isa da sxv.) konsolidacia SeZlo meomarma da Zlierma tomma kardux-
ebisa, ramac safuZveli Cauyara arian-qarTlis saxelmwifos, romlis
memkvidreoba farnavazis dros miiRo `qarTlis samefom~.
strabonis cnobebi laz-alazonebis Sesaxeb
lazebis saxelis etimologiuri ZiebisaTvis, vfiqrob mniSvnelo-
vani informaciaa strabonis geografiaSi. kidev erTxel unda aRiniS-
nos, rom is qaldebis toms uwodebs alazonebs, zogjer ki alizonebs.
straboni Tavisi geografiis XII wignis mesame TavSi vrclad
msjelobs Tavisi am cnobis dasamtkiceblad da am sakiTxze polemi-
kas umarTavs mraval Zvel cnobil avtors, sabolood askvnis rom mis
dros mcxovrebi qaldebis Zveli saxelia xalibebi, igive alibebi da,
rom, saerTod homerosis dros alibe erqva qveyanas TemiskarasTan.
alibes xalxs ki erqva _ alizonebi an alazonebi. am saxelisagan war-
modgeba sityva amazonebi.
sabolood straboni iRebs qaldebis saxels _ alazonebs da wers _
`zogni weren alazonebs, zogni _ amazonebs, adgil `alibedan~ (str. XII,
3, 21) an `Soridan xalibedan~ (XII, 3, 23).
straboni wers _ `exlandeli qaldebi, Zvelad xalibebad iwodebod-
nen, amaT Soris mdebareobs farnakia. misi Semosavalia Tevz pelamideb-
is Wera da aseve miwidan liTonebis (axla rkinis, Zvelad vercxlis)
68
amoReba. saerTod am adgilebSi sanapiro metismetad viwroa, radgan iqve,
zemoT aRmarTulia liTonebiT savse, tyiani mTebi~ (XII, 3, 19);
`am adamianebs uwin erqvaT alibebi xalibebis nacvlad... homerosi
alizonebs uwodebs xalibebs~ (straboni, XII, 3, 20). homerosi wers _
alizonebs.
`zogni weren alazonebs, zogni ki amazonebs~ (XII, 3, 21) _ ambobs stra-
boni.
straboni miiCnevs, rom cnobili amazoni qalebi qaldebis toms
ekuTvnoda, is etimologiurad sityvebs qaldebs, xalibebs, alibes,
alazonebs da amazonebs erTmaneTs ukavSirebs, roca aRwers qaldeb-
is tomis sacxovriss trapezuntTan.
amJamad miiCneva, rom saxelwodebaSi _ `lazika~, sufiqsi `ka~ _
somxuria da am sufiqsiT es sityva sxva somxuri geografiuli sax-
elebis msgavsadaa nawarmoebi (magaliTad, rogorc korCaika), berZne-
bi lazebis qveynas zogjer lazonias, uwodebdnen.
Cveni daskvniT lazebis saxeli (laz) qaldebis Zveli saxelisagan -
`alazonisaganaa~ miRebuli, am saxelSi fuZe-Ziria `laz~. am mosazre-
bas strabonis cnoba adasturebs.
`laz-raz-arz-arze~ fuZe-ZirebiT lazTa anu qaldTa vrceli qvey-
nis mravali toponimi da hidronimia nawarmoebi.
69
alazonebi da georgebi Crdilo da samxreT
kavkasiaSi strabonisa da pliniusis cnobebiT
strabonis cnobiT alazonebis tomi cxovrobda Savi zRvis rogorc
samxreT, ise Crdilo sanapiroze.
alazonebis tomis erTerTi sacxovrisi mdebareobda Savi zRvis
samxreT sanapiroze _ sinopsa da trapezunts Soris.
straboni alazonebs xalibebis (qaldebis-xaldebis) tomis winapre-
bad miiCnevda.
xaldebi anu qaldevelebi, Semdgom Wanebad iwodnen, xolo qaldea
_ qarTvelTa yvela tomis saerTo samSoblod iqna miCneuli.
qarTvelebs ucxoelebi georgebs an gurjebsac uwodebdnen. george-
bis tomi Zveli wyaroebis cnobebiT, cxovrobda aseve Crdilo kavka-
siaSi.
CvenTvis sainteresoa, rom strabonis cnobiT saxeli `georgi~ da
aseve `alazonebis~ saxeli erqva yirimidan Savi zRvis Crdilo sana-
piroze mcxovreb tomebsac.
maSasadame, Savi zRvis orive sanapiroze, erTmaneTis pirispir teri-
toriebze _ rogorc yirimis mxareSi, aseve mis mopirdapire sinop-
trapezuntis mxareSi cxovrobdnen `alazonebi~ da aseve `georgebi~.
isini orive am teritoriaze, erTimeoris gverdigverd cxovrobdnen.
yirimis mimdebare mxareSi mcxovrebi xalxis `georgebis~ Sesaxeb
straboni wers:
, , ,
, (, , VII, 4,6). (,
, . , . 1964, . 284).
e.i. `xersonelTa xalxi iwodeboda georgebad, am sityvis pirdapiri
gagebiT, radganac skviTuri tomi, maT maRla mcxovrebi, iyo momTabare~
(str. VII, 4,6).
sityva georgi _ miwis muSas niSnavs. e.i. xersonebis georgebis tomi
miwaTmoqmedi iyo da amitom ewoda es saxeli, rasac SeiZleba albaT
ar daveTanxmoT, radganac momTabareTa gverdiT vrcel teritoriebze,
mravali miwaTmoqmedi xalxi cxovrobda da maT `georgebi~ ar erqvaT,
miT umetes, rom sxva antikuri avtorebi (magaliTad, plinius ufro-
70
si) georgebis toms Crdilo kavkasiaSic aTavsebdnen, Tu aras vityviT
iqve mcxovreb qarTvelebze, aseve georgebad saxelwodebulebze,
romelTa saxeli `georgi~ eTnikuri TviTsaxelwodeba iyo.
yirimSi georgebis gverdiT cxovrobda aseve alazonebis tomi _
straboni wers: ... , -
(, , XI, 3, 21) , , ,
, 1964, . 516).
maSasadame, strabonisave cnobiT georgebi da alazonebi Savi zRvis
orive sanapiroze cxovrobdnen _ erTmaneTis pirispir.
`georgebis~ tomebi cxovrobdnen 1) yirimTan, 2) Crdilo kavkasiaSi
da 3) samxreT kavkasiaSi.
`alazonebi~ cxovrobdnen 1) ponto-trapezuntis mxareSi da 2) aseve
Crdilo kavkasiaSi.
rogorc georgebi, ise alazonebi qarTvelebis winaprebi arian,
kerZod, strabonis cnobiT, alazonebi erqvaT xalibebs anu qaldebs
(xaldebs), qaldea (qaldu) _ qarTvelTa saerTo pirvel samSoblod,
miiCneva, saidanac qarTvelTa yvela jgufi warmoiSva. saxeli georgebi
ki saerTod qarTvelebTanaa dakavSirebuli. amitomac SeiZleba vifi-
qroT, rom, radganac zRvis orive erTmaneTis mopirispire sanapiroze
cxovrobdnen es tomebi, isini iyvnen erTi xalxi da am xalxiT iyo
dasaxlebuli kavkasiis orive mxare yirimis CaTvliT.
plinius ufrosis cnobiT `georgebi~ CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi cx-
ovrobdnen. Crdilo-aRmosavleT evropis, yirimisa da Crdilo kavkasiis
areebs Seexeba plinius ufrosis cnoba sxvadasxva iq mosaxle tomeb-
is Sesaxeb, romelTa Soris `georgebic~ ixseniebian.
plinius ufrosi wers: `maT gverdiTaa skviTebi, kimerielebi, kis-
seebi, antebi, georgebi da amazonebis tomi. es ukanasknelebi cxovroben
kaspiisa da hirkaniis zRvamde~ ( , ,
VI, XIV. 35. rus.enaze).
miCneva, rom es georgebi `georgilebis~ saxeliT ixseniebian pom-
ponius melasTanac (I.13) da ar aris gamoricxuli maTi kavSiri aseve
Crdilo kavkasiaSi mcxovreb gegar-gargarebTan.
Cveni kvleviT, sityvis fuZe-Ziri `ggr~ warmoadgens qarTvelTa
anu georgebis eTnofuZes da maszea agebuli sxvadasxva qarTuli
71
tomisa da maTi qveynis saxeli, esenia _ `egrisi~, `argveTi~, `guria~,
`gogari~, gugarqi~ da sxva, aseve mas (am eTno fuZe `ggr~-s) efuZneba
qarvelTa aRmniSvneli ucxouri saxelebi _ gurj, georgien, gurzan,
gruzin da sxva. aqedan gamomdinare pliniusis _ georgebi qarTvelTa
tomis aRmniSvneli unda iyos, strabonis cnobiTac iberebs Crdilo-
kavkasiaSi eTnikuri TanamonaTesaveni hyavda. pliniusisave cnobiT
gegar-gagarebi, amazonebi da georgebi Crdilo kavkasiaSic cxovrobd-
nen. aq amazoni igive tomi unda iyos, romelic `alazonad~ iwodeba
strabonTan.
lazebi da svanokolxebi ptolemaiosTan
klavdios ptolemaiosi (90-168) Tavis geografiul saxelmZRvanelo-
Si moixseniebs kolxeT-iberiis qalaqebs, mTebsa da mdinareebs.
`mdinare koraqsi _ axloa kolxidasTan da iberiasTan, iqedan gadis
albaniasTan saerTo sasazRvro xazi. [aziis sarmatiis sazRvari] samxre-
TiT _ evqsanis pontos nawili mdinaremde koraqsi, da aqedan kolxeTis,
iberiis da albaniis [sasazRvro] xazi gadis kaspiis zRvamde~ (ptole-
maiosi, antikuri kavkasia, enciklopedia, I, 2010, gv. 356, a).
1. ptolemaiosi axsenebs mdinare koraqss, mis saTaves, mTa koraqss
da koraqsis mTebs.
sad, romel regionSi uaxlovdebodnen erTmaneTs kolxida, iberia
da albania sadac miedineboda koraqsi?
kolxida moicavda md. Woroxis dasavleT sanapiros qveyanas tra-
pezuntamde. Woroxis mTianeTis CrdiloeTiT iberia mdebareobda.
Woroxis mTianeTis aRmosavleTis mxares gadaWimuli qedebi albane-
Tamdec aRwevda. vfiqrob rom ptolemaiosi gulisxmobs karCxal-ar-
sianis regions, es sxva monacemebidanac Cans.
is wers _ `mTa koraqsi, romliTac mTavrdeba kolxeTisa da iberiis
gavliT wamosuli mTebi, kavkasionad wodebuli da aseve hirkaniis zRvis-
ken mimavali kavkasiis mTis ganStoeba, masac kavkasosi ewodeba~ (iqve,
gv. 356, b).
72
vfiqrob, koraqsisa da kavkasosis mTebis moZebnisaTvis Cven unda
veZioT Tu sad uerTdeba erTmaneTs kolxeTidan da iberiidan wamo-
suli mTebi kaspiis zRvisaken mimarTul mTebs. erTaderTi aseTi ad-
gilia kvlav karCxal-arsianis mTianeTi, Cans masze wers kidec av-
tori `masac kavkasosi ewodeba~. anu mcire kavkasionSia mTa koraqsisa,
karCxal-arsianis mTianeTSi. aseTSemTxvevaSi `koraqsebis mTebi~ mar-
Tlac axloa `miTridates qveyanasa~ da `amazonebis~ tbasTan, rogorc
wers avtori (ptolemaiosi, geografiuli saxelmZRvaneli, wigni V,
Tavi VIII, 17-25, iqve, gv. 456, g).
Sesabamisad, mdinare koraqsi unda iyos karCxal-arsianis mTiane-
Tidan gamomavali romelime mdinare, magaliTad aseTebia aWariswya-
li, maWaxela, imerxevi, ligniswyali da sxva. is wers _ `mdinare kora-
qsis saTave: aqedan gadis kolxeTze mimdebare sazRvari~ (iqve, gv. 356, g).
maSasadame, Cemi azriT koraqsis mTebi aris karCxal-arsianis mTiane-
Ti, sadac gadioda kolxeTis sazRvari, xolo mdinare koraqsi am mTebSi
iRebda saTaves.
VII s. somxur geografiaSi `sarmatia~ ewodeba aseve dasavleT saqar-
Tvelos, klavdios ptolemaiosTanac dasavleT saqarTvelos zRvi-
spireTi sarmatiis nawilad moiazreba _ `sazRvari samxreTiT. evqsinis
pontos nawili mdinaremde koraqsi da aqedan kolxeTis, iberiis da al-
baniis sasazRvro xazi gadis hirkaniis anu kaspiis zRvamde~ (antikuri
kavkasia, enciklopedia, I, 2010, gv. 356,a).
Cveni kvleviT, kolxeTisa da iberiis saerTo sazRvari gadioda
arsianis qedze. kolxidis Crdilo sazRvari gadioda md. Woroxis
SesarTavis regionSi. Woroxis marjvena sanapiros mimdebare mxare
ukve sarmatiad miiCneoda. Cans amitomac wers ptolemaiosi _ `kolx-
ida SemoisazRvreba CrdiloeTiT sarmatiis zemoaRniSunli nawiliT
dasavleTiT ki mdinare koraqsidan moyolebuli fasisis ukiduresi
mxaris nawiliT _ evqsanis pontos Semdegi aRwerilobis Sesabamisad:
dioskuriasi, md. hiposis SesarTavi, md. kianeosis SesarTavi, siganeosi,
neapolisi, aia polisi, md. qariustoris SesarTavi, md. fazisis SesarTavi
qalaqi fazisi~ (iqve, gv. 356, d).
Cveni kvleviT q. dioskuria mdebareobda dRevandel qalaq surmenes-
Tan axlos (trapezuntsa da rizes Sua), e.i. mis CrdiloeTiT zRvis-
73
pirze iyvnen md. hiposi, md. kianeosi, siganeosi, aiapolisi, md. fazi-
sis SesarTavi da qalaqi fazisi. md. fazisi ki md. Woroxia. aq gad-
mocemulia imJamindeli saxelwodebebi mdinareebisa da punqtebisa
Tanamedrove surmenedan _ md. Woroxis (e.i. fazisis) SesarTavamde.
qalaqebi dioskuria, siganeosi, neapolisi, aia polisi da qalaqi fazisi
ptolemaiosis dros Tanamedrove surmenedan vidre Woroxamde mde-
bareobdnen.
2. ptolemaiosis mixedviT q. fasisi (fazisi) Zalze axlos mdebar-
eobda armeniasTan `q. fasisi, xolo samxreTiT _ aqedan miniSnebuli
xazis gayolebaze da momdevno didi armeniis nawili~... (iqve gv. 356,d).
kolxeTi `aRmosavleTiT esazRvreba iberias, kavkasiis mTebis
gaswvrivi zRvrebis SemaerTebeli xaziT~ (iqve).
rogorc iTqva, Cven kolxidad miviCnevT miwa-wyals md. Woroxidan
TiTqmis trapezuntamde, kolxidis nawili iyo aseve Woroxis xeoba
arsianis qedamde. amitomac kolxidas aRmosavleTidan esazRvreboda
iberia, romelic marTlac aqve, arsianis qedis iqiT iwyeboda (artaa-
nis olqi). aqve iberiaSi mdebareobda qalaqi artanisa (qarTul wyaroeb-
Sic mas hqvia `qalaqi artanisa~ _ anu artaanis qalaqi: ptolemaiosic
iberiis qalaqTa Soris mas (artanisas) asaxelebs.
am teritoriaze (e.i. trapezuntidan Woroxamde) cxovrobdnen
ptolemaiosis lazebi, maT siaxloves ki manralebi da ekrektikes qvey-
nis mosaxleni.
ptolemaiosi wers: `kolxeTis zRvis mimdebare midamoebSi mkvidro-
ben lazebi, zemoT ki _ manralebi da ekrektikes qveynis mosaxleni~
(ptolemaiosi, `antikuri kavkasia~, 2010, gv. 356,d).
Cveni kvleviT straboni, TiTqmis ptolemaiosis epoqaSi, miiCnevda,
rom `kolxidis sanapiro~ erqva zRvispirs Tanamedrove surmenedan
trabzonamde (e.i. dioskuriidan trapezuntamde). amitomac Cans,
ptolemaiosic `kolxidis zRvas~ uwodebda amave sanapiros momcvel
zRvispirs. e.i. ptolemaiosis mier naxsenebi `kolxidis zRvis mimde-
bare midamoebis~ qveS igulisxmeba trapezuntis samxreTi mTianeTi,
romelic am `zRvis~ pirispir mdebareobs. vin arian ptolemaiosis
mier naxsenebi `lazebi~, romelnic cxovrobnen trapezuntidan _ sur-
menamde da rizemde, kolxidis zRvis midamoebSi? pasuxisaTvis sain-
74
teresoa strabonis cnoba, rom aRniSnul miwa-wyalze, trapezuntis
mTianeTSi cxovrobdnen qaldebi, maT straboni uwodebs `xalibebs~
da aseve `alazonebs~.
etimologiurad, rogorc aRiniSna, sityvebi `alazonebi~ da `la-
zebi~ erTi warmoSobisa unda iyos. lazikas berZnulad `lazonic~
erqva. amitomac ptolomeosis da strabonis `alazonebi~ da `lazebi~
erTsa da imave toms _ qaldebs unda miuTiTebdes. straboni vrclad
msjelobs, imis Sesaxeb, rom troelTa dasaxmareblad berZnebTan omis
dros xalibebis winapari alizonebi (igive alazonebi) mividnen troa-
Si _ `Soridan xalibedan~ (strab. XII, 3,20-22). is vrclad msjelobs,
da am Tavis Tvalsazriss mravali magaliTiT amtkicebs. homerosi
wers _ `xolo odiosi da epistrofosi mouZRodnen alizonebs, Soreu-
li alibedan, sadac aris vercxlis sabado ...unda Seicvalos dawerili
Soreuli xalibedan... es aixsneba weriTi cvlilebebiT~ (straboni, XII,
3, 20-22).
strabonis qarTveli mTargmnelebi `alizonebis da alazonebis~,
nacvlad weren `aliZonebi~, `alaZonebi~, aseve `amaZonebi~, maSin roca
rusul TargmanebSi weria amazonebi, alazonebi, alizonebi. mTeli
saerTod, yvelgan iwereba amazonebi da ara amaZonebi. Tu berZnul
`Zetas~ wavikiTxavT, rogorc `Z~ maSin ptolemaiosTanac sityva `lazi~
unda wavikiTxoT _ `laZi~, magram misi qarTveli mTargmneli wers _
`lazi~ _ ptolemaiosi wers _ `kolxidis zRvis mimdebare midamoebSi
mkvidroben lazebi, zemoT ki manralebi da ekrektikes qveynis mosaxle-
ni~ (`antikuri kavkasia~, 2010, gv. 356,d).
rogorc aRvniSneT, ptolemaiosis lazebi cxovrobdnen `kolxidis
zRvasTan~, anu `kolxidis sanapirosTan~ Tanamedrove surmene-tra-
pezuntis mTianeTSi, istoriulad aq yovelTvis cxovrobdnen qalde-
bi, aq iyo `qaldeas Temic~, aq iyo cnobili qalaqebi zigana da argi-
ropolisi (vercxlis qalaqi), aq unda yofiliyo vercxlis is saba-
doebi, romelic strabons xalibebis qveyanaSi eguleboda. misi azriT,
rogorc vTqviT xalibebi da qaldebi erTi xalxi iyo da maT agreTve
`alazonebic~ erqvaT. ptolemaiosis lazebi _ swored es xalxi unda
iyos. qaldeas provinciis maRla, qveynis siRrmeSi, n. adoncis sityviT
mdebareobda samxreT egrisis provincia `manralia~, Teodosopolio-
sis samxreT-dasavleTiT 40-iode kilometrSi.
75
ptolemaiosis `ekrektikes qveyanac~ aqve, samxreT egrisis romelime
nawili unda yofiliyo, maSasadame, ptolemaiosi gvaZlevs cnobebs I
saukuneSi Teodosopolios _ arzrumidan vidre trapezuntamde mde-
bare qveynis mosaxleTa Sesaxeb _ kerZod ki ekrektikes, manraliisa
da lazTa qveynebis mosaxleTa Sesaxeb. rogorc vTqviT _ esenia tra-
pezuntis samxreTiT mdebare mxareebi, surmenes anu dioskuriis mar-
jvniv zRvispirze mdebare punqtebi da mdinareebi aRwerilia md.
Woroxamde, romelsac is faziss uwodebs, Sesabamisad qarTuli Targ-
manis teqstSi CarTul ganmartebas, TiTqosda md. hiposi aris cx-
eniswyali, Cven ar veTanxmebiT, _ md. hiposi ptolemaiosis aRweriT,
an uSualod Caedineboda zRvaSi trapezuntsa da Woroxs Sua, anda is
iyo Woroxis Senakadi. aseve, misi qalaqi siganeosi an trapezuntsa da
Woroxs Sua mdebareobda zRvispirze, anda iyo cnobili qalaqi ziga-
na imave regionSi.
3. iberiis sazRvrebi ptolemaiosTan aseTia _ CrdiloeTiT sarma-
tia, dasavleTiT `kolxidis aRniSnuli xazi~ (karCxal-arsianis regio-
ni), samxreTiT didi armenia _ kolxididan~ (kolxida da didi armenia
misTvis erTmaneTis gverdiT mdgomi qveynebia) iberiis qalaqTagan
mis mier naxsenebi artanisa, unda iyos artaanis qalaqi _ romelsac
qarTuladac artanisa erqva, q. Zalisa _ aRmoCnda arqeologiuri kv-
levaTa Sedegad sofel ZalisasTan. armaktika ki armazad miiCneva.
4. `mosxuri mTebi~ anu `mosxebis mTebi~ mravaljer ixsenieba ptole-
maiosTan didi armeniis aRwerisas.
`didi armenia SemoisazRvreba: CrdiloeTiT kolxidis nawiliT da
iberiiTa da albaniiT mdinare kirosis gaswvrivi zemoTxsenebuli xazis
mixedviT. dasavleTidan ...kapadokiis pontos gaswvriv kolxidamde mosx-
uri mTebis xaziT... armeniis mTaTagan ganTqmulia e.w. mosxuri mTebi,
romlebic gadaWimulia kapadokiis zemoT mdebare nawilis gaswvriv da
pariadresis mTa... armeniis mxareebia: mosxur mTebTan _ kotarZene, mas
zemoT boqasad wodebuli mxare, md. kirosis gaswvriv _ torasene da
totene. md. araqsis gaswvriv kolTene da mis qvemoT sodukene, paria-
dresis mTasTan sirakene da sakapene...~ (antikuri kavkasia, 2010, gv. 356).
ptolemaiosis aRweridan Cans, rom mas dafiqsirebuli aqvs is mdgo-
mareoba, rac Seiqmna mis Semdeg, rac armeniam iberias CamoaWra vrce-
76
li teritoriebi pariadres kalTebi, gogarena da xorZena. amitomac
man armeniaSi Seiyvana mosxuri mTebi _ ese igi mTaTa sistema karCal-
arsianidan vidre Woroxisa da evfratis saTaveebamde.
sabolod, ptolemaiosi sarmatias uwodebs dasavleT saqarTvelos
zRvispirs, kolxidas _ teritorias Woroxidan trapezuntamde (surme-
nemde), sadac cxovroben lazebi da manralebi, kolxidis nawilad
Tvlis Woroxis xeobas arsianis qedamde, sadac, karCxal_arsianis
mTianeTSi eguleba koraqsis mTa da md. koraqsi, aqve iwyeba mosxuri
(mosxebi) qedi. da aqvea q. artanisa _ iberiaSi.
es adgili misTvis mniSvnelovani geografiuli wertilia, saidan
avlebs Sesabamis xazebs qveyanaTa adgilmdebareobis gansasazRvrad.
5. `svanokolxebis~ toms ptolemaiosi asaxelebs `pontos gaswvriv~
sxva tomTa CamonaTvalis bolos _ `...pontos gaswvriv _ aqavelebi, ker-
ketebi, henioxebi da suanokolxebi~... (antikuri kavkasia, gv. 356,g).
maSasadame, svanokolxebi cxovrobdnen henioxebis qvemoT.
strabonis mixedviT henioxebi cxovrobdnen pitiuntamde (pitiam-
de), romelic Cveni kvleviT daaxloebiT Seesabameba Tanamedrove punqt
pazars (ardaSen-aTinasTan). aq Turme, ptolemaiosis cnobiT, mTianeTSi,
cxovrobdnen svanokolxebi. aRsaniSnavia, rom zogierTi Seumowmebe-
li cnobiT, aTinasTan mcxovrebi lazebi dResac Tavis Tavs `svanebs~
uwodeben da TavianT lazur kilos `svanurad~ miiCneven.
dasavleT saqarTvelos sanapiros ara mxolod ptolemaiosi da som-
xuri geografia uwodebdnen sarmatias, aramed mravali sxva avtoric.
iq mcxovreb da zemoT CamoTvlil qarTvel tomebsac `skviTebs~ uwo-
debdnen. amis ZiriTadi mizezi unda yofiliyo dasavleT saqarTve-
los mxaris naklebi Seswavla imJamindel mecnierTa mier. TviT ptole-
maiosic ki mas uwodebs `ucnob qveyanas~, anda `ucnob miwas~. is wers _
`iqauri meridianis gaswvriv, vidre ucnob miwamde~ (iqve, gv. 356,b). anda
`sarmatias ikaveben _ ucnobi miwis mimdebare hiperboreeli sarmate-
bi...~ (iqve, gv. 356,g) da a. S.
dasavleT saqarTvelo I aTaswleulSi Savi zRvis donis mkveTri
amaRlebis gamo geografiulad rTuli regioni iyo, amitomac Sesas-
wavlad Zneli.
77
istoriul arian-qarTlSi mcxovrebi tomebi
(qsenofontes (Zv. w. V-IV ss.) cnobebis T. miqelaZiseuli kvleva)
konstantinepolis sapatriarqos lazikis eparqia XI s-is dasawyis-
Si vrceldeboda trapezuntidan vanis tbamde, anu moicavda istori-
uli arian-qarTlis miwawyals, ganvixiloT literatura ZvelTaganve
iq mcxovreb tomTa istoriisa da administraciuli mowyobis Sesaxeb.
konstantinepolis sapatriarqos eparqiebi lazikaSi, rogorc aRin-
iSna, moicavda qaldiisa da iberiis Temebis mniSvnelovan nawils.
iberiis Temidan (tao, basiani, karini da sxva olqebi) iyvnen cno-
bili saeklesio da saxelmwifo moRvaweebi ioane, eqvTime da giorgi
maSenebel-mTawmidelebi, Tornike erisTavi, grigol bakurianis Ze,
zaqaria valaSkerteli episkoposi da sxvani, romelTac Tanamedrove
somexi mecnierebi miiCneven eTnikur somxebad (qalkedonit somxe-
bad), ufro metic, mosaxleobas aRniSnuli mxareebisas miiCneven im
somxebad, romelTac miiRes qalkedonituri sarwmunoeba, ris gamoc
TiTqosda isini `gaqarTveldnen~. qarTveli mecnierebis erTi naw-
ilic iziarebs Tvalsazriss imis Sesaxeb, rom aRniSnuli mxareebi
eTnikuri somxebis istoriuli samSoblo iyo da gvian saukuneebamde
somxebiT iyo dasaxlebuli, sinamdvileSi ki, rogorc qsenofontes
cnobili Txzuleba `anabasisi~ uCvenebs am mxareTa momcveli vrceli
teritoria, istoriulad qarTuli tomebiT iyo dasaxlebuli.
qristeSobamde daaxloebiT 400 wels berZnebis aTi aTasi kacisa-
gan Semdgarma jarma gaiara is miwa-wyali, romelTac SemdgomSi iberiis
da qaldeas Temebi moicavdnen. es regioni mdebareobda vanis tbidan
trapezuntamde, romelsac rogorc iTqva, istoriulad somxebis miwa-
wylad miiCneven, Cveni kvleviT ki am miwa wyals iq armenielTa dasax-
lebamde arian-qarTli erqva.
qsenofontes cnobiT aRniSnuli teritoria somxebze ufro metad,
qarTuli tomebiT iyo dasaxlebuli, metic, somxebiT saerTod ar
iyo dasaxlebuli araqsis saTaveebi da misi xeobis udidesi nawili,
aseve Semdegdroindeli arzrumis (karinis), yarsis (vanandis) da basi-
anis (fasianis) mxareebi, Woroxis saTaveebi da SavizRvispireTi (zi-
gna-trapezuntis mxarec).
78
qsenofontem Tavisi jariT gaiara Tanamedrove dasavleT qurTis-
tanis mTianeTi, mividnen md. tigrosis saTaveebTan (misi Senakadis
md. biTlis-sus saTaveebi), Semdeg gaiares ki md. evfratis (murad-
sus) marcxena Senakadi md. yara-su (teleboasi), Semdeg kartevan-daRis
qedis gadasasvleliT miuaxlovdnen evfratis saTaveebs, gaiares va-
laSkertis veli da miuaxlovdnen md. fasisis (araqsis) vels, Semdeg
ki gahyvnen am mdinares (fasiss) saTaveebisaken. iqidan Sevidnen taoSi
(taoxebis qveyanaSi) da mividnen Woroxis saTaveebTan, gayvnen Woroxs
(xalibebis qveyanaSi), sadRac Tanamedrove sof. orjoxTan gadalaxes
igi (T. miqelaZis TvalsazrisiT), Semdeg ki mkveTrad Secvales mima-
rTuleba da samxreT-dasavleTiT ganagrZes gza, miadgnen Tanamed-
rove zigans, aqedan Sevidnen trapezuntSi, Semdeg ki ganagrZes mog-
zauroba q. kerasuntamde da kotioramde ( T. miqelaZe, qsenofontis
anabasisi, 1967, gv. 33-54). am gzis gavlas 8-9 Tve moundnen.
qsenofontem Tavisi jariT, Tavisive cnobiT, babilonis brZolis
adgilidan kotioramde sul gaiara 620 farasangi anu 18600 stadioni
(1 farasangi udris 5 km-s, xolo 1 stadioni _ 179,2 metrs), maSasadame
gauvliaT 3100 km, mTeli am samiaTas kilometriani grZeli gzis ume-
tesi nawili berZnebma qarTul tomTa miwa-wyalze iares, sakuTriv
armeniaSi ki SedarebiT naklebi. kerZod, babilonis brZolis adgil-
idan berZnebi jer Sevidnen karduxTa qveyanaSi, aqedan armeniaSi,
romelic or nawilad iyofoda, aRmosavleT armenia tigrosis zemo
welze mdebareobda, mas zogierTi istorikosi miiCnevs dariosis meTv-
ramete satrapiad, iq somxebTan erTad qarTul tomad miCneuli hes-
peritebic (anu herodotes sasperebic) cxovrobdnen. dasavleT arme-
nia ki aRmosavleT evfratis (Tanamedrove murad-sus) auzSi mdebar-
eobda. T. miqelaZis azriT dariosis me-18 satrapias dasavleT arme-
nia Seesabameba, radgan dasavleT armeniis sardali tiribazi hesperteb-
sac marTavda (ix. iqve, gv. 123). fasianebic aqve cxovrobdnen. am uka-
nasknelTa qarTveloba Cveni avtorebis mier aRiarebulia. aRniSnu-
li tiribazis jaric qarTvel tomTa mier ivseboda, tiribazs da-
qiravebuli hyavda xalibebi da taoxebi. armeniis gadalaxvis Semdeg
berZnebi Sevidnen taoxebis, xalibebis, skviTinebis, makronebis, kolxe-
bis, drilebis, mosinikebis, tibarenebis qveynebSi. trapezunti _ kol-
xeTis qveyanaSi mdebareobda.
79
aqedan vidre armeniamde uvrcelesi miwa-wyali, romelsac, rogorc
aRiniSna, SemdgomSi qaldiasa da iberiis Temebi ewoda, dasaxlebuli
iyo qarTuli tomebiT.
isicaa aRsaniSnavi, rom babilonidan armeniamdec, kerZod qur-
Tistanis mTianeTSi, qarTvelebad miCneuli karduxTa tomi cxovrobda.
swored maT Sexvdnen pirvelad qsenofontes berZnebi. karduxebis
qveyanas armeniisagan gamoyofda md. kentriti (Tanamedrove boxtan-
Cai). qsenofonte maT karduxebs uwodebs, plutarqe (da sxva zogier-
Ti mwerali) ki gorduenebs. evsevi kesarielis cnobiT noes kidobnis
naSTebi korduebis mTebSi moipoveboda. am sityvebis (karduxi, gor-
dueni) fuZiseuli forma aris kardu, gordu, kordu. iv. javaxiSvi-
lis mosazrebiT saxelwodeba `qarTveli~ `kardu~ sityvisaganaa miRe-
buli. imave azrs gamoTqvamda n. adonci (iqve, gv. 117). am sityvis
mawarmoeblebi `xi~ da `en~ sufiqsebi sadaurobisa da krebiTobis aRm-
niSvnelebi arian (kaxi, kolxi, javaxi _ Wani, zani, svani, fasiani, mak-
roni, tibareni, skviTini). g. meliqiSvilis azriT karduxebi muSqebis
erT-erTi tomi iyo, kerZod karduxebis _ gorduenebis saxelwodebas
ukavSirebs frigiis dedaqalaqis saxels `gordioni~ da frigiis di-
nastiur saxels `gordia~ (iqve gv. 119). Cveni azriT qarTvelTa sax-
elwodebebSi (qarTveli, megreli, guruli, margveli, `gurj~, `geor-
gien~) fuZeebi `gr~ _ `rg~ imave warmoSobisaa.
rogorc iTqva, dasavleT armeniis Semdeg berZenTa jari fasianTa
qveyanaSi Sevida _ araqsis saTaveebTan. saqme isaa, rom qsenofonti da
sxva mravali berZeni avtori konstantine porfirogenetis CaTvliT
fasiss uwodebda araqss. Tumca isicaa aRsaniSnavi, rom Woroxsac
fasiss uwodebdnen, ise, rogorc sxva ramdenime mdinares. araqsis
xeobis fasianebs T. miqelaZe kolxur tomad miiCnevs. fasianebis qvey-
anas qarTulad basiani erqva (lazikis eparqiis erTerTi umTavresi
nawili basiansac moicavda). Tu fasianelebi kolxuri tomi iyo,
lazikad saxeldeba Semdeg saukuneebSi vrceli miwa-wylisa trape-
zuntidan valaSkertis CaTvliT moulodneli ar aris.
T. miqelaZes kolxuri eTnikuri elementis buded miaCnia ara dasav-
leT saqarTvelo, aramed samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelo da wers `anti-
kuri wyaroebis aietis samefoc iqaa saZiebeli. Woroxisa da fasis-araq-
80
sis saTaveebTan kolxuri tomis fasianebis arseboba kidev erTi mZlavri
sabuTia am mosazrebis sasargeblod (T. miqelaZe, qsenofontis `anaba-
sisi~, 1967, gv. 127).
Sav zRvaSi Semdinare ramdenime mdinaresac, rogorc iTqva, fasisi
erqva. berZnuli wyaroebis mixedviT mdinare fazisi mZlavrad Seed-
ineboda zRvaSi, TiTqosda is `vardeboda zRvis wyalSi~. fasisis berZne-
bi aRwerdnen ara rogorc Waobis mdinares, romelic mdored da mZ-
imed Seedineba zRvaSi, rogorc vTqviT md. rioni, aramed Woroxis
msgavs mTis mCqefare, wyaluxv mdinared. erTi berZeni avtori werda
`argo axla fasisSi dgas... raodeni Zala aqvs mis vardnas pontoSi~ (iqve,
gv. 126). T. miqelaZis ganmartebiT sityva fasisi berZnulidan Semo-
sula qarTulSi. fasisi, berZnuli `RmerTis~ saxeli iyo, mis erT-
erT vaJs erqva kolxi. Zv.w. III s. aleqsandrieli mecnieris mneasis
TqmiT `kolxebma Tavisi saxeli miiRes kolxisagan, romelic fasisis
vaJi iyo~ (iqve, gv. 126). maSasadame, fasianebis saxeli kolxebs ukav-
Sirdeba, kolxebis eTnobude T. miqelaZis TqmiT, rogorc aRvniSneT,
iyo samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelo, mas T. miqelaZe amatebs fasis-
araqsis saTaveebsac, e.i. fasianTa qveyanas (istoriul basians). basi-
ani amasTanave mesxebis qveyana iyo. anu kolxebi da mesxebi erT eT-
nosad warmoisaxa. Cans, amitomac qsenofontemdec hekatos mileteli
mesxebs kolxur tomad miiCnevda. basianelebs, iseve, rogorc maT me-
zobel taoelebs rogorc somxebi ise berZnebi VII-X saukuneebSi iverebs
(iberebs) uwodebdnen. es miuTiTebs imis Sesaxeb, rom winare qarTveleb-
is diferenciacia dRes cnobil qarTl-kaxelebad da megrelebad moxda
mogvianebiT epoqaSi, kerZod, pirvel aTaswleulSi. aqamde isini eT-
nikur erTobas qmnidnen. maSasadame, ar momxdara `Tubal-kainuri
tomebis~ (megrelebis) qarTizacia, rogorc n. mari fiqrobda, radga-
nac zogadqarTuli eTnikur-erovnuli erTobis diferenciacia gvian
saukuneebSi daiwyo. amas unda miuTiTebdes prokofi kesarielis cnobe-
bi lazebis qarTulenovnebis Sesaxeb (magaliTad, lazuri sityva `qu-
TaTisi~, sinamdvileSi Zveli qarTulia). maSasadame, kolxebi iseTive
frigieli warmomavlobis (e.i. mesxuri) tomia, rogorc vTqviT kar-
duxebi. maSasadame, lazikis anu iveriis Temis ZiriTadi eTnosi iyo
qarTveloba (jer kidev aradiferencirebuli) da ara somxebi, Tumca
81
ki fasianebis qveyanas qsenofontec armeniis nawilad miiCnevs. maSas-
adame, fasianebis qarTuli tomi qristeSobamde moeqca politikur
armeniaSi, Tumca ki Tavisi erovnul-qarTuli identoba gvianobamde
SeinarCuna.
fasianebis Semdeg berZnebis aRniSnuli jari taoxebis qveyanaSi
Sevida, anu Semdegdroindel taoSi. `x~ _ mravlobiTobis mawarmoebe-
lia, taoelebs anu taoxebs urartueli wyaroebic icnoben diauxis
saxeliT. Zalze sainteresoa, rom T. miqelaZis TvalsazrisiT aia-
kolxeTis qveS, SesaZloa diauxis gaerTianeba igulisxmeba. `mxaris
toponimikam da argonavtebis miTis analizma dagvasmevina sakiTxi imis
Sesaxeb, rom, erTis mxriv argonavtebis miTSi aietis samefos saxiT,
xolo meores mxriv herodotesTan aia-kolxeTis saxiT daiaenis gaer-
Tianeba xom ar airekla. g. meliqiSvilma taoxebi hesperitebs daukav-
Sira~ (iqve, gv. 128).
Cveni TvalsazrisiT qarTuli wyaroebis arian-qarTlis qveS ig-
ulisxmeboda tao-basianis mxareebi, arian-qarTvelTa mefis Zes `azo-
ni~, `azo~, `azove~ erqva, anu aia-kolxeTis saxiT taos qveynis asaxvis
SesaZleblobebi izrdeba imiT, rom argonavtebis meTaursac igive
saxeli `iazoni~ erqva. rac albaT Soreuli gamoZaxilia, areklili
qarTuli wyaroebis mier. T. miqelaZis azriT hesperitebi md. tigro-
sis saTaveebTan (sispiritSi) cxovrobdnen, amitomac ar eTanxmeba g.
meliqiSvils, rom taoxebi igive hesperitebi arian. diauxis anu di-
aienis gaerTianeba samxreTiT Tanamedrove erzrumamde vrceldebo-
da. SemdegSic qarTuli tomebi aqve cxovrobdnen. qsenofonte ixsenebs,
rom taoxebi, xalibebi da fasianebi erTad ibrZodnen mtris winaaRm-
deg. es momxdara md. araqsTan (fasisTan) axlos (iqve, gv. 79).
taoxebis Semdeg qsenofontes jari md. harpasosTan (T. miqelaZis
azriT WoroxTan) xalibebis qyveyanaSi Sesula (iqve, gv. 41). xalibebi
rkinis mwarmoeblobiT ganTqmuli qarTuli tomi iyo.
iqidan samxreTisaken Semobrunebuli berZnebi skviTinebis qveyana-
Si Sesulan. Tanamedrove q. baiberdTan axlos yofila skviTinebis
dedaqalaqi gvimniasi. Tanamedrove ziganas uReltexilidan berZnebs
zRva daunaxavT.
82
ziganasa da trapezunts Soris berZnebi makronebis qveyanaSi Sesu-
lan. iv. javaxiSvili makronTa satomo saxels ukavSirebda eTnikur
terminebs margali, megreli. marTlac, Zveli qarTuli wyaroebi an-
dria pirvelwodebulis mogzaurobis Sesaxeb trapezuntis sanaxebs
uwodeben `sofeli megrelTa~, SesaZloa berZnul wyaroSi ewera `qveyana
makronebisa~, Tumca, aRsaniSnavia isic, rom sityva `lazika~ qarTul-
Si iTargmneboda, rogorc `sofeli megrelTa~. strabonis dros mak-
ronebi sanebis saxels atarebdnen (straboni, XII, 3, 18). aRsaniSnavia,
rom qsenofontes mixedviT sxvadasxva tomebi iyvnen kolxebi da mak-
ronebi. kolxebi trapezuntidan ordumde kotioramde cxovrobdnen,
d. miqelaZis azriT makronebisa da kolxebis qveynebs erTmaneTisgan
md. maCka-dere hyofda (T. miqelaZe, qsenofontes anabazisi, gv. 44).
kolxebis qveyanaSi trapezuntis garda kerasuntic mdebareobda.
orive qalaqi sinopis koloniad iTvleboda. kerasunti Tanamedrove
giresunad moCanda. kerasuntis samxreTiT strabonis sityviT zRvis
sanapiroze mdebareobda koncxi iazonia (iqve, gv. 46), rac miuTiTebs,
rom argonavtebis miTis kolxida ufro trapezuntis mxareebisaken
anu samxreT-dasavleT saqarTveloSia saZiebeli, e.i. iq, sadac qseno-
fontes dros kolxebi cxovrobdnen da ara dasavleT saqarTveloSi.
T. miqelaZe wers rom qsenofontes cnoba kolxebis qveynis trape-
zunt-kerasuntis regionSi arsebobis Sesaxeb ueWvelia, radganac es
Tavisi TvaliT ixila man (iqve, gv. 135). iyvnen mTieli kolxebic, isini
berZnebs SeebrZolnen (iqve, gv. 138), maTi mezoblebi iyvnen drilebi,
qarTuli tomi, romlis saxeli unda JRerdes `TrialeTis~ saxelSi.
SesaZloa rogorc kolxebi, ise drilebic ufro CrdiloeTiT gada-
saxldnen Semdeg saukuneebSi. maT garda CrdiloeTiT, T. miqelaZis
azriT, gadasaxlebulan svanebic, berZnebi drilebis Semdeg mosini-
kebs Sexvdnen. `ar aris gamoricxuli SesaZlebloba, rom `mo-sin~ sax-
eli gadmocemdes svanur saxels `aris masala, romelmac SeiZleba
svanebis samxreTidan mosvla dagvidasturos~ (iqve, gv. 138). bolos
berZnebi tibarenebs Sexvdnen megrel-Wanur toms T. miqelaZis azriT,
Tumca mecnierTa erTi nawili maT iberebTan akavSirebs. aqedan isic
SeiZleba vifiqroT, rom iberebi da megrel-Wanebi erTi eTnosi, gaud-
iferencirebeli erTiani xalxi iyo qsenofontes dros, Tumca ki to-
83
mebad dayofili. ufro adre Tubal-tabalebad cnobili tibarenebis
somxeTSi gansaxlebis sazRvari md. Terme-Caimde aRwevda. es unda
iyos cnobili Termodonti, sadac Temestiosis sityviT kidev erTi
fasisi yofila. aq q. fasisis akademiaSi uswavlia mas.
aqedan Cans, rom trapezuntidan vidre TiTqmis vanis tbamde, qse-
nofontes cnobiT, umetesad qarTuli tomebi binadrobdnen, romelnic
politikurad armeniaSi Sediodnen. Tumca armenia sparseTis samefos
erT-erT olqs warmoadgenda.
aRsaniSnavia, rom X saukuneSi taoeli, basianeli da mimdebare ad-
gilebis qarTvelebi moqiravneebis saxiT msaxurobdnen bizantiur jar-
Si (ix. kopaliani, bizantia-saqarTvelos urTierToba XI s-Si), msgav-
sadve qsenofontes epoqaSic `qarTveli tomebis erTi nawili aqemeni-
duri sparseTis jarSi moqiravneebad msaxurobda~ (T. miqelaZe, dasax.
naSr. gv. 57).
qarTvel tomTa erTianobis Sesaxeb unda miuTiTebdes maTi sato-
mo saxelebis fuZeebis identuroba. magaliTad, kard (karduxebi),
xald, qald (xaldebi), xalibebis Wanuri tomi T. miqelaZis azriT
cxovrobda md. halisis auzidan md. Woroxamde. md. kelkiti, da ara
md. rioni, unda igulisxmebodes im mdinare fasisad, saiTkenac ga-
curva isurves berZenma jariskacebma, raTa daepyroT fasianTa qvey-
ana, sadac `maSin aietis SviliSvili mefobda~ (iqve, gv. 113). md. kelki-
tis axlos iyo cnobili Termodonti, sadac Temestiosis sityviT
kidev erTi q. fasisi yofila. es meore md. fasisi md. kelkiti unda
iyos. masze mdebare qalaqsac fasisi erqva, xolo masze mcxovreb
xalxs ki `fasianebi~.
sabolood unda iTqvas, rom konstantinopolis sapatriarqos
lazikis eparqia istoriulad qarTvelebiT iyo dasaxlebuli, romelT-
ac eTnikur-erovnuli vinaoba SeunarCunebiaT saukuneTa manZilze,
amitomac uwodes bizantielebma mis nawils XI s-Si `iberiis Temi~.
84
iberTa tomi `luvias qveyanaSi~ anu libiaSi
(n. xazaraZiseuli kvleva frigiul-qarTuli kavSirebis Sesaxeb
(Zv. w. VIII-IV ss.) wignSi `ZvelaRmosavluri da
qarTvelologiuri Ziebani 2001~)
homerosis `iliadaSi~ ixseniebian frigielebi, rogorc troelTa
mokavSireebi.
miiCneva, rom iliada Zv.w. XIII-XII saukuneebis istoriul viTarebas
asaxavs, Tumca amJamad fiqroben, rom `iliadas~ avtors Zv.w. X-IX ss-
Si unda ecxovra, xolo poemis literaturuli gaformeba Zv.w. VI-s-
mde grZeldeboda.
qsanTos lidielis miTiTebiT frigielebi mcire aziaSi troas omis
(Zv.w. XIII-XII ss. mijna) Semdeg movidnen (strabo, XIV, 5, 39).
amJamad fiqroben, rom frigielebi mcire aziaSi Zv.w. X s-is Sem-
deg, ufro IX-VIII ss-Si movidnen.
frigiis uZvelesi dedaqalaqis gordionis yorRanebi qronologi-
urad Zv.w. VIII-IV ss-Si eqceva (n. xazaraZe, `ZvelaRmosavluri da qar-
Tvelologiuri Ziebani~, 2001, gv. 10).
qsenofonte (Zv.w. IV) werda: `didi~ frigiisa da `helespontis~
frigiis anu erTmaneTisagan damoukidebeli ori politikuri erTeu-
lis Sesaxeb. `didi frigia~ _ kapadokiasa da lidias Soris iyo moq-
ceuli (iqve, gv. 22).
troada _ helespontis frigiis Semadgeneli nawili iyo (strabo,
II, 5,31). mas `mcire frigiasac~ uwodebdnen. aq mefobda midasi. Sem-
deg, es qveyana galatielebis xelSi gadasula (strabo, VIII, 1,2).
muSqebis qveynis mezoblad Tabalis qveyana mdebareobda (gv. 39).
muSqebis, igive frigielTa mefe miTa megobrobda Tabalis mefesTan.
Tabalis mezobeli iyo qveyana `que~.
muSqebi igive musqebi ixsenebian asurul warwerebSi.
bibliaSic `iavani, Tobeli da meSexi~ erTad ixseniebian, iavani _
berZnebis winaprad, Tobeli da meSexi-qarTvelebisa. meSexi da muSqe-
bi erT xalxad miiCneva.
Tabalis qveyana didi kapadokiis samxreT-dasavleTiT mdebareob-
da (iqve, gv. 43).
85
frigielebs TavianTi anbani hqondaT _ `Zveli frigiuli~, is Zveli
berZnulisgan warmomdgarad miiCneva, kerZod, dasavluri berZnul-
idan. Tavis mxriv, berZnuli anbanis formireba finikiuridan daiwyo
Zv.w. IX s-dan, xolo arqauli berZnuli anbani Camoyalibda Zv.w. VIII s-
Si. Tavidan Camoyalibda `aRmosavluri~ da `dasavluri~ berZnuli
anbani. aRmosavlurisgan Seiqmna klasikuri berZnuli anbani.
muSqebis qveyanaSi gaedineboda md. halisi (galisi, yizil-irmaki).
SesaZloa am mdinaris saxelis gamo halisis regionSi mcxovreb muSqebs
daerqvaT `haliZonebi~ (alizonebi, alazonebi), romlebsac troas omSi
miuRiaT monawileoba homerosis TxrobiT. strabonis mtkicebiT ki
es alizonebi Semdgom xalibebad iwodnen, maT aseve qaldebsac uwo-
debdnen. sityva qaldi saxel `qarTvels~ dadebia safuZvlad.
frigias `muSqebis qveyana~ ewodeboda. Zv.w. VIII s-Si. frigiis same-
fos mWidro kontaqtebi hqonia kilikiasTan da maxlobel qveynebTan
sakuTari saxeli `gordi~ _ frigiuli warmomavlobisad miiCneva.
`gurdi~ _ `gordi~ rqmevia Til-garimus mefes.
cnobilia, rom `gordiosi~ frigiis mefeTa dinastiuri saxelwodeba
iyo. `gord~ Ziriani toponimebi (`gordioni~, `gorduteixosi~, `gor-
doruniosi~, `gordukome~, manegordusi~ da sxv.) sakmaod gavrcele-
buli iyo didi frigiis teritoriaze (iqve, gv. 74).
`gordu-teixosi~
`gordo-runiosi~
`gordu-kome~
`man-gordu-si~
Cans, frigias erqva ara `gord~, aramed `gordu~ (gordo), aqedanve
SeasaZloa iyos qarTvelTa TviTsaxelwodeba gordueli, anu qor-
Tueli-qarTveli, an, rogorc iTqva, `galato~-dan.
saxelebi `xalitu~-qalidu, gordu da galato `qarTu~-s identuria,
Sesabamisad maTgan unda iyos dakavSirebuli saxeli _ qarTueli.
es `galato~-c SesaZloa iyo evropidan Semosuli imave frigieleb-
is Soreuli Tvistomni galebi. cnobilia, rom mcire aziaSi gvian Se-
mosul `galebs~ `galato~-ebi ewodaT.
SesaZloa gordusganaa nawarmoebi pontospira xaldebis saxelic.
xaldebi-xalduebi (qaldebi-qalduebi) Zvelad xalibebad iwodebod-
nen strabonis cnobiT.
86
CvenTvis gansakuTrebiTaa saintereso saxelwodeba _ `luvia~, rad-
ganac is emsgavseba megasTenesTan naxseneb qveynis saxels _ `libia~,
romlis mezobladac iberebi cxovrobdnen. Tu ki libiis qveS ig-
ulisxmeba ara afrikis qveyana, aramed qveyana `luvia~, vanis tbasTan,
maSin iberebis Zveli sacxovrisis Sesaxeb Tavdapirvel wyarosTan
gveqneba saqme.
Zv.w. II aTaswleulis Semdgom gvianxeTebis warwerebis periodSi,
mcire aziaSi aRmoCenilia luviur-ieroglifuri warwerebi. isini
TariRdebian Zv.w. VIII-VI saukuneebiT. am warwerebSi Cans, rom luvia-
Si, luviis gverdiT arsebobda `muskebis qveyana~ _ suverenuli poli-
tikuri erTeuli.
frigielTa teritoriaze `luvias~ qveynis gverdiT an `luvias~ qvey-
nis sazRvrebSi yofila moqceuli `muskebis qveyana~ IX-VIII ss-Si (n. xaza-
raZe, `ZvelaRmosavluri da qarTvelologiuri Ziebani~, 2001, gv. 129).
aq sainteresoa, rom etimologiurad saxeli `luvia~ axloa `libia-
sTan~. Zveli berZnuli da aseve somxuri wyaroebis cnobiT babilonis
mefe nabuqodonosorma Tavisi qveynidan ayara da pontospireTSi
daasaxla `iberTa tomi~, romelic iqamde `libiasTan~, libiis qveynis
gverdiT cxovrobda. unda vigulisxmoT, rom qronologiuri Tanx-
vedris gamo aq naxsenebi `iberTa~ tomi unda iyos is `muSqebi~, romelnic
cxovrobdnen `luvias qveyanaSi~ anu libiaSi.
aqamde, rogorc cnobilia, aRniSnul libias aigivebdnen afrikasTan
da berZnul cnobas ugulebelyofdnen.
Tu luvia igive libiaa, xolo iberebi aRniSnuli muSqebi, luviis
qveyanaSi mcxovrebni, aRmoCndeba, rom saqarTvelos istoriisTvis
realuri axali wyaro iqna mopovebuli.
asuruli wyaroebiT, muskebi mniSvnelovani xalxi iyo, imdenad mniS-
vnelovani, rom sxva xalxebis sacxovriss muskebis qveynis mixedviT
gansazRvravdnen, magaliTad, asurul lursmul warwerebSi ixsenieba
sxvadasxva xalxi (tabalebi, tuna, tuxan, que), romlebic `dasavle-
Tis muskebis~ gverdiT cxovrobdnen (gv. 137). `muskebis qveyanas~ aseve
ewodeboda `mTiani mxare~.
`ieroglifur-luviuri ena lursmnuli luviuris axlo monaTe-
savea. luviurTan erTad indoevropuli enebis anatoliur (xeTur-
luviuri) jgufis luviur qvejgufs qmnis~ (gv. 145).
87
ieroglifur-luviuri warwerebi, rogorc iTqva, moixseneben `musqe-
bis qveyanas~. erT-erTSi luviis mbrZanebeli ambobs: `me ganmadides
egvipteSi, babilonSi, muSqebis da sirielebis qalaqebSi~ (gv. 149),
aqedan Cans, rom muSqebi TavianTi mniSvnelobiT dganan egvipteleb-
is, babilonelebis da sirielebis gverdiT.
i. diakonovis azriT, muSqebis, igive musqebis saxelwodebas, rogorc
wesi, ukavSireben frigielebisa da qarTuli tomis _ mosxebis saxel-
wodebas. ufro metad _ mosxebisa, Tumca aris cda, daukavSiron pro-
tosomxebs (gv. 161).
erT-erTi luviuri miTis Tanaxmad, mokvdav-aRorZinebadi RvTaeba
telefinus simbolo (niSani) aseTi iyo: eias xeze unda CamoekidaT
misdami msxverplSewiruli cxvris tyavi (sawmisi), anu, oqros sawmi-
sis miTi ara mxolod kolxeTSi, aramed ufro adre luvia-muSqebis
qveyanaSi iyo cnobili.
gvianxeTuri xanis (Zv.w. IX-VIII ss.) samefo samTavroTa da maT Soris
Tabalisa da muSqebis qveynis panTeonSi yvelaze popularuli iyo
TarxunTi _ tarxunTi _ `cis RvTaeba~. etimologiurad am sityvas-
Tan axloa qarTuli `tarosi~, magaliTad. qarTul miTebSi amiranis
sacolis yamaris mama caSia, cis meufea, romelsac tarosis Secvla
SeuZlia, kerZod, wvimis moyvana.
saerTod, yamaris xasiaTi miagavs argonavtebis miTis kolxeTis
mefis asulis medeas xasiaTs, kerZod, yamari medeas msgavsad Rala-
tobs Tavis ojaxs, Tavis mamas da mihyveba amirans. argonavtebis mi-
Tis siuJetis mixedviT iasons daedevneba medeas mama, am dros medea
exmareba iasons da akvlevinebs Tavisianebs, aseve, msgavsad _ yamari
exmareba amirans, raTa man mamamisi (e.i. sakuTari mama) moklas _ `maR-
la nu ki scem spilosa, dabla Semohkar rbilosa, daeWrebian ZarRve-
bi daecemian Zirosa~ _ urCevs yamari amirans, Tu rogor moklas mamami-
si. yamaris mama ambobs amis gamo: `uyure bozsa qalasa qmari irCia
mamasa~ da swored aseTivea medeas xasiaTi. SesaZloa, is berZnuli
miTebi, romelnic kolxeTis Sesaxeb SeiTxza _ mosxebis (muSqebis)
qveyanasTan iyos dakavSirebuli.
marTlac, `mosxebi _ kolxuri tomia~ _ werda am epoqasTan yvelaze
axlos mdgomi qristeSobamde VI saukunis avtori hekatos mileteli.
88
Cans, nabuqodonosoris mier pontospireTSi luvia-libiis mezobe-
li iberebis anu igive muSqebis gadmosaxlebis dros (Tu maT mier
adgilmonacvleobisas) maT kavkasiaSi Tan wamoiRes Zveli miTebic.
aRsaniSnavia, isic, rom rogorc zemoT aRiniSna, mokvdav-aRorZine-
bad RvTaebas _ telifinu erqva, ivane javaxiSvilis rkveviTac, sva-
neTSi erT-erTi ritualis dros warmoTqvamen telefias saxels _
`melia-telefia~. Tu es asea, unda vTqvaT, rom svanebi, iseve rogorc
sxva yvela qarTuli tomi, muSqebis _ mosxebis memkvidreebi arian.
Cans, `mosxebi~ igive kolxebi, igive qaldebi iyo, is eTnosubstrati,
romeliTac Camoyalibda qarTveli xalxi da romlidanac warmoiSva
qarTvelTa tomebi e.w. `qarTebi~, `zanebi~ da `svanebi~.
Zveli avtorebis zogierTi cnobiTac, iberebisa da SavizRvispire-
Tis tomebi balkanuri warmoSobisaa, iazonis STamomavlebi arian, es
SeiZleba migviTiTebdes, rom balkaneTidan da mcire aziidan frigiul-
mesxuri tomebis dena ukan, kavkasiisaken, grZeldeboda didxans.
lazebi g. gozaliSvilis mixedviT
`yvela qarTveli tomis samSoblo... qaldia iyo~ (iv. javaxiSvili.
qarT. eris ist. 1951, t. I, gv. 424).
Zv. w. VI-IV saukuneebisaTvis q. sinopes regioni dasaxlebuli yofi-
la xalibebiT, romelnic aq, ZiriTadad, metalurgebi iyvnen.
`stefane bizantielis mier CamoTvlil oTx saukeTeso jiSis fo-
lads Soris ori aRiniSneba saxelwodebiT _ xalduri da sinopuri~
(g. gozaliSvili, miTridate pontoeli, 1965, gv. 22).
zRvispirze xalibebis qalaqebi yofila stamena (hekate miletelis
cnobiT) da geneti (skilaqs kariandeli), mosinikebis qalaqi yofila
navsadguri zefiriusi. Tumca ki yvela zRvispira qalaqi berZnulad
(elinurad) iTvleboda, maT Soris q. fazisi da q. trapizoni.
I s. mwerali ponponius mela wers _ `paflagonielebis mezobel
xalibebs aqvT qalaqebi amisosi da sinope, agreTve xalibebisaa md. hal-
isi da Termodoni~ (iqve, gv. 27).
89
xalibebi paflagoniis tomadac ki iTvleboda. Zveli welTaRri-
cxvis III s-is avtoris likofonis sqoliasti wers _ `aris paflagoniaSi
tomi xalibebi, romelTaganac, rogorc Cans, pirvelad iqna mopovebuli
rkina~ (iqve, gv. 33). qsenofonte sinopesac paflagoniaSi aTavsebda _
`sinopelebi paflagoniaSi cxovroben~ _ werda is (iqve, gv. 34).
homerosic xalibebs paflagonielebis maxloblad ixseniebs _ iq
vkiTxulobT _ `uZRodnen haliZonT kvalad odiosi da epistrofe
Soreuli alibebis mxridan, sadac vercxlis samSobloa~ (iqve, gv. 38).
sityva `amazoni~ _ strabonis cnobiT, sityva `halizonidan (`hal-
iZoni~), yofila warmoSobili. s. yauxCiSvilis daskvniT _ `haliZoneb-
Si igulisxmebian is xalibebi, romelnic ZvelTaganve liTonTa da-
muSavebiT iyvnen cnobilni~ (iqve, gv. 39).
xalibebi mdinare halisTan anu galisTan (RalisTan) cxovrobdnen,
mis marjvena sanapirodan iwyeboda maTi sacxovrisi. g. gozaliSvilis
TvalsazrisiT ki, xalibebi md. halisis orive mxareze cxovrobdnen,
rom es mdinare maT qveyanaSi gaedineboda (iqve, gv. 42). strabonis
cnobiT ki mravalricxovani xalibebi cxovrobdnen rogorc zRvis pir-
ze, ise `Sua xmeleTze~, e. i. mcire aziis SigniT (iqve, gv. 44). e.i. rogorc
sinopesTan, ise `xmeleTis SigniT~. isini aseve Termodontanac cxov-
robdnen _ oRond sxvisi qveSevrdomobis qveS.
`xmeleTis SigniT~ mosaxle xalibebi Zlier xalxad iTvleboda,
rogorc iTqva, es xalibebi homerosTan `haliZonebad~ ixsenebian,
zogjer straboni maT alazonebs uwodebs. sityva alazonidan unda
iyos warmoSobili sityva lazi, romelic am mxareTa mosaxleobas erqva
uZvelesi xnidanve (alaz-oni=lazi).
homerosis cnobiT alibebis qveyanaSi vercxlis sabado moipove-
boda, marTlac qaldeas TemSi, romelic ZiriTadad zemoT aRniSnul
teritorias moicavda, moipoveboda vercxli da mis dedaqalaqsac ki
`argiokastroni~ erqva (anu vercxlis qalaqi).
troas omSi monawile xalibebis anu alibebis (alizonebis) winamZRo-
li yofila _ odiosi, odi ki qarTuli warmarTuli panTeonis erT-
erTi RvTaebis saxeli yofila (iqve, gv. 47). mravali mkvlevari daaskv-
nis, rom homerosis `alibe~ da Semdgomi `xalibe~ _ erTi da igivea
(iqve, gv. 63) alibebs ki aseve alazonebi erqva, saidanac, rogorc vTqviT
90
warmoSobili unda iyos SemdgomSi aq gavrcelebuli satomo saxeli
`lazi~, maSasadame lazebi _ xalibebis STamomavlebi yofilan, da laze-
bis Tavdapirveli saxeli _ xalibebi yofila.
antikuri cnobebis safuZvelze irkveva, rom xalibebis erTi naw-
ili zRvis sanapirosTan cxovrobda, meore ki samxreTiT, mTian raion-
ebSi Woroxis saTaveebTan (iqve, gv. 64).
zRvispira xalibebi erT dros, qsenofontes cnobiT mosinikebs
emorCilebodnen, da rkinas (an vercxls) amuSavebdnen mZime SromiT,
magram Sua xmeleTis xalibebi kargi meomrebi iyvnen, magaliTad, spar-
selTa sardal tiribazs isini Tavis jarSi hyavdaT daqiravebuli,
`xalibebi da taoxebi~ qsenofontes berZenTa jars SeebrZolnen.
ZvelTaganve taoxebi yvelaze ufro msxvil politikur gaerTianebas
qmnida samxreT kavkasiaSi diauxis epoqaSi, xalibebi maTi Tanafardi
didi tomi yofila (iqve, gv. 66). isini iyvnen mravalricxovanni da
ekonomikurad uzrunvelyofilni qsenofontes cnobiT. sparselTa
qveSevrdomoba Tavidan aucilebia zogierT qarTul toms, qsenofon-
te wers _ `karduxebi, xalibebi, xaldebi, makronebi, kolxebi, mosini-
kebi, ketebi da tibarenebi damoukidebelni arian~ (iqve, gv. 70).
im azrs, rom xalibebi mravalricxovani, meomari tomi iyo iziarebs
straboni, amitomac, rogorc iTqva, ueWvel faqtad Tvlida, rom
homerosi ixseniebs xalibebs Tavis katalogSi _ `aliZonebis~ sax-
eliT paflagonielebis Semdeg (iqve, gv. 72).
apolonios rodoseli xalibTa miwas `usazRvros~ uwodebs (iqve, gv.
72). xalibTa vrceli samTavro orad gayo armenielTa SemoWram maT miwa-
wyalze. `xalibTa samyaro SeizRuda da gaiTiSa~ (iqve, gv. 74).
xalibebs aseve xaldebi _ qaldebi erqvaT. qristeSobamde VII s-Si
SavizRvispireTSi muSkebis teritoriis CrdiloeTiT xaldebis (qalde-
bis) msxvili gaerTianeba Camoyalibebula (iqve, gv. 74). is ixsenieba
asurul wyaroebSi.
xaldebis CrdiloeTiT Savi zRva iyo gadaWimuli, samxreTiT ki
isini arzumamde aRwevdnen, Tumca sxva wyaroebiT pariadres mTis
kalTebzec cxovrobdnen. maT gaerTianebas `xalitu~ erqva. g. meli-
qiSvili SeniSnavs _ `xaldi~ SeiZleba iyos `qarTu~-s dialeqturi vari-
anti da momdinareobdes uZvelesi, jer daunawevrebeli erTiani qarTu-
91
li eTnikuri jgufis arsebobis droidan~ (g. gozaliSvili, miTridate
pontoeli, 1965, gv. 78).
qaldebi da xaldebi erTidaigive xalxi iyo strabonis cnobiTac
(iqve, gv. 78).
CvenTvis Zalze mniSvnelovania i. diakonovis Tvalsazrisi imasTan
dakavSirebiT, rom xalibebi igive lazi xalxia da xalibebi lazebis
winaprebi unda yofiliyvnen, radganac Cvenc aseve miviCnevT da mogv-
yavs Zvel avtorTa cnobebi amis samtkiceblad.
kerZod `i. diakonovi xalibebze wers: `piotrovskim daamtkica,
rom xalibebi arian an iberiuli xalxi sanebi (Wanebi) anda lazebi~
(iqve, gv. 79).
piotkovskis es mosazreba gamouTqvams wignSi `pontospira xalde-
bi da urartu~ (1940, aseve wignSi ` urartus istoria da kultura ~ (gv.
326-331), (iqve, gv. 79).
maSasadame, i. diakonovisa da piotrovskis azriT xalibebi igive la-
zebi arian.
i. diakonovis TvalsazrisiT xalibebi lazebis winaprebi arian.
rogorc aRiniSna, TviTon sityva `alazoni~, romelsac xalibebs stra-
boni uwodebs iZleva saSualebas misgan miRebuli iqnas sityva _ lazi
Semdegi gziT _ `alaz-oni~ (oni sufiqsia) _ alaz=laz.
rogorc aRvniSneT, i. diakonovisa da piotrovskis azriT, xalibe-
bi da lazebi erTi xalxi iyo (. . , -
. . 111; VI, 52. VI, 52. ,
, . . . . ,
V, 1940, misive, , c. 326-331).
maT mosazrebas g. gozaliSvili eTanxmeba, amitomac maTi Tvalsa-
zrisi moiyvana Tavis wignSi (g. gozaliSvili, `miTridate pontoeli~,
1965, gv. 79).
Tvalsazrisi, rom xaldebi da lazebi erTi xalxia, Cemi naSromis-
aTvis Zalze mniSvnelovania, radgan is miuTiTebs, rom lazebi ZvelT-
aganve cxovrobdnen sinop-trapezuntis (trapezusis) regionSi, mis
samxreTis mTianeTSi. es mosazreba kardinalurad gansxvavdeba sabWo-
Ta epoqis qarTveli istorikosebis mtkicebisagan, rom lazebi Tavda-
92
pirvelad dasavleT saqarTveloSi cxovrobdnen da Semdego, kerZod VIII
saukunisaTvis (arabobis epoqaSi) gadasaxldnen trapezuntis mTianeT-
Si. Cven ki vamtkicebT da am mtkicebas vuZRvniT aseulobiT gverds, rom
lazebi Tavdapirveladve cxovrobdnen trapezuntis regionSi, iqve mde-
bareobda lazTa saepiskoposo kaTedrebi VI saukunidanve, ziganasi, sai-
sianisa, rodopolisisa da petrasi (da ara dasavleT saqarTveloSi), sa-
bWoTa epoqis qarTveli istorikosebis Tvalsazrisi, rom lazebis
Tavdapirveli sacxovrisi iyo dasavleT saqarTvelo, aRiarebuli iqna
saistorio mecnierebis mier da TviT amJamindeli ucxoeli mkvle-
varebic ki Tvlian, TiTqosda lazebi arabobis epoqaSi gadasaxldnen
rionis auzidan samxreTiT da damkvidrdnen trapezuntis mTianeTSi
(magaliTad, karpovi da sxvebi), magaliTad, konstantinopolis sapa-
triarqos eparqiebis erT-erTi Tanamedrove istorikosi miiCnevs, rom
rionis xeobidan lazebis samxreTiT gadasaxlebis gamo rodopoli-
sis kaTedra Tanamedrove varcixidan gadatanili iqna trapezuntis
mTianeTSi, Cven ki miviCnevT, rom lazebi Tavdapirveladve cxovrobd-
nen am mTianeTSi da Sesabamisad lazikis eparqiis rodopolisisa da
sxva kaTedrebi Tavdapirveladve mdebareobdnen trapezuntis mTianeT-
Si da maT funqcionireba Sewyvites Teodosiopolisi-trapezuntis
mxareebSi arabobis Setevis Semdeg.
g. gozaliSvili, rogorc aRvniSneT, eTanxmeba Tvalsazriss xali-
bebisa da lazebis igiveobis Sesaxeb da wers _ `homerosis haliZonebi
unda niSnavdes zanebs _ Wanebs, strabonis mowmobiT, rom homerosi `al-
izonebs uwodebs xalibebs~ (straboni, XII, III, 20), rom xalibebi da xal-
ibTa mosaxleoba Savi zRvis sanapiroze da mcire aziis garkveul
raionebSi Zveladve arsebobda, amis damadasturebelia TviT md. hal-
isis saxelwodeba da is faqti, rom aqaur xalxTa Soris ixsenieba
xalxi Haliwa (iqve, gv. 79).
maSasadame, xalibebi da lazebi erTi xalxi iyo. zRvis sanapiros
xalibebi Zvel wyaroebSi xan xaldebad da xan xalibebad arian moxse-
niebuli~ (iqve, gv. 78). xalibi, rogorc iTqva g. meliqiSvilis azriT
`qarTus~ dialeqturi varianti yofila da momdinareobda uZvelesi,
jer kidev daunawevrebeli erTiani qarTuli eTnikuri jgufis arsebo-
bis droidan (. , - , c. 411).
93
maSasadame xalibisagan miRebulia saxelebi lazi da qarTu. aqedan
gamomdinare lazi da qarTu Tavdapirveladve, erTi xalxi iyo da is
xalibebisagan momdinareobda.
xalibebi SeiZleba warmovidginoT erTiani eTnosis saxiT, romel-
Ta tomebi iyvnen karduxebi, lazebi da Semdgomi qarTlis samefos
mosaxleoba (am ukanasknelis saxelmwifoebrivi konsolidacia far-
navazis epoqaSi momxdara).
a. svaniZis azriT mcire aziis Tavdapirveli mosaxleoba iyo eTniku-
rad erTgvarovani da qarTul tomebTan eTnikur erTgvarovnebas qmni-
da (. , , 1937, c. 30).
Semdeg saukuneebSic zRvis sanapiros mTianeTi kvlav qarTuli to-
mebiT iyo dasaxlebuli.
anonimuri periplusiT `pontos samefo dasaxlebulia tibarenebiT,
sanikebiTa (WanikebiT) da kolxebiT. misi mezobeli mxareebi ki agreTve
barbarosebs ekuTvniT (g. gozaliSvili, miTridate pontoeli, 1965,
gv. 82). am cnobidan Cans, rom Wanebi da kolxebi sxvadasxva tomebi
yofilan trapezuntis regionSi (pontoSi). n. maris varaudiTac q.
sinope ZvelqarTul samyaros ekuTvnoda da Savi zRvis mTel samxreT
sanapiros sinopidan anapamde Wan-megrelebiT dasaxlebulad miiCnev-
da~ (iqve, gv. 84).
maqsimovas daskvniT orduSi (yof. kotiora, romelic amisodan Sors
ar iyo) da anatoliis sxva raionebSi aRmoCenili arqeologiuri naS-
Tebi analogiuria kolxur-yobanur kulturis naSTebisa (iqve, gv. 85).
es unda iyos xalibebis metalurgiuli kulturis naSTebi, Sesabamis-
ad unda vivaraudoT, rom xalibebi cxovrobdnen aseve samxreT da
CrdiloeT kavkasiaSic, samxreT kavkasiaSi mcxovrebi xalibebis anu
qarTvelebis saxelmwifoebrivi konsolidacia, rogorc iTqva far-
navazis epoqaSi momxdara qarTlis samefos miwa-wyalze _ egris-wyal-
klisuridan albaneTamde.
bizantielebma im teritorias, romlis centralur nawils q. ami-
sosis olqi warmoadgenda _ `qaldiis Tema~ uwodes _ is SemdgomSi
`trapizonis imperiad~ iwoda. ufro adre iqauri qarTuli tomebi
aseve kolxebadac iwodebodnen, qristeSobamde VI s-Sic `mesxebi _
kolxur tomad~ iwodeboda hekatos miletelis mier.
94
meSexebi warmoadgendnen `gabatonebul xalxs~ Crdilo siriaSi, ta-
vrsa da kapadokiaSi _ xaxanovis azriT (. ,
, 1903, , c. 2). el. maieris azriT
`berZnuli wyaroebiT tibarenebs SemdgomSi ewodaT kapadokielebi
da kataonebi~ (g. gozaliSvili, gv. 93).
misive azriT, mesxebi da tibarenebi am raionis ZiriTadi mosaxle-
oba yofila, xolo ravlinsonis azriT `mosoxebi warmoadgendnen (ka-
padokiis) mosaxleobis substrats klasikur epoqaSi~(iqve, gv. 93). `md.
halisispira mosaxleobas haliZonebad _ halisis Wanebad icnobdnen~
_ wers g. gozaliSvili (iqve, gv. 94).
mcire aziis teritoriaze dRemde Semonaxuli toponomikuri masa-
la mxolod qarTulis saSualebiT ixseneba (iqve, gv. 98).
`trapzonis regioni lazebis uZvelesi samSoblo iyo. am qalaqs
lazebi tramtras (tamtras) uwodebdnen~ (g. gozaliSvili, miTridate
pontoeli, 1965, gv. 99).
al. svaniZis azriTac haliZonebi da zanebi erTi xalxi iyo, romlebic
md. galisTan (halisTan) cxovrobdnen (iqve, gv. 101).
sparseTis XIX olqSi mcxovrebi mosxebi, tibarenebi, makronebi, mo-
sinikebi da marebi erTnairad iyvnen SeiaraRebuli _ erTobas qmni-
dnen (iqve, gv. 115).
alazonebis saxels straboni amazonebs ukavSirebda. SesaZloa es
meomari qalebis tomi _ xaliburi warmoSobisa iyo, Cans am tomis
saxeli `qald~ etimologiurad sityva `qals~ daukavSires ucxoelebma_
`qald-qal~, `qal~ ki qarTulad dedakacs aRniSnavs. amazonebi mosini-
kebisa da xalibebis gverdiT cxovrobdnen (iqve, gv. 119).
amazonebi md. TermodontTan cxovrobdnen, Temiskira _ amisosis
raionSi (iqve, gv. 127).
sicilisa da garTobis moyvaruli tibaranebic xalibebis mezoblebi
iyvnen (g. gozaliSvili, miTridate pontoeli, 1965, gv. 119).
g. gozaliSvils mohyavs ioane ceces (XII s.) cnoba, rom am mxareebSi
mcxovrebi `kolxebi _ lazebad iwodebian~ (iqve, gv. 120). maSasadame,
kolxebic xaliburi-qalduri tomi iyo. mesxebi, rogorc iTqva, Tavis
mxriv `kolxuri tomi~ iyo megasTenes cnobiT. iq mcxovrebi tomebi
erTi eTnowarmoSobisa iyo, magram maT trapezuntis regionSi ver
SeZles erovnul-saxelmwifoebrivi konsolidacia.
95
g. gozaliSvili daskvniT _ `erT enaze metyveli es masa (e.i. qarTuli
tomebi) romelTa samxreTi frTa eWiraT mosxebs, did sivrces moicav-
da, `pariadres frTa eWiraT maT moZmeebs _ xalibebs, romelnic Semdgom-
Si Wanebisa da lazebis saxeliT iyo cnobili~ (iqve, gv. 3).
g. gozaliSvili kidev erTxel imeorebs, rom lazebi Tavdapirve-
ladve sinop_trabzonis regionSi cxovrobdnen da isini xalibebi iyvnen
da isini herodotes dros saspeirebad da kolxebad iyofodnen.
saspeirebis saxels `sper~-Tan akavSireben.
speridan _ kapadokiis CaTvliT qarTuli tomebis uZvelesi sacx-
ovrisi yofila.
antioqiis arqiepiskoposi evstrate, romelic 390 wels gardaicv-
ala wers _ daasaxles `obelma _ Tobelebi, axlandeli iberebi. osox-
ma _ mesxenebi, axlandeli kapadokielebi~ (iqve, gv. 161).
wm. eqvTime mTawmideli (963-1028), wm. maqsime aRmsareblis ( VII s.)
naSroze dayrdnobiT axsenebs qarTul tomebs _ `herni, megrelni
(lazoi), tibarelni, kolxelni~ (iqve, gv. 164).
konstantine porfirogenetis cnobiT kapadokielTa pirveli wina-
pari `mosxi~ (mesxi) yofila (iqve, gv. 165).
md. galisi (halisi) muSkebis sacxovrisi iyo uZveles dros, amave
mdinareze, rogorc iTqva Semdeg xalibebi cxovrobdnen.
g. gozaliSvili wers _ `f. bilabelis gamokvleviT, xeTebis sax-
elmwifos daRupvis Semdeg, mis aRmosavleT nawilSi _ SemdgomSi rom
kapadokia ewoda _ Seiqmna muSkebis saxelmwifo halisisa da zemo tigras
Soris. k. betci ambobs, rom `Zveli aRTqmis meSexi da Tubali muSkebi
(mosxebi) da tabalebi arian, romlebic kimerielTa Semosevam Savi
zRvis samxreT sanapirosaken gandevnao~ (iqve, gv. 166).
r. reonhardis varaudiT `dRevandeli qarTvelebis winaprebi Zve-
li mosxebi da asurul wyaroebSi cnobili muskebi erTi da igiveni ari-
an~ (iqve, gv. 166).
g. Rafancianis azriT Zv. w. XII saukunis Semdeg mcire aziaSi balka-
neTidan SeiWrnen frigielebi, lidielebi, likielebi da sxva tomebi,
maT miaTvlian aseve muSkebsac (iqve, gv. 166).
muSkebi _ indoevropeli tomi yofila, xolo qarTuli mesxebi _
kavkasiuri. Tu muSkebi da mesxebi erTidaigive iyo, maSin qarTvelebi
(mesxebi) indoevropelebi yofilan.
96
gr. Rafancianis azriT, ezekielis (592-570) naxsenebi mosoxebi da
tabalebi qarTuli warmoSobisani iyvnen (g. gozaliSvili, miTridate
pontoeli, 1965, gv. 166).
muSkebisa da mesxebis igiveobis azrs eTanxmeba i. diakonovi (iqve, gv.
167). Tumca arc amJamadaa damtkicebuli es azri. mxolod zogierTe-
bi miiCneven, rom muSkebi ara frigielebi, aramed mcire aziuri tomi
iyo (iqve, gv. 168).
muSkebi i. diakonovis azriT asirelebisa da urartuelebis mezob-
lebi iyvnen, berZnebi maT frigielebs uwodebdnen (iqve, gv. 169).
mosxebis qarTvelobas kargad adasturebs qristeSobamde VI s. av-
toris hekatos miletelis cnoba (fr. 188) _ `mesxebi _ kolxuri tomia,
matienebis mezoblad cxovroben~ (iqve, gv. 169), TviT matienebi q. gor-
diis mezoblad cxovrobdnen. `rogorc cnobilia q. gordi frigiis
dedaqalaqi iyo~ (iqve, gv. 169) mesxebis tomi kapadokiis uZvelesi
mosaxleoba yofila, da iq Zvelad frigiis samefo mdebareobda.
muSkebisa da mesxebis igiveobas ar eTanxmeba s. kakabaZe _ `asureli
muSkaiebi _ ganvaSoroT qarTvel mesxebs~ (`mnaTobi~, 1963, #1, gv. 187).
qarTuli mesxebi ki kolxuri tomi yofila, rogorc iTqva, hekatos
miletelis cnobiT.
md. halisze _ muSkebis Zvel sacxovrisSi, Semdgom Wanebi (xalibe-
bi) cxovrobdnen, amitomac g. gozaliSvili maT aigivebs. xolo movs-
es xorenaci, kabadokiasa da mis dedaqalaqs _ mazakas ukavSirebda
iberebsa da mis mmarTvel mihrdats.
straboni kapadokiis nawils _ mosxikes uwodebs. aseve ioseb fla-
viusi, romelic wers _ `mesxebi axla kapadokielebad iwodebian~ (iqve,
gv. 175). kapadokiaSi xeTebis Semdeg xedaven tibarenebs da mosxebs,
aqve iyvnen es tomebi IX-VII ss-Si. muSkebi meletinamde da tigrosamde
cxovrobdnen. aseve md. evfratis saTaveebamde tabalebis mezoblad.
tibarenebi strabonis dros md. halisamde cxovrobdnen. kapadokie-
li iyo wm. nino da aseve wm. giorgi.
mosxebis, xalibebisa da iberebis gansaxlebis areali erTmaneTs
faravda. pontospireTisa trabzon-vanistbispireTis areali Tu erTi
avtoris mier xalibebiTaa dasaxlebuli, meore avtori aq mosxebs
xedavs, mesame avtori _ iberebs.
97
magaliTad, plutarqe Tavis `pompeusis~ biografiaSi werda _ `kavka-
sionis qedis garSemo mcxovreb tomTa Soris yvelaze ufro udidesni
albanelebi da iberebi arian. iberTa tomi mosxur mTebamde da pontom-
de aRwevs. am tomebis gavliT gaemarTa pompeusi somxeTidan miTridates
winaaRmdeg~ (plutarqe, `pompeusi~, gv. 34).
Tu iberTa tomi pontomde aRwevda, maSin mosxuri mTebic ibere-
biT yofila dasaxlebuli, radganac jer mosxuri mTebia, Semdeg ki
pontospireTi.
gelasi kesarieli miuTiTebs, rom pontospireTi _ iberebiT da la-
zebiT iyo dasaxlebuli _ is wers tyve qalis (wm. ninos) `imave xanaSi
RmerTis mcneba miiRes pontos gaswvriv mdebare miwa-wyalze mcxovrebma
iberebma da lazebma~ (s. yauxCiSvili, `mimomxilveli~, 1926, #1, gv. 55).
romaeli mwerali rufinusi kidev ufro azustebs da iZleva cnobas,
rom iberebi pontos gaswvriv mcxovrebi tomi iyo, is wers _ `iberTa
naTesavi, romelic pontos areSi binadrobs~ (iv. javaxiSvili, qarT.
eris istoria, I, 1951, gv. 205).
g. gozaliSvili miiCnevs, rom radgan iberebi igive tabalebi arian,
maTi cxovreba da ganvrcoba pontos zRvamde bunebrivi iyo. amas miu-
TiTebdnen kidec sxvadasxva wyaroebi _ saeklesio mwerali sokratec
imaves wers _ `es iberni pontos zRvasTan binadroben~ (g. gozaliS-
vili, miTridate pontoeli, 1965, gv. 182).
g. gozaliSvili wers, rom berZnul-romaul mwerlobaSi arsebob-
da termini _ `pontos iberia~ (iqve, gv. 182, k. grigolia _ iberiis
samefoni, `moambe~, 1961, #3, gv. 330).
`pontos iberiis~ qveS unda igulisxmebodes qarTuli wyaroebis `ari-
an-qarTli~.
rogorc aRiniSna, plutarqes cnobiT iberTa tomi zRvis sanapirom-
de vrceldeboda, xolo gelasis cnobiT pontoSi iberebi da lazebi
cxovrobdnen. es bunebrivia, radganac maT erTi saerTo winapari _
xalibebi (qaldebi) hyavdaT, xolo mesxebi, kolxur tomad miiCneoda,
amitom isic imave warmoSobisa iyo. amitomac werda rufinusi rom
iberebi `pontos areSi~ binadroben, xolo sokrate _ `iberebi pontos
zRvasTan binadroben~ (iqve, gv. 183). amitom, TviT berZnuli wyaroeb-
is cnobiT, eTnikurad iberi iyo evagre pontoelic (341-399).
98
xalibebi da muSkebi (lazebisa da iberebis winaprebi) urartuli
wyaroebiTac erTad cxovrobdnen. Zv. w. VII s-is urartus mefis rusa
II-is warweraSi naTqvamia, rom muSkebis CrdiloeTiT xalitus (xali-
bebis) qveyana mdebareobda (iqve, gv. 190), xolo meSexi da Tubali wm.
bibliaSic erTad ixseniebian (Tubalebi igive iberebi arian ioseb
flaviusis cnobiT).
es tomebi yvela wyaros cnobiT samxreTidan CrdiloeTisaken mii-
wevdnen, amitomac erTmaneTs faravdnen, sabolood ki `qarTlis same-
fo~ daaarses farnavazis epoqaSi.
wyaroTa mixedviT is tomebi, romelnic uwindel wyaroebSi samxre-
Tis raionebis mosaxleobad iTvlebodnen, axla CrdiloeTiT moCanan.
lazebis Sesaxeb n. mari TurqeTSi mogzaurobis Semdeg wers _ `Wanebi
TavianT Tavs uwodeben lazebs~ (g. gozaliSvili, dasax. naSr. gv. 194).
lazebis sacxovrisis Sesaxeb TviT saqmeSi Caxeduli lazebis si-
tyviT isini cxovrobdnen sinopidan da samsunidan trapezuntis re-
gionis CaTvliT. n. marisaTvis mis Tanmxleb lazs favzi-beis uTq-
vams, rom `konstantinopolSi lazebs uwodeben SavizvispireTis mcx-
ovrebT, samsunelebsac da sinopelebsac. sinopelebi lazebad moixse-
nieben samsunelebs, samsunelebi ki trapezuntelebs~ (iqve, gv. 194).
maSasadame, md. galisis (halisis) sanapiroebidan trapezuntis re-
gionis CaTvliT mosaxleoba lazebad iwodeboda.
es faqti kidev erTxel gviCvenebs, rom xalibebi SemdgomSi mar-
Tlac lazebad iwodnen, radganac swored md. galisidan iwyeboda
xalibebis sacxovrisi, amasTanave xalibebis anu qaldebis saxeli ewo-
da kidec lazebiT dasaxlebul olqs bizantielTa mier, es iyo `qal-
deas Tema~, rogorc cnobilia am miwa-wyalze xalibebis garda cxov-
robdnen sanebi da sxva qarTuli tomebi, Cans erT periodSi moxda
kidec xalibebisa da sanebis (Wanebis) konsolidacia (anda isini Tavi-
danve erTi xalxi iyo) da amis Sedegad am xalxs daerqva ori saxeli,
is erTdroulad iyo lazic da Wanic. saxeli lazi miRebulia xali-
bebis saxelisagan `alazoni~ (alizoni), xolo Wani `sanebis~ tomis
saxelisagan.
lazebis anu Wanebis sacxovrisi md. galisidan (halisidan) vrcelde-
boda trapezuntisaken. fiqroben, rom alazonebis (alizonebis) saxe-
99
li md. galiss ukavSirdeba Tu asea Tavdapirveli saxeli iqneboda
galazonebi an halazonebi. n. mari werda am lazebis anu igive Wanebis
sacxovrisis Sesaxeb _ `adre Wanuri tomis mosaxleobas ufro farTo
teritoria eWira _ md. yizil irmakamde. am mdinaris Tavdapirveli
saxeli `halisi~ ixseneba Wanuridan da niSnavs mdinares~ (iqve, gv.
194). maSasadame n. mari fiqrobda rom md. halisi (galisi) iyo qarTu-
li sityva `Relesagan~ miRebuli saxeli _ `Relisi~ _ Ralisi (Rele _
patara mdinare).
g. gozaliSvili marTebulad SeniSnavs _ `dasturdeba homerosisa
da strabonis cnobebi halizonebisa da xalibebis Sesaxeb, rom hali-
zonebi zanebi-Wanebi iyvnen~ (iqve, gv. 194).
am daskvnidan SeiZleba isic vifiqroT, rom sityva `zani~ erTi
nawilia erTiani sityvisa `alizoni~. da is (`zani~) miRebulia saxe-
lisagan `alizoni~ (alazoni). bizantiur samyaroSi trapezuntis re-
gionis erT nawils _ `lazoni~erqva (aqedan _ lazi).
sxvadasxva wyaroSi lazebi da kolxebi sxvadasxva tomad moixse-
nieba, magram, Cans, is erTi xalxi iyo. saerTod `kolxi~ _ sazogado
saxeli unda yofiliyo zRvispireTis qarTuli tomebisa, maT Soris
mesxebisac, radaganc hekatos mileteli, rogorc iTqva, mesxebs _
kolxur tomad miiCnevda _ `Wanebis _ lazebis (kolxebis) mosaxleoba
iyo trapezuntis olqis ZiriTadi mosaxleoba, romelic trapezun-
tidan dasavleTiT Sors vrceldeboda~ (iqve, gv. 194).
TviT bizantiis imperiis Zlierebis xanaSi _ VI s-Si Wanebi SeWrilan
kapadokiaSi, kilikiaSi da siriaSi (ioane galalas (491-578) cnobiT).
xaldebisa da Wanebis igiveobas mose xorenelis cnobac adastu-
rebs, sadac Wanebis qveyana moxseniebulia, rogorc Waniuki, xalti
(iqve, gv. 195).
Wanebisa da xaldebis igiveobaze wers g. meliqiSvilic _ `samxre-
Tis mimarTulebiT antikur dros cxovrobda qarTuli tomi xaldi-
xalibebi, rogorc cnobilia saxeli `xaldi~ (qaldi) organuladaa
dakavSirebuli dasavlur qarTul, kerZod Wanebis mosaxleobasTan.
Zvelsomxur wyaroebSi variantebis saxiT gamoiyeneba saxelwodebebi
`xaldi~ da `Wani~ (iqve, gv. 196).
100
rogorc iTqva Wanebi TavianT Tavs lazebs uwodebdnen. meomari
Wanebis qveynis damorCileba mxolod iustinianes dros SeZlo bizan-
tiis imperiam VI s-Si. iqamde es tomi _ sruliad damoukidebeli iyo.
535 wels gamocemul Tavis novelaSi iustiniane siamayiT acxadebda,
rom Wanebis damorCileba RmerTma romaelebs mxolod mis mefobaSi
mianiWa (iqve, gv. 195).
Wanebi, g. gozaliSvilis cnobiT, cxovrobdnen trapizonis dasav-
leTiT da ara aRmosavleTiT, is wers _ `Wanuri mosaxleoba trapi-
zonis dasavleTiT Sors iyo mofenili~ (iqve, gv. 195), Tumca iv. javaxi-
Svilis sityviT trapizoni Tavisi olqiT `lazebis anu Wanebis~ mo-
saxleobiT iyo dasaxlebuli (g. gozaliSvili, miTridate pontoeli,
1965, gv. 125).
g. meliqiSvilis mtkicebiT xaldebis saxeli Wanur mosaxleobasTanaa
dakavSirebuli, Zvelsomxur wyaroebSi variantebis saxiT gamoiyeneba
dasaxelebebi _ `xaldi~ da `Wani~.
Wanebi, igive lazebi, igive xaldebi anu xalibebi yofilan Tavian-
Ti warmomavlobiT, cnobilia, rom wyaroTa miTiTebebiT xalibebis
ZiriTadi gansaxlebis areali samxreTiT _ trapizonis regionSi mde-
bareobda, amitomac, aqedan gamomdinare, rogorc iTqva, umarTebu-
lod Cans sabWour istoriografiaSi miRebuli daskvna, rom lazebis
Tavdapirveli sacxovrisi iyo dasavleT saqarTvelo, saidanac isini
trapizonisaken gadasaxldnen arabobis epoqaSi VII-VIII ss-Si.
bizantiuri `Tema qaldea~ Seqmnes ara dasavleT saqarTvelodan
arabTa epoqaSi gadmosaxlebulma lazebma, aramed, iq istoriulad
mkvidri xalibebis (qaldebis) STamomavlebma, romelnic lazebad anda
Wanebad iwodebodnen.
VIII s-Si Seqmnili `Tema xaldias (qaldeas)~ qalaqebi yofila trapi-
zoni, xeriani, erzinjani, baiburTi, argiokastroni (Turqebma giumiSxa-
ne uwodes) (`vercxlis qalaqi~, aq iyo vercxlis maRaroebi), qaldiis
qalaqs baiburTs nusxebSi paiperi ewodeba (iqve, gv. 197). qarTulad
am Temas erqva `qveyana xaldiisa~ (qaldiisa).
n. adonci mtkiced dgas im poziciaze, rom Wanebi Zvel dros iwode-
bodnen xaldebis (qaldebis) saxeliT, is wers _ `Wanebi Zvel dros
xaldebad iwodebodnen. maT garda iq mravali tomi cxovrobda. Wanebis
VI s-Si gaZlierebis gamo am qveyanas Wanika uwodes~ (iqve, gv. 198).
101
iv. javaxiSvilis TqmiT `yvela qarTveli tomebis samSoblo... qal-
dia iyo~ (qarT. eris ist. 1951, t. I, gv. 424).
iv. javaxiSvilis es Tvalsazrisi Zalze mniSvnelovania. Tu qaldea
anu xalibebis qveyana iyo yvela qarTuli tomis samSoblo (e. i. svanebis,
megrel-Wanebis, qarTl-kaxel-imerel-mesxebisa da sxva), maSin yvela qar-
Tuli tomi xaliburi warmoSobisa yofila. anu xalibebi dvrita da
safuZvelia saidanac yvela qarTuli tomi warmoSobila.
g. gozaliSvili exeba qaldeas TemSi mcxovreb adgilobrivi warmo-
Sobis didebulebs, romelnic aq saukuneTa manZilze liderobdnen da
umaRles samoxeleo Tanamdebobebs flobdnen, samwuxarod, maT Soris
daundobeli brZola iyo gaCaRebuli da erTmaneTs anadgurebdnen.
eseni yofilan Semdegi sagvareuloebi _ sqolaria, mizimati, kava-
siti, Wanixiti, komaxiti (g. gozaliSvilis azriT am gvarebSi SeiZleba
amovicnoT WaniSvili (Wanixiti), komaxiZe (komaxiti) da sxv.
`TviTeul am sagvareulos Zvel xaldiaSi TvalsaCino adgili da
roli ganekuTvneboda _ magaliTad, kavasitebis sagvareulos ekuTvn-
oda Semdgomi giumiSxane da xaldiis sxva mniSvnelovani punqtebi,
kavasitebis xelSi yofila trapizonidan arzrumis mimarTulebiT mde-
bare miwa-wylis olqi, romelzec saerTaSoriso gza gadioda. amito-
mac kavsas naxevrad damoukidebeli sagvareulo xaldiis istoriaSi
TvalsaCino rols TamaSobda. misi warmomadgenlebi yofilan xaldi-
is dukad, hqoniaT didi domestikisa da didi logoTetis wodebebi,
saerTod, uspenskis sityviT, xaldiis didi duka warmoadgenda samxe-
dro da samoqalaqo gubernators, magram realurad qaldiis pirobe-
bidan gamomdinare (geografiuli garemo, mudmivi omianoba) mas gaci-
lebiT meti gavlena hqonda saimperatoro karze (iqve, gv. 200).
aseve didi gavlena hqonda Wanixitebis sagvareulos, maT ekuTvno-
daT qaldiis cixe-simagre Wanixi (Wanka) da macuka (maWuka). hqondaT
imperiis didi mejinibeTuxucesis wodeba.
aseTive mniSvnelobis iyo gabraTa (gabaraSvilTa) sagvareulo.
xaldiis cnobili cixe-simagre kamaxa (komaxa) iyo komaxitebis sag-
vareulos xelSi. komaxas cixes zogjer kemaxasac uwodebdnen. gamah-
madianebis Semdegac qaldiaSi Wanur sagvareuloebs didi Zalaufle-
ba darCaT (g. gozaliSvili, miTridate pontoeli, 1965, gv. 200).
102
g. gozaliSvili miiCnevs, rom qaldiis TemSi Sediodnen paiperti
(baiberTi), gaZiura, kolonia, azrumi da mosaxleobis or mesamedze
meti lazebi anu Wanebi iyvnen (iqve, gv. 201). romlebic mudam ibrZod-
nen TavisuflebisaTvis.
g. gozaliSvili, rogorc iTqva, ar eTanxmeba Teorias lazebis
rionis xeobidan qaldeaSi gadasaxlebis Sesaxeb, amitomac wers _
`lazur-Wanuri aq imTaviTve sufevda, rom xalibebi, tibarenni, mosvin-
ikebi, drilebi da svanebi swored lazur-Wanurs laparakobdnen, rom
yvelani isini qarTul erovnebas ekuTvnodnen~ (iqve, gv. 203).
am kuTxiT Zalze mniSvnelovania g. gozaliSvilis daskvna (riTac
kidev erTxel miuTiTebs, rom lazebi qaldeaSi ar gadmosaxlebulan
rionis xeobidan VIII-IX ss-Si, is wers _ `VIII-XI saukuneebSi ara Cans, rom
am mxriv raime mniSvnelovani cvlileba momxdariyos, piriqiT, am qvey-
nis mier saxelwodeba xaldiis SenarCuneba miuTiTebs iqauri eTnikuri
elementis statikurobaze~ (iqve, gv. 203).
am mosazrebas kidev ufro amtkicebs Semdegi fraza _ `im terito-
riaze, sadac pontos samefo ivaraudeba, Wanur-lazuri mosaxleoba
uwyvetad arsebobs~ (iqve, gv. 203).
g. gozaliSvili Tavisi vrceli kvlevis Sedegad sabolood askvnis
_ `pontos samefos mosaxleobis ZiriTad elements mesxur-Wanur-
lazuri da sxva qarTveli tomebi Seadgendnen, rom pontos samefo
iyo qarTvel tomTa saxelmwifoebrivi gaerTianeba~ (iqve, gv. 203).
maSasadame, misi mtkice TvalsazrisiT lazebi trapezuntis olqSi
gadmosaxldnen ara rionis xeobidan VIII-IX saukuneebSi, rogorc miiC-
nevs sabWoTa epoqis istoriografia, aramed mkvidrni iyvnen uxsova-
ri droidanve _ isini lazebad iwodebodnen da ZiriTadad gamahmadi-
andnen, xolo lazi qristianebi berZnul Tems Seekedlnen _ berZne-
bad iqcnen.
es lazebi igive xaldebi iyvnen. amitomac, gozaliSvilis azriT,
magaliTad 1370-90 wlebSi daweril wm. evgeniosis cxovrebaSi, romelic
1200 wlis ambebs exeba trapizonis dukas `ioane xaldi~ ewodeba (iqve,
gv. 206) im xalxis saxlis mixedviT, romelic iq cxovrobda, radganac
trapizonis saxelmwifos ZiriTadi mosaxleoba lazebi iyvnen mis im-
peratorebs `kolxTa mefeebs~ uwodebdnen (iqve, gv. 207).
103
aRsaniSnavia, rom `adgilobrivi mosaxleoba `saqarTvelos~ uwodeb-
da md. xartuSis sanapiros teritorias~, xolo ericovis cnobiT _ `md.
kisgimis marcxena sanapiro cnobilia giurjistanis saxeliT, aqaa xam-
Sini~ (iqve, gv. 208). adoncis TqmiT _ `Wanebi cxovrobdnen md. xartu-
Sis aRmosavleTiT _ ardasisa da giumiSxanes sazRvrebidan dawyebu-
li TviT xemSinamde, ekavaT ra amgvarad mTeli parxaris zegani~ (g.
gozaliSvili, `miTridate pontoeli~, 1965 gv. 208).
saerTod ki, Wanur-lazuri mosaxleoba `trapizonisa da misi olqis
ZiriTad masas Seadgenda imTaviTve da TviT XX s-mde~ (iqve, gv. 202).
isini ZiriTadad asimilirdnen berZnebsa da TurqebSi (gv. 202).
iv. javaxiSvilic ar eTanxmeboda rionis xeobidan lazebis trab-
zonisaken gadasaxlebis Teorias, is amasTan dakavSirebiT wers _ `qar-
Tvelebs ar SeeZloT trabzon-samsunis mxareebSi `TavianTi ena-kavebi
raime gziT gaevrcelebinaT~, radganac qarTvelebs (qarTul saxelmwi-
fos) `aq arasodes ubatonia, Tamar mefis laSqrobis garda~, is daaskv-
nis _ `aq lazur-Wanuri laparaki exlac ismis, es mxolod imis damamtki-
cebeli da momaswavebeli sabuTia, rom lazur-Wanuri iq imTaviTve sufe-
vda, rom xalibebi, tibarenebi, mosvinikebi, drilebi da svanebi swored
lazur-Wanurs laparakobdnen, rom yvelani isini qarTul erovnebas
ekuTvnodnen~ (iv. javaxiSvili, `qarTveli eris istoria~, I, gv. 415,
1951, iqve, gv. 203).
Zalze mniSvnelovania iv. javaxiSvilis daskvna, romlidanac Cans,
rom lazebi arabobis Semdeg ar gadasaxlebula trabzonis regioneb-
isaken. saqme isaa, rom, rogorc iTqva, ucxour gamocemebSic gamoCn-
da Tvalsazrisi, TiTqosda lazebi trapizonisken gadasaxldnen ara-
bobis epoqaSi, xolo iqamde rionis xeobaSi iyo maTi sacxovrisi.
g. gozaliSvili wers _ `uZvelesi droidan mokidebuli pirvelw-
yaroebi erTxmad adastureben pontos samefos arealSi Wanur-lazuri
da saerTod, qarTul tomTa uwyvet arsebobas~ (iqve, gv. 203).
TurqeTSi inglisis konsuli palheri Tavis mTavrobas atyobineb-
da, rom trapizonis vilaieTSi yizil-irmakidan (Zveli md. halisidan)
punqt `SekveTilamde~ or milionamde adamiani cxovrobda. TviTon
trapizonis vilaieTi iyofoda oTx sanjayad (olqad) _ 1. lazistani;
2. trapzonis olqi; 3. Waniki; 4. giumiSxane (iqve, gv. 204). aRsaniSnavia,
104
rom VII saukunis `somxuri geografia~ samxreT egriss (egrs), aseve
oTx olqad yofda, TiTqmis imave saxelwodebiT (lazivi, Wanika, egeri,
manrali). samxreT egrisis sazRvrebi TiTqmis eTanadeboda XIX s-is
trabzonis vilaieTis sazRvrebs.
es vrceli qveyana ZiriTadad lazebiT (WanebiT) iyo dasaxlebuli,
magram maT ar gaaCndaT TavianTi nacionaluri identificirebis un-
ari, ar hqondaT erovnuli TviTSemecneba (Tumca tomobriv doneze
nawilobriv gaaCndaT), amitomac isini religiuri niSnis mixedviT
akuTvnebdnen TavianT Tavs sxvadasxva erovnebas, kerZod mahmadiani
lazebi _ Turqebad iwodebodnen, qristiani lazebi _ berZnebad. iyvnen
aseve armenizirebuli lazebic (giumiSxanelebi), isini Tavdapirve-
lad somxuri eklesiis mrevlad gadaiqcnen, Semdeg ki gamahmadiand-
nen (xemSinebi).
ucxoeli mecnieris e. maieris daskvniT lazebi iyvnen STamomavalni
xalibebisa _ `xalibebis STamomavalni romaul xanaSi Wanebad da laze-
bad iwodebian~ (Ed. Meyer, Gesch. d.Altertums. Zweiter Band. Stuttgart. 1893,
gv. 293, ix. iqve, gv. 226).
imave Tvalsazriss,rogorc iTqva, iziarebda i. diakonovi (iqve, gv.
226). is emxroboda Tvalsazriss, rom xalibebi lazebis winaprebi iyvnen
da aseve aviTarebda azrs, rom amierkavkasiis xalxebs axlo aRmosav-
leTis xalxebTan genetikuri kavSiri gaaCniaT (iqve, gv. 226).
maSasadame, gamoCenili ucxoeli mecnierebi e. maieri, i. diakonovi
da piotrovski miiCnevdnen, rom lazebi xalibebis pirdapiri memkvi-
dreebi iyvnen. iv. javaxiSvili, g. gozaliSvili da sxvani ar miiCnevd-
nen, rom lazebi trapezunt-pontos regionSi gadmosaxldnen rionis xe-
obidan (dasavleT saqarTvelodan) arabTa Semosevebis Semdeg _ VII-VIII
saukuneebSi.
105
adelle billisa da o. lorTqifaniZis
gansxvavebuli mosazrebani kolxeTis Sesaxeb
Cvens eramde VI-IV ss-Si `kolxuri erovnebis~ arsebobas imiT amtki-
cebs Cveni zogierTi mecnieri, rom TiTqosda `Zv.w. VII-VII ss-Si Camoya-
libda axali Zlieri damoukidebeli saxelmwifoebrivi erTeuli, mTel
antikur samyaroSi farTod cnobili kolxeTis samefo, romelsac hero-
dote axlo aRmosavleTis didi monarqebis _ midiisa da aqemenidebis
iranis gverdiT ixseniebs~ (qse, t. 5, gv. 596).
sinamdvileSi, msgavsi istoriuli faqtis Semcveli cnobebi hero-
dotesTan ar gvxvdeba.
herodote Tavis Txrobas iwyebs TqmulebebiTa da miTebiT, mefis
asul evropes motacebis eposis (miTis) gadmocemis Semdeg mogvi-
Txrobs, rogor moitaces argonavtebma medea `kolxidaSi~. amis sana-
cvlod `kolxTa mefem gagzavna eladaSi mociquli~ (herodote, I, 2).
ase, rom `kolxTa mefe~ herodotesTan da saerTod berZnul wyaroeb-
Si mxolod miTebTanaa dakavSirebuli, `kolxTa mefe~ an `kolxeTis
mefe~ sxvagan arsad aRar gvxvdeba herodotes vrcel TxzulebaSi,
Tumca ki kolxeTs sakmaod xSirad ixseniebs.
amasTan dakavSirebiT evropeli mecnieri adelle billi wers _
`cdebian qarTveli mecnierebi, roca kolxeTis samefos arsebobas
faqtad miiCneven! kolxeTi samefod moixsenieba mxolod argonavtebis
eposSi, straboni samefo dinastis arsebobas mxolod iberis aRwerisas
moixsenebs da ara kolxeTis aRwerilobisas~ (adelle billi, saqarTve-
loSi aRmoCenil samarxTa kvleva, boni, 2003 w. krebulSi `amirani~,
IX2, monreali-Tbilisi, 2003, gv. 55-62).
ucxouri istoriografia miiCnevs, rom kolxeTi ar iyo erTi eT-
nosi, amasTan dakavSirebiT evropeli mecnieri wers _ `qarTveli mec-
nierebi cdebian, roca sityva `kolxeTiT~ eTnoss aRniSnaven, `kolxeTi
geografiuli mniSvnelobiT ixmareboda berZnul wyaroebSi!~ (adelle
billi, saqarTveloSi aRmoCenil samarxTa kvleva, boni, 2003 w. kre-
bulSi `amirani~, IX2, 2003, gv. 55-60). rogorc Cans, es cnobili faqtia
dasavleT evropuli samecniero wreebisaTvis, am sakiTxis Sesaxeb wers
evropeli mecnieri, romelmac piradad Seiswavla qarTvel mecnier-
Ta mosazrebani aRniSnul sakiTxze.
106
is ufro adreul xanasac exeba da wers _ `kulxa ar iyo Tanamed-
rove saqarTvelos teritoriaze, rom kolxeTic mxolod nawilobriv
SeiZleba davukavSiroT dasavleT saqarTvelos. Zveli berZnuli kol-
xeTis pirvandeli mniSvneloba moicavs ara mxolod urartul kulxas,
aramed zogadad Savi zRvis samxreT-aRmosavleT sanapiro teritorias,
kerZod, ki dRevandeli TurqeTis sinopsa da trapizons Soris. berZnu-
li kolonizaciis ganviTarebasTan erTad icvleba agreTve kolxeTis
cnebis gagebac _ herodote aRniSnavs, rom mdinare fazisi (rioni) war-
moadgens kolxeTis CrdiloeT sazRvars. kolxeTi dasaxlebulia sxva-
dasxva tomebiT, maT Soris mosxebiT, makronebiT, mosinikebiT, TviT
kolxebiT, marebiT, tibaranebiT da sxva tomebiT, kolxeTi araa erTi
eTnosi~ (adelle billi, saqarTveloSi aRmoCenil samarxTa kvleva,
boni, 2003 w. krebulSi amirani~, IX 2, 2003, gv. 55-60).
herodotes epoqaSi semituri tomebi CrdiloeTiT ufro vrclad
iyvnen gansaxlebulni, vidre Semdgom. magaliTad, herodotesTan si-
rielebsa da paflagonielebs Soris sazRvrad md. halisi iTvleba,
romelic istoriul kolxeTTan axlos miedineboda.
evropeli mkvlevari exeba Teorias egviptelebisa da dasavleT
saqarTvelos mosaxleobis e.w. `erTi warmoSobis~ Sesaxeb da msjelobs
_ herodotes kolxebi kanis feris, Tmis saxeobisa da enis mixedviT
semituri an qamituri tomia da ara indoevropelebi. is CamoTvlil
tomebs semitebs ukavSirebs da amasTanave Tavdapirvel kolxebs akav-
Sirebs ara evropul, aramed muqkanian rasasTan. is wers _ `cxadia,
rom kolxebi egviptelebi arian... radgan kolxebi Savgvremanebi arian
xuWuWTmianebi... egviptelebsa da kolxebs ena msgavsi aqvT erTmaneTis~
(herodote, VII, 72).
mecnierebisaTvis kargadaa cnobili, egviptelebi evropelebisagan
gansxvavdebodnen rasobrivad kanis muqi feriTa da Tmis safariT.
aseve kargadaa cnobili isic, rom amJamindeli `kavkasiuri rasa~ (Sesaba-
misad dasavleT saqarTvelos mosaxleoba) ganekuTvneba samxreT evropul
rasas da araviTar SemTxvevaSi muqkanian semitur an qamitur rasas. ami-
tomac herodotes `kolxebi~ rasobrivadac ki gansxvavdeba Tanamedrove
dasavleT saqarTvelos mosaxleobisagan.
meore berZeni avtori straboni aseve sagangebod aRwers kolxeTs.
strabonis mixedviT qristeSobamde I saukuneSi kolxeTi warmoadgen-
107
da krebiT saxels mTeli samxreT-aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTisa _
trapizonidan _ pitiuntamde. am epoqis berZnuli wyaroebiT kolxeTi
ar aRniSnavda eTnoss, aramed berZnul wyaroebSi sityva `kolxeTi~
geografiuli mniSvnelobiT ixmareba.
rogorc Cans, es cnobili faqtia dasavleT evropuli samecniero
wreebisaTvis, am sakiTxis Sesaxeb wers evropeli mecnieri, romelmac
piradad Seiswavla qarTvel mecnierTa mosazrebani aRniSnul saki-
Txze da rogorc aRiniSna, is wers _ `qarTveli mecnierebi cdebian,
roca sityva `kolxeTiT~ eTnoss aRniSnaven, `kolxeTi geografiuli mni-
SvnelobiT ixmareboda berZnul wyaroebSi!~ (adelle billi, saqar-
TveloSi aRmoCenil samarxTa kvleva, boni, 2003 w. krebulSi `amira-
ni~, IX2, 2003, gv. 55-60).
evropel mecnierTa es Tvalsazrisi mTlianad eTanadeba Zvel qar-
Tuls (qarTuli wyaroebi dasavleT saqarTveloSi ar icnobs kol-
xeTs), qarTul saistorio wyaroebSi mudam xazgasmiT miTiTebuls, rom
dasavleT saqarTveloSi ar cxovrobda adgilobriv-kolxuri eTnosi,
rom aRmosavleT da dasavleT saqarTvelo istoriulad mudam erTi eT-
nosiT, erTi xalxiT, erTi erovnebiT iyo dasaxlebuli da es iyo qarTve-
li xalxi, rom dasavleT saqarTvelos saerisTavoebSi mcxovrebi mo-
saxleoba imTaviTve qarTveli xalxis ganuyofeli nawili iyo _ igu-
lisxmeba _ gurulebi, egriselebi, margvelebi, Takverelebi Tu sva-
nebi, bunebiTi qarTvelebi da, amitom, maT `qarTizacia~ ar esaWiroe-
bodaT, TviTve iyvnen e.w. `qarTebic~ da qarTvelebic. amis axsnas
iZleva iv. javaxiSvili, miaCnia, rom qarTvelTa uZveles samSobloSi
karduSi erT erad iyo formirebuli Semdegdroindeli svanebi, Wane-
bi, megrelebi da aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mosaxleoba. isini imTavi-
Tve erTi erovneba, erTi qarTveli eri iyvnen.
Tu arsebobda `kolxeTis samefo~ _ TavisTavadi saxelmwifo, cxa-
dia, aq SesaZlebeli iyo kidec `kolxebis erovnebis~ formireba,
rogorc amas miiCnevs sabWouri istoriografia.
namdvilad arsebobda `kolxeTis samefo~?
Tanamedrove evropis istoriografia ambobs _ kolxeTis samefo
ar arsebobda _ wyaroebiT es ar dasturdeba, amitomac, werda kidec
evropeli mecnieri, rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT _ `cdebian qarTveli
108
mecnierebi, roca kolxeTis samefos arsebobas faqtad miiCneven! kolxe-
Ti samefod moixsenieba mxolod argonavtebis eposSi, straboni samefo
dinastis arsebobas mxolod iberis aRwerisas moixsenebs da ara kolxe-
Tis aRwerilobisas~ (adelle billi, saqarTveloSi aRmoCenil samarx-
Ta kvleva, boni, 2003 w. krebulSi amirani~, IX2, monreali-Tbilisi,
2003, gv. 55-62).
is kvlav imeorebs _ `cdebian qarTveli mecnierebi, rodesac `kolx-
ur TeTrs~ kolxeTis samefos arsebobis damadasturebel faqtad miiC-
neven~ (iqve, gv. 60).
Tanamedrove evropuli istoriografiis msgavsad, Zveli qarTuli
istoriografia saerTod ar icnobs `kolxeTis samefos~.
Cveni winaprebi dabejiTebiT amtkicebdnen, rom dasavleT da aR-
mosavleT saqarTvelos mosaxleoba erTi eri (erovneba) iyo. amito-
mac Seqmna man erTiani saxelmwifo farnavazis dros da Semdeg.
amJamad arsebobs ori Teoria qarTveli eris Camoyalibebis Sesax-
eb. pirveli aris ZvelqarTuli, romelic amtkicebs, rom dasavleT
da aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mosaxleoba erTian ers warmoadgenda
qristeSobamde saukuneebiT adrec, meore ki aris e.w. `qarTizaciis~
Teoria, romlis mixedviTac saqarTvelos teritoriaze arsebobda
kolxuri da `qarTis~ erovnebebi da am ukanasknelma SeZlo axali
erovnebis formireba.
aRsaniSnavia, rom XIX s-mde moRvawe saqarTvelos wmida eklesiis
mamebi da mematianeebi arasdros iziarebdnen qarTizaciis Teorias
da maTTvis swored pirveli Teoria warmoadgenda WeSmaritebas.
109
`arian-qarTlis~ sakiTxisaTvis
(giorgi qavTaraZe, ivane javaxiSvilis istoriisa
da eTnologiis instituti)
ariani
cnoba qarTvelTa Tavdapirveli samSoblos `arian-qarTlis~ Sesaxeb
uZveles qarTul matianes `moqcevaY qarTlisaYs~ Semounaxavs.
am cnobiT, qarTlSi gamolaSqrebulma aleqsandre makedonelma mcxe-
TaSi mefed masTan xlebuli arian-qarTlis mefis Ze _ azo daadgina.
`moqcevaY qarTlisaYs~ X s-is Satberduli xelnaweris mixedviT _
`Tana-hyvanda aleqsandres mefesa azoY, Ze arian-qarTlisa mefisaY da
mas miuboZa mcxeTaY sajdomad da sazRvari daudva mas hereTi, da
egris wyali, da somxiTi da mTaY crolisa da warvida~.
`ese azoY warvida ar[i]an-qarTlad, mamisa T/vi/sisa da warmoiyvana
rvaY saxli da aTni saxlni mamamZuZeTani, da dajda Zuel mcxeTas da
Tana-hyvandes kerpni RmrTad _ gaci da ga, da ese iyo pirveli mef/e/
mcxeTas Sina azoY, Z/e/ arian-qarTvelTa mefisaY~...
wmida ninos sityviTac, kerpebi gaci da ga `RmrTad hqondes mama-
Ta TquenTa arian-qarTliT~.
daviT aRmaSeneblis sulieri moZRvris arsen beris (mas arsen iyal-
Toelad miiCneven), `ninos cxovrebis~ metafrasuli redaqciis avtoris,
ganmartebiT:
`Cven qarTvelni Svilni varT maT arian-qarTliT gamosrulTani
da enaY maTi uwyiT, da yovelni mefeni qarTlisani amaT mefeTa Svi-
lis-Svilni arian~;
am citataSi samjer aris xazgasmuli `arian-qarTlis~ mosaxleobis
qarTuli xasiaTi:
1. qarTvelebis uSualo memkvidreobiTi kavSiri (`Svilni varT~)
`arian-qarTlidan~ wamosul mosaxleobasTan;
2. qarTuli enis `arian-qarTlidan~ Semotana (`enaY maTi uwyiT~);
3. qarTlis mefeTa memkvidreobiTi kavSiri `arian-qarTlis~ same-
fo karTan (`amaT mefeTa Svilis-Svilni arian~).
110
a. svaniZe arian-qarTls mtkvrisa da arezis (araqsis) SuamdinareTSi
aTavsebda; aqedan varaudobs qarTlSi samefo dinastiis imigracias.
misi azriT, es movlena dakavSirebuli unda iyos somexi mxedarT-
mTavrebis _ artaqsiisa da zariadris mier warmoebul dapyrobebTan.
yuradRebas ipyrobs e. TayaiSvilis dakvirveba, romlis mixedviT,
saxeli `ariani~ `moqcevaY qarTlisaYs~ qronikis Semdgenels amouRia
apokrifuli xasiaTis nawarmoebidan, romelsac qarTul teqstSi `quabi
saganZuri~ ewodeba da romelic IX saukuneze ara ugvianes xanaSi Ses-
rulebul Targmans warmoadgenda asuruli Txzulebis _ `ganZTa qva-
bis~ savaraudod VI saukunis erT-erTi redaqciisa. masSi vkiTxulobT:
`xolo dReTa TaraYsaTa, J (90) welTa cxovrebisa misisaTa, gamoCnda
brZaneba yovelsa adgilsa, sofelsa, romelsa hrqvian ariani, romeli
aRaSena iraYs, Zeman eberisaman, da iyo kaci mdidari friad, da moku-
da, da esua mas Ze da Seqmna kerpi oqrosa da aRmarTa saflavsa zeda
mamissa Tvisisasa~.
nabuqodonosori (g. qavTaraZe)
didi mniSvneloba eniWeba cnobas babilonis mefis nabuqodonosor
II-is (Zv. w. 605-562 ww.) mier afrikisa (libiisa) da pirenes naxevarkun-
Zulis (iberiis) dalaSqvrisa da iqidan wamoyvanili tyveebis pontos
gadaRma mdebare iberiaSi, anu kavkasiaSi dasaxlebis Sesaxeb, romel-
ic, TviT klasikuri xanis mweralTa miTiTebis Tanaxmad, miewereboda
mcireaziel berZens, istorikoss, geografossa da diplomats, `in-
dikis~ avtors megasTenes (daaxl. Zv. w. 350-290 ww.).
es cnoba metad popularuli iyo ara mxolod ZvelberZnul da
romaul literaturaSi, igi gavrcelebuli iyo aRmosavleTSic, ker-
Zod siriul da somxur literaturaSi, iTvleba, rom megasTenesTan
gvxvdeba yvelaze adreuli cnoba kavkasieli iberebis Sesaxeb.
megasTenes zemoT moyvanili cnoba SavizRvispireTSi iberebis dasav-
leTidan gadmosaxlebis Taobaze Semonaxulia evsebi kesarielis (daaxl.
263-339 ww.) TxzulebebSi. amasTan dakavSirebiT pirvel rigSi uTiTeben
111
mis mier 314-318 ww. daweril nawarmoebs `saxarebisadmi winamomzade-
bas~, sadac naTqvamia: `vpove me agreTve abidenosis TxzulebaSi `asu-
relTa Sesaxeb~ nabuqodonosorze Semdegi: megasTene ambobs, rom nabu-
qodonosori herakleze ufro Zlevamosili iyo, libiasa da iberiaze
gailaSqra, daeufla da maTi nawili pontos marjvniv daasaxla~.
ramdenime wliT ufro adre, 308-311 ww. daweril `qronikebis~ pir-
vel wignSi _ `qronografia~ evsebi kesarieli aseve gadmogvcems _
`abidenosi nabuqodonosors herakleze Zlevamosilad miiCnevs, rode-
sac wers Semdegs: megasTene ambobs, rom nabuqodonosori herakleze
Zlevamosili iyo, maT Tavisi jarebi Sors libiamde da iberiamde
miuSva. daipyro es qveynebi da maTi mosaxleobis nawili evqsinis zRvis
marjvena napirze daasaxla~.
ebrauli warmomavlobis romael istorikosTan, ioseb flaviusTan
(daaxl. 37-95 ww.) _ TxzulebaSi `iudevelTa siZveleni~ gvxvdeba me-
gasTenes cnoba nabuqodonosoris dasavluri laSqrobis Taobaze, aq
araferia Tqmuli am ukanasknelis mier dasavleTis iberebisa da li-
bielebis pontos marjvniv anu aRmosavleTiT gadmosaxlebis Taoba-
ze; naTqvamia mxolod da mxolod is, rom megasTene `indikis~ IV wign-
Si cdilobs yvelasaTvis TvalsaCino gaxados heraklesTan Sedare-
biT nabuqodonosoris meti gambedaoba da miRwevaTa sidiade, vinaid-
an man libia da TviT iberia daipyro.
ax. w. VIII saukunis meore naxevrisa da IX saukunis dasawyisis bizan-
tieli mematiane georgios sinkelosTanac Semonaxul megasTenes frag-
mentSi libiis didi nawilisa da iberiis dapyrobazea saubari.
movses xorenacTan vkiTxulobT: `amis Sesaxeb abidenosi ambobs:
`Zlevamosilma nabuqodonosorma, romelic herakleze ufro Ronieri
iyo, Sehyara jari da miaRwia libielTa, agreTve [i]verielTa qvey-
nebs, Semusra da daimorCila isini, maTi erTi nawili wamoasxa iqedan
da pontos zRvis marjvena mxares daasaxla~. [i]veria qveynierebis
dasavleT sazRvarze mdebareobs~.
`qronikebis~ somxuri Targmanis qarTuli versia g. meliqiSvilis
mixedviT, Semdeg saxes Rebulobs: `Zlevamosilma, ambobs igi (abide-
nosi, _ g. m.), nabuqodonosorma, romelic herakleze Zlieri iyo,
laSqris Sekrebis Semdeg miaRwia libielTa da iverTa qveynebs da
112
sZlia, daamxo, daimorCila isini. maTi erTi nawili man gadaasaxla
pontos zRvis marjvena mxareze (da) iq daasaxla~
konstantine VII porfirogenetis TxzulebaSi `imperiis mmarTvelo-
bis Sesaxeb~ (dawerilia 984-952 ww. Soris) Semonaxuli cnoba, rom
TiTqos X s-is Sua xanebis kavkasiel iberebs (anu qarTvelebs) Tavi
ierusalimidan wamosuli xalxis STamomavlebad miaCndaT, am cnobis
Tanaxmad: `iberielebi mogviTxroben, rom maTi tomi ierusalimidan
aris warmoSobili da, rom isini wamovidnen ierusalimidan RvTis
brZanebis momaswavebeli sizmrebis CvenebiT da daesaxlnen sparseTis
mxareebTan, e.i. qveyanaSi, sadac amJamad mkvidroben... vinaidan iberi-
elebi, rogorc TviTve amboben, STamomavlobiT ierusalimidan ari-
an, amis gamo maT aqvT didi siyvaruli misi da uflisa ieso qristes
saflavisa da gansazRvrul droebSi uxvad ugzavnian fuls wminda
qalaqis patriarqsa da iqaur qristianebs~.
damaxasiaTebelia agreTve misi Semdegi sityvebi: iberielebi `uwo-
debdnen Tavis-Tavs daviT mefisa da winaswarmetyvelis naTesavs da
aqedan yovladwminda RvTismSoblis naTesavsac, radgan isic daviTi-
sagan aris warmoSobili~.
113
xalibebi (g. qavTaraZe)
qsenofontis `anabasisis~ monacemebiT, taoxebi da xalibebi sparse-
Tis mefes ar emorCilebodnen, savaraudoa, rom maT, amave dros (xal-
ibebis meTaurobiT) saerTo tomobrivi gaerTianeba unda hqonodaT
Camoyalibebuli.
xalibebi da taoxebi rom dasavleT armeniis sparsel satraps ar
eqvemdebarebodnen (garda qsenofontis anabasisSi aqemenianTa impe-
riaSi berZenTa gzaze mdebare qveynebsa da tomebs Soris maTi dausaxe-
leblobisa) mowmobs agreTve tiribazis jarSi maTi calke _ `moqiravee-
bad~ moxseniebac, gansxvavebiT sakuTriv tiribazis meomrebisagan,
vinaidan, Zneli warmosadgenia, rom dasavleT armeniis mmarTvels _
tiribazs Tvisive qveSevdromebi daeqiravebina.
xalibTa qveyana da armenia aSkarad arian erTmaneTTan dapirispire-
buli dasavleT armeniis erT-erTi soflis mamasaxlisis mier qseno-
fontisaTvis naTqvam sityvebSi, rom win, berZenTa gzaze, mdebare
armeniis mezobeli qveyana xalibebs ekuTvnodaT.
speris adgilmdebareoba yvelaze ufro uaxlovdeba im terito-
rias, romelic skviTinebiT iyo dasaxlebuli.
rogorc viciT, qsenofontisa da misi Tanamemamuleebis gza, xali-
bebis qveynis gavlis Semdeg _ md. harpasosidan (gaigivebulia md.
WoroxTan) makronTa qveynamde (q. trapezuntis samxreTiT) _ skviTineb-
is miwaze gadioda. skviTinebis qveynis adgilmdebareobis gansazRvris
SesaZleblobas, upirveles yovlisa, unda iZleodes maTi umniSvnelo-
vanesi qalaqis _ gvimniasis mdebareoba q. trapezuntis samxreTiT
ganlagebuli mTebis gadaRma 5 dRis saval manZilze, rac, rogorc
fiqroben, daaxloebiT Tanamedrove q. baiburTis sanaxebs anu isto-
riul spers unda Tanxvdebodes. skviTinebis qveynis SuagulSi q. gvim-
niasis mdebareobas mowmobs is garemoeba, rom berZenTa msvlelobis
gzaze, rogorc am qalaqamde, aseve, misi gavlis Semdegac, skviTineb-
is teritoria sakmaod did farTobze iyo gadaWimuli.
114
xorZene _ arian-qarTli (g. qavTaraZe)
flavius arianes informaciiT, Zv. w. 329/328 w. centralur azieli
`xorazmielebis~ mefe farasmanesi 1500 mxedris TanxlebiT eaxla
aleqsandres md. oqsis (Tanamedrove amu daria, centralur aziaSi)
napirTan da moaxsena, rom igi cxovrobda kolxebisa da amaZonelebis
mezoblad da mzad iyo daxmareboda mas, Tuki aleqsandre gadawyvet-
da im tomebis damorCilebas, romlebic saxlobdnen pontos evqsi-
nosamde (anu Sav zRvamde) gadaWimul mxareSi.
aleqsandrem `xorazmielebis~ mefes miugo, rom imJamad mas ar hqon-
da dro da saSualeba pontosken gasalaSqreblad, magram aziis dapy-
robisa da helespontosa da propontidisis gavliT saberZneTSi dab-
runebis Semdeg, igi mTeli Tavisi sazRvao da samxedro Zalebis daxma-
rebiT Rrmad SeiWreboda pontoSi da mxolod maSin dasWirdeboda
mas farasmanesis daxmareba.
erTi ram, vfiqrob, cxadia: arianes teqsti exeba SavizRvispireTs
da ara centralur azias: garda imisa, rom masSi moxseniebuli arian
kolxebi, amaZonelebi da eqvsinis ponto, amasve unda mowmobdes TviT
aleqsandres sityvebi, rom mxolod helespontosa da propontidisis
gavliT saberZneTSi dabrunebis Semdeg (e.i. Soreuli laSqrobidan
gamobrunebis Semdeg), gaemarTeboda igi pontosken da amisaTvis gam-
oiyenebda rogorc saxmeleTo, aseve sazRvao Zalebs. es ukanaskneli
SeniSvna _ `sazRvao Zalebis gamoyeneba~ _ SeuZlebels gaxdida cen-
tralur aziaSi mis ukan dabrunebas da, Sesabamisad, iq myofi faras-
manesisaTvis daxmarebis gawevas. safiqrebelia, rom anatoliis Crdi-
lo-aRmosavleT nawilSi qarTuli matianeebis qarTvelTa `pirvelsa-
cxovrisia~ saZebari, da kolxebTan da amaZonelebTan mebrZoli fara-
smanesis qveyanac.
mxedvelobaSia misaRebi is garemoeba, rom Tu erTi mxriv, arianes
mier moxseniebuli xorazmielTa mefe farasmanesi aleqsandres daxma-
rebas elodeboda Tavisi mezoblebis _ kolxebisa da amaZonelebis _
winaaRmdeg, meore mxriv, qarTuli da somxuri matianeebis cnobiT,
aleqsandre didma qarTlSi mosvlis Semdeg am qveynis mmarTvelad
Tavisi `proteJe~ (azo/azoni Tu mihrdat/miTridate) daadgina.
115
arsebobs SesaZlebloba cneba `xorZenes~ gavrcobisa ufro vrcel
teritoriaze, masSi nawilobriv tao-klarjeTis moqcevis xarjze.
mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs is garemoeba, rom kola-artaanisa da tao-
klarjeTis gamyofi arsianis qedi (dRev. iazlinjam daRlari) giorgi
merCulis X s-is hagiografiul nawarmoebSi, `cxovreba wm. grigol
xanZTelisa~ moxseniebulia `xorasunTa mTaTa~ saxelwodebiT: `rameTu
odesme zafxulisa Jamsa mTaTa maT xorasunTa gardamovidoda igi da
mis Tana Zmani. da ixiles adgili marjve da purisa Wamad dasxdes~.
amrigad, SesaZlebeli Cans, rom flavius arianes `aleqsandres
laSqrobis~ teqstSi xorazmielTa mefis farasmanesis saxels iberiu-
li mxaris _ xorZenes mmarTveli iyos amofarebuli, miT umetes, rom
saxeli `farasmanenis~ xSirad aris dadasturebuli iberiaSi.
aseT SemTxvevaSi ar aris gamoricxuli, rom arianes informacia da
`moqcevaY qarTlisaYs~ cnoba azos Sesaxeb, romelic aleqsandre di-
dis daxmarebiT gamefda mcxeTaSi, erTi da imave movlenis gamoZax-
ili yofiliyo.
amiT asrulebs g.qavTaraZe Tavis kvlevas.
Cveni azriT sainteresoa cda etimologiurad ganvixiloT mosazre-
ba, rom sityva `ariani~ efuZneba sityvas _ `xorZena~.
xorazmi _ xorzene _ xorasun _ xarian _ arian
xorZene _ xarZian _ arZian _ arian _ (Sdr. xorZene-xorene _ aqedan,
xorenaci)
an
xorZene _ arZian (aqedan, arZe)
xorZene-arian
116
iberebi xotenesa da akiliseneSi
(n. xazaraZe, ZvelaRmosavluri da qarTvelologiuri Ziebani~, 2001)
somxeTis olqebi xotene da akilisena istoriulad iberebis sa-
cxovrisi yofila. isini jer kidev qarTuli olqebi iyvnen apianesa
da strabonis epoqaSi, yovel SemTxvevaSi, swored ase gadmogvcems
apiane.
CvenTvis es momenti imiTaa saintereso, rom aRniSnuli olqebi
SemdgomSi lazikis samitropolitos nawilebi gaxdnen, axlos mde-
bareobdnen karinis, anu Teodosiopolis olqTan, iberiis TemTan.
ufro metic, Cven albaT SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom xotene da akilisena
Teodosiopolisis olqis miwa-wylis nawils Seadgendnen, mis Semoga-
ren regions, konstantine porfirogenetis epoqaSi misi soflebisa da
dabebis mosaxleobas TavdadebiT icavda qarTvelTa samefos laSqari
eTnikuri Tanalmobierobis gamo. iberebi aq ara mxolod apianes dros,
aramed basili II bulgarTmmusvrelis epoqaSic cxovrobdnen.
apiane am mxareTa iberebis Sesaxeb wers _ `miTridatem Seusvenebliv
sirbiliT iara da daaxloebiT meoTxe dRes gadalaxa evfrati, xolo Sem-
deg sami dRe idga da aiaraRebda imaT, vinc masTan erTad iyo, an mas uerT-
deboda, Semdeg SeiWra xoteneSi, armeniaSi. iq man ukuagdo xotenebi da
iberebi, romlebic mas isrebiTa da SurdulebiT abrkolebdnen da ga-
davida mdinare afsarosze... miTridatem zamTari dioskuriaSi gaatara~
(apiane, miTridates omebis istoria, 1959, gv. 195).
imave ambavs aRwerda straboni, kerZod, miTridatem gadalaxa evf-
rati, sadac iyo akilisenes wyaluxvi mTa, qarTulad albaT `wyalux-
vi~ JRerda rogorc `fasis mTa~, `fasisi~, radganac p. ingoroyvas
kvleviT, uxvwylian qveyanas fasisi erqva, sityva fasisidanaa albaT
`basianis~ provinciis saxelic.
straboni wers _ `pompeusis mier devnili miTridate aq gamoiqca,
pontos samefos am ukidures kuTxeSi, daipyro dasteirasTan akilesenes
wyaluxvi mTa, maxloblad iyo evfratic, romelic sazRvravda akile-
senes mcire armeniisagan da aq cxovrobda manam, sanam alyaSemortymu-
li iZulebuli ar gaxda gaqceuliyo mTebis gadaRma kolxidaSi da iqidan
ki bosforSi~ (strabonis geografia, 1957, gv. 212).
117
n. xazaraZe azustebs, Tu sad mdebareobda es raionebi _ `Tu stra-
bonisa da apianes moyvanil cnobebs erTimeores SevudarebT, Tan afsa-
ros-Woroxisa da evfratis saTaveebs Soris xotene-xorZenes mravali
mecnieris mier gaziarebul lokalizacias gaviTvaliswinebT, SesaZloa
davuSvaT, rom akaliseneSi mdebare cixe-simagre dasteira pariadris
mTebis (anu tao-speris) samxreTiT ganlagebul regionSia saZiebeli, pon-
tos samefosa da didi armeniis sazRvarze, iq, sadac kolxeTSi (pontos-
pireTSi) mimavali is gza gadioda, romliTac Zv.w. I saukuneSi pompeu-
sisgan devnilma miTridatem da misma qveiTma jarma isargebles, xolo
gvian vaxtang gorgasalma da misma laSqarma~ (n. xazaraZe, ZvelaRmo-
savluri da qarTvelologiuri Ziebani~, 2001, gv. 368).
lazikis eparqiis erTi nawili, romelic aRniSnul regionebsac
moicavda, Zveli qarTuli wyaroebis mier miCneulia azonis mamis same-
fod, anu arian-qarTlis samefos erT nawilad. aq brZoliT Sesula
mefe farnavazi, Semdeg ki vaxtang gorgasali.
vaxuStis cnobiT, klarjeTi azonis mamiseuli samefos, anu arian-
qarTlis nawili iyo. Sesabamisad, klarjeTis samxreTiT mdebare mxaree-
bic arian-qarTlis samefos nawilad miiCneoda. klarjeTis samxreTiT
ki tao-speri, aRniSnuli xorZene, akilisene da sxva mxareebi iyo.
maSasadame, azonis mamis qveyana iyo tao, speri, xorZene da mimdebare
mxareebi.
azonisa da farnavazis omisas farnavazi SeiWra azonis mamul same-
foSi swored aRniSnul mxareebSi. isini, imJamad ukve `saberZneTis~
sasazRvro nawilad miiCneoda. azons `berZnebi~ uWerdnen mxars, ar-
taanis naqalaqarSi `iqmna brZola didZali da moswydes orgniTve
uricxvi. xolo iZlivnen berZenni farnavazisagan. ivltoda banaki maTi
da mokles azon da uricxvni spani maTni mosrnes da tyve qmnes da warvi-
da farnavaz da motyuena sazRvari saberZneTisa anZianZora da ekeleciT
Semoiqca. movida klarjeTs, daipyra klarjeTi da warmovida mcxeTad~
(q.c. I, gv. 23).
ekeleci da anZoreTi (anZiaZora) aseve ixsenieba vaxtang gorgas-
lis cxovrebaSi, roca is, rogorc Cans, qarTvelTa odindel istori-
ul samSobloSi, anu arian-qarTlis miwebze ibrZoda.
118
kerZod, es brZola mimdinareobda Semdgomi Teodosiopolis (kari-
nis) _ trapezuntis arealze, anu swored iq, sadac lazikis eparqia
Camoyalibda.
vaxtang gorgaslis laSqari `moadges cixe-qalaqsa, romelsa erqva
karaxpola, xolo aw ewodebis karnu-qalaqi da brZodes mas... warvida
vaxtang pontos da moaoxrna gzasa qalaqni samni: anZoreTi, ekeleci da
steri da moadges laSqarni pontosa qalaqsa didsa zRvis kidesa~ (q. c.,
t. I, gv. 123).
qalaqi steri aris dasteira.
mkvlevarTa azriT, `zRvis kidis didi qalaqi~ trapezuntia, maSas-
adame, aRniSnuli qalaqebi karnu-qalaqsa (Teodosiopolissa) da tra-
pezunts Soris iyvnen.
anZianZoraSi `ars saflavi didi moZRvrisa grigolisa~ (iqve, gv. 160).
trapezuntsa da Teodosiopoliss istoriulad aerTianebda gza
saerTaSoriso mniSvnelobisa, romelic Sav zRvas sparseTTan aerTebda,
am or qalaqs Soris iyo, rogorc miiCneva, istoriuli xotenas da
axlos akilisenes provinciebi, romelnic arian-qarTlis miwa-wyalze
mdebareobdnen da miTridates, konstantine porfirogenetisa da ba-
sili II bulgarTmmusvrelis epoqaSi qarTvelebiT iyvnen dasaxlebulni,
Tumca ki ukve qveyanas `armenia~ ewodeboda, ris gamoc mkvidri qarTu-
li mosaxleoba armenizaciis procesisagan Tavis garidebas cdilob-
da, maT Soris konfesiuradac.
qarTuli `ekeleci~, sadac farnavazs azonis mamuli qveyana egule-
boda, da sadac ibrZoda vaxtang gorgasali, strabonis akilisena yofi-
la (n. xazaraZe, dasax. naSromi, gv. 364). is, e.w. `maRal somxeTSi~ mdebar-
eobda, evfratis xeobaSi q. erizasTan (erzinka). masa da Teodosiopo-
liss Soris unda yofiliyo strabonis mier naxsenebi `akilesenes wya-
luxvi mTa~, sadac miTridate cota xans cxovrobda, aqve xotenebi da
mkvidri iberebi SeebrZolnen isrebiTa da SurdulebiT.
xotene zogi mecnieris mier xorZened miiCneva (iqve, gv. 367).
iqve, tao-speris samxreTiT yofila pariadres mTebi, romelic mi-
Tridatemde sul cota xnis win armenielebma iberebs waarTves.
am Zveli qarTuli adgilebis, anu arian-qarTlis dasabruneblad,
rogorc iTqva, ubrZoliaT _ farnavazs, Semdeg _ vaxtang gorgasals,
119
Semdeg, SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom ibrZodnen daviT didi kurapalati da
saqarTvelos mefe giorgi I.
aq, Semdeg, rogorc iTqva, `lazikis samitropolitos~ iurisdiq-
cia gavrcelda da aqve mdebareobda `iberiis Temi~, aq iyo im iberTa
(da ara somexTa) qalkedonituri saepiskoposoebi, romelnic konstan-
tinopolis iurisdiqciaSi imyofebodnen. Sesabamisad, am adgilebis
e.w. somxur-qalqedonuri saepiskoposoebis mrevlis umetesoba eTniku-
ri qarTvelebi iyvnen, Tumca met wilad eklesiurad somxurenovanni.
n. xazaraZe mosxebis qveynis Sesaxeb (Zv. w. I s.)
(n. xazaraZe, `ZvelaRmosavluri da qarTvelologiuri Ziebani~, 2001 w.)
argonavtebis Tqmulebis kolxeTia ara rionis dablobi, aramed
samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelo (Woroxis auzi)
straboni wers: mdinareebis fazisis, glavkosisa da hiposis `maRla
(zemoT) mosxebis qveyanaSi mdebareobs levkoTeas samlocvelo, friqs-
es mier agebuli da misi samisno, sadac verZs ar swiraven msxverplad.
odesRac is mdidari iyo, xolo Cvens dros igi farnakes mier da cota
mogvianebiT, miTridate pergamonelis mier iqna gaZarculi~ (XI, 2,17).
n. xazaraZes ase gadmoaqvs _ `mdinareebis maRla _ zemoT~, `maRal
adgilze~, e.i. mTaSi ganlagebuls niSnavs (gv. 21).
`mosxebis qveyanas~ straboni meorejerac axsenebs: `mosxebis qveya-
na, romelSic aris samlocvelo, sam nawils Seicavs: erTi misi nawili
aqvT kolxebs, meore iberebs da mesame armenielebs~ (XI, 2, 18).
samlocvelo ki ar aris samad gayofili, aramed mosxebis qveyana.
misi erTi nawili armenielebs daupyriaT, xolo ori danarCeni Tavis-
ufal nawilTagan erTi iberebis, meore ki kolxebis xelSia.
n. xazaraZis kvleviT `mosxebis qveyana~ mdebareobda ara dasavleT
saqarTveloSi, e.w. `istoriul kolxeTSi~, aramed samxreT saqarTvelo-
Si _ istoriul mesxeTSi.
is ikvlevs sxvadasxva epoqis wyaroebs da askvnis _ `straboniseu-
li `mosxikes~ (mosxebis qveynis) moTavsebas istoriuli mesxeTis adgil-
120
ze ufro gviandeli xanis (Zv.w. I _ ax.w. III ss) werilobiTi wyaroebic
uWeren mxars~ (n. xazaraZe, `ZvelaRmosavluri da qarTveluri Zie-
bani~, 2001 w. gv. 222).
Tu `mosxebis qveyana~ _ istoriuli mesxeTia da misi erTi nawili
kolxebis xelSia moqceuli strabonis Tanaxmad, maSin kolxeTi aris ara
dasavleT saqarTvelo, aramed trapizonis mxare _ e.w. lazistanis aR-
mosavleTi teritoria, kerZod ki Woroxis xeobis zRvispira nawili e.w.
bolo klarjeTisa zRvispiri da TviTon klarjeTi. radgan istoriul
mesxeTs dasavleTis mxridan sazRvravda swored md. Woroxis xeobis
erT-erTi qedi, romelsac lazistanisa ewodeba.
istoriuli mesxeTis erTi nawili rom armenielebis mier iyo dapy-
robili strabonis epoqaSi, es Zveli qarTuli wyaroebiTacaa cno-
bili. kerZod, pariadres kalTebis CamorTmevis Semdgom iberiasa da
armenias Soris sadavo iyo basiani da tao mtkvris saTaveebamde.
xolo ZvelqarTuli wyaroebis cnobiT, klarjeTis momijnave is-
toriuli mesxeTis mxare artaani _ ZiriTadad mudam iberiaSi Sedio-
da, isaa erTaderTi qarTuli regioni, romelic erTdroulad emi-
jneboda lazistans, qarTlsa da somxeTs.
n. xazaraZe askvnis _ `geografiis XI, 2,17-Si, iseve, rogorc XI,
2,18-Si moxseniebuli `mosxebis qveyana~ (`mosxike~) istoriuli mesxe-
Tis teritoriazea saZiebeli (iqve, gv. 222).
strabonis `fazisi~ am SemTxvevaSi namdviladaa Woroxi.
n. xazaraZec ase fiqrobs strabonis `mosxikes~ adgilmdebareobis
dadgenis dros. `fazisis saTaved warmodgenilia ara fazis-rionis
saTave, aramed Worox-fazisisa (armenia) (iqve, gv. 212). strabonisa da
pliniusis mixedviT, kolxeTis mdinare fazisis Senakadebi arian glav-
kosi da hiposi, (Strabo, XI, 2,17, XI, 3,4, Plin, NH, VI, 13), klavdios ptole-
maiosi glavkoss uwodebs mdinares, romelic likosTan erTad erTvis
afsaros-Woroxs (Ptolem, V, 10,3).
pliniusis mixedviT, fazisis saTave mosxebis mTebSia. Woroxis saT-
avec mesxebiT yofila dasaxlebuli.
`mosxuri mTebidan~ n. xazaraZis kvleviT, momdinareoben `mesxeTis
mdinareebi: Woroxi da misi Senakadebi TorTumi da bana-fanaskerti.
pliniusis cnobis amgvar interpretacias mxars uWers Semdegic: so-
121
lini (ax.w. III s.), romlis Txzuleba ZiriTadad pliniusis naSromis safuZ-
velzea dawerili, fazisis, araqsisa da evfratis saTaveebs erTad ixse-
niebs. solinis azriT _ `henioxuri mTebi araqss gadmoRvrian, mosxu-
ri ki _ faziss. araqsi saTaves iRebs evfratis saTaveebTan axlos~,
raki solini mogviTxrobs erT garkveul regionSi ganlagebuli da
ara erTmaneTisagan daSorebuli mdinareebis saTavebze, SeiZleba da-
vaskvnaT, rom `fazisis~ saxelwodebiT solini aRniSnavs ara kolxeTis
mdinare fazis-rions, aramed mesxeTis mdinare fazis-Woroxs (Woroxis
saTavis siaxlove araqsis da evfratis saTaveebTan saeWvo ar aris (n.
xazaraZe, gv. 223).
n. xazaraZe aseve miiCnevs: `istoriuli mesxeTis teritoriaze mosx-
ebis qveynis Zieba gamarTlebulia kornelius tacitusis (ax. w. I-II ss)
im CvenebiTac, romlis Tanaxmad mosxebis miwa-wyali armeniis mezo-
bladaa moTavsebuli (cnobaSi naTqvamia, rom mosxebi Tavs esxmian
armeniis miyruebul adgilebs).
straboniseuli `mosxikes~ zemoT SemoTavazebul lokalizacias
eTanxmeba mosxebis gansaxlebis Sesaxeb arsebuli Zv.w. IV-V saukuneebis
berZnuli wyaroebis monacemebic (n. xazaraZe, dasax. naSromi, gv. 223).
n. xazaraZe eTanxmeba T. miqelaZes da wers, rom friqses anu lev-
koTeas taZari, saZebnia samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos istoriul qar-
TlSi, xolo argonavtebis Tqmulebis kolxeTi saZebnia ara rionis
dablobze, aramed samxreT-dasavleT saqarTveloSi (Woroxis auzSi) _
`istoriul samreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos teritoriaze. friqses sa-
xelTan dakavSirebuli Zeglisa da qveynis Ziebis sasargeblod lapara-
kobs T. miqelaZis is sayuradRebo Teoriac, romlis Suqze argonav-
tebis Tqmulebis kolxeTi, ukeT aia-kolxeTi, saZiebelia ara rionis
dablobze, aramed samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos teritoriaze, Wo-
roxis auzSi~ (n. xazaraZe, dasax. naSr. gv. 224).
marTlac, n. xazaraZis kvlevis Tanaxmad _ `straboni friqsesa da
argonavtebis Txzulebis gmirebis (iazoni, medea, medosi, armenosi da
sxva) samoqmedo asparezad warmogvidgens ara rionispira kolxeTs,
aramed mis farglebs gareT (samxreTiT) mdebare regions.
am TvalsazrisiT Semdegi cnobebia sayuradRebo: strabonis Tanax-
mad, friqsesa da iazonis laSqrobis Zeglebi mravlad moipoveba.
122
geografosi wers: `friqsess miuTiTeben kolxeTisa da iberiis sazR-
varze, xolo iazonisas _ bevrgan armeniis, midiis da maT mezoblad
mdebare qveynebis adgilebSi~ (I, 2,39), straboni azustebs: `iberiaSi
aris erTi patara qalaqi friqsopolisi, axlandeli idessa, kargad
gamagrebuli adgili kolxeTis sazRvarze~ (XI, 2,18). eratosTeneze
(Zv.w. III s.) dayrdnobiT straboni gvamcnobs, rom iazonma `dastova
xomaldi, rodesac kolxebisagan midioda da armeniasa da midiamde
xmeleTiT ilaSqra~.
armeniaSi iazonis yofnaze mis saxelze agebuli taZrebi lapara-
koben (XI, 13,10). iazonma TiTqos araqss kalapoti Seucvala (XI, 14,13).
misi Tanamgzavri armenosi armeniis eponomia (XI, 4,8), TanamgzavrTa-
gan dasaxldnen akiliseneSi, uwin sofenebis gamgeblobaSi rom iyo,
zogic sispiritisSi, armeniis sazRvrebs iqiT, strabons midiis sax-
elwodeba medeasa da misi vaJis medosis saxelidan gamohyavs.
argonavtebis Tqmulebis gmirebis moqmedebis regioni samxreTidan
esazRvreba `mosxikesaTvis~ navaraudev miwa-wyals. `mosxikes~ uSua-
lod emezobleboda farnakes da miTridate pergamonelis sabrZolo
areals, amitomac SeZles maT levkoTeas gaZarcva istoriuli mesxe-
Tis samxreTiT.
argonavtebis Tqmulebis gmirebi armeniasa da midiaSi gadasulan
uSualod kolxeTidan, maT iberia rom gaevloT, straboni mogvcemda
Sesabamis cnobas (iseve, rogorc mogvca cnoba friqses taZris iberi-
aSi arsebobis Sesaxeb). es kidev erTxel miuTiTebs, rom argonavteb-
is kolxeTi araa dasavleT saqarTvelo, saidanac armeniaSi Sesasvle-
lad maT iberia unda gaevloT. magram Tuki kolxeTi _ trapizon-
Woroxis xeobaa, iqedan armeniaSi Sesvla SesaZlebeli iyo sxvadasxva
gziT, maT Soris ufro cnobili iyo Semdgom artanuj-artaanad wode-
buli gza, romlis erTi mTavari toti Sedioda armeniaSi, iqidan ki
midiaSi. aranakleb cnobili iyo trapizon_Teodosopolis gza.
n. xazaraZe, iseve, rogorc XX saukunis zogierTi sxva qarTveli
mkvlevari, xSirad laparakobs strabonis cnobebis uzustobebisa da
winaaRmdegobebis Sesaxeb (dasax. naSromi, gv. 211, 216), magram am SemTx-
vevaSi, Tuki strabonis fazisad CavTvliT Woroxs, misi `uzustobani~
Semcirdeba. magaliTad, `fazisis saTave armeniaSia~ (im epoqaSi Woroxis
123
saTave armeniaSi iyo), faziss erTvis glavkosi da hiposi~ _ wers
straboni. Tuki glavkosad CavTvliT artanujiswyals liganis xe-
vTan axlos (Sdr. `like~, likani, liganisxevi _ likes axsenebs ptole-
maiosi, romelic glavkosTan erTad erTvis Woroxs), aqac strabonis
`uzustoba~ mcirdeba.
straboni wers: magaliTad, `fazisze curva SeiZleba sarapanamde~
(XI, 2,17). Tu Cven gavbedavT da davZlevT tradiciul Tvalsazriss
da CavTvliT, rom sarapana ar aris imereTis Sorapani da sarapanad
CavTvliT Woroxis romelime sanaosno navsayudels (magaliTad ar-
Tvins), maSin aRar visaubrebT strabonis `uzustobebis~ Sesaxeb, radgan
Woroxi d. baqraZis cnobiT namdvilad iyo sanaosno arTvinamde (masze
200-ze meti brtyelZira navi dacuravda, romliTac Woroxis xeobis
saqoneli _ daxerxili ficrebi da produqtebi gadahqondaT Savi zRvis
portebSi da piriqiT _ Savi zRvis portebidan ZiriTadad marili da
msubuqi saqoneli gahqondaT arTvinamde).
toponimi Sorapani qarTul samyaroSi mravlad meordeba, magali-
Tad, `Sorapani~ erqva qalaq ozurgeTs XV saukuneSi istoriuli at-
lasis mixedviT. straboni wers `iberiaSi oTxi Sesasvlelia: erTi aris
kolxuri cixe-simagre sarapanze da masTan arsebul viwroebze, romel-
zec fazisi momdinareobs, swrafi da xmauriani miemarTeba kolxidaSi,
romelzec 120 xidiT gaivleba mixveul-moxveulobis gamo. mravali na-
kadulebiT warmoiqmneba (fazisi) zemoT mdebare mTebSi, mravali nak-
adulisagan, xolo dablobSi Rebulobs sxva mdinareebs, romelTa Soris
aris glavkosi da hiposi, gavsili da sanaosnod gamosadegi Cadis pon-
toSi~ (XI, 3,4).
Tu Woroxi (an misi Senakadi) _ fazisia, xolo kolxida _ `klarje-
Ti da bolo klarjeTisa _ zRvispiria~, iberiaSi Sesasvleli namd-
vilad miuyveba Savi zRvidan md. Woroxs, adis arTvinamde da Semdeg
Sedis viwro xeobaSi, romelSic Semdgom artanuji aigo, artanujidan
ki Sedis iberiaSi, anu artaanSi _ kandridis, anu skandis gziT.
Tu am mosazrebas gaviziarebT, strabonis `uzustobac~ aRmoifx-
vreba. Tu fazisad CavTvliT rions, maSin namdvilad straboni aR-
moCndeba `arazusti~, radganac daWaobebul dablobze mimdinare da
deltebian napirebian rionze amJamadac ki SeuZlebelia 120 xidis
124
ageba, magram Tu CavTvliT, rom fazisi aris Woroxi misi Senakadebi,
romelnic miedinebian kldeTa Soris viwro xeobebze, romlebzec is-
toriulad iyo gadebuli mravali Zveli TaRovani xidi (erT-erTi
artanujTan, sxvebi mimdebare xeobebis wylebze), maSin aRar CavTv-
liT `arazustad~ strabons.
glavkosad da likosad ki SesaZlebelia Woroxis Senakadebi CavTval-
oT, rogorc aRiniSna _ upirvelesad liganis xevi, radganac Woroxis
qveyanas arTvinTan axlos istoriulad `ligani~ erqva _ aq unda yo-
filiyo md. likosi, like. aq axlac aris md. `liganis xevi~ (artanujis
mxares). cnobilia, rom erT-erTi like gaedineboda trapezuntis mxa-
res, magram, rogorc etimologiac miuTiTebs _ sxva mdinare amave
saxelwodebiT _ like (likani-ligani) liganis olqSic gaedineboda.
aRsaniSnavia, rom aRniSnuli mdinareebis lokalizaciis Sesaxeb
amJamad erTiani azri ar arsebobs, ZiriTadad maT Tvlian md. rionis
Senakadebad, aseT SemTxvevaSi straboni Zalze `arazusti~ Cans.
Tu md. hiposs miiCneven cxeniswylad an md. kodorad, an md. lagvaSad
(afxazeTSi) da a.S. xolo fazisad miiCneven md. yvirilasa da md. rio-
nis Sua da qvemo dinebas, aseT SemTxvevaSi straboni namdvilad `ara-
zusti~ gamoCndeba. magaliTad, SeuZlebeli xdeba levkoTeas taZris
adgilmdebareobis gansazRvra, radganac igi mdebareobda aRniSnuli
mdinareebis maRla, e.i. maRal adgilze, zemoT da ara Sors an moSore-
biT (n. xazaraZe, gv. 219), amitom Tvlidnen levkoTead zogi mecnieri
awyurs, zogi noqalaqevs, zogi sairxes, zogi vans, xucubans. zogi mas
aTavsebs kolxeTSi, zogi iberiaSi, zogi kintriSis xeobaSi, adigensa
da sxvagan maSin, roca strabonis mixedviT levkoTea `mosxikeSi~ _
mosxebis qveyanaSia. es unda iyos, rogorc iTqva, artaanis mxare,
romelsac uerTdeba klarjeTidan _ artaanSi anu kolxeTidan iberi-
aSi Semavali istoriuli gza. aRsaniSnavia, rom am mxreebSi, kerZod
javaxeTSi, axlac aris sofeli koTelia, romlis saxeli emsgavseba
saxel levkoTeas.
n. xazaraZe wers: `s. janaSias azriT, cxeniswyalTan hiposis gaigiveba
`nakleb sando Cans~, xolo yvirilasTan glavkosisa `savsebiT sacil-
obelia, Tu hipo cxeniswyalia, maSin bunebrivi iqneba davaskvnaT, rom
glavki rionia~ (s. janaSia, fasidi, Sromebi, II, gv. 180). g. meliqiSvili
125
tolobis niSans svams glavkosisa da zemo rions Soris. iseve, rogorc
s. janaSia, gamoricxulad Tvlian yvirilasTan glavkosis gaigivebas.
o. lorTqifaniZis azriT, ufro marTebulia glavkosi identificir-
ebuli iqnes rionis marcxena SenakadTan md. sulorTan. n. lomouri
md. glavkoss aigivebs dRevandel md. olTi-CaisTan, xolo likoss _
dRevandel md. TorTumTan. n. xazaraZe dasaSvebad Tvlis n. lomouris
azrs (n. xazaraZe, dasaxelebuli naSromi, gv. 228).
Cveni azriT, rogorc iTqva, glavkosi da likosi saZebnia im ar-
ealSi, sadac artanujiswyali uerTdeba Woroxs, artanujiswyalis
SesarTavia liganisxevi. eseni SesaZloa iyvnen glavkosi da likosi
(anda amave arealSi Woroxis sxva Senakadebi), xolo hiposi amave ar-
ealSia saZebni, kerZod, arTvinidan zRvis mimarTulebiT Woroxis
marcxena wyaluxvi Senakadebidan erT-erTi.
saqme isaa, rom Zvel avtorebs, rogorc Cans, ainteresebdaT ara
Woroxis, e.i. fazisis vrceli xeoba mTlianad (es nawili armeniaSi
Semavalad miiCneoda), aramed misi mxolod is nawili, romelic moicavda
fasisTan erTad glavkossa da hiposs (da iqve myof sxva mdinareebs),
radganac mxolod am nawils moicavda kolxida-iberia-armeniis dam-
akavSirebeli saerTaSoriso mniSvnelobis gza, romelzec SemdgomSi
aigo artanujis cixe-simagre, masSi ki konstantine porfirogenetis
cnobiT, Sediodnen (cxadia, aRniSnuli gziT) vaWrebi iberiidan, ar-
meniidan, siriidan. am gziT SesaZlebeli iyo samxreT kavkasiis mTeli
tvirTebis gadazidva Savi zRvis portebSi da piriqiT, bizantiuri
saqonlisa mcire aziaSi vidre siriamde, Tu ar CavTvliT Tbilisur
da kavkasiur saqonels.
rac Seexeba md. Woroxs, rogorc Cans, mas zemowelSi erqva akamf-
sisi, SuawelSi boasi, xolo (md. artanujiswylis) qvemoT zRvamde _
fazisi, masve, an mis maxlobel mdinares, Cans. afsarosic erqva _
afsirtes, medeas Zmis, mkvlelobis adgilis saxelis mixedviT, is am
mdinaris SesarTavTan (da ara rionTan) mouklavT.
radganac kolxeTis (Semdegdroindeli lazikis) adgilmdebareo-
bis gansazRvrisaTvis didi mniSvneloba eniWeba `mesxebis qveynis~
lokalizacias, moviyvanoT uZvelesi cnobebi mesxTa (mosxTa) Sesaxeb.
hekatos mileteli (VI s. qristeSobamde) ixseniebs maT. stefane bizan-
126
tielis (VI s. Cveni welTaRricxviT) `eTnikaSi~ vkiTxulobT `hekatos
miletelis Tanaxmad, mosxebi kolxuri tomia da cxovroben matieneb-
is mezoblad~. nana xazaraZe wers _ `hekatos miletelis warmodgeniT
termin `kolxis~ gavrcelebis areali moicavda md. Woroxis SesarTa-
vidan samxreTiT mdebare regions. saqme is aris, rom matienebis to-
mis md. Woroxis maRla (CrdiloeTiT) ganvrcobis Sesaxeb cnobebi ar
arsebobs~ (iqve, gv. 258).
kolxebis md. Woroxis SesarTavis samxreTiT cxovrebis Sesaxeb
cnobas gvaZlevs herodote, romelic wers, rom md. TermodontTan
mcxovrebma sirielebma da maTma mezobelma makronebma `mxolod ax-
laxan~ iswavles kolxebisagan winadacveTa (II, 104). md. Termodonti
ki miedineba trapezuntis samxreTiT. javaxiSvilis azriTac, `winaT
kolxebi Termodontis axlos cxovrobdnen~ (iqve, gv. 267). qsenofon-
tis cnobiTac (IV s. qristeSobamde) kolxebis toms ekuTvnoda teri-
toria md. Woroxis samxreTiT, trapezuntis raionSi (iqve, gv. 268).
avtori likofroni (III s. qristeSobamde), romlis komentarebi ioane
ceces ekuTvis, werda, rom kolxebs agreTve uwodebdnen `aziel skvi-
Tebs~ da `levkosirielebs~ (iqve, gv. 268), maSasadame, kolxebi ar iyo
erTi tomi, aramed krebiTi saxeli sxvadasxva modgmis tomebis, maT
Soris, semituri warmoSobis levkosirielebisa, kolxebia mesxebic,
romelnic Woroxis xeobaSi cxovroben.
kolxuri brinjaos nawarmi Zv.w. XIV-XII ss-Si anatoliaSi farTod
gavrcelda (ordus ganZi (1926), sxva mraval adgilas aRmoCenili brin-
jaos ganZi, maT Soris arTvinis (Woroxis xeobaSi). nana xazaraZis kv-
leviT `mosxuri mTebi~, romlebic strabonis warmodgeniT kolxeTis
samxreT sazRvarze mdebareobda, saZiebelia trapezuntis Crdilo-
eTiT... straboni trapezuntsa da kolxeTs Soris arc erT sxva eTni-
kur an geografiul saxelwodebas ar ixseniebs~ (iqve, gv. 310). stra-
bonis mowmobiT `skidise, kldovani mTa~ mosxur mTebs uerTdeba (iqve,
gv. 311), skidisi da Semdgomi avtorebis `skanda~ saxelebi emsgavsebi-
an erTmaneTs.
strabonis Tanaxmad, mtkvars armeniaSi aqvs saTave, magram igi maS-
inve Semodis iberiis dablobSi (XII, 3,2) anu kolas olqis samxreTi
somxeTs hqonda mitacebuli, xolo artaani _ iberiaSi iyo.
127
`mosxuri mTebi~ n. xazaraZes eguleba mtkvris saTaveebTan axlos.
mtkvar-Woroxis wyalgamyofi qedebis adgilas (esaa arsianis da misi
mimdebare qedebi). mtkvris saTaveebis samxreT-dasavleTidan stra-
bonis cnobiT somxebma daipyres iberiis teritoriebi _ `pariadres
kalTebi, xorzene da gogarene (romelic mtkvris gadaRma aris)~ Zv. w. II
saukuneSi (XI, 14,5). strabonisve cnobiT pariadres mTianeTi yofila
wyliT mdidari da tyiani, aq iyo mowyobili meti wili ganZsacavebisa,
pompeusis mier devnili miTridate aq gamoiqca, Semdeg iZulebuli
gaxda gaqceuliyo mTebis gadaRma _ kolxidaSi, iqidan ki bosforSi.
unda vigulisxmoT, rom man gadalaxa arsianis qedi da Semdegdroin-
deli artanujis gziT Sevida Woroxis xeobaSi `ukuagdo xotenebi da
iberebi, romlebic mas isrebiTa da SurdulebiT abrkolebdnen da
gadavida md. afsarosze~, _ wers apiane. n. xazaraZis kvleviT, Semdgom
amave gziT usargeblia vaxtang gorgasals, roca man Woroxis xeo-
bidan (klarjeTidan) _ artaanis gavliT mcxeTaSi dabruneba gadaw-
yvita (iqve, gv. 368).
maSasadame, strabonis mier naxsenebi mdinareebi fasisi, glavkosi,
hiposi mdebareobdnen Woroxis xeobaSi, berZnebi `lazikas~ uwodebd-
nen im qveyanas, romelsac qarTul wyaroebSi erqva `klarjeTi,
bolo_klarjeTisa zRvispiri~. aqvea, istoriuli mesxeTi _ n. xaz-
araZis kvleviT.
unda iTqvas, rom klarjeTi /artanujis mxare/ iyo is mesamedi
mesxeTisa, romelic strabonis sityviT, mis dros kolxebis xelSi
yofila moqceuli.
128
p. ingoroyva mesxeT-kolxeTis Sesaxeb (I s.)
p. ingoroyva wers _ `aRsaniSnavia, rom mesxeTis istoriuli teri-
toriebidan kolxebis satomo saxelTan dakavSirebulia saxelwodeba
ara marto klarjeTis (kolarjebis, kolarebis) mxarisa, aramed mesxe-
Tis zogierTi sxva raionebisa. mag. mesxeTis mxareTa Soris mtkvris saTa-
veebSi mdebare raioni _ kola (kora), romelsac ukavSirdeba satomo sa-
xeli kolxi (kolaeli), variantebis formiT `koraxi~. plinius sekundes
cnobiT, md. mtkvris saTaveebis mTebis saxeli yofila `koraxi~. kolas
ukavSirdeba mdinaris saxelic `kori~, `koros~. ase erqva mtkvars stra-
bonis cnobiT. mesxebis Sesaxeb uZvelesi cnoba, romelic ekuTvnis anti-
kuri xanis berZen mwerals qristemde VI saukunisas hekate miletels _
mesxebis tomi kolxebTanaa dakavSirebuli (fragmenti 188)~ _ (p. ingor-
oyva, giorgi merCule, gv. 438).
kolx-mesxebis am miwa-wyalze arsebobda ori lazika, erTi saxelm-
wifoebrivi warmonaqmni iyo, meore ki saeklesio erTeuls warmoad-
genda. pirvels erqva `lazikis samefo~, meores ki lazikis samitropo-
lito. isini sxvadassxva teritoriebze mdebareobdnen erTmaneTis
mezoblad.
lazikis samefo moicavda miwa-wyals Woroxis SesarTavidan da
zRvispiridn arsianis qedamde (mas qarTul wyaroebSi erqva _ `klar-
jeTi _ bolo klarjeTisa _ zRvispiri~).
lazikis samitropolito, rogorc aRiniSna, XI s-Si trapezuntis
qaldebis garda, mesxebis tomiT dasaxlebul miwa-wyals moicavda vanis
tbis mimarTulebiT.
rac Seexeba lazikis eparqiebs, isini VI saukunisaTvis ara lazikis
samefoSi, aramed sul sxva mxares, qaldea-lazikaSi lokalizdebian,
kerZod regionSi trapezuntidan arzrumis (Teodosiopolisis) mima-
rTulebiT, XI saukunisaTvis, gafarToebis Semdeg, lazikis samitro-
polito moicavda teritorias trapezuntidan zigana-Teodosiopol-
vanis tbisaken.
n. adoncis cnobiT aq, qaldebis miwaze, Semdegdroindel zigana-
giumuSxanes regionSi mdebareobdnen lazikis cnobili saepiskopo-
soebi (zigana, saisini, rodopolisi, petra).
129
p. ingoroyva sityvebs `kolxsa~ da `klarjs~ erTmaneTTan akav-
Sirebs, is ase msjelobs _ `qarTulSi bolokidurs `eli~ enacvleba
bolokiduri `ari~. ase magaliTad _ odiSeli _ odiSari, cxumeli _
cxumari, opizeli _ opizari, olTiseli _ olTisari, kolaeli _
kolari~ (p. ingoroyva, giorgi merCule, 1957, gv. 437).
`el~ _ `ar~ _ gamoxatavs imaves, rasac daboloeba `xi~
kolari _ kolaeli _ kolxi
`amrigad, saxelwodebani `kolxi~, `kolaeli~ da `kolari~ identurni
arian~ (iqve, gv. 437).
aseve rTuli bgerisagan `rj~, miiReba cal-calke `r~ da `j~. r _ rj.
kolari _ kolarji _ klarji
`amrigad, yvela es saxelwodebani `kolxi~, `kolaeli~, `kolari~
da `kolarji~ (klarji) erTi da igive satomo saxelis dialeqturi
sxvaobaa~ (p. ingoroyva, giorgi merCule, 1957, gv. 438).
`daboloeba `xi~ gamoxatavs imave Sinaarss, rasac daboloeba `eli~
(p. ingoroyva, gv. 437).
p. ingoroyva wers _ `satomo saxelebSi, romlebic bolovdeba
bolokiduriT `xi~, fuZe-sityva aRniSnavs qveyanas, xolo daboloeba
`xi~ gamoxatavs imave Sinaarss, rasac daboloeba `eli~ (p. ingoroyva,
giorgi merCule, 1957, gv. 437). karduxi, taoxi, kolxi, javaxi da sxv.
e.i. karduxi = kardueli = qaldueli=qarTueli
kolxi = kolaeli = kolarji = klarji
Tu istoriuli lazikis samefo klarjeTs moicavda, maSin Semdgo-
mi, bagrationebis epoqis, klarjeTis saxelmwifoebrioba lazikis
saxelmwifoebriobis gagrZelebad SeiZleba CavTvaloT.
130
Zvel berZen-marTlmadidebel episkoposTa
ganmartebani qarTvelTa warmoSobis Sesaxeb
Tesalonikeli arqiepiskoposi evstate (evstaTiosi) ganmartavs ho-
merosis (Zv. w. VIII s.) `iliadas~ adgilebs qarTvelebTan dakavSirebiT,
homerosi Tavis iliadaSi wers _ troas omSi `halizonebs mouZRod-
nen odiosi da epistrofosi, Soreuli alibedan, saidanacaa vercxlis
sawyisi~ (II, 856-857).
arqiepiskoposi evstate ase ganmartavs am adgils homerosidan _
`halizonebi xalibebs uwoda (homerosma), xalibebs hqondaT ganTqmuli
vercxlis sabadoebi, axla ki aqvT rkinisa. geografosi ambobs, rom zo-
gierTni nacvlad `alizonebisa~ weren `alazonebi~ anda `olizonebi~
(antikuri kavkasia, enciklopedia, I, 2010, gv. 49).
rogorc `geografosis~ (Cans igulisxmeba straboni), ise arqiepisko-
pos evstates TvalsazrisiT xalibebi monawileobdnen troas omSi da
maT aseve ewodebodaT `alazonebi~.
alazonebi aris sawyisi sityvebisa: `lazonia~ (ase erqva olqs tra-
pezuntis maxloblad) da `lazi~ (ase erqva toms aseve trapezuntis
axlos mcxovrebT), xolo xalibebi igive qaldebi, qaldeas qveynis
mcxovrebni arian. ase, rom qaldebi (saidanac warmomavlobs sityva
`qarTueli~) aseve iwodebodnen lazebadac. qaldebi da lazebi erTi
xalxi iyo. qaldebi da lazebi (qarTvelebi) mudam erTad ixseniebod-
nen mweralTa mier.
igive arqiepiskoposi evstate aseve wers erT-erTi qarTuli tomis
_ gargarelebis Sesaxeb. am tomis saxeli (gargari) imiTaa saintereso,
rom misgan unda iyos warmomavali qarTuli provinciis gugaris sax-
eli (gugarqi), sityvis fuZe eTanadeba qarTvelTa eTno fuZes _ `ggr~
(egrisi, argveTi, guria...). gargar _ gugar _ ggr (ar veTanxmebiT
Tvalsazriss TiTqosda gugarqis saxeli modis skviTuri tomis `go-
gis~ saxelisagan).
homerosis sxva adgilis komentarSi evstate wers _ `monaTxrobi
irwmuneba imasac, rom gargarelebi _ im xalxis saxelia, romelic ama-
zonebTan iyo kavSirSi~ (iqve, gv. 50).
amazonebi _ misive sityviT, ara marto meomari qalebis, aramed
qaldebis tomis meomari mamakacebis saxelic iyo, romelnic Cacmu-
131
lobisa da grZeli Tmebis gamo zogierTs Turme qalebad warmoedgi-
naT. SesaZlebelia isic, rom sityva `qaldi~ berZnebs uTargmnes kidec
qarTuli enis Sesabamisad. saxeli `qali~ dedakacs ewodeba, d (t, T) _
mravlobiTobis niSania, anu Tarjimnis mier berZenTaTvis saxeli `qal-
di~ qarTulidan iTargmna ase _ `qalebi~. saerTod ki, berZnebs eTnoni-
mebs, hidronimebsa da toponimebsac uTargmnidnen. magaliTad, grZel-
TavianTa tomis saxeli ase uTargmnes _ `makrokefalebi~, uTargmnes
aseve `tiliWamiebisa~ da `girCismWamelTa~ tomebis zedmetsaxelebic.
saerTod, iv. javaxiSvilis kvlevebiT, qaldu anu qaldi iyo im qvey-
nis saxeli, saidanac, rogorc is werda, warmodgebian `qarTvelebi, la-
zebi da svanebi~, anu qaldu _ qarTvelTa uZvelesi saerTo qveynis
saxeli iyo.
qaldus qveynis mcxovrebT, imJamad qaldebi anu xaldebi erqvaT.
Tesalonikeli arqiepiskoposis evstrates ganmartebiT ki qalde-
bi igive alazonebi, lazebi arian. anu qarTvelTa saerTo samSoblos
saxeli `alazoniac~ yofila (rogorc iTqva aqedan unda iyos saxelebi
arze, arzena (alzena-lazena-lazivi-lazika), arzena-arsiani, arazani
da sxva).
klimens aleqsandrieli (II-III ss.) miiCnevs, rom pontoszRvispireT-
Si iberiis mezobeli da maxlobeli amazonebi iyo ara maincdamainc
qalebis tomi, aramed zogadad qaldebisa, is wers _ `iberiis maxlo-
blad qalebi mamakacur saqmes ewevian saxlSi da mSobiarobis drosac
ar toveben saqmes. qali yvelaze mZime samuSaos drosac ki mSobiare aiy-
vans xelSi Cvils da saxlSi Seyavs. qalebi aq arafriT ar Camouvardebi-
an mamakacebs, saxls darajoben, nadiroben, saqonelsac darajoben~
(iqve, gv. 369). anda wers _ `amazonebi _ skviTuri tomi, vaJkacuri, ma-
makacuri tomi kolxebis mezoblad~ (iqve, gv. 369).
xalibebis anu qaldebis Tanametomenive iyvnen maTgan moSorebiT
mcxovrebi karduxebi, igive kordielebi.
es iyo araratis maxlobeli areali, iq, sadac gaCerda noes kido-
bani, amitomac evsevi kesarielic (IV s.), saeklesio istoriis mamac,
exeba am sakiTxs _ evsevi kesarieli wers _ `armenielTa qveyanaSi, kor-
dielTa mTebze axlac aris SemorCenili mcireodeni naSTi im xomaldi-
sa~ (antikuri kavkasia, enciklopedia, I, gv. 383).
132
noes kidobani ara armeniaSi, aramed araratis mTebze - kordielTa
anu qarTvelTa winaprebis qveyanaSi SeCerda.
karduxebis anu kordielTa qveyana daaxloebiT Zv. w. VI s-Si arme-
nielebma daipyres, amitomac iqauri qarTvelebi `armeniaSi~ mcxovrebni
aRmoCndnen.
Zv. w. VIII-VI saukuneebSi vanis tbis piras erTmaneTis mezobeli qvey-
nebi iyvnen luvia (igive livia) da iberia (iberieli xalxis Zveli
samSoblo). aqedan Cans, iberielebi (igive iverielebi) nabuqodonosors
ufro CrdiloeTiT pontos zRvispireTSi gadausaxlebia.
gadasaxlebis sakiTxs exeba evsevi kesarieli, is wers _ `abidenes
TxzulebaSi asirielTa Sesaxeb aseTi ram sweria nabuqodonosorze: _
`megasTenesi ambobs, rom nabuqodonosorma, romelic herakleze met
Zalas flobda, libiisa da iberiis winaaRmdeg gailaSqra da daipyro ra
es qveynebi, nawili mosaxleobisa pontosis marjvena mxares daasaxla~
(evsevi kesarieli, evangeluri Semzadeba, IX, 41,1, iqve, gv. 383).
evsevi kesarieli imeorebs Zvel cnobebs, rom iberiuli xalxis
erTi nawili Zv. w. VI s-Si samxreTis samSoblodan ufro CrdiloeTiT
_ SavizRvispireTSi dasaxlda. Cans, Tavissave TanametomeebTan Zvel
kolxeTSi. hekatos miletelis cnobiT, Tavis mxriv, kolxebi da mosxe-
bic erTi xalxi yofila.
igive evsevi kesarieli sxva naSromSi miiCnevs, rom mosoxisagan war-
moiSvnen mosinikebi (mosoxebi da mosinikebi erTidaigive tomia), xolo
sanebi igive sanigebi arian, isini erTi xalxia. is wers _ `mosoxi,
saidanacaa mosinikebi... sanebi, romelTac sanikebsac uwodeben, pontom-
de arian dasaxlebulni. aq afsarosi da sebastopolisi, kavsolimani da
fasisi uerTdebian erTmaneTs. es tomebi trapezusamde arian gansaxle-
buli~ (iqve, gv. 384-385). CvenTvis sasaxeloa, rom am tomebis cxovre-
bas saxelovani saeklesio moRvaweebi Seexnen.
basili didi (IV s.) axsenebs md. faziss _ qarTveli xalxis gansax-
lebis erTerT ZiriTadi regionis mTavar mdinares. is Tavis `eqvsTa
dReTaSi~ wers `fasisi, romelic kavkasiis mTebidan moedineba da mrava-
li sxva mdinare CrdiloeTidan evqsinis pontisaken miedineba~ (basili
didi, cxra homilia eqvsdRiurze, III, 6, iqve, gv. 381).
133
berZnebi da, Cans, qarTvelebic, mraval mdinares uwodebdnen fa-
siss. berZnuli Sexedulebis Sesabamisad wmida, sufTa da sasmelad
saukeTeso mdinaris wyali SeiZleboda wodebuliyo fasisad. aseve,
zogierTi kvleviT, fasisi ewodeboda wmida, saukeTeso, gansakuTre-
buli xarisxis zeTsac. md. fasisis sanapiroebic, Sesabamisad lamazi
unda yofiliyo, xolo hava am mdinaris napiris saukeTeso. maSasa-
dame, Waobis umoZrao, Slamiani wyali ar SeiZleboda fasisad wode-
buliyo.
am regionSi SesaniSnavi mTis wylebis simravlis gamo, fasisic mravali
iyo. magaliTad, araqsi saTaveebSi fasisad iyo wodebuli. aseve md.
Woroxi, Cqari da sasmelad vargisi mTis mdinare, aseve fazisad unda
yofiliyo wodebuli mdinare likosic anu kelkiti, romelsac Ter-
meCaic ewodeba (Zveli Termodonti) da aqve iyo qalaqi Temiskira, es
mdinare kolxebis Zveli mosaxleobis qveyanaSi gadaedineboda, aq ixi-
la qsenofontem tibaranebi da xalibebi. es mxareebi imJamindel arme-
niasTan axlos mdebareobda. Cans mis Sesaxeb wers Temistiosi (IV s).
is wers: `me, keTilo Wabuko, mWermetyveluri sityvebi movimke... pon-
tos sanapiroze, fasisis maxloblad axlacaa Termodoni, amazonTa sag-
miro saqmeebi da Temiskirioni... kolxTa da armenielTa Soris...~ (anti-
kuri kavkasia, enciklopedia, I, gv. 393). aqve wers, rom iq `sadac Te-
saliidan mosuli argo poetebma ganadides~, unda iTqvas, rom amJama-
dac q. TermesTan (e. i. Zvel TermodonTan) axlos aris heraklesa da
iazonis koncxebi, Zvelad, Cans fiqrobdnen rom argom aq daisadgura.
stefane bizantioneli (VI s.) Tavis eTnikaSi wers qarTul tomTa
Sesaxebac _ `amazonebi _ TermodontTan mkvidri qalTa tomi~ (iqve,
gv. 409).
`...amarantebi _ kolxuri tomi, romelTa qveynidan moedineba fasi-
si... araqsi _ armeniis mdinare... afsilebi _ skviTebis tomi, lazebis me-
zobeli arianes mixedviT... beqeiri _ skviTuri tomi... biZerebi _ tomi
pontosze, aris biZerTa navsadguric... gargarebi, tomi, romelic xor-
ciel kavSirSia amazonebTan... gargarene... gogarene _ adgili kolxTa da
iberTa Soris... dardaiebi _ kavkasiasTan mkvidri tomi... dia _ VII qalaqi
skviTiaSi, fasisTan, dioskuriasi _ qalaqi pontosis midamoebSi, romel-
sac sebastopolissac uwodeben, adre mas ewodeboda aia... drile _ dasax-
134
leba trapezusTan... heptakometebi _ skidises mTaze mosaxleni, biZereb-
sac uwodeben... zigebi _ bosporosTan, Cans maTia zigopolisic trape-
zusTan ...Temiskira _ qalaqi TermadonTan... koraqsebi. kolxebi tomi
kolebis maxloblad (koraqsTa kedeli, koraqsTa qveyana)... kvita _ kol-
xuri qalaqi, aris sxvac skviTiaSi, aris ori kolxuri da evropuli, aris
qalaqi kvitaioni kretaze... kolebi = kavkasiasTan mkvidri tomi, qveyana
_ kolike... lazebi _ skviTuri tomi, aris sofelic arianosis mixedviT
_ Zveli lazike... makronebi _ dRevandeli sanebi... mosxebi _ kolxuri
tomi. matienebis mezobeli... sanigebi _ abazgebis mezoblad mkvidri skvi-
Turi tomi... tibarenia _ qalaqi pontosTan, xalibebisa da mosinoikebis
mimdebare... gulmodgined misdeven TamaSsa da sicils da amas udides
bednierebad miiCneven, maTi mezoblebi arian xalibebi da levkosirie-
lebi... taoxebi _ pontosis Sidamxris mkvidri tomi, zogierTebi maT
taoebs uwodeben... fasisi _ aias qalaqi, kolxidis mdinare fasisTan.
daarsebulia miletelebis mier, aris sxva mdinare fasisic _ taprobane-
Si... qaldeebi, tomi kolxidis maxloblad... xalibebi _ pontosis mida-
moebSi, mdinare TermodontTan mcxovrebi tomi, maTze evdoqsosi wers
_ `xalibebis qveynidan gaaqvT rkina, romelsac aqeben wrTobisaTvis ga-
mosadegobis gamo~. homerosi maT halizonebad ixseniebs katalogSi
paflagenielebis Semdeg _ `halizonebs ki odiosi da epistroposi uZRo-
daT, Soridan mosulni _ alibedan, sadac aris vercxlis sabado~, anu
Secvlilia damwerloba _ `Soridan xalibedan~, xalibebs samxreTiT
armeniebi esazRvrebian~... (stefane bizantieli, antik. kavkasia, en-
ciklopedia, gv. 418).
taos, basiansa da mimdebare mxareebs rogorc berZnebi, ise somxebi
`iberia~, `iverias~ uwodebdnen da maT mcxovreblebs ki qarTvelebs,
iverielebs uwodebdnen.
patkanov-maris TeoriiT TiTqosda es mxareebi Tavdapirvelad som-
xebiT iyo dasaxlebuli, romelnic SemdgomSi qarTvelebad gadaiqc-
nen e. w. `qarTizaciis~ procesis Sedegad, romelic iqaur somexTa
mier qalkedonituri sarwmunoebis miRebam gamoiwvia.
am Tvalsazriss ewinaaRmdegeba Zvel avtorTa cnobebi, romelnic
zemoT iyo moxmobili da gulisxmobs qarTuli tomebis Tavdapirve-
ladve cxovrebas ara mxolod taosa da basianSi, aramed ufro
135
samxreTiTac vanis tbidan vidre trapezuntamde, Tumca arsebobs
pirdapiri cnobebic. erTerTia magaliTad VI s-is avtoris stefane
bizantielis naSromi eTnosTa Sesaxeb, kerZod masSi naTqvamia, rom
`obarene~ erqva evfratsa da mtkvars Soris moqceul teritorias anu
taosa da basianis mxareebs.
`obarene~ etimologiurad igive `iberiaa~. aRsaniSnavia, rom am da
mis momijnave mxareebs `iber~ fuZiT mravali saxelwodeba arsebob-
da, romelTac sxvaganac vexebiT.
stefane bizantieli wers _ `obarene _ armeniis nawili, romelic
emijneba mdinare evfrats paralelurad mimdinare mdinare kiross (mt-
kvars). maT ixseniebs kvadratosic `parTikis~ meeqvse wignSi: `mdinare
kirosis gaswvriv mkvidroben obarenebi da otenebi _ armeniis didi naw-
ilis mosaxleni~ (iqve, gv. 418). aq, Cans, laparakia taos, basianisa da
mimdebare mxareebis mosaxleobis Sesaxeb. maTi saxeli iberia, maTi
qveynis saxeli Sesabamisad _ obarenea. iber-obarene.
aRniSnul da sxva Zvel marTlmadidebel avtorTa cnobebi ar eT-
anadeba e.w. `qarTizaciis Teoriis~ ideas, TiTqosda Crdilo armeni-
is mosaxleobis nawili `qarTizaciis~ Sedegad gaqarTvelda, piriqiT
es teritoriebi istoriuli arian-qarTlis ZiriTadi nawili, Sesabam-
isad, imTaviTve qarTuli iyo.
136
Tavi III
istoriuli arian-qarTlis miwaze somxuri
saxelmwifoebrivi warmonaqmnebis daarseba
(wyaroebisa da literaturis mimoxilva)
Zv. w. II s-Si armenielTa mier mitacebuli
iberielTa miwebi strabonis cnobiT
imiertao, basiani da sxva qarTuli olqebi VI-VII ss-Si somxeTis
SemadgenlobaSi imyofebodnen, somxuri eklesiis iurisdiqciaSi.
VIII-IX ss-dan iwyeba am regionis saocari feriscvaleba, misi mosax-
leoba gamodis somxuri eklesiis iurisdiqciidan da Sedis qarTuli
eklesiis wiaRSi. am faqtma Camoayaliba umarTebulo Teoria, rom
TiTqosda moxda am regionis mkvidri somxuri mosaxleobis `qarTiza-
cia~-gaqarTvelebma mas Semdeg, rac isini qarTuli eklesiis iuris-
diqciaSi aRmoCndnen.
Cveni kvleviT, es regioni uZvelesi droidanve qarTvelebiT iyo da-
saxlebuli, radganac arian-qarTlis nawils warmoadgenda Zv. w. II s-
dan armeniis mier dapyrobils.
is armeniisagan gaTavisuflda ZiriTadad aRniSnul VIII-IX ss-Si.
misma mosaxleobam SeZlo qarTuli identobis SenarCuneba da Semdeg
ki warmoCena.
am faqts straboni miuTiTebs.
misi es cnoba faqtiurad gamouyenebelia, amitomac Cven is xSirad
mogvyavs. straboni wers: `mogviTxroben, rom warsulSi armeniis pat-
ara qveyana gafarTovda artaqsiasa da zariadrias omebis Sedegad. isini
iyvnen antioq didis mxedarTmTavrebi, misi damarcxebis Semdeg ki me-
137
feebi gaxdnen. maT erTad gaafarToves TavianTi samflobelo, CamoaWres
ra irgvliv mcxovreb xalxebs olqebi. kerZod, iberebisagan miitaces
pariadres mTiswineTi, xorZene da gogarene, romelic kiris meore mx-
aresaa, xalibebs da mosinikebs CamoaWres kareniti da qserqsene, mcire
armeniis mosazRvre nawilebi~ (straboni, geografia, XI, 14, 5).
armenielebma iberebisagan miitaces pariadres mTiswineTi, xorZene
da gogarene anu istoriuli arian qarTlis miwa-wyali, azonis mamis
mamuli. rogorc zemoT aRiniSna, cnobas gogarenes adgilsamyofe-
lis Sesaxeb TviTon iZleva straboni.
gugarqisgan gansxvavebiT gogarene mdebareobda ara mtkvris mar-
jvena, aramed marcxena sanapiroze, anu mtkvris iqiT, `meore mxares~-
rogorc ambobs straboni.
rogorc mravaljer aRiniSna, strabonis cnobiT, gogarene mtkvris
marcxena sanapiroze unda veZioT da es cnoba dagvexmareba xorZenes
adgilsamyofelis gansazRvrisas, is strabonis cnobidanve Cans, rom
pariadresa da gogarenas Soris mdebareobda. radganac gogarenas
sazRvravda md. mtkvari, amitomac unda vifiqroT, rom xorZene pari-
adresa da mtkvars Soris mdebareobda da is (xorZene), unda iyos is-
toriuli arian-qarTlis ZiriTadi nawili, esaa teritoria pariadresa
da mtkvars Soris, araqsis xeobiTurT.
mitacebis Semdgom am mxareebSi daiwyo qarTvelebis armenizacia,
sxvadasxva saukuneSi sxvadasxva donisa.
armenizaciis procesi Senelda IX-X saukuneebSi da amave dros aq
daiwyo qarTuli identobis daufaravi warmoCena da aRorZineba.
138
dasavleT armeniis eTnikuri saxe (Zv. w. II s-dan)
(n. adoncis kvleva wignSi _ armenia iustinianes epoqaSi,
1908, rus. enaze)
bizantiis imperiis administraciul olq `dasavleT armeniaSi~
moeqca is qarTuli mxareebi, romelnic jer kidev qristeSobamde
armeniam CamoaWra iberias, pariadres mTis mimdebare qveyana da xor-
Zenes nawili.
strabonis cnobiT am mxareebTan erTad iberebisagan gogarenac
miutacebia somxeTs. marTalia, qarTvelTa samefom gogarena ukan
daibruna, magram aRniSnuli mxareebi (pariadres mTis mimdebare qvey-
ana da xorZene) aRarasodes dabrunebia saqarTvelos.
aseTi politikuri gadanawilebis Sedegad, bizantiur epoqaSi, am
mxareebSi mcxovrebi mkvidri qarTvelebi ormxriv asimilacias gan-
icdidnen. erTdroulad isini cxovrobdnen bizantiaSic da mis olq
`armeniaSic~, am qarTvelebs Sesabamisad hqondaT ormagi _ berZnuli
da somxuri politikuri da kulturuli zewola.
amis Sedegad cxadia, mimdinareobda qarTvelebis asimilacia, ma-
gram, sabednierod, es procesi sakmaod mcire xans gagrZelda, imde-
nad, rom rodesac tao-klarjeTis samefom da Semdgom gaerTianeb-
ulma saqarTvelom Tavisi politikuri sazRvari vanis tbamde miita-
na _ iqaur qarTvelebs jer kidev axsovdaT TavianTi eTnikur-erovnu-
li vinaoba.
vinaobaaRorZinebuli qarTvelebi qmnidnen kidec erovnul qarTul-
qalkedonur saepiskoposoebs am `somxur~ qveyanaSi, romelTac Cveni
Tanamedrove somexi istorikosebi `somxur-qalkedonur~ saepiskopo-
soebs uwodeben, magram n. adoncis kvlevac ki aCvenebs, rom dasavleT
armenia _ qarTuli warmoSobis qveynebisa da mosaxleobisagan Sedge-
boda.
n. adoncis sityviT, somxuri zewolis Sedegad mkvidri qarTuli
mosaxleobis erTi nawili, jer kidev qristeSobamde qarTuli miwebis
mitacebis dros, daZrula Tavisi sacxovrisidan da ufro Crdilo-
eTiT gadasaxlebula _ ,
(n. adonci, gv. 395).
139
`am duRilSi Camoyalibda somexTa nacionaluri saxe~ _ wers n. ad-
onci (iqve, gv. 395).
somxuri erovneba, misi sityviT, Camoyalibda qristeSobamde ram-
denime saukuniT adre _ somxuri erovnebis maformirebeli frigieleb-
is (balkanelebis), aseve arameuli tomebisa da armeniaSi istoriulad
mkvidri adgilobrivi qarTveluri tomebis _ mosxebis, matienebis,
sasperiebis, alaridielebis da sxvebis urTierTSereviT.
n. adoncs mohyavs strabonis cnoba, rom antioqos didis (223-187)
orma mxedarmTavarma artaqsiam da zariadram erTmaneTs Soris gainaw-
iles armenia da gamoacxades damoukidebloba, Tumca somexTa mefeebi
iqamdec iyvnen cnobilni.
n. adonci wers _ `somxuri erovneba formirda sxvadasxva tomebisa
da aseve sxvadasxva rasebis elementTa urTierTSereviT. aqemenidTa
teritoria, romelsac Semdgom armenia ewoda, dasaxlebuli iyo sxva-
dasxva erovnebebiT, somxebTan erTad. am Sav zRvamde gadaSlil msxvil
sparsul satrapiaSi cxovrobdnen matienebi, sasperiebi da alarodebi.
qserqses laSqrobisas armenielebi frigielebTan erTad idgnen, xolo
alarodebi da sasperiebi erTad, maTTan gverdiT _ mosxebi da tibarene-
bi, makronebi, mosinikebi, marebi da kolxebi, utielebi da mikebi _ er-
Tad. 10 aTasi berZnis ukan daxevis dros _ fasianebisa da esperitebis,
e.i. saspeirebis, aseve taoxebis miwa _ ukve armeniad iTvleboda da sxva
armeniisagan gansasxvaveblad dasavleTi ewodeboda. mmarTveli anu sa-
trapi erTi nawilisa iyo tiribazi, meorisa _ oronti (qsenofonte, ana-
bazisi, III, 5,17, IV, 3,4 da 4,4, VII 18,25). mezobeli tomebi am dros sarge-
blobdnen damoukideblobiT, kerZod _ karduxebi, xalibebi, qaldeebi,
makronebi, kolxebi, mosinikebi, koiotebi da tibarenebi (iqve, VII, 8, 25).
nawilobriv an mTlianad es erovnebebi iqcnen mkvidr mosaxleobad im
teritoriisa, romelic Semdgom eWira armenias~ (n. adonci, gv. 394).
rogorc vxedavT, TviT adoncis cnobiT, kolxebi, karduxebi,
qaldeebi da sxva qarTvelTa winapari tomebi iyo mkvidri mosaxleo-
ba dasavleT armeniisa, maT srul asimilacias somex xalxSi aferxeb-
da romis da bizantiis imperiis siaxlove armeniis centralur naw-
ilTan, mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs is garemoeba, rom dasavleT armenia ume-
teswilad aRniSnuli imperiebis xeldebuli qveyana iyo.
140
Zalze sainteresoa n. adoncisave cnoba imis Sesaxeb, rom somxeTis
Zveli mkvidri mosaxleoba, CamoTvlili tomebi, iyvnen erTi war-
moSobisa, maT hqondaT `sisxlis siaxlove~ (n. adonci, armenia ius-
tinianes epoqaSi, 1908, rus. enaze gv. 394).
rogorc erovnebebi am tomTagan mravali gaqra istoriis asparezi-
dan, magaliTad, alarodebi, saspeirebi, taoxebi, fasianebi, magram maTi
saxelebi daerqvaT maT yofil sacxovris qveynebs, rac asaxa geografi-
ulma saxelwodebebma _ airarati, speri, tao, basiani (iqve, gv. 394).
maSasadame, n. adoncis azriT _ airarati _ alarodielebis, speri _
saspeirebis, tao _ taoxebis, xolo basiani _ fasianebis qveyana iyo.
es momenti imiTaa saintereso, rom konstantinopolur noticieb-
Si lazikis eparqiaSi gvxvdeba saeparqio saxelwodebani _ fasiani da
sxva saxelebi _ fas, bas fuZeebiT. maSasadame, isini, n. adoncis mo-
sazrebiT, basianis qveyanaSi mdebareobdnen. marTlac, pravoslavnaia
enciklopedias statiis `somexi qalkedonitebi~ TandarTul rukaze
spersa da basianSi mravali eparqiaa aRniSnuli konstantinopolis
sapatriarqos trapezuntis samitropolitoSi.
n. adoncis mixedviT, zariadras da artaqsias dros Camoyalibda
erTiani somxuri ena, romelic xelmisawvdomi iyo mTeli xalxisaTvis,
es gadamwyveti momenti iyo somexi xalxis formaciisa (iqve, gv. 395).
iberebs im dros armeniam waarTva pariadres mTiswineTi _ tao da
speri, xorZena da gogarena, xalibebisa da mosinikebisagan miitaca
kareniti da darusena, aseve sxva xalxebisagan miwebi (iqve, gv. 395). am
epoqaSi, n. adoncis sityviT _ `CrdiloeTisaken iqnen gandevnilni aseve
kolxebi, mosxebi da sxva xalxebi~ (n. adonci, armenia iustinianes epo-
qaSi, 1908, rus. enaze, gv. 395).
somxeTs miusakuTrebia aseve kapadokiaSi mcxovrebi kataonebis
miwebi.
saerTod, kapadokielebs siriul samyaros miakuTvneben, berZnebi
maT sirielebs uwodebdnen _ kerZod, TeTr sirielebs sxvebisgan gan-
sasxvaveblad. kapadokia eTnikurad semitebs ukavSirdeboda (iqve, gv.
395). strabonis cnobiT, sirielebi cxovrobdnen babilonidan evqsi-
nis pontomde anu Sav zRvamde (iqve, gv. 396).
141
n. adonci fiqrobs, rom somxebi ori rasis _ semiti arameelebis
(romelTac semiti kapadokielebi enaTesavebodnen) da frigielebis
urTierTSereviT Camoyalibdnen, aseve SeZles sxvadasxva adgilobrivi
xalxebis asimilireba (iqve, gv. 396).
ioseb flaviusi kapadokielebs mesxebad miiCnevda.
n. adoncis sityviT, `Tavdapirvelad armenia dasaxlebuli iyo sxva-
dasxva satomo jgufebiT _ karduxebiT, mosxebiT, saspeirebiT da sxva.
Zv.w. VII s-Si kimerielebis Semosevam Tavisi sacxovrisidan daZra frigie-
li somxebi, maT gadalaxes evfrati da Seuties adgilobriv mosaxle-
obas, romelTa nawili darCa CrdiloeTSi, nawili ki samxreTSi. maT Sua
mcxovrebi damorCilebuli zoli Seeria gamarjvebul frigiel somxebs.
Semosulebisa da mkvidrebis urTierTSereviT Seiqmna somxuri erovneb-
is birTvi~ (n. adonci, armenia iustinianes epoqaSi, 1908, rus. enaze,
gv. 398).
n. adonci SeniSnavs, rom somxeTis samxreTiT da CrdiloeTiT mcx-
ovrebi kardu-karduxi-kordusioni-gorduen-qarTu-qarTueli-qarTve-
li _ erTi eTnikuri warmoSobis xalxis saxelia (n. adonci, armenia ius-
tinianes epoqaSi, 1908, gv. 398, SeniSvna 1).
amasTanaveo, wers adonci _ `amJamad uaryofilia mosazreba TiTqos-
da karduxebi qurTebis winaprebi iyvnen. qurTebi Zvelad ixseniebo-
da sxva saxeliT~ _ da ganagrZobs armeniis CrdiloeTiT da samxreTiT
mcxovreb tomTa saxelebis msgavsebaTa Sesaxeb msjelobas _ Crdilo-
eTiT cxovrobdnen xalibebi, samxreTiT xaldebi, strabonTan ixsenieba
ori olqis saxeliT _ sasperitebi, erTi speri _ Woroxze (herodotes
sasperitebi, qsenofontes _ esperitebi), xolo meore _ samxreTSi, ti-
grosis axlos _ Tanamedrove Supria. yvela am xalxebma tigran didis
imperiaSi SeZles gaerTmniSvnelovneba imdenad, rom mTeli mosaxle-
oba laparakobda saerTo (somxur) enaze (gv. 399).
saerTo-erovnuli enis SemuSaveba gardamtexi etapi iyo im qveyni-
saTvis, sadac iqamde aseTi simravle iyo tomebisa da erovnebebisa
(gv. 399).
adamianis mdgomareoba sxvadasxva tomobriv garemoSi albaT isa-
zRvreboda sisxlismieri naTesaobiT ama Tu im sagvareulos mimarT.
n. adoncis cnobiT, somxurma sagvareulo saxelwodebebmac ki Sein-
arCunes Tavisi pirvelqarTuli warmomavloba.
142
magaliTad, cnobili sagvareulos xorxorunebis sagvareulo tit-
uli iyo `malxazi~, rac saerTod mflobels, Tavads niSnavs. es tit-
uli, n. adoncis sityviT, amodis qarTuli sityvidan `saxli~, fuZe
`axl~, amave fuZidanaa somxuri `alaxin~ _ moaxle (n. adonci, armenia
iustinianes epoqaSi, 1908, rus. enaze, gv. 400). [Sdr. gvari okribaSi _
xorxomeliZe].
bagratidebis meore sagvareulo tituli iyo _ aspet. n. adonci
mas miiCnevs qarTuli uflis, sparsuli sepuris (uflis wulis) gad-
monaSTad.
WaneTis, speris da taos Tavdapirveli didebulebis mamikonianeb-
is sagvareulo termini iyo `mamiki~, rac ukavSirdeba qarTul sityva
`mamas~, e.i. saxlis mama, mamasaxlisi.
faustis cnobiT, mamikonianebs TavianTi sagvareulo gamohyavdaT
Wenebidan, anonimis sityviT, WeneTi iyo CineTi. TiTqos iqidan mo-
xvdnen isini taoSi. sinamdvileSi `Tavdapirveli tradiciiT, WeneTis
qveS igulisxmeboda ara Cinelebi, aramed Wanebi, taosTan _ mamikonide-
bis sagvareulo olqTan axlos mcxovrebni (gv. 403). maTgan iyvnen gamo-
sulni orbelianebi (gv. 404). es araa sakvirveli, radganac bagratidebi
speridan iyvnen saqarTveloSi gadasulebi (n. adonci, armenia iustin-
ianes epoqaSi, 1908, rus. enaze, gv. 404).
somxuri `ter~ da sxva terminebi n. adoncs qarTuli sityvidan
`ufali~ (mamaufali, dedaufali, mefe, mamfali) gamohyavs.
zemoCamoTvlili terminebi (malxazi, arpeti, mamaki, ter) somxe-
Tis iberiuli zolis naxararTa wridanaa aRebuli.
aqedan Cans, rom dasavleT armenia da sxva ufro didi olqebic _
qarTuli warmoSobis tomebiT iyo dasaxlebuli, romelTac kvali
daaCnies somxur enas.
maT TavianTi warmoSoba icodnen kidec.
n. adonci wers armeniis qarTvelebis Sesaxeb _ `rogorc ar unda
asimilirebuliyvnen isini, saboloo jamSi, mainc inarCunebdnen Tavi-
anT kolorits~ (gv. 415).
Cveni azriT, n. adoncisTvis `koloriti~ iyo armenizebul qarTvel-
Ta TviTSemecneba imisa, rom isini eTnikurad qarTul wres ekuTvn-
odnen, miTumetes V-VII saukuneebSi, roca maTi asimilacia ar iyo Zalze
143
Sors wasuli. am mizezis gamo armeniis garSemo Camoyalibda oTxi
TavisTavadi mcire politikuri sxeuli _ bdexSebis samflobeloebi
_ maT Soris gogarena da arzanena (gv. 416).
gogarena qarTul saxes inarCunebda.
armeniis samxreTiT mcxovrebi kurtebi (qurTebis winaprebi) da
karduxebi (qarTvelTa monaTesaveni) n. adoncis sityviT, somxebis
gavlenis qveS aRmoCdnen (gv. 418). aseve maTi mezobeli matienebi kaspiis
zRvisken.
gelebis da karduxebis gverdiT cxovrobdnen utiebi, isini (kar-
duxebi) Tavdapirvelad utiebis samxreTiT cxovrobdnen, Semdeg Crdi-
loeTiT, maTTan erTad CrdiloeTiT gelebic gadasaxldnen (n. adon-
ci, armenia iustinianes epoqaSi, 1908, rus. enaze, gv. 420).
n. adoncs albaneTis somxur olqad miaCnia siuni-sivnieTi, Tumca
isini somxebisgan gansxvavdebodnen (gv. 423).
utielebis mezoblad cxovrobdnen mTidan Camosuli gargarebi,
isini gardmanTanac cxovrobdnen. sabolood, yvela am eTnojgufis
`infiltracia~, e.i. armenizacia mimdinareobda SemdegSic (n. adonci,
armenia iustinianes epoqaSi, 1908, rus. enaze, gv. 425).
n. adoncis gamokvlevebidan Cans, rom somxeTis gare mxareebi, mi-
Tumetes dasavleT armenia, sadac trapezuntis lazikis samitropoli-
tos saepiskoposoebi mdebareobdnen _ qarTvelTa istoriuli sacxov-
risi iyo, maTma mniSvnelovanma nawilma SeZlo eTno da erovnuli vi-
naobis SenarCuneba, rogorc nerse somexTa kaTalikosis dros, ise mis
Semdeg: tao-klarjeTis qarTvelTa samefos Zliereba am Segnebas efu-
Zneboda.
144
istoriuli qarTuli olqebi armeniaSi
(n. adonci, armenia iustinianes epoqaSi, 1908, rus. enaze)
1. `qveyana CrdiloeTisa~ (IV s.)
romis imperia administraciuli mmarTvelobis mxriv IV s-sTvis
iyofoda oTx prefeqturad. prefeqti Tavis xelSi aerTianebda samo-
qalaqo da samxedro uwyebebs.
n. adoncis sityviT, romis imperiis msgavsad, sparseTic oTx `kus-
tad~ _ administraciul erTeulad iyofoda (n. adonci, armenia ius-
tinianes epoqaSi, 1908, rus. enaze, gv. 217). eseni iyvnen `aRmosavle-
Ti~, `dasavleTi~, `samxreTi~ da `CrdiloeTi~.
CrdiloeTis anu kavkasiis kusti (mxare) Tavis mxriv 13 qveynad
(Saxrad) iyofoda, maT Soris iyo iberia, anu sparsulad _ `varjani~,
albaneTi anu `rani~, somxTi anu `armenia~.
ase rom, qarTul wyaroebSi xSirad naxsenebi `CrdiloeTis qveyana~
unda gulisxmobdes sparseTis imperiis kavkasiis mxares da kerZod,
ki mis erT nawils, am SemTxvevaSi _ saqarTvelos.
iberias zaqaria ritori uwodebs gurzans.
gurzani-varjani (gorjani, gurjani, gorgani) da gurzani eti-
mologiurad axlosaa erTmaneTTan da maTi saerTo fuZe-Ziri aqvT _
`gr~, `rg~. igive fuZe-Ziri `gr~ udevs safuZvlad qarTul mxareTa
saxelebs _ `egrisi~, `gugarqi~, `gogarena~, `guria~, `argveTi~, aqedanaa
berZnuli saxeli _ `georgia~ da sxva yvela dasaxeleba, rac ki mezo-
belma da ucxo erebma daarqves qarTvelTa qveyanas, maSasadame, fuZe-
Ziri `gr~ an `rg~ qarTvelTa TviTsaxelwodebis eTnofuZea.
zaqaria ritori wers, rom `CrdiloeTis mxareebSi xuTi morwmune
xalxia, maT 24 episkoposi hyavT da maTi kaTalikosi dvinSi cxovrobs.
sparsuli armeniis dedaqalaqSi, mis Semdegaa gurzani _ armeniis qvey-
anaSi, romelTa ena berZnuls miagavs, maT qristiani mTavari hyavT,
romelic sparseTis mefes emorCileba. Semdeg aranis qveyanaa, armeni-
is qveyanaSi, Tavisi eniT, xalxi monaTlulia, Semdeg sisakanis qvey-
anaa, Tavisi eniT, morwmuneni, maT Soris warmarTebic arian, Semdegi
qveyana bazguni, Tavisi eniT, kaspiis zRvasTan~ (n. adonci, armenia
iustinianes epoqaSi, 1908, rus. enaze, iqve, gv. 219).
145
2. gogarena, korduena da basiani (V-VII ss.)
(n. adonci, armenia iustinianes epoqaSi, 1908, rus. enaze)
n. adoncis sityviT, I aTaswleulis somxur saerisTavo siebSi
erisTavebi (naxararebi) pativis mixedviT arian Camowerilni. maT Soris
aRiniSnebian erisTavi bagratunebi, taSiris erisTavebi da sxvani.
nerses kaTalikosis dros, 555 wels Semdgar krebas eswreboda 32
erisTavi. sebeosis somex mefeTa erisTavebis siaSi ixsenieba taos
erisTavi da aseve basianis erisTavi.
xorenacis cnobiT, somexTa mefe gansakuTrebiT ajildovebda bagra-
tun erisTavebs.
st. orbeliani mogviTxrobs, rom somxeTis mefem daniSna Tavisi
qveynis oTxi bdexSi _ aRmosavleTSi iyo siunis bdexSi Tavisi _ 21
erisTaviT, CrdiloeTSi _ gogarenisa (`gogaris~) _ 22 erisTaviT,
dasavleTiT `kordu~-sa _ 21 erisTaviT da samxreTiT angelenis (`ange-
lis~) bdexSi _ 22 erisTaviT (n. adonci, armenia iustinianes epoqaSi,
1908, rus.enaze, gv. 254).
gogarena (somxurad gogari) da korduena (somxurad `kordu~) _
qarTuli qveynebi iyo, misi qarTuli mosaxleoba iqamdec da Semdgo-
mac somxdeboda, qarTvelobis SenarCuneba somxuri samefos SigniT
uZnelesi da TiTqmis SeuZlebeli saqme iyo (iqve, n. adonci, gv. 292).
faustis cnobiT, taos olqs marTavdnen mamikonianebi, _ xorena-
cis mixedviT somexTa mefis mTavarsardlebi. Semdeg, IV s-dan, isini
taronSi gadavidnen, sadac, Cans, ukve cxovrobda qarTulenovani
mosaxleoba, radganac xorenacisave sityviT, maStocis mier qarTu-
li anbanis Sesaswavlad Camoyalibebul qarTvel bavSvTa jgufs as-
wavlida taroneli muse, cxadia qarTuli enis mcodne.
berZen-romaeli avtorebi icnoben `fasians~ (basians) da isini ba-
sians fasianad moixseniebdnen.
basianis erTi nawili iyo vanandi da mas, xorenacis sityviT, zemo
basiani erqva (n. adonci, armenia iustinianes epoqaSi, 1908, rus. enaze,
gv. 300).
basians Tavisi erisTavi marTavda.
airarati mefis domeni iyo, bagrevandi _ bagratidebs ekuTvnoda.
146
n. adoncis sityviT _ `kotaia cnobili iyo ptolemeosisaTvis, mag-
ram is somxur literaturaSi pirvelad gvxvdeba sebeosTan VII s-Si~
(n. adonci, armenia iustinianes epoqaSi, 1908, rus. enaze, gv. 302).
kotaia iyo gavari, anu qveyana airaratis provinciaSi. kotaias am-
Jamad zangibasari hqvia. is aris md. razdan-zangis xeobaSi.
safiqrebelia, rom tao xorZenas nawili iyo.
sityva `xorZena~ etimilogiurad axaloa sityva `arzenasTan~,
romelsac konstantine porfirogeneti uwodebda arzrum-artanujis
mxares.
safiqrebelia, rom sityva `xorZena~ Semdeg, X saukunisTvis, sity-
va `arzenad~ iqca, is erqva taos momijnave mxareebs. xorZena strabo-
nis cnobiTac iberebis istoriuli mxare iyo, Sesabamisad qarTvelebiT
dasaxlebuli somexTagan mitacebis Semdegac. strabonis dros is gac-
ilebiT didi, gogarenamde (mtkvramde) ganvrcobili qveyana iyo (aR-
saniSnavia, rom stabonis epoqaSi gogarena mtkvris iqiTa anu marjve-
na sanapiros teritorias erqva, xolo adoncis wyaros cnobiT, gog-
arena ufro vrcel teritoria moicavda).
147
3. iveria, persarmenia da persiberia (IV-VI ss.)
(n. adonci, armenia iustinianes epoqaSi, 1908, rus. enaze)
sparsuli armeniis sazRvrebi IV-VI ss-Si e.w. `marzpanobis~ dros
aseTi iyo:
persarmenia moicavda Semdeg provinciebs _ taiqi, taroni, airarati,
vaspurakani da siuniqi.
taroni da vaspurakani mdebareobdnen vanis tbasTan, airarati
sparsuli armeniis centrSi, xolo mis dasavleTis mxares _ persarme-
niis `iveria~ anu tao (taiqi) mdebareobda, am iverias dasavleTiT es-
azRvreboda lazika.
arsebobda aseve `Tavisufali iveriac~, is persarmeniis iveriis Crdi-
loeTiT mdebareobda. misi nawilebi iyo _ kola, artaani, javaxeTi,
gugarqi.
taiqis samxreT-dasavleTiT `I armenia~ mdebareobda (ix. ruka prav.
encikl., I, gv. 75).
maSasadame, iveria or nawilad iyo gayofili _ tao persarmeniaSi
Sedioda, kola, artaani, javaxeTi da gugarqi qmnida sxva, `Tavisu-
fal~ iverias da sadavo iyo bizantia-sparseTs Soris.
n. adonci `marzpanuls~ uwodebs arSakidebis Semdegdroindel
somxeTs, radganac qveyanaSi ijda sparseTis Sahis warmomadgeneli _
marzpani. misi dedaqalaqi iyo qalaqi dvini, romelsac aRmosavleT
somxeTisTvis iseTive mniSvneloba hqonda, rogorc dasavleT som-
xeTisTvis Teodosiopolissa da iq mjdar romis warmomadgenels _
komits.
CrdiloeTiT marzpanuli somxeTis sazRvari aRwevda kangaramde,
`Tavisufali iberiis~ sazRvramde. lazaris cnobiT, sparseTTan me-
brZoli iberiis mefe vaxtangi aq eloda damxmare somxebs. vaan
mamikonidi daexmara vaxtangs, somxuri jari mivida iveriis mefesTan
da banaki dasca kangaris kantonSi. kangari gugarenis olqSi Sedioda,
maSasadame, gugarena somxeTis gareT mdebareobda _ iberiaSi (n. adon-
ci, armenia..., gv. 222).
imJamad, dasavleTiT somxeTs esazRvreboda kolas olqi, sasazRvro
punqtad iTvleboda kola, xolo tao (taiki) mTlianad somxeTSi Se-
dioda.
148
tao, mis gverdiT mdgar qarTul provinciebTan erTad, Seadgenda
persarmeniaSi Semaval `arasuverenul iverias~ da imyofeboda mZlavri
somxuri saeklesio-kulturuli gavlenis sferoSi. misi iveriuli
mosaxleoba mxolod Sinaur-saojaxo wreSi axerxebda qarTuli iden-
tobis gamJRavnebas, sazogadoebriv-administraciul sferoSi ki, vi-
Tarca persarmeniis mcxovrebi, armenielad miiCneoda.
arSakidebis dros albaneTis mxares somxeTis sazRvari iyo md.
mtkvari. marzpanobis dros sazRvari q. xalxalTan gadioda. xalxali
albaneTSi mdebareobda mtkvris marjvena mxares (n. adonci, armenia
iustinianes epoqaSi, gv. 223).
sparsul jars albaneTidan xalxalamde mtkvari unda gadaevlo.
n. adoncis azriT, xalxali aris md. zagemze mdebare amJamindeli
TaTruli sofeli xilxila. maxloblad arsebobda aseve meore msgav-
si saxelis punti _ `xilxala~, romelic iv. javaxiSvilis 1923 wlis
rukis mixedviT mdebareobda nuxpato-SeqTan axlos, amJamindel sofel
`filfilasTan~ axlos. (saxeli filfila albanur tom `lfinebis~ sa-
xelTan unda iyos dakavSirebuli). aqvea punqti xalxali da aqve unda
yofiliyo punqti gulgula.
aRsaniSnavia, rom hereTis sazRvrad vaxuSti batoniSvils miaCnda
punqti gulgula. saxelebi filfila, xalxali/xilxila,xilxala/ da
gulgula msgavsni arian. vaxuStis masze aTasi wlis winandeli punq-
tis adgilmdebareoba rom ganesazRvra ara TelavTan, aramed filfi-
la-xalxalTan, maSin hereTis sazRvari gadaiwevda aRmosavleTiT da
daemTxveoda albaneTisas.
n. adoncis sityviT, IV s-Si somxeTma dakarga mravali ganapira mx-
are, Cveni azriT, amis ZiriTadi mizezi iyo am mxareTa mosaxleobis eT-
nikuri gansxvaveba somxebisagan. isini (ganapira mxareebi) _ ar iyvnen
somxuri olqebi, rogorc mravaljer iTqva.
marzpanuls n. adonci aseve uwodebs meore saxels _ tanuteruli
somxeTi. mas aseve vaspurakanulsac uwodebs.
vaspuri _ erqva sparseTis cnobil gvarebs, aqedan vaspurakani. n.
adoncis sityviT, _ `armeniis Tanatoli administraciuli sidideebi
iyvnen iberia, albaneTi, atropatena, adiabena, da aravastani~ (iqve,
gv. 221).
149
misive sityviT, musulmani avtorebi `armeniis~ qveS igebdnen ara
mxolod armenias, aramed aransa da saqarTvelos (n. adonci, armenia
iustinianes epoqaSi, 1908, rus. enaze, gv. 242). e.i. aransa da iverias,
am iveriis qveS ki ZiriTadad `arasuverenuli iveria~ anu tao-basiani
miiCneoda. aRsaniSnavia, rom persarmeniaSi mdebareobda olqi persi-
beria, rac Cans Cvenamde moRweuli III msoflio krebis masalebidan. am
krebaSi monawileobas iRebda persiberieli `ieremia urhaeli, qarTveli
marTlmadidebeli~, nestorianobasTan mebrZoli, iberiis sparsuli
nawilidan, anu persiberiidan (k.kekeliZe, etiudebi, I, 52-62).
persiberia, anu `sparsuli iberia~ unda rqmeoda imJamad persarme-
niaSi Semaval tao-basiansa da mimdgom mxareebs.
4. somxebis gadasaxleba persarmeniidan
bizantiur somxeTSi V-VI ss.
(n. adonci)
arian-qarTlis miwebis didi nawili iustinianes epoqaSi persarme-
niad iwoda.
n. adonci wers _ `imperiuli TvalsazrisiT, imperiis interesebis
dacvis mizniT somxebis gadasaxleba dasavleTiT Zalze sasurveli iyo.
TviT imperatorebi axalisebdnen am moZraobas. magaliTad, imperatori
mavrike. somxebis CasaxlebiT imperiam didad isargebla, somxebi bizan-
tias emsaxurebodnen TavganwirviT. samSoblos politikuri cxovreb-
is SeboWili CarCoebidan gaTavisuflebis Semdeg mTeli maTi Zalebi
ifurCqneboda. somxebma saxeli gaiTqves saxelmwifo cxovrebis bevr
sferoSi, samxedrosa Tu samoqalaqoSi. maTgan gamovidnen saxelganTqmu-
li pirebi, romlebsac imperiis winaSe Zalze mniSvnelovani damsax-
urebebi hqondaT. mravali somexi brwyinavda TviT saimperatoro taxtze
da saTaveebic ki daudes axal dinastias (somxuri cxenosani jari ibrZo-
da imperiis Soreul mxareebSi saxelmwifos samxedro didebisTvis).
Zalze mniSvnelovani iyo somxebis roli kulturul-sulier cxovre-
150
baSi, imperiisTvis mniSvnelovani maxasiaTebeli istoria _ xatme-
brZoluri moZraoba daiwyo imperiis aRmosavleT mxareebSi didwilad
somxebis simpaTiiT da mfarvelobiT.
imperiaSi somxebis gansaxlebam TviT somxeTs naklebi sikeTe moutana,
radganac somxeTi icleboda adamianuri resursebisagan. imperiaSi mid-
iodnen unariani, mxne Zalebi, iseTi niWis mqone pirebi, romelTac See-
ZloT imperiis mRelvare talRebze Tavis daWera. somxuri aristokrati-
is naRebi, naxararebis ojaxebi eSurebodnen dedaqalaqSi da alamazebd-
nen saxelmwifo moRvaweTa rigebs~ (n. adonci, somxeTi iustinianes epo-
qaSi, 1908, gv. 205).
imperiaSi somxebi iseT Zalas warmoadgendnen, rom zogjer TviT
imperatoris winaaRmdeg awyobdnen SeTqmulebebs imperiisave
dedaqalaqSi da aryevdnen kidec saimperatoro taxts, magaliTad, n.
adoncis sityviT, 548 wels somxebma moawyves SeTqmuleba dedaqalaq-
Si imperator iustinianes winaaRmdeg. SeTqmulebas meTaurobda somexi
mxedarTmTavari artavani, romelmac bizantias dideba moupova liv-
iis omSi, roca mokla tirani honorisi. n. adoncis cnobiT, prokofi
kesarieli artavanis motivs xsnis imiT, rom misi samSoblo armenia
dapyrobili iyo, amitom mas somxebi sayvedurobdnen umoqmedebas.
meore somexi didebuli narsesi iustinianes epoqis udidesi figura
iyo, Tavisi gamarjvebebiT daCrdila valerianes samxero geniac ki.
somxuri problemebis gamo Sewuxebuli iustiniane sparseTis Sahs
Txovda, maT Soris mcxovrebi somxebi rogorme daemorCilebinaT saer-
To ZaliT. is werda _ `somxebi daumorCilebeli xalxia, da marad Cve-
ni mtrebi arian, maTgan mudam SeSfoTebulebi varT~ (iqve, gv. 206).
qarTizaciis Teoriis momxreTaTvis ismis kiTxva, Tuki somxebis
sulier-erovnuli siZliere or imperias aSfoTebda, maSin ase Zlieri
xalxi rogor `qarTveldeboda~ somxeTisave gavlenis qveS myof tao-
Si, anda klarjeTSi?
pasuxi aseTia _ somxebi somxeTSi ki ar gaqarTveldnen, aramed,
sinamdvileSi armeniis iberiul zolSi mcxovrebma armenizebulma
qarTvelema armeniis dasustebisas arabobis epoqaSi gabedes da sajar-
od aRiares TavianTi eTnikur-erovnuli vinaoba, TavianTi qarTvelo-
ba, anu somxebi ki ar gaqarTveldnen, aramed armeniaSi mcxovrebma
151
qarTvelebma Tavi daaRwies TavianTi armenizaciis saukunovan process,
srulad aRidgines erovnuli cnobiereba.
`oTxi armenia~ xalibebis yofil miwaze (IV-VI ss.)
(, I)
somxebi iustinianes epoqaSic mravlad esaxlebodnen persarmeni-
idan bizantiur somxeTSi. dasavleT armenia ZiriTadad qarTuli
tomebiT iyo dasaxlebuli. es tomebi ar iyvnen gaerTianebulni, erT-
maneTs ebrZodnen kidec, somxebi ki maTTan SedarebiT erTiani da
mizandasaxuli xalxi iyo, amitomac gauadvildaT regionSi dominant
eTnosad qceva. aman Tavisi asaxva pova kidec regionis im saxelebSi,
romelic iustinianem daarqva maT, esenia pirveli, meore, mesame da
meoTxe armeniebi.
IV-VI ss-saTvis bizantiuri armenia iyofoda oTx did nawilad. `pirve-
li armenia~ iyo bizantiuri provincia Savi zRvis samxreT-aRmosav-
leT sanapiroze _ trapizonis qvemoT, romlis dedaqalaqi iyo Teo-
dosiopolisi, igive karini (qarTuli karnu-qalaqi), mas CrdiloeTiT
esazRvreboda tao (iveria) da nawilobriv lazika. dasavleTiT Savi
zRva, aRmosavleTiT sparsuli provincia `sparsuli armenia~ (per-
sarmenia), samxreTiT `meore armenia~ da aseve `meoTxe armenia~.
`meore armenia~ (`armenia meore~) mdebareobda `pirveli armeniis~
samxreTiT, md. evfratis marjvena sanapiroze.
`mesame armenia~ (`armenia mesame~) mdebareobda evfratis marjvena
sanapiroze, mas marjvnidan esazRvreboda bizantiuri provincia `me-
sopotamia~.
`meoTxe armenia~ mdebareobda `pirveli armeniis~ samxreTiT vanis
tbis siaxloves, am yvela `armeniebis~ Sua.
`persarmenia~ moicavda araqsis xeobas da mis garda somxur-spar-
sul provinciebs taiqs, tarons da airarats. persarmenia politikurad
VI saukunis bolosaTvis orad iyofoda _ bizantiuri persarmenia
152
(saeklesio centri avani) da sparsuli (dvini). sparsulSi Sedioda
siuniki da vaspurakani (pravoslavnaia enciklopedia, I, gv. 75, rus.
enaze).
persarmeniis taos aseve uwodebdnen iverias.
`armeniebis~ erTi nawili somexTa garda erTmaneTTan mebrZoli
mkvidri qarTuli tomebiT iyo dasaxlebuli, armenielebi maT qveyana-
Si misuli fena iyo, ufro urTierTSekavSirebuli da Zlieri, qarTvele-
bi ki ar iyvnen konsolidirebulebi, miuxedavad amisa maTSi imdenad
mZafri yofila eTnoidentobis SegrZneba, rom arabTa batonobis Sesus-
tebisas tao-basianma da sxva mxareebma SeZles qarTul-erovnuli vinao-
bis aRdgena. tao (taiqi) _ `pravoslavnaia enciklopedias~ somxur-spar-
sul provinciad miaCnia, sinamdvileSi ki is airaratTan da Cans, taron-
Tan erTad sparselTa da somexTa politikur-saeklesio gavlenis
sferoSi iyvnen moqceulni iustinianes dros.
153
Tavi IV
qarTuli TviTSemecnebis aRorZineba Crdilo
da dasavleT armeniaSi
dasavleT armeniis xalxSi eTnoidentobis
Ziebis Sedegi (IX-X ss.)
kvleva erovnuli identobisa rTuli saqme iyo Sua saukuneebSi.
zogjer xdeboda ise, rom erT romelime xalxSi ikveTeboda jgufi,
romelic sabolood iqceoda xolme sxva xalxad da Sordeba Zvel
ers. amis mizezi SeiZleba sxvadasxva yofiliyo. SeiZleba ramdenime
magaliTis dasaxeleba. osmaleTis uzarmazari saxelmwifos mosax-
leoba `berZnebs~ uwodebda slavuri warmoSobis xalxebsac (maT Soris
vTqvaT bulgarelebs, vlaxebs da a.S.). mizezi amisa iyo is, rom Camoya-
libebis Semdeg ramdenime saukunis manZilze osmaleTis imperiam Tavi-
si kanonebis Tu adaTis Sesabamisad `berZnul TemSi~, mileTSi, gaaer-
Tiana yvela marTlmadidebeli da isini erT centrs _ konstanti-
nopolis berZnul sapatriarqos dauqvemdebara, sabolood puSkinis
epoqaSi rusuli wreeebi (XIX s. dasawyisSi) saerTaSoriso asparezze
avrcelebdnen mtkicebulebebs, rom sinamdvileSi osmaleTis `berZne-
bis~ umravlesoba, ara eTnikuri berZnebi aramed `slavebi~ iyvnen.
SemdegSi ki marTlac moxda am slavebis TviTgamorkveva da am re-
ligiuri `berZnebidan~ TandaTan gamoikveTnen bulgarelebi, serbe-
bi Tu vlaxebi.
amJamadac, rogorc cnobilia, qristiani lazebi TavianT Tavs `ber-
Znebs~ uwodeben, magram Tu ki raime mizezis gamo maTSi daiwyeba eT-
nikuri identobis Ziebis procesi, SesaZloa berZnebis am nawilisagan
axali `lazi xalxi~ Camoyalibdes, miTumetes, rom arseboben musul-
mani lazebi, romelnic saerTod ar Tvlian TavianT Tavs berZnebad.
154
msgavsadve, SesaZlebelia amJamindeli laTinuri amerikis qveyneb-
Si Sida identobis Ziebis Sedegad gamoikveTos indielTa axali xalx-
ebi anda eTnojgufebi, romelnic SemdgomSi warmoCndebian, rogorc
damoukidebeli nacionaluri xalxebi.
daaxloebiT msgavsadve `dasavleT armeniis~ mkvidrma mosaxleobam
IX-X saukuneebSi, eTnoZiebis Sedegad daaskvna, rom isini iyvnen ara
eTnikuri somxebi, aramed iberielebi, eniT, kulturiT, warsuliT da
sxva erovnuli TvisebebiT. tao-baianisa da axlo mxareebis mosaxle-
obam eTno-TviTgamorkveviT aRidgina qarTul-erovnuli eTnoiden-
toba da ara e.w. `qarTizaciis~ Segegad.
qarTvelTa TviTSemecnebis aRorZineba
dasavleT armeniaSi
VIII-IX ss-Si tao-basianisa da mimdebare kuTxeTa mcxovrebT qarTu-
li identoba CamouyalibdaT ara e.w. qarTizaciis procesis Sedegad,
rogorc miiCneva sabWoTa epoqis istoriografiis gavleniT, aramed
iqamde minavlebuli erovnuli TviTSemecnebis aRorZinebis Sedegad.
qarTvelebi tao-basiansa da e.w. dasavleT armeniaSi armenielebis
dasaxlebamdec cxovrobdnen, amas, rogorc mravaljer aRiniSna, miu-
TiTebs strabonis cnobili cnoba pariadres, xorZenasa da mtkvrisi-
qiT mdebare gogarenas iberiulobis Sesaxeb.
kidev erTxel gavixsenoT strabonis cnoba, is wers: `amboben, rom
Zvel dros mcire qveyana armenia gaizarda artaqsiasa da zariadrias
omebis Sedegad... maT erTobiT gaafarToves TavianTi samflobelo imiT,
rom irgvliv mcxovreb xalxebs CamoaWres olqebi, kerZod midielebs
waarTves kaspiana, favritida da basoropeda, iberebs _ pariadris
mTiswineTi, xorZena da gogarena, romelic mdebareobs md. kiris meore
mxares. xalibebsa da mosinikebs _ kareniti da qserqsena, romelic es-
azRvreba mcire armenias da misi nawilia...~ (str. XI, 14, 5), (straboni,
geografia, gamomcemloba `nauka~, 1964, rus. enaze, gv.498).
155
ukve armeniaSi mcxovreb am qarTvelebs marTalia Zalze Seusust-
daT erovnuli cnobiereba, maTi armenizaciis procesis gamo, magram
ara sabolood. saqarTvelos maxloblad (tao-karin-vanand-basianSi)
mcxovrebma qarTvelebma xelsayreli politikuri momentis dadgomi-
sas Tavi daaRwies somxur kulturul-saeklesio gavlenas da aRidgines
qarTuli cnobiereba. patkanov-maris Teoriis Tanaxmad ki TiTqosda
isini qalkedoniti somxebi iyvnen da moxda maTi qarTizacia. am Teoriis
sawinaaRmdegodaa dawerili Cveni mTeli nakvlevi.
m.TamaraSvili wers- `Zalian gvwydeba guli... unda mogaxsenoT: n.
mari yvelafris armenizacias axdens, saqarTvelos miwis, misi Zeglebis,
enis, literaturisa da sxva... iserigad, rom armenizaciaSi bevraT
aWarbebs somex patriotebs, TviT yvelaze gadametebulTac ki~ (m.
TamaraSvili, qarTuli eklesia, 1995, gv. 275).
lazikis eparqia _ dasavleT armeniisa da
persarmeniaSi Semavali persiberiis (istoriuli,
yofili arian-qarTlis) qarTvelobis
gamaerTianebeli
Tanamedrove saqarTvelos samxreTiT mdebare istoriuli arian-
qarTlis vrceli miwa-wyali sinopidan da trapezuntidan TiTqmis
vanis tbamde qarTuli tomebiT yofila dasaxlebuli, rogorc qse-
nofontes dros, ise mis Semdgom. am teritoriebis did nawils moicavda
lazikis eparqia XI s-Si. qarTuli tomebi iq armenielTa dasaxlebamde
cxovrobdnen.
kiros didis epoqamdec qarTuli tomebi kardux-gordienebi, fa-
sianebi, xalib-qaldebi da sxvani, am teritoriis momcvel XVIII da XIX
satrapiebSi cxovrobdnen, xolo armenia sxva, XIII satrapias erqva maT
mezoblad.
SemdgomSi armeniuli tomebi SeWrilan karduxTa, fasianTa, xalib-
Ta, aseve sxva qarTul tomTa miwa-wyalze da maTgan saukeTeso adgi-
156
lebi, saxnav-saTesad vargisi miwebi miutacebiaT, amitomac qsenofon-
tes anabazisidan SeiZleba gavigoT, rom mtroba da brZolebi iyo
gaCaRebuli armenielTa da am qarTul tomebs Soris, igive qsenofon-
te Tavis sxva naSromSi `kiropedia~ aRwers, rom TviT kiross gamoukv-
levia Tu ra iyo am gauTavebeli omebis mizezi da misula daskvnamde,
rom, xalibebs saxnav-saTesi miwebi ar hqondaT, xolo armenielebi
saukeTeso miwebze cxovrobdnen.
gansakuTrebiT mravali qarTuli tomi aRwera am mxareebis zRvi-
spireTSi strabonma, am mxriv ufro mniSvnelovania strabonis cnoba,
rom swored am mxareTa erTi nawili, romelTac Semdgom dasavleT ar-
menia da persarmenia ewodaT, Tavdapirvelad iberTa miwa-wyali iyo da
es teritoriebi, kerZod ki pariadres kalTebi, xorZena da gogarena
Zv.II s.-Si armeniam miitaca iberielTagan.
marTalia, Semdgom, am mitacebis gamo, am teritoriebs armenia ewoda,
magram is kvlav didxans yofila dasaxlebuli iberielebiT anu
qarTvelebiT, romelTa armenizaciis procesi sxvadasxva olqSi sxva-
dasxva xarisxis iyo, miuxedavad amisa X s-Si, mravali ucxouri wyaros,
maT Soris konstantine porfirogenetis cnobiT, sazRvari iberiasa
da armenias Soris mainc md. araqsze iyo gavlebuli.
qarTvelebi rom cxovrobdnen ara mxolod araqsis dasavleT naw-
ilSi (maT Soris dvinis da avanis sanaxebamde), aramed aRmosavleT
nawilSi _ vanis tbis mimarTulebiT, miuTiTebs is, rom TviT bizan-
tielTa mier teritorias trapezuntidan vanis tbamde ewoda `epar-
qia lazikaSi~, xolo vrcel miwa-wyals Teodosiopol-arzrumidan
yarsisa da anisis mimarTulebiT ewoda `iberiis Temi~.
mas Semdeg, rac somxeTis saxelmwifoebrioba daemcro, gansakuTre-
biT X s-idan armeniis mkvidr qarTvelobas saSualeba mieca erovnul-
qarTuli TviTSemecneba daufaravad ganecxadebina.
arabTa Semdgom epoqaSi am mxareebSi qarTvelTa ricxvis mkveTri zrda
gamowveuli iyo ara `somex-qalkedonitTa~ gaqarTvelebiT, rogorc am
faqts xsnis oficialuri istoriografia, aramed iqauri mosaxleobis
iqamde dafaruli qarTuli erovnuli TviTSemecnebis aRorZinebiT.
`trapezuntis samitropolito lazikaSi~ moicavda yofili romauli
armeniis miwa-wyals, da aseve yofili persarmeniis nawilsac, romel-
157
ic mniSvnelovnad qarTuli mosaxleobiT iyo dasaxlebuli. es miwa-
wyali IX-XI ss-Si arabTagan gaaTavisufla imperiam da iq Tavisi saek-
lesio iurisdiqcia ganaxorciela _ lazikis eparqiis saxeliT, xolo
TviT qveyanas ki iberiis Temi ewoda, rac, rogorc aRiniSna, iqauri
mkvidri mosaxleobis erovnul-qarTuli TviTSemecnebis aRorZineb-
is Sedegi iyo.
iqamde qarTveli xalxi, mcxovrebi istoriul xorZenasa da gugar-
qSi iZulebuli iyo Segueboda somxur saxelmwifoebriobasa da ekle-
sias, isini saukuneTa manZilze erTgulebiT atarebdnen maT qveyanaSi
gabatonebulTa uRels, magram xelsayreli momentis dadgomis Sem-
deg aRidgines erovnul-qarTuli vinaoba. maTi qveyana _ pariadres
kalTebi, xorZena da gogarena xom, rogorc mravaljer iTqva, jer
kidev qristeSobamde II saukuneSi CamoaWra armeniam iberias, ris gamoc
iberiis am yofil olqebSi dominant eTnosad somxebi gadaiqcnen,
somxuri eniTa da kulturiT, qarTuli ena am mxareebSi, Cans, mxolod
saSinao, ojaxur enad gadaiqca, da is iyo, rogorc erTi wyaro wers dam-
aluli (`damarxuli~) da `dawunebuli~.
am mxareebidan gamosul zogierT qarTvel saxelovan meomrebsa da
cnobil adamianebs ucxoelebi `armenielebs~ uwodebdnen, maT qvey-
anas ki armenias, Tumca ki aseTi `armenielebi~ sinamdvileSi iberebi
anu qarTvelebi iyvnen, rac kargad gamoCnda IX, X, XI saukuneebSi,
roca maTma STamomavlebma gabedes da erovnuli vinaoba daufaravad
gamoacxades.
560 wlis politikuri rukis mixedviT, sazRvari bizantiis imperi-
asa da sparseTs Soris orad hyofda `armeniad~ saxeldebul qveyanas.
dasavleT, anu romaul armeniaSi Wanur da lazur olqebTan erTad
moeqca mesxuri mosaxleobis nawili da isini berZnul saeklesio iuris-
diqciaSi imyofebodnen. sparsul armeniaSic mravali qarTuli olqi
moeqca. 591 wlis xelSekrulebiT, tao, Woroxis xeobis erTi monakve-
Ti (dasavleT sanapiroc), gugarqi, basianis didi nawili da, e.w. zemo-
ni qveyanani sparsul armeniad saxeldebul mxareSi moeqca.
sparsul armeniaSi saeklesio-sarwmunoebrivi TvalsazrisiT sxva
viTareba iyo, gansxvavebuli dasavleT armeniisagan. kerZod, spar-
sul armeniaSi IV-V saukuneebidanve idevneboda berZnulenovani RvTism-
158
saxureba. amis gamo persarmeniis qristianuli mosaxleoba sparsulma
xelisuflebam daavaldebula RvTismsaxureba somxur enaze hqono-
daT, an asuruli SemoeRoT. amis Sedegad somxurenovani RvTismsax-
ureba Camoyalibda da gaZlierda. unda vifiqroT, rom am dros per-
sarmeniis qarTvelobam erTgvari iZulebiT miiRo somxurenovani
RvTismsaxureba, magram mainc adgilobriv qarTvelebs SenarCunebuli
hqondaT somxebisagan erovnuli gansxvavebulobis Segneba. es gamoCn-
da gansakuTrebiT gugarqSi, roca mkvidrma qarTvelobam kirionis
mowodebis Semdeg gabeda eklesiebSi qarTulenovani RvTismsaxureba
somxurTan gaeTanabrebina. yofili persarmeniis mkvidr qarTvelo-
bas SenarCunebuli da zogjer ki, devnis gamo, gamZafrebulic ki hqonda
erovnuli TviTSemecneba, rac gamoCnda Sesabamisi politikuri mo-
mentis dadgomisTanave gugarqisa da tao-klarjeTisa da mimdebare
mxareebis mkvidri mosaxleobis qarTuli cnobierebis gansakuTrebu-
li gamovleniT.
unda iTqvas, rom dasavleT armeniaSic idevneboda qarTuli ena
eklesiuri TvalsazrisiT, amitom aqauri qarTveloba ganaTlebas
iRebda berZnulad, aseve, zogjer somxurad. aseTi warmomavlobis
somxurenovani qarTvelebi berZnul monastrebSic ki cdilobdnen
TavianTi qveynis saeklesio warsulisadmi pativi ecaT. rogorc iTq-
va, amis erTi magaliTia is, rom berZnuli monastris, `somex-qalke-
donit~ berebs wmida ninos Sesaxeb cnobebi Sehqonda TvenSi, rac Zalze
mniSvnelovani momenti iyo (fidaniani).
qarTuli kulturisadmi aRniSnuli mosaxleobis ltolvis gamoxat-
ulebad unda miviCnioT is, rom sarwmunoebrivi Ziebisas armeniis mkvid-
ri qarTveloba miemxro qalkedonitobas, anu Tavisi erovnuli qveynis
(saqarTvelos) sarwmunoebriv mimarTulebas da Seecada Tavisi damok-
idebuleba saeklesio arqiteqturaSic ki gamoexata _ amis magaliTad
unda miviCnioT qalkedonituri saekleso centris _ avanis da rifsimes
eklesiis arqiteqtura _ gameoreba mcxeTis jvris tipisa.
159
ucxouri wyaroebi megrelTa da svanTa
iberielobis Sesaxeb
(`iverTa avtokratori~ anu trapezuntis imperatori da `iverTa
xelmwife~ anu samegrelos mTavari (levan II dadiani)
cnobilia, trapezuntis vrcel regions XI s. qarTul wyaroebSi
ewodeboda `sofeli megrelTa~, xolo berZnuli wyaroebi trapezun-
tis imperators `iverTa avtokrators~ uwodebdnen, mosaxleobis sax-
elis mixedviT, Sesabamisad, qveynis mosaxleobas erTdroulad erqva
megrelebica da iverebic.
1282 wlidan trapezuntis imperatoris tituli iyo _ `qriste Rm-
erTis mier mefe da avtokratori sruliad aRmosavleTisa, iverebisa da
zRvisiqeTisa, didi komnini~ (didi komninebi, marTmadidebluri encik-
lopedia, VII, gv. 444. rus. enaze).
aRsaniSnavia, rom 1282 wlamde bizantiis imperatorebs sxva titu-
latura hqondaT _ isini TavianT Tavs moixseniebdnen msgavsad bizan-
tiis imperatorebisa, _ `mefe da avtokratori romeebisa~,
1182 wlidan mixeil VIII paleologTan kompromisis Semdeg maT (tra-
pezuntis imperatorebma) miiRes aRniSnuli tituli `mefe aRmosav-
leTisa da avtokratori iverebisa~.
. 1282 . VIII . .
:
() (didi komninebi, marTmadide-
bluri enciklopedia, VII, gv. 444. rus enaze).
sazogadod berZnuli sityva avtokratori Sesatyvisia laTinuri
sityvisa `imperatori~.
629 . (basileuz) .
, -
. X . ,
. .
(marTmadidebluri enciklopedia, I, gv. 202).
bizantiisa da trapezuntis imperatorebs oficialurad `avtokra-
tori~ erqvaT, magram pirveli romaeli xalxis, meore ki iverTa im-
peratorad anu avtokratorad iwodeboda.
160
zogadad, imperatorTa titulaturebSi ixsenieboda is xalxebi,
romelTa qveyanasac marTavdnen.
konstantinopolis imperatorebi TavianT Tavs `romaelTa (romee-
bis) mefeebad~ miiCnevdnen, amitomac ar surdaT aseTive titulatura
hqonodaT trapezuntis imperatorebs.
amitomac, trapezuntis imperatorebi iZulebulni gaxdnen Tavian
titulaturaSi im xalxis saxeli moexsenebinaT, romelTa qveyanasac
isini realurad marTavdnen _ es xalxi iyo iverebi anu iberebi.
trapezuntis anu iverTa imperatorebi (avtokratorebi) marTavd-
nen qaldeasa da mimdebare olqebs.
maSasadame, Cans, trapezuntis imperatorebi TavianT Tavs imitom
uwodebdnen `iverebis TviTmpyrobels~, avtokrators, rom mas miaCn-
da, rom misi imperiis mosaxleobis sazogado saxeli iyo _ `iverebi~.
es faqti imiTaa saintereso, rom maT imperiaSi ZiriTadad cxovrobd-
nen qaldevelebi, Wanebi da sxvadasxva tomebi, maT Soris makronTa,
sanTa da sxvaTa STamomavlebi, maTi zogadi saxeli _ `iverebi~ yofi-
la, maTi imperatoris titulis mixedviT. qarTuli wyaroebi maT qvey-
anas uwodebdnen `sofeli megrelTa~ anu zogadqarTvelTaTvis isini
iberi (qarTveli) xalxis megruli jgufi iyo. iwodebodnen _ ucxoel-
TaTvis iberebad, xolo qarTvelTaTvis megrelebad.
aseve es faqti sainteresoa imiTac, rom ucxoelebi trapezuntis
imperators xan kolxTa mefes, xanac ki `qaldevelTa mefes~, `megrelTa
mefes~ anda `lazTa mefes~ uwodebdnen, maSasadame kolxebic, lazebi-
ca da qaldebi (Wanebi~ _ yvelani saimperatoro saxlis gansazRvre-
biT _ `iverebi~ iyvnen. aseTi mosazreba gamonaklisi rom araa da
megrelTa xelmwifeebs oficialurad `iverTa mefeebs~ uwodebdnen,
Cans samegrelos mTavris levan II-is magaliTiTac, mas `iveriis mefes~
anda `iveriis xelmwifes~ uwodebdnen (ix. ruseTis mefis aleqsi
mixailoviCis mimarTvebi).
trpezuntis `samegrelos~ imperatorsa da Semdgomi epoqis samegre-
los mTavars _ erTnairi titulebi hqondaT. orTaves erTnairad
uwodebdnen _ `iverTa avtokratori~, `iveriis mefe~.
faqtebis urTierTSejerebiT SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom megrelebs
_ iverebs uwodebdnen TviT maTi mmarTveli oficialuri wreebi. am
161
mxriv niSneulia, rom n. mari, gr. yifSiZe da sxvebi _ megrelebs ive-
rielebs uwodebdnen, megruls ki iveriuls.
`megrelebi~ _ iverielebi arian am TvalsazrisiT. igive SeiZleba
iTqvas svanebis Sesaxebac. straboni werda, rom svanebs `zogierTebi
iberielebs uwodeben~, zogierTebis qveS is Zveli msoflios istori-
kosebs gulisxmobda.
straboni wers svanebis iberielobis Sesaxeb:
`im xalxTa Soris, romelnic Tavs iyrian dioskuriadaSi arian
ftirofagebic, romlebmac es saxeli miiRes usufTaobis da WuWyis
gamo. maT axlos cxovroben soanebi, romlebic arafriT Camouvarde-
bian maT usufTaobiT, magram sjobnian ZlierebiT, da SeiZleba iTq-
vas, rom isini TiTqmis yvelaze kargi meomrebi da Zlierebi arian
yvelasTan SedarebiT, yovel SemTxvevaSi isini batonoben yvela xalxze,
romelTac kavkasiis maRlobebi uWiravT dioskuradis garSemo. maT
yavT mefe da sabWo 300 kacisagan, rogorc amboben SeuZliaT 200 000
kacisgan Semdgari jaris gamoyvana, marTlac mTeli xalxis masa
brZolisunariania, Tumca araorganizebuli Zala, maT qveyanaSi
rogorc gadmoscemen mTis nakadebs CamoaqvT oqro da barbarosebi
iWeren faceriT da bewviani tyaviT aqedan, amboben warmoiSva miTi
oqros sawmisze. zogierTebi maT agreTve uwodeben iberielebs _ dasav-
leTelebis msgavsad, oqros silis gamo, romelic orive qveyanaSia~
(straboni, XI, II, 19).
-
, (straboni, XI, II, 19).
maT aseve iberielebs uwodeben _ .
maSasadame, ori aTasi wlis winac ki svanebs iberielebs uwodebdnen,
im dros saerTod, cxadia fuZe, saerTo qarTuli ena ar iyo ise diferen-
cirebuli da daSlili im xarisxiT, rogorc amJamad, Sesabamisad stra-
bonis epoqaSi svanuri da iberiuli dialeqtebi erT enobriv mTlianobas
qmnidnen, amis gamo, Cans strabonis epoqis istorikosebis erTi wyeba
svanebs iberielebad miiCnevda.
igive, oRond ufro meti xarisxiT iTqmis egriselebis Sesaxeb, amit-
omac trapezuntis lazikis mosaxleobas anu egriselebs iberebs uwo-
debdnen, amitomac unda hqonoda trapezuntis imperators `iverTa av-
162
tokratoris~ anu iverTa imperatoris tituli. erTi sityviT svanebica
da egriselebic (`sofeli megrelTas~ anu trapezuntis olqis mcxovreb-
ni) zogad iberebad iwodebodnen, isini qarTvelebad ganixilebodnen
Zveli qarTuli wyaroebis mierac, risi mtkicebanic mravladaa Cvens
naSromSi.
trapezuntis imperatoris titulSi naxsenebia erTaderTi xalxis -
`iverebis~ saxeli, rac miuTiTebs, rom trapezuntis olqis mravali sx-
vadasxva tomi, maT Soris Wanebi da qaldebi _ zogadad iverebi iyvnen,
bizantiis samefo sasaxlis politikosebisaTvis.
trapezuntis imperiis gaqrobis Semdeg XVI saukuneSi `sruliad aR-
mosavleTisa da iveriis xel mwifes~ Tavis Tavs uwodebda samcxis mTa-
vari mzeWabuki. marTlac is antioqiis patriarqis doroTeosis `wign-
is~ qarTul TargmanSi moxseniebulia, rogorc `yovlisa aRmosavleTi-
sa xelmwife~ (m. zaldastaniSvili, `kidev erTxel aTabagTa gankerZoeb-
is Sesaxeb~, macne, istoriis seria, 2012, 2, gv. 57), amave `wignSi~ mzeWabu-
ki ixsenieba, rogorc `mTeli zemo iberiis TviTmpyrobeli~ (iqve, gv. 58).
maSasadame, `aRmosavleTi~ da `iveria~ erqva tao-basian-samcxesa da
mis mimdebare vrcel regions X-XVI saukuneebSi.
cnobilia, rom daviT kurapalatis epoqiT (1001 w.) TariRdeba parx-
lis eklesiis warwera `qarTlisa da yovlisa aRmosavleTisa patriarqi
iovane~.
parxlis eklesiis kedlis warweraSi naxsenebi `aRmosavleTis patri-
arqi~, unda iyos ara mcxeTeli mamamTavari, aramed sasuliero pirve-
lierarqi tao-basianisa da im `aRmosavleTisa~, romelic gamovikvli-
eT. es `aRmosavleTi~ ixsenieba XI s. qarTvel mefeTa titulaturaSic.
esaa, rogorc aRiniSna tao-basiani da misi mimdebare qveynebi qaldea-
trapezuntidan TiTqmis vanis tbamde, iberebis is sacxovrisi `xorZena,
gogarena da pariadres kalTebi~, romelsac strabonic ixsenebs. aseve
araqsispira is miwebi, romelnic ara mxolod iberebiT iyo dasaxlebu-
li, aramed konstantine porfirogenetis cnobiT iberiis saxelmwifos
gamgeblobaSic iyo (kerZod, araqsis marcxena sanapiros miwebi). albaT
aq SesaZlebelia SeniSvnis saxiT iTqvas, rom TavianT Tavs megrelebi
iverebs uwodebdnen ara mxolod levan II dadianis epoqaSi, aramed XIX
saukuneSic, sabWoTa saistorio skolis ideebis damkvidrebamde, ro-
163
melmac megrelebSi Canerga azri, rom isini ara iberebi, aramed kolx-
ebi arian, magaliTad, XX s-is dasawyisSi cnobili saeklesio moRvawe
Rirsi mama aleqsi SuSania werda: ufro sworad ki evedreboda RvTism-
Sobels exsna misi wilxvedri saqarTvelo, iveria _ `iverTa dedav,
Senia, Seni, Senda aRrCeul qarTvelTa eri, amaT gargebda wilT-ganaCe-
ni, pirovan eri, Sen Sesaferi. moxede dedav iveriisa, zamTari didi adg-
ia Wirad... Sen mouvline xsna da saSveli ... Cveni naTesav qalwuli nina,
Sengan nugeSad qarTls moevlina... Seni Sewevnis gvaRirse smena, ersa
axare ukvdavebani... ismine Cveni Sendami vedri... gvixsen ganmryvneli
mgelebisagan~ (mitropoliti Sio, `yovladwmida RvTismSoblis Tay-
vaniscemisaTvis senakis savaneebSi~ saerTaSoriso konferenciis masale-
bi, 2014, 3-10 maisi).
mitropolit Sios moyavs sityvebi qadagebisa wm. aleqsi SuSaniasi,
romelic man warmoTqva samegrelos sofel senakis TeklaTis monas-
terSi RvTismSoblis xatis win _ `xati dedisa RvTisa mosruli aTo-
niT, mis wilxdomil iveriaSi~. esaa TeklaTis RvTismSoblis xati.
aleqsi SuSanias am sityvidan Cans, rom iveriis nawilia samegrelo,
iveria erTiani qveyanaa, misi erTi nawilia samegrelo, iveria igive
qarTlia, samegrelo qarTlis erTi nawilia _ ase esmodaT es sakiTxi
aTeisturi istoriografiis gabatonebamde. iqve ambobs xatis win wmi-
da aleqsi SuSania _ `Cven sawyalni iverielni~.
`sawyali iverielebi~ mTeli qarTveli xalxi iyo, im dros, avtoke-
faliisa da qveynis Tavisuflebis aRdgenamde. zemoT naxseneb `mglebSi~
ki eris daSla-danawevrebis msurvelebs Tvlida.
164
brZola erovnul-qarTuli saxelmwifoebriobis
aRdgenisaTvis `zemo qveynebSi~ (X-XVI ss.)
arabTa Zliereba Sesustda IX-X saukuneebSi, ramac tao-basian-karin-
isa da mimdebare mxareebis mkvidr qarTul mosaxleobas SedarebiT
Tavisufali cxovrebis saSualeba misca, am dros maT qalaqebsa da
soflebSi TviTmmarTvelobis ufleba moupovebiaT.
erTi aseTi qalaqi, Cans, Teodosiopolis _ karini iyo.
konstantine porfirogenetis epoqaSi, roca am mxareebSi arabTa
nacvlad bizantielebma gadawyvites gabatoneba, mkvidrma qarTvelo-
bam didi winaaRmdegoba gawia.
X saukunis II naxevarSi sazRvrad bizantiasa da saqarTvelos Soris
daido mdinare araqsi.
konstantine porfirogeneti aRgviwers zavis Sedegs _ `iyves Tanax-
mad iberielTa moTxovnisa da fasianis sazRvrad md. eraqsi anu fasisi
da marcxena mxare iberiisken mimarTul epyraT iberebs, xolo marjve-
na, rac Teodosiopolisken aris, rogorc cixeebi, ise soflebi, iyves
Cveni meufebis qveS, maSasadame, orive sazRvrad mdinare iqneba~ (georgi-
ka, IV, naw. II, gv. 272).
konstantine porfirogeneti dawvrilebiT wers, Tu bizantielebi
gamudmebiT rogor arbevdnen Teodosiopolisis Semogarenis soflebsa
da qalaqebs, TviTon es mTavari qalaqi garemoculi hyavdaT da sur-
saT-sanovage ar SehqondaT, raTa qalaqis mosaxleoba damSeuliyo.
imperatori werda: `TeodosiopolelTa yvela es soflebi Cveni
samefos jarebma tyvevnes da cecxls misces, iberebs ar gaunadgure-
biaT igi, aramed mudam hyavdaT megobrebad da maTTan erTad mo-
qmedebdnen~ (georgika, IV, naw. II, gv. 272).
eTnikur-erovnuli solidarobis gamo qarTvelTa jari cdilobda
produqtiT moemaragebinaT bizantielTa mier SimSiliT sasikvdilod
gametebuli es sofel-qalaqebis mosaxleoba (iqve, gv. 265), impera-
tori xSirad wers: Cvenma jarebma `moarbies mTeli fasiani... moarbies
misi midamoebi... cixeebi moisra~ (iqve, gv. 262-265).
kidev ufro sastiki iyo adgilobrivi mosaxleobis mimarT impera-
tori basili bulgarTmmusvreli da Semdeg keisari konstantine, xolo
Semdeg ki romanozi.
165
am mxareebis qarTvelTa mxardaWeriT saqarTvelos mefe giorgi I
SeebrZola basili keisars da Tavdapirvelad gaimarjva kidec.
`kualad Semoiqca basili, movida basians da iTxovda qveyanaTa da
cixeTa~ (q. c., t. I, 282).
qarTulma jarma, adgilobrivi mosaxleobis mxardaWeriT, gaaTa-
visufla vrceli miwa-wyali basianidan vanis tbamde, qarTvelTa ga-
marjvebiT gulmoklulma imperatorma mematianis sityviT, jvris Ta-
yvaniscemazec ki uaris Tqma gadawyvita, Tu qarTvelebs ar daama-
rcxebda.
man ubrZana `moyvanebad Zelisa cxovrebisa da mandili wmida dadva
qveyanisa zeda da Tqua: `ukueTu mimce xelTa mtrisiTa, arRara viyo Ta-
yvanismcemel Sendami ukunisamde~ (q.c. I, gv. 287).
meore omSi gamarjvebis Semdeg basili II-m _ `kualad uborotesad
SurisgebiT moaoxra qveyanani igi~, anu iberia.
XI saukuenSi saqarTvelom es mxareebi dakarga, aq saqarTvelos
eklesiis iurisdiqciac daemcro da aRniSnuli mxare eklesiurad
daeqvemdebara konstantinopols, romelmac aq `lazikis samitropoli-
to~ daaarsa, centriT trapizuntSi.
`zemo qveynebis~ mosaxleoba saqarTvelos gamoeTiSa, saxelmwifoe-
brivad bizantiaSi Seiyvanes, magram, Cans, TviT xalxs Tavisi erovnu-
li vinaoba kargad Seunaxavs, rac gamoCnda Turq-seljukTa Semoseve-
bis Semdeg. am dros damarcxebulma bizantiam es qveyana datova, ma-
gram mkvidrma, musulmanebTan mebrZolma mosaxleobam, SeZlo kvlav
aRedgina erovnul-qarTuli saxelmwifoebrioba da is Sevida samcxe-
saaTabagos samTavroSi, kerZod, saqarTveloSi kvlav Sevida basianis,
taos, ispiris, artaanis, SavSeTis da sxva olqebi. amis gamo qarTuli
eklesia Tavis iurisdiqcias kvlav axorcielebda valaSkertis, anisi-
sa, yarsisa da sxva adgilobrivi mosaxleobis saepiskoposoebze,
romelnic cxadia qarTulenovanni iyvnen. TviT Turqul dokument-
ebSi am olqebis momcvel qveyanas `saqarTvelo~ ewodeba.
magaliTad, 1515 wlis dokumentiT roca osmaleTis did vezirs
sinan faSas adgilobrivi, e.i. aRniSnuli qveynebis dalaSqvra daeva-
la, am qveynebs (e.i. basians _ taos CaTvliT) gurjistani ewodeboda
(`Turquli wyaroebi samcxe-saaTabagos istoriisTvis~, 1983, gv. 9).
166
imave 1515 wlis osmaluri dokumenti samcxe saaTabagos mTavris
Sesaxeb aRniSnavs _ `seraqiri manuCari gaxda saqarTvelos damoukide-
beli fadiSahi~ (iqve, gv. 11). am `saqarTveloSi~ (anu samcxe-tao-ba-
sianSi) mravali cixe da sofeli iyo, romelTa ricxvi aTass aRwevda
(iqve, gv. 32). maTi didi nawili `azonis Svilebad cnobili aznaurebi-
saa~ _ wers Turquli dokumenti (iqve, gv. 34). tao-basianisa da mimde-
bare qarTuli mxareebis aznaurebs `azonis Svilebi~ erqvaT, radga-
nac iyvnen STamomavlebi farnavaz mefis wina azon mefis dadebulebisa.
maT es xsovna XVI s-mde hqoniaT SenarCunebuli.
es mxareebi dampyrobelTa cvalebadobis miuxedavad qarTuli qvey-
nebi iyvnen, romelTa erovnul TviTSemecnebas jer kidev azon-far-
navazis dros Caeyara safuZveli, qristeSobamde IV-III saukuneebSi.
rogorc adre armenielebma da bizantielebma, osmalebmac daipyres
TorTumi, fanaskerti, arzrumi, artaani da sxva mxareebi, banasa da
xaxulis eklesiebis olqebi, qarTvelTa denacionalizacia kvlav gagr-
Zelda. osmaluri wyaros cnobiT, am process aadvilebda is, rom
rogorc osmaluri wyaro werda _ qarTvelebi `erTmaneTTan brZola-
Si da erTimeoris xocvaSi arian gamudmebiT~ (iqve, gv. 48).
167
Tavi V
`armeniis~ qarTvelTa sarwmunoeba
`berZnuli da qarTuli qristianoba~
konstantinopolis sapatriarqos lazikis eparqia, rogorc aRini-
Sna, XI s.-Si moicavda vrcel miwa-wyals trapezuntidan vanis tbamde,
amitomac cxadia, mis saepiskoposoebSi wirva-locvis ena iyo berZnu-
li. eparqiis mosaxleoba e.w. `berZnul qristianobas~ eziara. m. berZniS-
vili werda _ `berZnebTan dapirispireba didi erovnuli saqme iyo,
qarTulma feodalurma urTierTobam rom gamoiwvia, amanve gamoiwvia
somxebisagan gaTiSva... qarTuli feodaluri urTierTobis niSania
qarTuli qristianoba, romelic somxurs (aRmosavlurs) gamoeTiSa da
dasavlurs (berZnuls) ar SeuerTda~ (n. berZeniSvili, saqarTvelos
istoriis sakiTxebi, masalebi saqarTvelos istoriuli geografii-
saTvis, Tb., 1990, gv. 252).
n. berZeniSvili wers saqarTvelos saeklesio enis Sesaxebac: `ueWve-
lia enisaTvis aseTi didi mniSvnelobis micema didi kulturuli brZo-
lisa da Zlieri kulturis maCvenebelia. es jer kidev qristianobis Se-
mosvlidan Cans, roca kulturulad dawinaurebulma iberiam qarTu-
li qristianoba moiwyo (bizantiam amis saSualeba ar misca lazikas...),
man Semdgomac daicva is da kidev meti: Seetoqa berZnul qristianobas
(lazikaSi) da ara marto berZnuls, aramed somxurs (somxeTSi, taoSi,
sperSi, SirakSi), albanurs (hereTSi)~ (iqve, gv. 415).
`qarTuli qristianobis~ erT-erTi umTavresi saZirkveli iyo saek-
lesio qarTuli ena _ gasagebi yvela qarTuli tomisaTvis, radganac
am enis gamoyenebis sawyis epoqaSi jer kidev sustad diferencirebu-
li yofila fuZe-qarTuli ena. welTaRricxvaTa mijnaze _ anu I-II ss-
Si T. gamyreliZe _ g. maWavarianis cnobiT, jer kidev arsebobda e.w.
168
`zanur-qarTuli~ enobrivi mTlianoba, rac, rogorc Cans, safuZvlad
iqca saeklesio, anu Zveli qarTuli enisa.
k. kekeliZe wers _ `qarTuli saeklesio mwerloba dawyebula bib-
liuri wignebis gadmocemiT... mTargmnelebi iZulebulni xdebodnen
SeeguebinaT TavianTi Targmani warmarTuli azrovnebisaTvis, ram-
denadac es mosaxerxebeli iyo da gamoeyenebinaT maragi warmarTuli
sakraluri enisa. axali ideebi, axali azrebi, axali filosofiur-re-
ligiuri da moraluri Sexedulebani xSirad gadmoicemian am Targman-
Si iseTi sityvebiTa da terminebiT, iseTi formebiTa da saxeebiT,
romelnic uSualod warmarTuli wyaroebidan modian da romelnic
pirvelyofil qarTul qristianobas sinkretul xasiaTs aZleven~ (k.
kekeliZe, etiudebi, I, 1956, gv. 186).
XI s-Si samxreT taos yofili samefos mosaxleoba konstantinopo-
lis sapatriarqoSi moeqca, iqamde is qarTul saeklesio iurisdiq-
ciaSi imyofeboda. amitomac cdilobda berZnul eklesiaSic Seenar-
Cunebina qarTulenovani wirva-locva. episkopos zaqaria val-
aSkertelisa da aToneli mamebis didi Zalisxmevis miuxedavad, maT es
mxolod nawilobriv SeZles.
169
wmida ninos jvari dasavleT armeniaSi (VI-XI ss.)
vaxtang gorgaslis anZianZorSi da karnu-qalaqSi laSqrobis mi-
uxedavad, iberiam ver SeZlo xorZenesa da pariadris, iberebis isto-
riuli teritoriebis, ukan dabruneba, radganac ori imperia _ sparseTi
da bizantia erTmaneTs ecileboda ukve armeniad saxeldebul am miwa-
wyals. sabolood maT armenia erTmaneTs Soris gaiyves.
bizantiur anu dasavleT armeniaSi moeqca pariadre da xorZenes
erT nawilTan erTad, meore nawili ki xorZena-gogarenisa persarme-
niaSi moeqca.
dapyrobil armeniis qveyanaSi stabilurobis miRwevis mizniT, bi-
zantia cdilobda somexi xalxis gulis mogebas da mis im pretenziebs
akmayofilebda, romelic xels ar uSlida imperiis uSiSroebas.
aseT viTarebaSi dasavleT armeniaSi mcxovrebi qarTvelebi iZu-
lebulni iyvnen CarTuliyvnen Sidasaqveyno saqmianobaSi da Tanda-
TanobiT ufro Rrmavdeboda maTi armenizaciis procesi, magram dasav-
leT armeniaSi mcxovreb qarTvelebs erovnuli cnobiereba mTlianad
rom ar daukargavT, kargad Cans im sasoebis gamoxatviT, romelic
maT hqondaT wmida ninosa da misi jvris mimarT.
wmida nino erTgvarad maTi erovnulobis sayrdeni Ruza iyo, romel-
ic gulebSi Rrmad Camarxul erovnul vinaobas anarCunebinebda.
somxeTis qarTvelTa gansakuTrebuli siyvaruli saqarTvelos mi-
marT, gamoixateboda wmida ninos jvris pativiscemiT.
maT isic ki SeZles, rom wmida ninos jvari moepovebinaT. is sasoe-
biT gadaasvenes e.w. armeniis mxareebSi (sinamdvileSi ki qarTvelTa is-
toriul samSobloSi, vanandis mxareSi, yarsSi da maxlobel mxareebSi).
armeniis am nawilSi wmida ninos jvari ramdenime saukunis manZilze
inaxeboda _ is ki Tavisi madliT TiTqos iyo Suqura armeniis qarTvel-
Ta erovnulobis gamosabrwyineblad armenizaciis burusidan.
wmida ninos jvari VI s-Si samxreT saqarTvelodan anu gugarqidan
taronSi wausvenebiaT da wm. lazares taZarSi dausvenebiaT, iqidan ki
sperSi, saidanac is qarTuli warmoSobis (Wan) somxeTis erisTavs
grigol mamikonians kapuetis anu lurj cixeSi gadausvenebia, riTac
man gamoxata siyvaruli Tavisi mamulebis (sperisa da taos) ganmanaTle-
170
blis mimarT. marTlac movses xorenaci wmida ninos klarjeTis mqada-
gebels uwodebs `iqadaga klarjeTidan masquTebamde~ _ werda is. va-
xuStis cnobiT tao-speri klarjeTis nawils warmoadgenda.
istoriuli klarjeTi ki vaxuStis cnobiT moicavda sxva mxareebTan
erTad sper-tao-TorTomsac, romelTac imJamad mamikonianTa ojaxi
marTavda. maT Cans kargad icodnen TavianTi qarTuli warmoSoba (rasac
miuTiTebs adonci) da amitomac uvlidnen da mtkice SemarTebiT icavd-
nen wmida ninos jvars.
wmida ninos Sesaxeb berZnul-qalkedonur monastrebSi Sekedlebu-
li is kulturulad armenizebuli qarTveli berebic ki werdnen,
romelTac wera-kiTxva icodnen somxurad da Seswavlili ar hqondaT
qarTuli mwignobroba. maT, movses xorenaciseuli cnoba wmida ninos
Sesaxeb, SehqondaT eklesiis sakiTxav TvenSi. isini qalkedonitur
somxur eklesias mikedlebuli eTnikuri anu armenizebuli qarTvelebi
iyvnen, Tumca ki maT amJamad somexi istorikosebi `somex-qalkedo-
nitebs~ uwodeben.
rogorc aRiniSna, cnobili somexi mkvlevari `pravoslavnaia en-
ciklopediiis~ erT-erT statiaSi wers: (e.i. XI s. Tvenis)
, -.
. . (. III, c. 32).
sinamdvileSi ki es faqti gviCvenebs, Tu rogor gafacicebiT
hkrefdnen gasomxebis piras misuli dasavleT armeniis qarTvelebi
(Tumca ki wevrebi somxur-qalkedonuri eklesiisa) cnobebs wmida ni-
nosa da qarTuli eklesiis istoriis Sesaxeb da isini somxur-qalke-
donur saeklesio wignebSic SehqondaT, radganac araviTari saSuale-
ba ar hqondaT monawileoba mieRoT qarTul saeklesio cxovrebaSi,
amasTanave im mxareebSi imJamad qarTuli eklesia-monastrebi arc
arsebobdnen.
171
wmida nino _ armeniis qarTvelebis
erovnuli droSa (IX-X ss.)
IX-X ss-Si, somxuri eklesiisagan Tavis daxsnis epoqaSi, `zemo qvey-
nebidan~ da tao-klarjeTidan gamosuli wmida mamebi Zalze xSirad
xazgasmiT aRniSnavdnen wmida ninos Rvawls da mis mimarT TavianT
madlierebas.
XX s-Si qarTul mecnierebaSi is azric ki warmoiSva, rom TiTqos-
da `ninos kulti qarTvelTa Soris Camoyalibda IX-X ss-dan~ (aseTi iyo
imJamindeli terminologia), sinamdvileSi ara mTel qarTul ekle-
siaSi, aramed mxolod im qarTul mxareebSi, romelnic IX-X ss-mde
armeniaSi iyvnen moqceulni, daiwyes miTiTeba wmida ninos Rvawlis
Sesaxeb. amiT qarTvelebi, anu yofil armeniaSi mcxovrebi qarTvele-
bi, TavianT Tavs eTnikurad mijnavdnen iqve, maT gverdiT mcxovreb
somex qalkedonitebisagan.
rac Seexeba somex qalkedonitebs, maT TavianTi Tavi miaCndaT ara
wmida ninos, aramed TavianTi eTnikuri saeklesio winaprebis memkvid-
reebad. amis Sesaxeb sruliad samarTlianad miuTiTebs v. aruTinova-
fidaniani, romelic wers _ - , -
, . .
. .- ,
. ( , .3, 2001, . 328).
aruTinova-fidaniani samarTlianad wers, rom somexi qalkedonitebi
TavianT Tavs grigol ganmanaTleblis da sahak parTelis, maStocis
memkvidreebad miiCnevdnen da ara wmida ninosi, rom maTi saRvTism-
saxuro ena mudam iyo somxuri.
maTgan gamocalkevebis, e.i. somex-qalkedonitebisagan gamijvnis
mizniT qarTveli qalkedonitebi TavianT Tavs miiCnevdnen qarTvelTa
ganmanaTlebel wmida ninos memkvidreebad da ara aRniSnuli grigol
somexTa ganmanaTleblisa, sahak parTelisa Tu sxva somxuri eklesiis
damaarseblebisa.
amitomac, wmida ninos xseneba erTgvari niSani iyo eTnikurobis
gamovlenisa.
172
wm. nino lazikaSi (IV s.)
(sotiropoli, lazia, alania)
lazeTis mitropolitma germanem moskovSi XVII s-Si ruseTis xelm-
wifes werilobiT moaxsena, rom misi sakaTedro taZari qalaq ofSi
(xofSi) agebulia iverTa miwebis ganmanaTleblis mier _
, (pavle ingor-
oyva, giorgi merCule, 1954, gv. 262). am dokumentidan Cans, rom Zveli
epoqis saeklesio ierarqTa mier lazeTi iveriis erTerT nawilad
miiCneoda da lazeTi erqva ara dasavleT saqarTvelos, aramed samxreT-
dasavleTs.
p. ingoroyvas mier moskovis mTavari arqividan amoRebuli am ma-
salidan Cans, rom xofas eklesia augia iverielTa miwebis gamaqris-
tianebel qals irinas, cxadia, igulisxmeba wm. nino. p. ingoroyvac
wers, rom wmida nino am dokumentSi irinad iwodeba.
am dokumentis Sedgenamde didi xniT adre igives, rom am mxareeb-
is, e.i. samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos gamaqristianebeli iyo wm. nino,
miuTiTebda V saukunis somexi istorikosi m. xorenaci:
is werda _ `wm. ninom iqadaga klarjeTidan masquTebamde~, maSasa-
dame, klarjeTSi, V s. am avtoris cnobiT, wmida ninos uqadagia.
xofa klarjeTis nawili iyo, radganac wyaroebSi ixsenieba _ `bolo
klarjeTisa, zRvispiri~, xofa _ klarjeTis bolo anu zRvispira naw-
ilis dasawyisSi mdebareobda.
es miwa-wyali igive lazeTia, lazikaa. amitomac hqonda xofas epar-
qiis xelmZRvanels tituli `lazeTis mitropolitisa~, masSi Sedio-
da miwa-wyali of-rizedan vidre md. Woroxamde.
p. ingoroyvas rukis mixedviT, aRniSnuli xofi anu ofi (igive
sotiropoli _ sotrapela) mdebareobda trapezuntidan aRmosavleT
zRvispirze, misgan daaxloebiT 25 km daSorebiT, romelsac mosdevda
q. rize.
ofsa da rizes Sua punqti `axali banakebi~ (`kene parambole~) yofila.
rizedan aTenamde punqti kordvili, xolo aTenadan biwemde tam-
buri (zRvis piri hamamaSeni);
173
biwes mosdevda arqabi, xufaTi, afsarosi da gonia (ix. p. ingoroy-
vas ruka, gv. 272).
zemoT moyvanili cnobidan Cans, rom q. ofi (da rize) IV s-Si Sedio-
da qarTuli eklesiis iurisdiqciaSi, romlis ganmanaTlebeli iyo wm.
nino da romelsac augia ofis taZari, radganac IV s-Si zRvispireTis
es teritoria iberiis anu qarTlis samefoSi Sedioda (aq SeiZleba
gavixsenoT, rom berZnul-romauli wyaroebiTac am adgilebSi mcxov-
rebi Zidritebis tomi I s-Si iberiis mefe farsmans emorCileboda).
iberiis samefos, V s-Si, e.w. bizantia-lazikis omis dros daukar-
gavs zRvispireTis teritiriis nawili ofidan-xufaTamde.
klarjeTis erisTavi gubaz I, romelsac bizantielebi `lazTa mefes~
uwodeben iZulebuli gamxdara daedo bizantiasTan zavi, romlis Sem-
degac sazRvarma ofidan xufaTSi gadmoiwia.
wmida ninos lazikaSi moRvaweobis Sesaxeb wers gelasi kesarieli,
V s-is avtori. is wers `tyve qalma iqadaga iberTa da lazTa Soris~,
xolo movses xorenaci aseve V s-Si werda, rom wm. ninom iqadaga klar-
jeTSi (klarjeTidan masquTebamde), klarjeTi ki berZnuli wyaroeb-
is lazika anu samxreT egrisia.
sotiropolis kaTedris saxeli ukavSirdeba aseve alaniis samit-
ropolitos.
imis gamo, rom gaqristianebul alanebs esaWiroebodaT TavianTi
episkoposi, magram maT (alanebs) ar gaaCndaT mudmivi sacxovrebeli
adgili nomaduri (momTabaruli) cxovrebis gamo, konstantinopols
gadauwyvetia kavkasiis zRvispira romelime Tavis iurisdiqciis qveS
myof qalaqSi daesva alanebisaTvis saWiro episkoposi. es yofila q.
sotiropolisi p. ingoroyvas kvleviT (dasax. naSr. gv. 259).
marTlac, sotiropolisis CrdiloeTiT mTeli SavizRvispireTi
vidre nikofsiamde saqarTvelos saeklesio iurisdiqciaSi Sedioda,
xolo nikofsias iqiT SavizRvispireTSi ar iyo mSvidobiani cxovreba.
amitomac konstantinopoli iZulebuli iyo alanebisagan Zalze
moSorebiT daearsebina alaniis kaTedra.
konstantinopoluri dokumenti iuwyeba _ `alaniis mitropolias
sruliad ar aqvs sakuTari samRvdelmTavro kaTedra, radgan aqauri
xalxi momTabareobas, nomadur cxovrebas eweva~ (dasax. naSr. gv. 259).
174
ai, es yofila mizezi, rom alaniis mitropolia XII saukuneSi gauer-
TianebiaT sotiropolis saeklesio olqTan, romelic am dros kon-
stantinopolis sapatriarqoSi Sedioda.
aq, sotiropolis zonaSi iyo am epoqaSi `sazRvari bizantiasa da
saqarTvelos Soris~ (iqve, gv. 260).
XIII s-Si saqarTvelos (mesxeTis samTavros) SeuerTebia trapizonis
aqeTi qveynebi, maT Soris, sotiropolisi.
amis gamo konstantinopols sotiropolis kaTedra gadautania
trapizonSi.
alaniis samitropolito XIII-XVI ss-Si osmalebis gabatonebamde Se-
dioda saqarTvelos sapatriarqos iurisdiqciaSi, kerZod, mas Semdeg,
rac q. sotiropolis mxare daukavSirda saqarTvelos samefos mesxeTis
samTavros me-13 saukunidan, eklesiuradac is Sevida saqarTvelos ek-
lesiis iurisdiqciaSi, da Seadgina qarTuli saeklesio olqi _ ofis anu
laziis mitropolitis meTaurobiT, romlis kaTedra XVI s-Si guriaSi _
satrapelaSi mdebareobda. mas alaniis mitropolitis titulic hqon-
da. magaliTad, afxazTa kaTalikosis mier 1646 w. nakurTx laziis mit-
ropolits germanes (gv. 263).
am Zalze mniSvnelovani faqtidan gamomdinare alaniisa da laziis
samitropolitoebis sulieri memkvidreoba ekuTvnis saqarTvelos ek-
lesias da ara ruseTis eklesias, radganac swored saqarTvelos ek-
lesiis iurisdiqciaSi jer kidev XVI saukuneSi Semovida alaniisa da
laziis samitropolitoebi konstantinopolisa da trapezuntis im-
periebis daqcevis Semdeg.
amis aRniSvna saWiroa, radganac `pravoslavnaia enciklopedia~ mi-
iCnevs, rom alaniis eparqiis memkvidre aris ruseTis eklesia, rad-
ganac alaniis eparqiis iurisdiqciis qveS mdebare miwebi amJamad ru-
seTSia.
kidev erTxel rom gavimeoroT, faqtebiT ar mtkicdeba amJamad
oficialurad miRebuli debuleba, rom dasavleT saqarTvelo ekle-
siurad bizantiis xelqveS iyo da aq berZnuli wirva-locva iyo gavr-
celebuli.
numizmatikuri da arqeografiuli masala sxvas miuTiTebs _ dasav-
leT saqarTvelo iyo qarTlis samefos safinanso da eklesiuri nawili.
175
SeuZlebelia, am mxriv kidev erTxel ar gavixsenoT somxuri wyaros
cnoba, rom kirioni `Zveli wesis Sesabamisad egrisis arqiepiskoposic iyo~.
. , . VI
. ., , ,
[ . . .] (
, , 1984. .. -
. XVI, . 55).
X saukuneSi somexTa kaTalikosma ioanem somxur-qarTuli saekle-
sio ganxeTqilebis udidesi daZabvis dros, mkiTxvels miawoda cnoba
qarTuli eklesiis iurisdiqciaSi egrisis Semavlobis Sesaxeb, `mcxe-
Tis kaTalikosi kirioni egrsis arqiepiskoposic iyo winandeli wesis
Tanaxmado~.
kirionis `winandeli drois wesebis~ qveS albaT VI saukuneSi arse-
buli viTareba igulisxmeba.
kidev ufro adre V s-Si samxreT-dasavleT saqarTveloSi (klarjeT-
Si) qarTuli eklesiis iurisdiqciis Sesaxeb werda movses xorenaci.
rogorc iTqva, xorenaci wers _ `wmida ninom iqadaga klarjeTidan
masquTedamde Tavisi advilad gasagebi eniT~.
maSasadame wmida ninos klarjeTSic uqadagnia, dasturdeba Tu
ara es cnoba sxva romelime cnobiT?
lazeTis mitropoliti germane adasturebda, rom wmida ninom
iqadaga lazeTSi.
rogorc aRiniSna, lazeTis mitropoliti germane 1651 wels ruse-
Tis mefisadmi wardgenili angariSSi wers, rom lazeTis mitropoli-
tis samyofeli q. ofis taZari wmida ninos dauarsebia da mis epoqaSi
sazRvrad saqarTvelosa da bizantias Soris miiCneoda ofi, rizesTan
axlos. am ofsac _ xofi erqva. aq yofila aRmarTuli qvis sasazRvro
didi sveti, am adgilebSi, saqarTvelos teritoriaze dauarsebia wmida
ninos ofis anu xofis kaTedra. amitomac SemdgomSi, xelsayreli mo-
mentis dadgomisas aRsdga Tavdapirveli mdgomareoba da aqauri laze-
Tis mitropoliti aRsdga qarTuli eklesiis ierarqiaSi.
rogorc aRiniSna, gelasi werda _ wmida ninos mier `RmrTis mcneba
miiRes pontos gaswvriv mdebare miwa-wyalze mcxovrebma iberebma da
lazebma~ (p. ingoroyva, giorgi merCule, gv. 227).
176
IV saukuneSi, wmida ninos dros, rize-xufaTis regions lazika rom
erqva, rogorc iTqva, miuTiTebs lazeTis mitropolit germanes 1651
wels ruseTis mefisadmi wardgenili angariSi, rom lazeTis mitro-
politis samyofeli q. ofis taZari wmida ninos dauarsebia.
lazeTs Cvenc im qveyanas vuwodebT, romelsac qarTul wyaroebSi
ewodeba `klarjeTi, bolo klarjeTisa, zRvispiri~. swored, aq
dauarsebia wmida ninos ofis kaTedra _ lazeTis mitropolitis cno-
biT, xolo xorenacis cnobiT wm. ninom klarjeTSic iqadaga, amito-
mac, Cans wmida ninos mosvlis periodSi xsenebuli mxare klarjeTis
erisTavs eqvemdebareboda.
wmida ninos lazikaSi moRvaweobis Sesaxeb arsebuli berZnuli
wyaroebi, ratomRac Cvens istoriografiaSi miuRebelia. gelasi ke-
sarielis cnobiT xom tyve qalis mier miiRes qristianoba iberebma
da lazebma, rac mitropolit germanes mier naxseneb mxares gulisx-
mobs sadacaa ofis (xofas) kaTedra.
lazeTi, berZeni avtoris TqmiT, mdebareobda `pontos gaswvriv~.
pontos sazRvarTan mdebare miwa-wyali, romelic iwodeboda lazi-
kad (ofis regioni), igivea, rac qarTuli wyaros `klarjeTis zRvis
piri~, maSasadame, xorenacis cnobas, rom wmida ninom iqadaga klar-
jeTSic adasturebs aseve V saukunisve berZnuli wyaroebi da lazTa
mitropoliti XVII saukunisa. am cnobaTa urTierTSejerebiT irkveva,
rom klarjeTi igive lazikaa.
aRsaniSnavia, rom xorenacis garda wmida ninos klarjeTSi moR-
vaweobis Sesaxeb cnoba hqonia agaTangelozsac, amis Sesaxeb TviT
xorenaci wers.
ratom ar aisaxa qarTul wyaroebSi cnoba wmida ninos lazeTSi
moRvaweobis Sesaxeb?
unda iTqvas isic, qarTlis samefos daSlis Semdeg, rac mis teri-
toriebze sxvadasxva saxelmwifoebrivi erTeulebi Camoyalibda
(Tbilisis saamiro, taSir-Zorakertis samefo, afxazTa da qarTvel-
Ta, kaxTa da herTa samefoebi), Cans moxda axali redaqtireba wmida
ninos cxovrebisa (albaT VIII-X saukuneebSi) epoqis suliskveTebis
gaTvaliswinebiT.
177
axal, arabTa epoqaSi naredaqtirev, anu Cvenamde moRweuli wmida
ninos cxovrebis mixedviT, is ar qadagebda arc lazeT-klarjeTSi,
arc kaspiispira vrcel mxareSi `klarjeTidan masquTebamde~ (rogorc
werda m. xorenaci), is axla ukve im patara qarTlis ganmanaTlebelia,
romelic arabTa batonobis Sedegad warmoiqmna `yoveli qarTlis~
damcrobis Semdeg, am patara qarTlis sazRvrebic damcrobilia, is
javaxeTidan bodbemde TuRa aRwevs.
axali redaqtirebis nakvalevi Cans sxva mxrivac. magaliTad, axal
redaqtorebs ukve aRar sjeraT wmida ninos qarTulenovneba.
Tu ki wmida ninos epoqis movses xorenacisaTvis wmida nino qarTve-
li xalxisaTvis advilad gasageb enaze, e.i. qarTul enaze, qadagebda,
axali IX-X-XI saukuneTa redaqtorebisaTvis wmida ninos ukve Tarji-
mani _ berZnuli enis mcodne esaWiroeba qarTvelebTan urTierTobi-
saTvis, kerZod `sefeqalma SroSanam ixila igi (nino) xesa mas qveSe,
gankvirda da moiyvana berZnulad metyveli dedakaci da hkiTxa gza misi~
(qarTuli mwerloba, 1987, gv. 78).
Tuki xorenacs V saukuneSi ar eeWveboda wmida ninos epoqaSi qarTu-
li enis arealis ganfena klarjeTidan vidre kaspiis zRvis piras mde-
bare masquTebamde, axla arabobis Semdeg qarTuli enis areali Sem-
cirebuli Cans. gelasi kesarielsac ar eeWveboda wmida ninos qadageba
iberTa da lazTa Soris, radganac aqac erTiani enobrivi areali unda
yofiliyo.
safiqrebelia, rom erTiani qarTlis saxelmwifos rRvevam (rac gan-
sakuTrebiT gagrZelda arabobis dros), gamoiwvia aseve iqamde erTiani
saerTo - fuZe qarTuli enis diferenciaciac, albaT warmoiqmna kidec
axal saxelmwifo erTeulebSi iqamde erTiani enis kiloebi Tu dia-
leqtebi.
unda aRiniSnos, Cveni wyaroebis miTiTeba, rom iqamde saerTo
qarTul enas TiTqmis aTaswlovani saxelmwifoebrivi tradicia hqon-
da. SemTxveviTi araa, mematianis naTqvami, rom aRmosavleT-dasavleT
saqarTvelos mpyrobel farnavazis epoqaSi `arRara izraxeboda sxva
ena Tvinier qarTulisa~, anu klarjeT (lazeT), dasavleT da aRmosav-
leT saqarTveloSi erTi ena _ saerTo-saxalxo qarTuli ena funq-
cionirebda.
178
qarTuli wyaroebisave cnobiT farnavazis Semdeg qarTlis same-
foSi Zv.w. IV-III saukuneebidan TiTqmis yovelTvis Sedioda klarjeTi
da aseve, dasavleT saqarTvelo vidre VI s-is bolomde, amitom qarTul
enas ganvlili hqonia saerTo saxelmwifoebriv-kulturuli cxovreb-
is TiTqmis aTasi weli. amitomac, arabobis epoqaSi misi (saerTo saxalxo
qarTuli enis) daSla-diferenciaciam ver moaxdina mniSvnelovani gav-
lena da is kvlav saerTo-saeklesio-kulturis enad darCa axal saxelm-
wifoebriv erTeulebSi afxazTa samefoSi, kaxeTis saqorepiskoposoSi,
herTa samefoSi, tao-klarjeTSi _ Tumca ukve dabali socialuri fene-
bi albaT ukve iwyebdnen dialeqtur doneze metyvelebas.
armeniis iberiuli zolis saunjeni (`qebaY da
didebaY qarTulisa enisaY~ da wmida ninos jvari)
a. armeniis qarTvelTa saunje (VI_X ss).
VI-VIII ss-Si, mas Semdeg, rac gugarqsa, taosa Tu basianSi mcxovrebi
mkvidri qarTvelebi politikurad aRmoCdnen persarmeniasa Tu ro-
maul armeniaSi da moeqcnen somxur saeklesio iurisdiqciaSi, am mxa-
reebSi daiwyo qarTuli enis totaluri devna _ es gansakuTrebiT
iTqmis persarmeniaSi mcxovreb qarTvelTa Sesaxeb.
daiwyo qarTvelTa armenizaciis TiTqmis Seuqcevadi procesi.
qarTvelTa armenizacia SedarebiT neli tempiT mimdinareobda
`romaul~, anu dasavleT armeniaSi imis gamo, rom aq eklesiebSi RvTism-
saxureba berZnulenovani iyo. amis gamo aq mosaxleobis armenizaciis
procesi ver dasrulda.
maxloblad mcxovrebma (e.i. taos, kolas, basianis da sxva kuTxee-
bis) qarTvelebma icodnen, rom isini erovnulad qarTvelebi iyvnen,
magram rogorc bizantiur (berZnul-romaul), aseve somxur (spar-
sul, Semdeg arabul) olqebSi maT mSobliur qarTul enas devnidnen,
aviwrovebdnen, ar aZlevdnen saxelmwifoebriv da saeklesio enis
funqcias. amis gamo, VI-VIII saukuneebSi armeniis iberiul zolSi qarTu-
179
li ena iqca `mdabal da dawunebul enad~, mxolod imedi asuldgmu-
lebdaT iqaur vinaobaSenarCunebul qarTvelebs. icodnen, odesme
dadgeboda iseTi dRe, roca qarTuli ena Tavis uflebebs aRidgenda.
am kuTxis qarTvelebis imedi sinas mTis berma Segvinaxa. iq daculi
qarTuli xelnaweriT _ `qebaY da didebaY qarTulisa enisaY~.
b. `qebaY da didebaYs~ saeklesio safuZvlebi (VI-X ss.)
sinas mTis qarTul xelnawerTa Soris daculi pirveli aTaswleu-
lis qristianuli Zegli `qebaY da didebaY qarTulisa enisaY~ mkveTrad
gansxvavdeba msoflio eklesiaSi danergil kanonikuri teqstebisagan
da ufro apokrifuls emsgavseba, magram rogorc aRmoCnda mas aqvs
Tavisi saeklesio safuZvlebi qarTul enasTan dakavSirebiT.
`qebaY da didebaYs~ qristiani avtori saeklesio safuZvlis gareSe
ar miscemda Tavis Tavs nebas ganecxadebina teqstSi naTqvmi sityvebi,
rom qarTuli ena `Semkulia da kurTxeulia uflis saxeliT~,.
aseTi safuZveli ki gaxldaT Zalze amaRelvebeli momentebi asure-
li mamebis cxovrebidan, roca maT uflis mier miiRes codna qarTu-
li enisa (msgavsad imisa, rogorc wmida mociqulebma sulTmofenobi-
sas miiRes sxvadasxva enebis codna), rac miuTiTebda qarTuli enis
sazepuroobas,
Zvel saqarTveloSi ganuzomlad didi iyo avtoriteti asureli
mamebisa, maT wmida ninos Semdeg qarTlis anu saqarTvelos axal gan-
manaTleblad miiCnevdnen (Cans VI saukuneSi monofizitebisa da cecx-
lTayvanismcemlebis mZlavrobis gamo, romelTa winaaRmdegac isini
ibrZodnen).
isini iyvnen pirveli aTaswleulis qarTuli eklesiis udidesi wmi-
danebi. sinas mTaze, iq, sadac pirvel aTaswleulSi `qebaisa da dide-
bais~ mravali teqsti gadaiwera, moulodnelad, XX saukuneSi, aR-
moCnda iqamde daviwyebuli sinas mTis berebis uZvelesi xelnawerebi,
romelTa Sorisaa asureli mamebis cxovrebani, `moqcevaY qarTlisaY-
sasTan~ erTad.
es miuTiTebs imis Sesaxeb, rom asureli mamebi qalkedonitebi iyvnen
da eklesiis wmidanebi, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi pirveli aTaswleulis
180
msoflio mniSvnelobis marTlmadidebelTa centrSi _ sinas mTis mon-
asterSi maT `cxovrebebs~ ar gamoiyenebdnen saeklesio praqtikaSi
(k.kekeliZe maT monofizitebad miiCnevda).
asureli mamebi iyvnen ara mxolod marTlmadidebeli eklesiis wmi-
danebi, aramed qarTuli enis aRorZinebis mamebi, misi uflismieri
damcvel-mepatroneni.
arsebobs qarTuli enis dasacavad maTze gardamosuli zegardamo
mfarvelobis faqtebi da gvaqvs Sesabamisi ueWveli da uZvelesi wyaroe-
bi, esaa TviT am wmidaTa `cxovrebani~.
vin iyvnen asureli mamebi da ra kavSiri hqondaT maT qarTul ena-
sTan? warmoSobis mixedviT araviTari, maT Tavdapirvelad saerTod
arc icodnen qarTuli ena da arc ki smenodaT qarTlis qveynis Sesax-
eb. amas mogviTxroben TviT am wmidaTa cxovrebani.
ioane zedazneli, romelic iyo meTauri asureli mamebisa, erovnebiT
asuri iyo, asureTSi mcxovrebi da iq dabadebuli. mas gagonilic ki
ar hqonda imis Sesaxeb, rom arsebobda qarTvelTa qveyana da qarTu-
li ena. gamoxda xani, mas mieca uflismieri brZaneba, rom unda eqada-
ga qarTvelebis qveyanaSi. marTlac is mowafeebTan erTad Semovida
qarTlSi da qarTuli eniT daiwyo xalxis damoZRvra.
rogor? man Seiswavla qarTuli ena? ara, mas sagangebod ar Seus-
wavlia qarTuli ena da arc dro dauxarjavs mis Sesaswavlad. moxda
didi saswauli, am enasTan dakavSirebiT, iseTi saswauli da Tanac
yvelasaTvis gasagebi, rom mis garSemo myofi adamianebi am saswauliT
didad SeSindnen da amasTanave gakvirdnen kidec.
ra moxda? wmidanis cxovrebis Tanaxmad ufalma ineba, rom rogorc
wmida mociqulebs miecaT sulTmofenobisas enebis codna (saqme, 2-
14), aseve suliwmidis mier `erT wamSi~ anu elviseburi siswrafiT asu-
rel mama wmida ioane zedaznels mieca qarTuli enis codna: misi memati-
ane wers _ `moeca ioanes enaY qarTulad metyveli... ese saswauli, Zmano,
mimsgavsebul ars sions gardamosvlasa sulisa wmidisasa wmidaTa zeda
mociqulTa da ganyofasa enaTasa cecxlisasa... suliTa wmidiTa wamsa
Sina aRatyua sityviTa zraxvad ioane, romeli arca odes asmioda, araTu
eswava ... romelni maSin mun iyvnes yovelni zarganxdilni da gankvirve-
181
bulni adidebs RmerTsa, moqmedsa sakvirvelebaTasa~ (`cxoreba da mo-
qalaqoba RirsTa mamaTa CuenTa Siosi da evgaresi~, 2005, gv. 29).
maSasadame:
1. suliwmidis mier ioane zedazneli qarTulad ametyvelda;
2. mas qarTuli enis codna mieca `wamsa Sina~, anu myisierad;
3. ioanes iqamde arasodes uswavlia qarTuli ena da arc ki smenoda
mis Sesaxeb;
4. ioanem maSinve daiwyo `sityvaTa zraxvad~ anu is ukve qarTuli
eniT warmoTqvamda frazebs da saerTod is qarTulad srulyofilad
ametyvelda, maSasadame unari mieca qarTulad qadagebisa;
5. es udidesi saswauli moxda sxvebis TandaswrebiT, ramac maT
SiSis zari dascaT da amave dros gaukvirdaT;
6. iq myofma adamianebma maSinve daiwyes RmerTis dideba, radganac
swored isaa (e.i. RmerTia) - `moqmedi sakvirvelebaTa~, anu saswauli
mxolod misgan momdinareobda.
7. saswauli Tavisi arsiT identuri iyo sulTmofenobisas `cecx-
lis enaTa ganyofisas~ mociqulebze suliwmidis gardamosvlisa da
maTi sxvadasxva enebze ametyvelebisa (cxovreba Siosi da evagresi,
2005, gv. 29).
aRsaniSnavia, rom ioane zedaznelis aRniSnuli saswaulis dros
mis gverdiT iyo misi mowafe Sio mRvimeli.
saswaulis mniSvneloba gaorkecda imiT, rom Sio mRvimelzec gad-
movida madli suliwmidisa da isic ametyvelda qarTulad.
Sio mRvimelis cxovrebis aRmweri wers, rom wm. Sio `iyo naTesaviT
asuri... odes iovane, moZRvari misi uwyebiTa RmrTisaiTa qveyanad
qarTlisa miiwia, eseca netari mis Tanave mogzaur iqmna da mis Tanave
mociqulebrivi qadagebai aRasrula, romelTa RmerTman misca enai
qarTulad metyveli~ (`xsenebai sakvirvelmoqmedisa wmidisa mamisa Si-
osi~, 2005, gv. 113).
maSasadame:
1) Sio mRvimeli iyo eTnikuri asuri;
2) misi moZRvari ioane `RmrTis uwyebiT~ movida saqarTveloSi;
3) ioanem da Siom aRasrules mociqulebrivi qadageba;
4) maT RmerTma uboZa qarTuli enis codna _ `romelTa RmerTman
misca enai qarTulad metyveli~.
182
aRniSnulTa garda arsebobs agreTve Sio mRvimelis mokle cxovre-
bac, romelSic kerZod naTqvamia _ `warmoemarTnen wmidanni da movid-
nen qarTlad.... kaTalikozsa evlabiozs gamoecxada angelozi ufli-
sai da auwya mosvla maTi da wina miegeboda... netarman iovaneca wamsa
Sina iswava ena qarTvelTa sulisa mier wmidisa~ (cxorebaY Sio mRvimel-
isa mokled naTqvami, 2005, gv. 107).
wm. Sios `mokle cxovrebac~ imasve imeorebs, rac aRniSnulia sxva-
ganac, rom ioane zedaznelma `wamsa Sina iswava ena qarTvelTa sulis
mier wmidisa~.
am cxovrebaTa SejerebiT naTeli xdeba, rom ioane zedaznelma,
Sio mRvimelma da Cans sxva mamebmac RmrTis nebiT, suliwmidis mier
myisierad miiRes codna qarTuli enisa da RmerTis uwyebiT gamoe-
marTnen saqarTveloSi, xolo `angelozi uflisa~ afrTxilebda da
amzadebda saTanado pirebs maTTan Sesaxvedrad.
marTlac, sruliad gamorCeuli, unikaluri da albaT erTaderTia
msgavsi saswauli _ rac gameorebaa wmida mociqulebze suliwmidis
madliT enaTa dauflebisa, oRond am SemTxvevaSi, qarTul enazea RvTis
madli daSvebuli.
cxadia, es momenti ancvifrebda Zvel qarTvel mamebs da unergav-
da maT Tvalsazriss qarTuli enis gansakuTrebulobis Sesaxeb, miT-
umetes iseT regionebSi, sadac qarTuli ena `dawunebuli~ iyo RvTism-
saxurebisaTvis saeklesio sferoSi da ar gamoiyeneboda eklesia-mo-
nastrebSi (igulisxmeba yofili persarmeniis regioni, tao-basianis
mxareebi) TiTqmis IX-X saukunemde da Semdegac.
asurel mamaTa aRniSnuli cxovrebani warmoadgendnen oficial-
ur sakiTxavebs, romelnic eklesiebSi xmamaRla ikiTxeboda wirva-
locvebis saTanado momentebis dros. mrevls odnavadac ki eWvi ar
epareboda mosmenilis sinamdvileSi.
es ambavi namdvilad rom ar momxdariyo arc aRwerdnen da arc
miiCnevdnen RmrTis sadidebel sakvirvel saswaulad.
sazogadod, locvis enas Zvel qristianul samyaroSi gansakuTre-
buli mniSvneloba eniWeboda, radganac `axali aRTqmis~ qadagebiT ena
RvTiuri niSniT iyo aRbeWdili. es sagangebod euwyaT sulTmofeno-
bisas mociqulebsa da Sesabamisad pirvelqristianebs, roca `aRivs-
183
nen yovelni suliTa wmidiTa da iwyes sityvad ucxoTa enaTa, viTarca
suli igi miscemda maT sityvad~ (saqme, 2, 4).
amiT moixsna is enobrivi barieri, romelic pirvelmqadagebel mowa-
feebs SesaZloa SexvedrodaT, roca isini wavidnen dasamoZRvrad war-
marTebisa mTel msoflioSi.
aseTi enobrivi barieri elodaT asurel mamebsac saqarTveloSi,
magram, rogorc iTqva, suliwmidis mier maT (asurel mamebs) miecaT
ara zogadad codna sxvadasxva enebisa, aramed konkretulad, mxolod
qarTuli enisa.
qarTuli enis aseTi gamorCeva uflis mier, rac iyo Tvalxiluli
faqti ara mxolod asureli mamebis gverdiT mdgomTaTvis, aramed
qarTveli erisaTvisac, cxadia bunebrivi siamayiT avsebda qarTvel
mamebs.
aRiwereba iseTi momentic, roca magaliTad qarTlis kaTalikosi
Seegeba asurel mamebs asuruli eniT, magram maT qarTulad upasuxes.
asureli mamebi qarTulenovani mqadageblebi iyvnen, ufro metic,
qarTulenovani mwerlebic ki, mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs Sio mRvimelis qar-
Tulenovani leqsebi.
asurel mamebze uflis mier gardamovlenili es enobrivi momenti,
Cans, aZlierebda kirion I kaTalikosis Tavisi enobrivi reformis ga-
tarebisas gugarqSi.
rogorc cnobilia, gugarqi, TviT `epistoleTa wignis~ mixedvi-
Tac, warmoadgenda mcxeTeli kaTalikosis iurisdiqciaSi Semaval
eparqias, sadac adgilobrivi qarTuli mosaxleobisaTvis IV sauku-
nidanve qarTul enaze aResruleboda wirva-locva (amas bolnisis
sionis warwerebi da sxva epigrafikuli masalac aCvenebs), amis miuxe-
davad VI s-Si sparselTa myrobelobisas (romelic somxur monofizi-
tur eklesias Zlier uWerda mxars), gugarqSi qarTuli mrevlisaTvis
eklesiebSi danerges somxurenovani msaxureba, iseve, rogorc taosa
da basianSi.
sparsTa Zlierebis SesustebisTanave, roca bizantiis sazRvarma gad-
moiwia da moadga Tbiliss, kirionma gabeda da ineba qarTulenovani
RvTismsaxurebis aRdgena gugarqis qarTuli mrevlisaTvis, ramac Zalze
aRaSfoTa somxuri eklesiis mesveurebi, maT maSinve daabezRes kirio-
184
ni sparsTa winaSe, romlebmac kirioni taxtidan Camoagdes da ucxo-
eTSi gandevnes.
rogorc iTqva, kirionis am didi brZolis mamxnevebeli iyo qarTu-
li enis uflismieri mfarveloba, romelic asureli mamebze gancxad-
da. kirions ufali amxnevebda asurel mamebze movlenili saswauliT.
safiqrebelia, rom qarTuli enis aseTi gamorCeuloba uflis mier
(rac, rogorc vTqviT faqti iyo), warmoadgenda erT-erT saeklesio
wyaros winaswarmetyvelebisa, romelsac `qebai da didebai qarTulisa
enisai~ ewodeba.
mas, rogorc Cans, sxva saeklesio wyaroebic hqonda uflismieri
niSniT aRbeWdilni.
erT-erTi, unda iyos ilarion qarTvelis cxovrebis epizodi.
IX saukuneSi wmida ilarions aukrZales qarTulenovani locva-
RvTismsaxureba berZnebma olimpos mTis monasterSi.
maSinve, berZen mamasaxliss gamoecxada yovladwmida RvTismSobe-
li da ganucxada `mravalni damkvidrebad arian mTasa amas maTisa enisa
metyvelni da cxonebad arian da romelni maT ar Seiwynareben, mter Cem-
da arian~ (s. yubaneiSvili, qrestomaTia, 1946, gv. 172). aq `maTisa ena~,
niSnavs qarTul enas, radganac ambavi qarTvelebs exeboda. `maTi eniT~
anu qarTuli eniT locviT cxoneba SesaZlebelia, es iyo saRmrTo
brZaneba _ gadmocemuli yovladwmida RvTismSoblis mier.
yovladwmidam miuTiTa cxonebis Sesaxeb, es ki iyo yoveli qris-
tianis, maT Soris gansakuTrebiT monastris berTa saboloo mizani
da amave dros miuTiTa, rom qarTuli eniT locviT SesaZlebelia
cxoneba.
RvTismSoblis es sityvebi cxadia udidesi stimuli iyo qarTveli
mamebisaTvis, maT kidev erTxel irwmunes qarTuli enis uflismieri
gamorCeuloba.
yovladwmida RvTismSoblis gancxadebam, rom qarTuli ena cxonebis
enaa (`mravalni damkvidrebad arian mTasa amas maTisa enisa metyvelni
da cxonebad arian, da romelni maT ara Seiwynareben, mter Cemda ari-
an~), cxadia sulieri sasicocxlo stimuli misca da kidev ufro ganumt-
kica qarTvel morwmuneebs (maT Soris Cvens SemTxvevaSi qarTvel berebs)
Tvalsazrisi, rom qarTuli ena uflismieraa rCeuli.
185
amasTanave, kidev ufro amaRlda maT TvalSi ara mxolod qarTuli
enis sulieri mniSvneloba, aramed ganmtkicda erovnuli identobac
(RvTismSoblis gancxadebam, `vinc ar Seiwynarebs qarTulad metyve-
lebs, isini Cemi mtrebi arian~), saerTod RvTismSobelis es Cveneba,
misi sityvebi gansakuTrebuli mniSvnelobis datvirTvisaa qarTuli
kulturis Semdgomi aRmavlisaTvis.
safiqrebelia, rom IX-X saukuneTa qarTuli xelovnebisa da kul-
turis ayvavebas, aseve qarTvelTa identobis saocar ganmtkicebisa da
gamoRviZebas tao-basianis vrcel qveynebSi am gamocxadebebis sulier-
ma mniSvnelobamac daudo safuZveli (asureli mamebidan eqvTime mTawmi-
delamde).
maSasadame, Cvens xelTaa I aTaswleulis ori saeklesio datvirTvis
mqone wyaro, romelic safuZvlad unda dadeboda `qebaY da didebaYs~
frazas _ `ese enaY Semkuli da kurTxeuli ars saxeliT uflisaTa~.
safiqrebelia isic, rom aRniSnuli wyaroebis Taviseburi gageba
safuZvlad unda dadeboda frazas _ rom qarTuli eniT meored mos-
vlisas yvela enas (e.i. ers) am eniT `amxels~ anu ganikiTxavs ufali _
`damarxul ars enaY qarTuli dRedmde meored mosvlisa misisa sawame-
blad, raiTa yovelsa enasa RmerTman amxilos amiT eniTa~.
cxadia, `qebai da didebais~ uTuod gaaCnda sxva wyaroebic (vTqvaT
imis Sesaxeb Tu ratom unda rqmeoda qarTul enas saxarebaSi `laza-
re~, maTes saxarebis dasawyisis (Tavis) mniSvnelobis Sesaxeb qarTul
enasTan dakavSirebiT da sxv.) magram Cven SegviZlia gamovTqvaT mo-
sazreba aRniSnulTa garda am teqstis sxva frazebis saeklesio wyaro-
Ta Sesaxeb _ esenia Semdegi frazebi
1) `damarxul ars enaY qarTuli~;
2) `ese enaY mZinare ars~;
3) `megobrobaY amisTvis Tqva~;
4) `axalman nino moaqcia da helene dedofalman, ese arian orni
dani, viTarca mariam da marTa~;
5) `ese enaY... mdabali da dawunebuli~.
am frazebis mixedviT `qebaYs~ teqstis Sedgenis dros qarTuli ena
savalalo mdgomareobaSi yofila, is teqstis avtoris qveyanaSi iyo
`mdabali da dawunebuli~, `mZinare~, `damarxuli~ da a. S.
186
romeli qveyana iyo es?
sad idevneboda qarTuli ena, sad ar hqonda mas saxelmwifoebrivi
funqcia, saeklesio da samoqalaqo datvirTva?
romeli iyo aseTi qarTuli qveyana VIII-X ss-Si da ufro adre?
afxazTa samefoSi qarTuli ena didad pativcemuli iyo imiT, rom
is iq iyo erTaderTi saxelmwifo, saeklesio da samoqalaqo-adminis-
traciuli ena, iseve kaxeTsa da samcxe-javaxeTSi, magram sul sxva
mdgomareobaSi iyo qarTuli ena taosa, gugarqsa da basianSi.
wina saukuneebSi iq (gugarqsa, taosa Tu basianSi) mcxovrebi mkvid-
ri qarTvelebi politikurad aRmoCdnen persarmeniasa Tu romaul
armeniaSi da moeqcnen somxur saeklesio iurisdiqciaSi, ris gamoc
rogorc aRvniSneT, iq daiwyo qarTuli enis totaluri devna _ rogorc
dasavleT armeniaSi ise persarmeniaSi da es procesi Semdgom saukuneeb-
Sic gagrZelda.
aseT dros iqaur qarTvelTa Soris (gugarqsa, taosa Tu basianSi)
gavrcelda cnoba, rom dawunebuli ena, Turme kurTxeuli yofila
uflis saxeliT _ `ese enaY Semkuli da kurTxeuli ars saxeliT ufli-
saTa~, ramac dabada grZnoba _ marTalia amJamad Cveni qarTuli ena
gaZevebulia saeklesio da sazogadoebrivi moqmedebis sferodan, is
`dawunebuli da dadablebulia~, `damarxulia~ imiT, rom mxolod sao-
jaxo da saSinao moxmarebis sferoebi darCa saasparezod, magram es
droebiTia, radganac `damarxul ars enai qarTuli dRedmde meored
mosvlisa misisa sawameblad, raiTa yovelsa enasa RmerTman amxilos
amiT eniTa~.
qarTuli enis mniSvneloba da tao-basianis qarTvelebis erovnuli
identoba am momentma kidev ufro gamokveTa.
albaT SeiZleba vifiqroT, rom VIII-IX saukuneebSi dawyebuli didi
moZraoba taoelTa da maxlobel kuTxeTa qarTvelebis erovnuli
identobis aRorZinebisaTvis msgavsi suliskveTebiT gamsWvaluli
patriotul-eklesiuri Txzulebebis Sedegic iyo.
marTlac, tao-basianel qarTvelTa erovnuli identobis aRorZi-
nebam maT qveyanaSi da ufro CrdiloeTiT (hereTsa da gugarqSi) iqam-
de `mdabali da dawunebuli~ qarTuli enac _ aaRorZina X saukuni-
saTvis, Tumca am mxriv yofil xorZenesa da pariadres qarTvelebs ar
gaumarTldaT.
187
g. `qebaY da didebaY qarTulisa enisaYs~
daweris dro da adgili (X s.)
Cvenamde moRweulia `qebaY da didebaY qarTulisa enisaYs~ oTxi
xelnaweri e.w. sinur ZeglebSi _ yvela aris X saukunisa, kerZod ki X
saukunis meore naxevrisa.
riT iyo aRsaniSnavi xelnaweris daweris dro?
imiT, rom axlovdeboda qristesSobidan aTasi weli, samyaros cv-
lilebisa da saSineli samsjavros Jami.
am TariRs mTeli qristanuli msoflio eloda SiSiT da imediT,
kerZod qristesSobidan meaTase wlisTavze elodnen qristes meored
mosvlas.
es iyo Zalze mniSvnelovani TariRi, ara mxolod saeklesio wreebi,
aramed sazogadod mTeli xalxi, mrevli, mdidari Tu Raribi, moxuci,
axalgazrda, patronebi Tu ymebi, seniorebi da vasalebi, erTi sityviT
yvela sofeli Tu qalaqi eloda qristeSobis meaTase wlisTavs.
amis Sesaxeb msjelobdnen, kamaTobdnen, loculobdnen da ase grZel-
deboda TaobaTa manZilze mTel meaTe saukunis ganmavlobaSi, Sesa-
bamisad warmoiSva mravali miTi, Teoria, mosazreba, idea Tu winaswar-
metyveleba maTi samomavlo bedisweris Secvlis Sesaxeb meored mos-
vlisas, romelis xmac ukve ismoda, meaTase wlisTavi axlovdeboda.
armeniaSi, yofili xorZenas, pariadresa da gugarqis qarTvelTa
Cagruli fena meored mosvlas imediT Sescqeroda, rom maTi mdgo-
mareoba Seicvleboda da sixaruliT aivseboda, ufro metic, maTi
`dawunebuli da damdablebuli~ ena anu erovneba sxvebze amaRldebo-
da wmida sityvaTa Sesabamisad `ukanani wina da winani ukan~.
mas Semdeg, rac strabonis cnobiT, armeniam iberiisagan miitaca
xorZenas, pariadresa da gogarenas qarTveli xalxiT dasaxlebuli
vrceli miwa-wyali, iq daiwyo qarTuli enis devna da Seviwroeba.
movses xorenaci Tavis istoriaSi aRniSnavs Tu rogor devnidnen
samxreTidan Casaxlebuli armenielTa mefeebi mkvidri mosaxleobis
enas. isini krZalavdnen somxuris garda sxva enis gamoyenebas. aseT
garemoSi qarTuli enac idevneboda. magram iqaur (mkvidr) qarTvelobas
mxneoba SeunarCunebia da devnis sapirispirod wamouyenebia idea qar-
Tuli enis SemdgomSi gandidebis Sesaxeb da is daukavSirebia meored
mosvlasTan.
188
armeniis mier mitacebul iberiis teritoriebze Camoyalibebula
winaswarmetyveleba Cagruli qarTuli enis saboloo gandidebis
Sesaxeb.
aseT winaswarmetyelebaTa rigSi unda CavayenoT Cvenamde moRweu-
li Txzuleba _ `qebaY da didebaY qarTulisa enisaY~, romelic Sesa-
Zloa wina saukuneebSi daiwera, magram gansakuTrebulad popularu-
li iqaur qarTvelTa Soris gaxda meaTe saukuneSi.
ras exeboda winaswarmetyveleba? rom male, qristes mosvlis Jams,
ramdenime weliwadSi (meaTase wlisTavze) qriste ganikiTxavs mTel
kacobriobas da gankiTxvis ena ki iqneba qarTuli!
ratom qarTuli? am kiTxvis pasuxiT Cven SevecdebiT warmovaCi-
noT am Txzulebis SeTxzvis adgili.
ras elodnen pirveli aTaswleulis bolos anu meored mosvlis
Jams?
Raribebi _ xsnas da sixaruls,
Cagrulebi _ tvirTis axsnas,
cudi mdidrebi _ damdabldebas,
glaxakebi _ maTze amaRldebas,
yvela Cagruli gaTavisufldeboda da gamoCndeboda mTeli Tavisi
Sinagani sikeTiT.
radganac, winaswarmetyveleba Seexeboda qarTul enas, mis mimarT-
ac igive unda aRsrulebuliyo - anu es ena (`enis~ qveS misi matarebe-
li xalxic igulisxmeba) armeniis iberiaSi Cagruli, `mdabali da
dawunebuli~ unda warmoCinebuliyo da gandidebuliyo. amitomac
daiwera, rom isic, iseve rogorc sxva Cagrulebi, `moelis~ meored
mosvlas.
qarTuli ena (da qarTuli identoba) iqamde damdablebuli iyo vr-
cel miwa-wyalze Teodosiopolisidan Tbilisamde da vanis tbamde.
tao da basiani am qveynis mTavari nawili iyo _ mis samxreTiT (e.i.
yofil xorZenas, pariadrsa da gugarqSi) cxovrobdnen is TiTqmis
armenizebuli qarTvelebi, romelTac verafriT SeZles somxuri saek-
lesio uRlisagan Tavis arideba da axla mxolod meored mosvlis Jami-
saTvis elodnen qarTuli enisa da qarTvelobis RvTaebriv aRorZinebas.
189
moaxloebuli 1000 weli zogadad qristianebisaTvis Zalzed mniS-
vnelovani iyo. is gulisxmobda ara axali aTaswleulis dasawyiss,
anda pirveli aTaswleulis bolos, aramed hqonda gacilebiT ufro
Rrma sarwmunoebrivi datvirTva. kerZod, ioanes gamocxadebis Tanax-
mad, wmida werili morwmuneebs auwyebda, rom mxolod 1000 wlis man-
Zilze iqneboda dedamiwaze gamefebuli amqveyniuri tanjva-vaebani,
romelic momdinareobda RvTis mtrisagan, rom 1000 wlis Semdgom is
dasruldeboda da dadgeboda sasufevlis epoqa. albaT, ase esmoda
ioanes gamocxadeba im epoqaSi morwmuneTa erT nawils. marTlac, ioane
Tavis gamocxadebaSi gamokveTilad miuTiTebs 1000 wlis Sesaxeb. Zve-
li qarTuliT misi teqsti aseTia:
`1. da vixile angelozi, gardamomavali zeciT, da aqunda klite
ufskrulisaY da jaWK didi Pelsa missa.
2. da Seipyra veSapi igi _ gueli dasabamisaY, romeli ars eSmaki da
satana, romeli acTunebs yovelsa sofelsa, da Sekra igi aTas wel.
3. da STaagdo igi ufskrulsa Sina da dahPSa kari da dahbeWda mis
zeda, raYTa verRara acTunebdes warmarTTa, vidremde aResrulos
aTasi weli. Semdgomad amisa jer-ars ganPsnaY misi mcired Jam.
4. da vixilen saydarni, da dasxdes maT zeda, da saSjeli mieca maT
da sulni igi moklulTani wamebisaTKs iesuYsa da sityKsaTKs RmrTi-
sa, da romelTaca ara Tayuanis-sces xatsa mas mPecisasa da arca mi-
iRes beWedi misi SublTa zeda, anu PelTa maTTa, da cxovndes da
sufevdes qristes Tana aTassa mas welsa.
5. da sxuani igi mkudarni ara cxovndes aTassa mas welsa. ese ars
aRdgomaY igi pirveli.
6. netar ars da wmida, romelsa aqundes nawili aRdgomasa mas Sina
pirvelsa. maT zeda meoresa mas sikudilsa ara aqus PelmwifebaY, aramed
iyvnen mRdel RmrTisa da qristesa, da sufevden mis Tana aTassa mas
welsa.
7. da Semdgomad aTasisa mis wlisa ganiPsnas eSmaki sapyrobilisagan
TKsisa~.
(axali aRTqma, ioanes gamocxadeba, Tavi meoce)
190
axali qarTuliT ioanes gamocxadebis teqsti 1000 wlis Sesaxeb
aseTia:
1. vixile zeciT Camomavali angelozi, romelsac xelT epyra uf-
skrulis gasaRebi da grZeli jaWvi.
2. da Seipyro urCxuli, dasabamieri gveli, romelic aris eSmaki da
satana, da Sekra igi aTasi wliT.
3. ufsrulSi Caagdo da Sig gamomwyvdeuli beWdiT dabeWda, raTa
aRar acTunebdes xalxebs, vidre ar gasruldeba aTasi weli, ris Sem-
degac mciredi xniT daixsnis Tavs.
4. vixile taxtni da maTze msxdomareni, romelTac mieca xelm-
wifeba msjavris aRsrulebisa, da iesos mowmobisa da RvTis sityvi-
saTvis TavmokveTilTa sulebi, romlebic arc mxecs eTayvanen, arc
mis xatebas, da ar miiRes misi niSani TavianT Sublsa Tu xelze; amit-
omac gacocxldnen da qristesTan erTad sufevdnen aTas weliwads.
5. danarCeni mkvdrebi ki ar gacocxlebulan aTasi wlis gasrule-
bamde. es aris pirveli aRdgoma.
6. netari da wmidaa yvela, visac wili udevs pirvel aRdgomaSi.
meore sikvdilis xelmwifeba ar vrceldeba maTze, aramed iqnebian
mRvdlebi RvTisa da qristesi, visTan erTadac imefeben aTas weli-
wads.
7. xolo aTasi wlis gasrulebis Semdeg satana Tavs daixsnis sapy-
robiledan.
(axali aRTqma, ioanes gamocxadeba, Tavi XX)
191
kari meore
saeklesio erTeulebi istoriuli
arian qarTlis miwaze
Tavi VI
`meore iveriis~ qarTuli mrevli somxuri
eklesiis iurisdiqciaSi IV-VIII ss-Si
somxuri eklesiis Tavdapirveli
iurisdiqcia (IV-V ss.)
istoriuli arian-qarTlis umTavresi nawilebi _ xorZene, gogare-
na da pariadres kalTebi, araqsis xeobasTan erTad qristesobamde
armeniis SemadgenlobaSi moeqca, roca istoriul saqarTvelos, stra-
bonis cnobiT, aRniSnuli mxareebi CamoaSores, ukve armeniaSi mcx-
ovrebi am mxareTa mkvidri qarTvelebi gaqristianebis Semdeg somx-
uri eklesiis iurisdiqciaSi aRmoCdnen. yofil iberiaSi somxuri ek-
lesiis mrevlad gadaqceuli qarTvelebi, saeklesio TavlsazrisiT,
somxurenovanni iyvnen, im mxriv, rom wirva-locvisa da liturgiis
ena maT eklesiebSi somxuri iyo, Sesabamisad maTi ganaTlebisa Tu
192
administraciis enac somxuri iyo. somxur eklesiaSi imJamad, IV-VII ss-
Si aRniSnul mxareTa qarTvelTa garda albanelebis nawili da sxva
eTnojgufebic iyo moqceuli. qarTvelebi somxuri eklesiis erTgu-
li da aqtiuri mrevli iyo sarwmunoebrivi siwmidis siyvarulis gamo.
rogorc ki gavrcelda xma, rom somxurma eklesiam gadauxvia sarwmu-
noebriv siwmides monofizitobis aRiarebis gamo, qarTvelTa Soris
zogma myisierad, zogierTma qarTulma regionma ki odnav mogvianebiT
gawyvita kavSiri somxur eklesiasTan da SeuerTda deda qarTuli
eklesiis wiaRs VII-VIII saukuneebSi. am droisaTvis am mxareTa armeniza-
ciis xarisxi imdenad Rrma iyo, rom mxolod saSinaod mosaxmaradRa
Tu gamoiyeneboda qarTuli ena. sabednierod istoriuli arian-qarT-
lis erTi mniSvnelovanma nawilma _ tao-basianma da mimdebare arem,
manaskertis cnobili 726 wels Semdgari krebis rezonansiT gamofxi-
zlebulma, Tavi daaRwia armeniul saxelmwifoebriobasa da eklesias
da TviTve aRidgina qarTuli saxelmwifoebrioba da eklesia IX-X ss-
Si. iqamde maT gamofxizlebas, safuZveli daudo didi kirion kaTa-
likosis mier momzadebulma somxuri eklesiisagan e.w. `ganyofam~ VII
s-is dasawyisSi.
iqamde, rogorc aRiniSna am mxareTa qarTuli mrevli yofil ibe-
riaSi anu istoriuli arian-qarTlis yofil miwaze cxovrobda, romel-
sac imJamad ukve armenia erqva.
n. adonci wers _ `armenia, IV s-is dasawyisidan mezobel imperiaTa
mier mis dayofamde (IV s. bolomde), umetes wilad imperiis proteq-
toratis qveS imyofeboda da amitom somxur-bizantiuri saeklesio
urTierTobac mWidro iyo. grigoli iyo imperiis mfarvelobis qveS
myofi somxeTis saxelmwifos episkoposi. wm. grigols, kesariaSi xel-
dasxmuls, kesariis taxtTan iseTive ierarqiuli damokidebuleba
hqonda, rogorc sxva episkoposebTan, magaliTad, melitenis, sevastiis
da sxva qalaqebis kaTedrebTan, xeldasxmis gamo kesarias masTan ufro
meti formaluri urTierToba hqonda~ (n. adonci, armenia iustini-
anes epoqaSi, gv. 360).
mas Semdeg rac somxeTi erTmaneTs Soris gainawiles sparseTma da
bizantiam gaCnda ori saeklesio mimarTuleba _ erTi bizantiuri,
meore ki erovnul-nacionaluri.
193
n. adoncis cnobiT, sparsul somxeTSi aRorZinda erovnul-nacio-
naluri eklesia, xolo dasavleT armeniaSi _ imperiul-bizantiuri.
n. adonci wers _ `gayofis Semdeg aRmosavleT somxeTi daadga ek-
lesiis nacionalizaciis gzas mtkiced, kerZod, avtonomiuri ierar-
qiis dafuZnebiT (e.i. berZnul-bizantiuri ierarqiisgan gaTavisufl-
da), xolo dasavleTi somxeTi rCeboda imperiul politikaze damok-
idebuli~ (iqve, gv. 361).
erovnuli eklesiuri saxe somxurma eklesiam moipova bizantiis
eklesiasTan kavSiris gawyvetis Semdeg papis mefobis dros, episko-
pos nersesis Semdeg.
mefe papma mis adgilze daniSna episkoposi usiki, sparsuli orien-
taciis piri Zalze gavleniani albianis ojaxidan.
kesariis mitropoliti (mas n. adonci patriarqs uwodebs) gaanawy-
ena somexTa mefis TviTneburma gadawyvetilebam.
amis gamo Sedga kesariis eparqiis episkoposTa kreba da krebam
miwera mrisxane werili mefe paps.
am werilSi kesaria moiTxovda, rom somxeTSi aRaravis gaebeda
episkoposis kurTxeva, aramed episkoposi mxolod kesariaSi an rome-
lime mezobel berZnul saepiskoposoSi unda kurTxeuliyo, kerZod
masSi, romelic somxeTis berZnul nawilTan erTad bizantiis imperi-
is Sesabamis administraciul olqSi Sedioda (e.i. radganac somxeTis
bizantiuri nawili administraciulad ponto-kesariaSi Sedioda, ami-
tomac mxolod aq (ponto-kesariaSi) unda kurTxeuliyo episkoposi).
marTlac, bizantiur somxeTSi damkvidrda kidec es wesi da iqauri
somexi episkoposi kurTxevas berZnul samitropolitoSi (sapatri-
arqoSi) iRebda.
n. adonci wers _ `mtkiceba, rom somexi episkoposebi ekurTxebod-
nen kesariaSi, sworia, magram is exeba mxolod bizantiur, anu dasavleT
nawils somxeTisas~ (iqve, gv. 363).
sul sxva mdgomareoba iyo sparsul somxeTSi (persarmeniaSi), iq
somxuri sakaTalikoso sistema arsebobda da Sesabamisad episkoposTa
kurTxeva adgilzeve xdeboda.
persarmeniis somex kaTalikoss dasavleT armeniis episkoposebi ar
eqvemdebarebodnen, amitomac V saukunis cnobil somxur movlenebSi
dasavleT armeniis episkoposebi ar monawileobdnen (iqve, gv. 363).
194
basianis somexi episkoposebi
basianSi somxur eklesias Tavisi episkoposebi hyavda im epoqaSi,
roca is (basiani) somxeTis politikuri da eklesiuri gavlenis qveS
iyo. magaliTad, naxarar ordunebis samkvidrebeli maTi amowyvetis
Semdeg darCa basianis olqis episkoposs (n. adonci, somxeTi iustini-
anes epoqaSi. 1908, rus. enaze gv. 312).
agaTangelozis _ grigol ganmanaTleblis istorikosis cnobiT,
wm. grigolma xeli daasxa somxeTis sxvadasxva kuTxeebis 400 episko-
poss. sxva cnobiT, man mxolod 30 saepiskoposo taxti daaarsa. maT
Soris, orbelianis cnobiT, pirveli iyo basianis episkoposi. is ijda
grigolis gverdiT (iqve, gv. 328).
grigols basianis episkoposad gaugzavnia evTali.
basianis saepiskoposo naxsenebia 450 wlisa da aseve 505 wlis nusx-
ebSi (gv. 330).
imperiis mosazRvre somxeTis mxareebSi _ vanandSi, basiansa da
mardaliaSi 505 wlisTvisac naxsenebia saepiskoposoebi (iqve, gv. 332).
grigol ganmanaTleblis cxovrebis arabuli
versiis araswori Targmna n. maris mier
(ara `afxazeTi~, aramed `arzanena~)
agaTangelozis Txzuleba `wm. grigolis cxovreba~ somxuridan
arabulad uTargmniaT VII-VIII ss-Si.
arabulad SemorCenili es redaqcia garkveulwilad gansxvavdeba
amJamad arsebuli somxuri redaqciisagan.
kerZod, somxuri redaqciiT, wm. grigolma mxolod somxeTSi iqadaga
da iqve daniSna episkoposebi, arabuli redaqciiT ki, wm. grigolma
episkoposebi iveriasa da sxva qveynebSic daniSna.
agaTangelozis wm. grigolis cxovreba, Cans, arabulad Targmnil-
ia somxeTSi mcxovrebi qarTveli armenizebuli qalkedonitis mier,
radganac masSi uamravi qarTuli sityvaa, vTqvaT, iseTi sityvac ki,
rogoricaa `goWi~ da sxva. is Targmnili unda iyos 726 wlamde.
195
sazogadod, iqamde, e.i. 726 wlamde, taos, basianis, sperisa da klar-
jeTis gasomxebuli qarTveli ierarqebi da saeklesio mwerlebi, roca
ver malavdnen TavianT namdvil eTnikur warmomavlobas, anu qarTvelo-
bas, saWirod miiCnevdnen TavianTi yofna somxur eklesiaSi gae-
marTlebinaT imiT, rom TiTqosda grigol ganmanaTlebelma qristiano-
ba gaavrcela qarTul qveynebSic da, aqedan gamomdinare, somxuri
eklesiis iurisdiqciis qveS qarTvelTa qveynebis (mag. taos an basian-
is) yofna gamarTlebuli iyo.
magaliTad, agaTangelozis wm. grigolis cxovrebis somxuri ver-
siiT, grigolma gaaqristiana somxeTi kididan-kidemde. qaldeas ax-
los myofi q. satalidan (klarjeTis axlo adgilebidan) _ alanTa
karamde, kaspiis sazRvramde _ paitakaranis CaTvliT, q. nizibinis axlo
mdebare agadidan _ midiamde, atropatenamde.
imave cxovrebis arabuli versiiT, wm. grigolma aRniSnul mxareTa
garda episkoposebi gagzavna ara mxolod somxeTis miwebze, aramed
iveriaSi, durzukebis mxareSi da alanebSi.
n. maris mier gamocemuli arabuli versiiT _ `iveriaSi gaagzavna ibir-
bzxua, abxazeTSi _ sofroni, alaniaSi _ Toma, aseve somxeTis mimdebare,
samxreTis mxareebSi~ (n. adonci, armenia... gv. 327-328).
n. adonci wers, rom n. maris mier gamocemul arabul versiaSi n. maris
mier daSvebulia Secdoma, radganac dedanSi naxsenebia ara `abxazeTi~
(`gaugzavna abxazebs~), aramed arzanena. n. adoncis kvleviT arabuli teq-
stis arasworma wakiTxvam gamoiwvia es Secdoma (iqve, gv. 328, SeniSvna 2).
amasTan dakavSirebiT n. adonci wers: `afxazebi somxeTidan daSore-
biT cxovrobdnen da araferi akavSirebdaT somxeTTan~ (iqve, gv. 328).
ase, rom grigols ara afxazeTSi, aramed arzanenaSi, iberiaSi da
alaniaSi gaugzavnia mociqulebi.
iberiis qveS am `cxovrebaSi~ Cans moiazreba ara mcxeTis qarTli,
aramed tao-basiani da misi mimdebare mxareebi.
Cans, aqaurma qarTvelebma Targmnes kidec arabulad grigolis
cxovreba, amitomacaa masSi mravali qarTuli sityva.
maSasadame, dedanSia _ `iberiaSi gaagzavna ibirbzxua, arzanenaSi _
sofroni, alaniaSi _ Toma~, alaniis nacvlad albaniasac kiTxuloben.
196
Tavi VII
kirion I-is Rvawlis Sedegebi armeniis
iberiul zolSi
kirionismieri erovnuli gamofxizleba
dasavleT armeniis qarTvelobisa
Tanamedrove qarTveli istorikosebis azriT gugareTi (anu gugarqi)
moicavda miwa-wyals javaxeTidan xunanamde da mtkvris marcxena
Senakad ZegamCaimde, somexi istorikosebis cnobiT ki iberiis nawili
gugarqi iwyeboda Woroxis marjvena sanapirodan. masSi Sedioda miwebi
taos zemo nawilidan (iSxanisa da banas axlo CrdiloeTidan) arcaxam-
de. maSasadame, klarjeTic gugarqSi moiazreboda.
es momenti imiTaa CvenTvis saintereso, rom qvemo qarTlSi (gugarqis
erT nawilSi) kirionis cnobili Rvawli qarTuli enis Tavis Zvel
uflebebSi dasabruneblad, uTuod mTeli gugarqis (maT Soris taosa
da klarjeTis) qarTvelebisaTvis impulsis mimcemi iqneboda.
gugarqi rom Woroxis aRmosavleT sanapirodan iwyeboda, amis Sesaxeb
wers n. adonci. is armeniis iberiul zols uwodebs im miwa-wyals,
romelsac qarTul wyaroebSi `zemoni qveyanani~ ewodeba.
sparseTsa da bizantias Soris dadebuli SeTanxmebis Sesabamisad,
sazRvari am or imperias Soris gadioda Woroxidan nizibinamde ise,
rom tao da gugarqi sparseTSi moeqca, Sesabamisad isini e.w. persar-
meniis nawilad miiCneoda, Sesabamisad iberiis es miwebi sparsul ar-
meniaSi moeqca.
VI s-Si qarTuli saxelmwifoebriobis gauqmebis kvaldakval, sparse-
Ti yovelmxriv aviwroebda bizantiuri orientaciis (e.i. qalkedo-
nuri mimarTulebis) qarTul eklesias, Sesabamisad tao-klarjeT-
197
gugarqSi SeizRuda qarTulenovani wirva-locva da mis nacvlad qarT-
velTa Soris dainerga saeklesio-somxurenovani RvTismsaxureba.
gugarqis qarTvelobas klarjeTidan utikamde Tavisi qveynis bedis Se-
sabamisad eklesiebSi aukrZales qarTulenovani RvTismsaxureba da mis
nacvlad somxurenovani wirva-locva daunerges.
qarTvelebs araviTari protestis gamoTqmis saSualebac ki ar hqon-
daT, imdenad mWidro iyo somxur-sparsuli kavSiri (ix. `saqarTvelos
samociqulo eklesiis istoria~, t. I).
sabednierod, 591 wlis SeTanxmebiT Seicvala sasazRvro xazi spar-
seTsa da bizantias Soris, imdenad, rom sazRvari am or imperias Soris
mcxeTasa da Tbiliss Soris gadavida, mcxeTa bizantiur nawilSi moeq-
ca, Tbilisi ki sparsulSi. bizantielTa mxardaWeriT gaZlierebulma
mcxeTelma kaTalikosma kirion I-ma gabeda da Tavis mrevls, gugarq-
qvemo qarTlSi mcxovrebT, aRudgina qarTulenovani RvTismsaxure-
ba, rac mouTmeneli iyo somxuri eklesiisTvis, Tumca sabolood kir-
ionis Rvawlis Sedegad, TandaTanobiT, jer (VI-VII ss-Si) qvemo qarTlis,
Semdeg ki (VIII-X ss-Si) taosa da aseve Crdilo armeniis mkvidri qar-
Tveloba daubrunda saeklesio qarTulenovnebas.
qarTuli ena _ qalkedonitobis simbolo da qarTvelTa erovnuli
cnobierebis sayrdeni gaxda.
198
enobrivi viTareba gugarqSi
rogorc cnobilia VI saukunis Semdeg VII-VIII-IX da X saukuneebSi
saqarTvelo sxvadasxva qveynebad anu politikur erTeulebad iyo
daSlili, qarTveli xalxis arc Tu mcire odenoba cxovrobda araerov-
nul politikur erTeulebSi. magaliTad, Tbiliseli qarTvelebi _
arabul saamiroSi, qvemo qarTlis qarTvelebi _ taSir-Zorakertis
somxur samefoSi da sxva.
kirionamde, VI saukunis sparseTis mier dapyrobil qvemo qarTlSi,
rogorc iTqva, qarTvel mrevlSi danerges somxurenovani RvTismsa-
xureba.
magram, qvemo qarTli mxolod erTi nawili iyo Zalze vrceli qvey-
nisa, romelsac somxebi `gugarqs~ (qarTvelTa qveyanas) uwodebdnen.
rogorc iTqva, gugarqi, somxuri wyaroebis mixedviT gadaWimuli iyo
Woroxidan vidre Tbilisamde da bardvamde, gugarqis vrcel qveyanas
samxreTidan esazRvreboda tao. aRsaniSnavia, rom tao didi xnis man-
Zilze Sedioda somxur saxelmwifoebriv da saeklesio sistemaSi. 726
wlis manaskertis krebam TiTqosda gamoafxizla taoeli qarTvelebi,
radganac am krebaze somxurma eklesiam sabolood miiRo monofiz-
ituri platforma da nacionaluri saxe, anu is eTnikuri somxebis
eklesiad iqca.
xSirad, yofili persarmeniuli mxareebidan warmoSobili qarTve-
lebis erTma nawilma ar icoda qarTuli wera-kiTxva, radganac maT
ganaTleba somxurad hqondaT miRebuli, magram wmida ninos aRiare-
biTa da misi Rvawlis warmoCinebiT aCvenebdnen TavianT eTnikur vi-
naobas.
199
kirion I
kirion I qarTlis (saqarTvelos) kaTalikosi iyo daaxloebiT 599-
614 wlebSi.
daibada javaxeTis sofel skutrSi. bavSvobidanve izrdeboda da
ganaTleba miiRo trapezuntis maxlobel koloniis provinciis qalaq
nikopolisSi. am regionis ZiriTad mosaxleobas berZnebTan erTad Se-
adgendnen mkvidri qarTvelebi _ lazebi, qaldebi (xalibebi) da sxva
qarTuli jgufebi, qarTvelTa mravalricxovnobis gamo, SemdgomSi,
trapezuntis imperiis meTaurs _ `iverTa avtokrators~ uwodebdnen
(didi komninebi, marTmadidebluri enciklopedia, VII, gv. 444. rus
enaze).
qarTvelebi aseve Seadgendnen ZiriTad mosaxleobas mezoblad mde-
bare taos, basianisa da sxva regionebisa dvinis mimarTulebiT (amito-
mac, SemdgomSi am teritoriaze bizantiis imperiam `iberiis Temi~ Camo-
ayaliba). Cans, eTnikur qarTvelTa siWarbis gamo, ganaTlebis miRebis
Semdeg kirionma am regionSi moRvaweoba ineba, man daikava airaratis
gavaris qorepiskoposisa da dvinis mTavari `kaTolike~ monastris
winamZRvris xarisxebi.
mcxeTis sakaTalikosos gareT, ucxoeTSi, aRniSnul regionebSi
(ponto, imiertao-basiani, airarati) mcxovrebi qarTuli mrevli im-
Jamad (VI-VII saukuneebSi) gayofili or nawilad berZnul da somxur
eklesiaTa Soris. aRsaniSnavia, rom straboni am teritorias iberTa
uZveles sacxovrisad moixseniebs.
artaqsia da zariadri qristeSobamde 188 wels mefeebi gaxdnen da
brZolebiT gaafarToves TavianTi samflobelo, kerZod xalibebis
CamoaWres kareniti _ karinis (karnu qalaqis, anu arzrumis) olqi,
iberebisagan miitaces pariadres mTiswineTi, xorZene da gogarene.
pariadres adgilsamyofeli cnobilia, is axlos mdebareobda ko-
lonias provinciasTan, sadac aRizarda kirion I, xolo cnobas gog-
arenes adgilsamyofelis Sesaxeb TviTon iZleva straboni.
gugarqi, romlis kaTalikosi SemdgomSi gaxda kirioni, da gogare-
ne ar iyo erTi da igive qveyana, kerZod gugarqi somxur wyaroebSi
zogadad erqva aRmosavleT saqarTvelos, ufro xSirad ki qvemo
qarTls, mtkvris marjvena sanapiroze. gogarene, misgan gansxvavebiT,
200
strabonis cnobiT, mdebareobda ara mtkvris marjvena, aramed marcx-
ena sanapiroze, anu mtkvris iqiT, `meore mxares~.
pariadresa da gogarenes Sua (anu pariadredan mtkvramde) airara-
ti, istoriuli xorZene mdebareobda. am miwawylis iberiuli mosax-
leoba qristianobis gavrcelebis Semdeg VIII-IX ss-mde somxuri ek-
lesiis iurisdiqciaSi moeqca (igulisxmeba imier taos, basianisa da
airaratis mkvidri iberebi. kirionis epoqaSi VI-VII ss-Si maTi armeniza-
ciis procesi grZeldeboda da ZiriTadad jer kidev ar iyo das-
rulebuli). am mizezis gamo qarTvelebi somxuri eklesiis wevrebi da
zogjer ierarqebic iyvnen. rogorc aRiniSna, kirionic qalaq niko-
polisidan dvinSi gadavida da Tavisi damsaxurebis Sesabamisad air-
aratis gavaris qorepiskoposisa da dvinis kaTolike (mTavari sakre-
bulo) eklesiis winamZRvris xarisxiT dajildovda.
VI s-is bolos (airaratsa da dvinSi moRvaweobis mexuTe wlisTavze),
Tavisi gamorCeulobis gamo kirioni qarTls daubrunda da igi mcxe-
Tis sakaTalikoso taxtze aiyvanes.
iv. javaxiSvili wers: kirionis dros `qarTuli eklesiis sazRvre-
bi vrclad yofila gadaWimuli: dasavleT-samxreTiT igi klarjeT-
sac moicavda da sazRvrad aq taos saepiskopozo yofila, romelic
am dros somxeTis eklesias kuTvnebia (iv. javaxiSvili, Txzulebani,
1, gv. 340).
dasavleTis mimarTulebiT qarTuli eklesiis sazRvari Sav zRvam-
de aRwevda - `somexTa istorikosis ioane kaTalikosis cnobiT, kYri-
oni winandeli wesis Tanaxmad, qarTvelTa, gugarelTa da megrelTa
arqiepiskopozad iqmna xeldasxmuli. gugareTi qarTlis kaTaliko-
sis samwysos ekuTvnoda. kirionis megrelTa kaTalikosadac aRniSv-
nis cnoba imis momaswavebelia, rom qarTlis, anu mcxeTis kaTaliko-
sis samwysos ukve dasavleT saqarTveloSic hqonda asparezi mopove-
buli da sakaTalikosos sazRvari lixT imereTSic iyo gadaweuli.
imier-amier saqarTvelos politikur gaerTianebas win uswrebda da
niadags umzadebda gacilebiT ufro adre momxdari saeklesio erTo-
bisa da mTlianobis procesi~ (iqve, gv. 341-342).
ioane kaTalikosis cnobiT, kirioni VI saukunis bolos dausvamT
`qarTvelTa, gugarelTa da megrelTa kaTalikosad, iseve rogorc
201
winandeli wesi moiTxovda~. aqedan Cans, rom qarTuli eklesiis iuris-
diqcia, vrceldeboda dasavleT saqarTveloze, ara mxolod VI sauku-
neSi, aramed adrec, e.i. V saukuneSi _ `winandeli wesis Tanaxmad~.
qarTuli eklesiis wiaRSi myof egrisSi (dasavleT saqarTveloSi),
maleve, afxazeTis samefos daarsebisas, Camoyalibda saqarTvelos
eklesiis erTerT samitropolito olqi afxazeTis sakaTalikosos
saxelwodebiT. es daastura saxelmwifo xelisuflebam. wyaro wers _
`aman bagrat 830 w-s ganaCina kaTalikosi afxazeTs~ (qarTlis cxovreba,
I, 1955, gv, 72).
iv. javaxiSvilis gamokvleviT, V s-s Sua wlebisa da meore naxevri-
saTvis saqarTveloSi 21 saepiskoposo yofila. `juanSeri qarTlis
kaTalikosis samwysoSi vaxtang gorgaslis dros Semdeg saepiskopo-
zoebs ixseniebs: mcxeTis saepiskopozos, klarjeTSi axizisas, artaanSi
eruSeTisas, javaxeTSi _ wundisas, qarTlSi niqozisas, manglisisas,
bolnisisas, kaxeT-hereTSi _ rusTavisas. ninowmindisas, ujarmoisas,
karisas, Weremisas, CelTisas, xornabujisas, agarakisas, anu xunani-
sas. amgvarad, sul Teqvsmeti saepiskopozo gamodis, magram es sia,
cxadia, sruli ar aris~ (iv. javaxiSvili, Txzulebani, I, gv. 339).
iv. javaxiSvili am sias umatebs curtavisa da samefo saxlis episko-
posebs, agreTve ruisis an urbnisis, wilknisa da samTavisis saepisko-
posoebs. `...maSin 21 samwyso iqmneba da V s-is Sua wlebisa da meore
naxevrisaTvis es ricxvi daaxlovebiT swori unda iyos. ueWvelia V s-
is damlevisaTvis metic unda yofiliyo. 506 wels albanelTa, somex-
Ta da qarTvelTa gaerTianebul saeklesio krebas saqarTvelodan
kaTalikosianad sul 24 episkopozi daswrebia... radgan SesaZlebe-
lia, am krebas yvela ver daeswro, amitom unda davaskvnaT, rom VI s-
is damdegs qarTuli eklesia sul cota 24 saepiskopozos Seicavda.
marTlac, cnobili asureli monofiziti moRvawis simeon beT-arSame-
lis (VI s-is damdegs) sityviT, mis dros henotikoni Seiwynares da mis
aRsarebas misdevdnen qarTlis eklesiis 33 episkopozi mefiTa da
aznaurebiTurT da sparseTis somxeTis 32 episkopozi da marzpani.
maSasadame, VI s-is damdegs aRm. saqarTveloSi 33 episkopozi yofila~
(iqve, gv. 339-340).
202
`qarTuli eklesiis Sedgenilobis Semdegi cnoba VII s-is damdegisaa,
saxeldobr, 607 wels daweril Tavis meore sapasuxo epistoleSi kiri-
on qarTlis kaTalikosi abraam somexTa kaTalikoss swerda, qarTlis
sakaTalikosoSi sul 35 episkopozi ariso. erTi saukunis ganmavloba-
Si qarTul eklesias mohmatebia 2 saepiskopozo. es garemoeba qris-
tianobis warmatebuli winsvliT unda aixsnebodes...~ (iv. javaxiSvili,
Txzulebani, I, gv. 341).
gamokvleulia, rom qarTuli eklesiis iurisdiqciaSi im drois-
aTvis taoc Sedioda, Tumca is somxur saepiskoposoTa siaSicaa. Sesa-
Zlebelia, tao or nawilad iyo gayofili, erTi nawili Sedioda qarTul
eklesiaSi, xolo meore nawili somxurSi.
VI da VII saukuneebis, kirionis epoqis, qarTuli eklesiis istoria
gadmocemulia TxzulebaSi, romelsac ewodeba `ganyofisaTYs qarTvel-
Ta da somexTa~. avtoroba miewereba IX s-is moRvawe arseni mcxeTel
kaTalikozs.
`ganyofaY somexTa qarTlisagan ueWuelad aRvwere wignsa amas Sina~
_ wers avtori (arseni safareli, ganyofisaTKs, gv. 78).
aq yuradReba unda mieqces avtoris ideologiur pozicias _ ara
qarTli da qarTvelebi ganSordnen somxebs, aramed piriqiT, somxebi
ganSordnen qarTls _ marTlmadideblobas, aramarTlmadideblebi
gaxdnen. saqarTvelo marTlmadidebeli iyo da iseTive darCa.
arseni safareli wers:
`sparsTa mefem (igulisxmeba xosro I) ganucxada somxebs: `erTi
orTagan gamoirCieT _ an miiReT asurelTa sarwmunoeba anda datoveT
Tqveni qveyana. somxebi Zlier Sewuxdnen, maT arc sarwmunoebis Secv-
la surdaT da arc qveynis datoveba. am saqmis gadawyveta miandes
nerse kaTalikoss (548-557), romelsac mijini erqva. moiwvies kreba
qalaq dvinSi 551 w., miiRes xaCecari da gandgnen marTali (berZnuli)
da WeSmariti sarwmunoebisgan. amis gamo isini mowyvetil iqnen wmida
didebul kaTolike da samociqulo msoflio eklesiisgan. iqve dvins
ganaweses arajori, da Tqves _ es aris pirveli dRe Cveni sarwmunoe-
bisao (somxuri welTaRricxva iwyeba dvinis am krebiT 551 wels). somx-
eTi ganSorda berZnul sjulsa da ierusalims. amis gamo yoveli qarT-
li da somxeTis meoTxedi ganeyenen somexTagan mRvdlobis xeldasx-
203
mas, xolo herni da sivnielni erT periodSi ganSordnen da Semdeg
kvlav Seerivnen (yoveli qarTli aq ewodeba tao-basiansa da mibde-
bare regions, somxeTis meoTxedis qveS igulisxmeba _ airarati da
mimdebare regionebi, romlebic midrekili iyvnen qalkedonizmisad-
mi). nerse II kaTalikozma da aznaurebma brZanes meore didi krebis
Catareba dvinSi _ meore wels (553-54 wlebSi). am krebaze SeaCvenes
qalkedonis kreba, uwodes nestorianuli, miiRes erTbunebianoba da
xorciTa da ukvdavi bunebiT qriste jvarcmulad iqadages. gansazRvres
SeCvenebiT gandgoma marTali sarwmunoebisgan. am krebam somxuri ek-
lesia Camoacila oTx msoflio sapatriarqos, amiT ki dairRva wmida
grigol ganmanaTleblis anderZi. qarTvelma kaTalikosma kirion mcxe-
Telma (591-615) da herTa kaTalikosma abazma (552-596) ixiles, rom
somxuri eklesia kvlav dvinis im krebis erTgulia, romelmac wmida
msoflio sayovelTao kaTolike eklesias Camoacila somxuri ekle-
sia. roca aseTi praqtika kvlav aRorZinebuli ixiles kirion kaTali-
kosma, herTa kaTalikosma abazma da sivnieTis episkoposma grigorma,
Seiqna didi dava somxeTsa da qarTls Soris. qarTvelni ambobdnen,
rom saberZneTidan mogveca Cven sarwmunoeba, romelic Tqven daute-
veT, abdiSo asurs da sxva borot mwvaleblebs daemorCileniT. am
mxilebis Semdeg somxebma qarTli daabezRes sparsTa mefesTan, rom
qarTvelebs romaelTa sarwmunoeba aqvTo. dava iyo qarTvelTa da
somexTa Soris sakaTalikoso taxtze mjdom abraamis drosac iseve,
rogorc nerse II-is dros. am dros gandevna qarTlis kaTalikosma kir-
ionma mose curtavis episkoposi Tavisi eparqiidan, romelic wmida
SuSanikis saflavze iyo. Txova abraamma kirions es eparqia, xolo man
ar misca. da gadidda maT Soris ciloba. abraamis Semdgom dajda
kaTalikosad komitasi (607-629), ufro metad moZule qalkedonis
krebisa. misca Svidi saepiskoposo herTa kaTalikoss da SeierTa is.
misca jvris tarebis pativi sivnieTis episkoposs. aseTi xerxiT mTe-
li somxeTi gaaerTiana qalkedonis krebis sawinaaRmdegod. aTargmn-
ina monofizit da sxva mwvalebel eresiarqTa wignebi, gaavrcela da
am tyuiliT mTeli somxeTis qveyana daajera. Secvala Tavdapirveli
saeklesio wesebi da kanonebi, TviTon ki axali mrudeni SemoiRo. am
dros aiSala Zveli da axali ki ver daamtkices (ar dainerga). amis
204
gamo dRemde yoveli kaci somxeTSi Tavis mier Seqmnil-gamogonebul
saeklesio kanonebs iyenebs (arsen safareli `ganyofisaTKs qarTvel-
Ta da xomexTa, 1980, gv. 22).
VI da VII saukuneebis, kirionis epoqis, qarTuli eklesiis istoria
gadmocemulia aseve TxzulebaSi, romelsac ewodeba `epistoleTa
wigni~. masSi Semonaxulia kirion kaTalikosis werilebi, romelnic
man saeklesio davisas miwera somxuri eklesiis meTaurebsa da sxva
pirebs, iqvea pasuxebi da mimarTvebi. `wigni~ somxur enazea Semonaxu-
li. qarTuli dakargulia.
epistoleTa wignSi mniSvnelovani adgili eTmoba mose curtavis
episkoposs.
curtavi da misi saeparqio olqi _ gugarqi (qvemo qarTli) mcxeTis
iurisdiqciaSi Sedioda, aq Tavdapirveladve (IV-V saukuneebSi) qarTul
enaze mimdinareobda wirva-locva, rac dasturdeba bolnisis sionis
eklesiis kedlebze amotvifruli V saukunis qarTuli warwerebiTa
da sxva msgavsi masalebiT.
VI saukuneSi qarTuli saxelmwifoebriobis rRvevam, dampyrobeli
sparseTis mier bizantiuri mimarTulebis, anu qalkedonituri qarTu-
li eklesiis devnam, amavdroulad ki mis mierve antibizantiuri sarwmu-
noebrivi mimarTulebis mqone somxur-monofizituri eklesiis ga-
Zlierebam, xeli weuwyo sparseTis mosazRvre qarTul regionebSi (maT
Soris curtavSi) `qalkedonituri~ (am SemTxvevaSi qarTuli) wirva
locvis akrZalvasa da mis nacvlad somxurenovanis SemoRebas. cur-
tavis eparqiaSi somxurenovani RvTismsaxureba pirvelad wm. SuSani-
kis saflavis eklesiaSi danergila. curtavis saeparqio mmarTveloba
monofizitobis mxurvale mxardamWerad iqca, amitomac, mose cur-
tavelma episkoposma miatova Tavisi eparqia, roca Seityo kirionis
(qarTuli eklesiis) mtkice qalkedonitobis Sesaxeb da Tavi somxeTs
Seafara. am devnis mizezad moses miaCnia is, rom man `amxila~ qarTlSi
arsebuli sarwmunoebrivi mimarTuleba.
Zalze sayuradReboa, rom mosem erT regionSi (curtavSi) `amxila~
qalkedonitoba da mas myisierad daemuqrnen sruliad qarTlis mTavre-
bi da episkoposebi, amas TviTonve acxadebs _ `...xma avimaRle, mteri
gavxdi kaTalikosad wodebulisa, yvela mTavrisa da im qveynisa da
205
bolos videvne~ (epistoleTa wigni, 1968, gv. 2). aqedan unda davaskvnaT,
rom curtavi qarTlis ganuyofeli nawili iyo.
`epistoleTa wignSi~ moyvanilia qarTlidan ltolvili mose episko-
posis epistole curtavis eklesiis `somxurenovani~ Temisadmi, is gmobs
qalkedonitobas da afrTxilebs Tavis `somxurenovan~ mrevls, frTx-
ilad iyos. `qurdulad Semoacoces da SemoiRes mwvalebloba...~ (iqve,
gv. 11) _ wers is. `aw ese yoveli viciT ra, sayvarelno, viaroT sameufeo
gziT, nurc marjvniv gadavuxvevT da nurc marcxniv~ (iqve, gv. 12).
`epistoleTa wignSi~ motanilia meore epistole, sadac moses `qar-
TvelTa episkoposi~ ewodeba (iqve, gv. 15). (am epistoles sruli sa-
Tauria `mizezi orbunebianTa meoTxe krebisa, mose qarTvelTa mar-
Tlmadidebeli episkoposisa~). am saTauridanac Cans, rom mose cur-
taveli episkoposi aris erovnebiT qarTvelTa episkoposi. mas uwode-
ben `mose qarTvelTa marTlmadidebel episkoposs~. epistoleTa wignSi
`marTmadideblebad~ monofizitebs moixseniebdnen. mose `marTmadide-
beli~ anu monofizitia da amave dros aris qarTvelTa episkoposi. am
epistoles mixedviTac moses eparqia qarTvelebiTaa dasaxlebuli.
aqedanac Cans, rom curtavis `somxurenovani~ Temi qarTvelebis
Temia, oRond am qarTvelebs somxuri tipikoni aqvT miRebuli, isini
saeklesio daniSnulebisTvis somxur wignebs xmaroben, amitomac `somx-
urenovanni~ arian. TviT somxuri eklesia maT qarTvelebad miiCnevs
da ara somxebad, amitomac maTi episkoposi mose `qarTvelTa~ episko-
posia. es aris ueWveli faqti, dadasturebuli pirvelxarisxovan
wyaroSi _ `epistoleTa wignSi~, amitomac am faqtis ignorireba ar
SeiZleba.
sabednierod, politikuri viTareba VI-VII ss-Ta mijnaze kavkasiaSi
Seicvala, aq gamaval saomar frontze bizantiam SeZlo sparselebze
gamarjveba da sazRvari am or imperias (bizantiasa da sparseTs) Soris
daido TbilisTan axlos. am politikuri momentiT marjved isargeb-
la kirionma da gugarq-curtavis mrevls eklesiebSi aRudgina qarTu-
lenovani msaxureba. am momentma kidev ufro aRaSfoTa meore mxare,
rac Semdegma epistolem asaxa.
kirionisadmi gagzavnil Tavis epistoleSi somexTa kaTalikos
abraams sikvdilze uaresad miaCnia somxurenovani saeklesio msax-
206
urebis nacvlad qarTulenovani msaxurebis danergva qvemo qarTlis
centr curtavSi. `...somxuri msaxureba wmida SuSanikisgan dadgenili,
mesmis, rom SegicvliaT, Cven sikvdilze ufro uborotesad miviCnieT
eg saqme~ (epistoleTa wigni, 1968, gv. 67).
aqedanac Cans, rom curtavSi somxurenovani msaxureba qristiano-
bis miRebis Semdeg, e.i. IV saukunidan ki ar iyo danergili, aramed V
saukunis bolodan, an VI saukunis dasawyisidan, wmida SuSanikis safla-
vze eklesiis aSenebis Semdgom. yovel SemTxvevaSi curtavis eklesia-
Si somxurenovani msaxureba wmida SuSanikis Semdgom dadgenilad iTv-
leboda. magram abraamis epistole Seexeba ara mxolod curtavis ek-
lesias, aramed mTlian qarTul eklesias (iqve, gv. 67).
kirionTan xangrZlivi mimoweris Semdeg Tavisi warumateblobiT
imedgacruebul abraami sayovelTao mrgvlivmosavlel epistoles ag-
zavnis mTel somxeTSi, romelSiac gadmoscems sarwmunoebis monofiz-
itur mrwamss da gmobs qalkedonitobas. qalkedonitoba mTel qvey-
anaze gavrceldao, wers is, _ `...miaRwia qarTls da albaneTs, romelTac
myrali Tesli didebiT Seiwynares, Tvis Soris daamtkices. kirionma
curtavis episkoposi gandevna marTlmadidebluri sarwmunoebis gamo...
wmida SuSanikisgan dadgenili somxuri msaxureba, Cvens sawinaaRmdegod
rom amxedrda, Secvala, amisaTvis mivwereT...~ (iqve, gv. 120).
Semdeg wers `...Cvenc vbrZaneT qarTvelTa Sesaxeb: sruliad ar
eziaroT maT arc locvaSi, arc Wamasa da smaSi. arc megobrobaSi, arc
dedamZuZuobaSi, arc salocavad wasvliT jvarSi, romliTac ganTqmu-
lia mcxeTis midamoebi, arc manglisis jvarSi, nurc Cvens eklesiaSi
miiRebT maT, aramed maTTan qorwinebiTac sruliad ganeSoreT, mx-
olod iyideT da mihyideT viTarca uriebs, igive brZaneba ucvlelad
rCeba albanelTaTvisac...~ (iqve, gv. 122).
ase damTavrda qarTuli eklesiis Tavdadebuli brZola qalkedo-
nuri sarwmunoebis dasacavad spars dampyrobTa Zaladobis periodSi
(rogorc aRiniSna, sparselebi monofizitobas antibizantiur sarw-
munoebad miiCnevdnen da mtkiced uWerdnen mxars). kirionma SeZlo im
etapze qarTulenovani tipikoni aRedgina Tavis erTerT eparqiaSi _
curtavsa da mis olqSi.
207
XX saukuneSi, sabWoTa periodSi, Camoyalibda da gavrcelda umarTe-
bulo Talsazrisi, TiTqosda kirionma curtavel da sazRvrispireT-
Si mcxovreb somxebs eklesiebSi qarTulenovani msaxureba daunerga
da amiT isini `gaaqarTvela~. es mosazreba wyaroebis pirdapiri CvenebiT
ar dasturdeba, piriqiT, rogorc vaCveneT wyaroebi miuTiTebs, rom
kirionma curtavis eklesiebSi aRadgina qarTulenovani msaxureba,
radganac sparsTa iZulebiT mis nacvlad am regionSi somxurenovani
msaxureba iyo danergili, is Tavdapirvelad wm. SuSanikis saflavis
eklesiaSi SemoiRes, Semdeg ki sxvaganac. safiqrebelia, rom radganac
wm. SuSanikis saflavs politikur-religiuri mniSvneloba mieniWa da
mas monofizitobis centrad ayalibebdnen, amitomac, es rom ar momx-
dariyo, wm. SuSanikis gvami TbilisSi iqna gadasvenebuli, qalkedoni-
tobis centrSi.
qarTizaciis sabWouri Teoriis sqema arc am mimarTulebiTaa mar-
Tebuli. VI-VII saukuneebSi, sparsTa mpyrobelobisas, Sahebi somxur
eklesias saxelmwifoebriv doneze uWerdnen mxars, maT mier devnil
bizantiuri orientaciis qarTul eklesias politikurad araxelsayre-
li garemos gamo ar SeZlo sxva, miTumetes imJamad gamarjvebul-
gabatonebuli somxuri eklesiis samwysos misakuTreba, Tavis wiaRSi
Seyvana, piriqiT, imJamad qarTvelTa armenizaciis procesi iyo gaR-
rmavebuli, maT Soris tao-basiansa da qvemo qarTlSic. imJamindeli
Sahi sparseTisa xosro II farvizi (g. 628 w.), gansakuTrebiT mfarvel-
obda somxur eklesias, man ierusalimisaken laSqrobisas moiwvia mTe-
li Tavisi imperiis qristianul eklesiaTa e.w. `sparsuli kreba~ da
daavaldebula isini mieRoT `somxuri sarwmunoeba~ anda imperiis
sazRvrebi daetovebinaT (mitropoliti anania, saqarTvelos samociqu-
lo eklesiis istoria~, t. II, 2012, gv. 126). spars didebulTa erTi
gavleniani nawilic ki ukmayofolo iyo da SeSfoTda somxur eklesi-
asTan xosros ukiduresi daaxloebis gamo, amitomac maT isargebles
herakle keisris sparseTSi SeWris momentiT _ xosro II taxtidan Camo-
agdes da mokles 628 wels, magram iqamde, kirion II sastikad daisaja
somxur eklesiasTan davisaTvis, mas, rogorc Cans, 614 wlisaTvis
daatovebines sakaTalikoso taxti. kirioni Tavisi brZolis dros efu-
Zneboda wmida msoflio eklesiis erTianobis Zalasa da avtoritets,
208
amis gamo mas uwyveti werilobiTi urTierToba hqonda msoflio saek-
lesio centrebTan. mimowera hqonia ierusalimisa da sxva eklesiebis
meTaurebTan, romis papTan.
kirion I saqarTvelos wmida eklesiis udidesi moRvawea, Tu ara
misi Tavdadeba da Tavganwiruli brZola qalkedonitobis dasacavad,
Seqmnili politikuri viTarebis gamo, qarTuli mrevlis didi nawili
dakargavda erovnul identobas da armenizdeboda somxur eklesiaSi
iseve, rogorc moxda armenizacia albanuri mosaxleobisa VII-VIII ss-
Si, mas Semdeg rac isini somxur eklesiaSi gaerTiandnen da maT alba-
nur eklesia-monastrebSi somxurenovani RvTismsaxureba dainerga.
armeniis qarTvelTa didi gamofxizleba
kirionma aanTo pirveli naperwkali erovnuli gamofxizlebisa,
romelic aitaca e.w. dasavleT armeniis mkvidrma qarTulma mosaxleo-
bam gugarqSi, kolaSi, taoSi da kidev ufro samxreTiT, vidre TiTq-
mis vanis tbamde, romlis sanapirosTan axlos mcxovrebma qarTvelebma
valaSkertis saepiskoposo daaarses. tao centrad iqca.
taos gareTac, erovnebaaRorZinebulma qarTulma mrevlma Camoay-
aliba sxva qarTuli saepiskoposoebic _ anisisa, karisa (yarsisa), da-
daSenisa da sxva qalaqebisa, TviTSemecnebulma, anu somxuri asimi-
laciisagan gaTavisuflebulma qarTvelebma miiwvies TavianT miwa-
wyalze taos mefe didi daviT kurapalati, romelmac qarTuli sax-
elmwifoebrivi erTeuli `qarTvelTa sakurapalato~ ganavrco vanis
tbamde mcxovrebi am mkvidr qarTvelTaTvis.
sixaruli da erovnuli siamaye vinaobaaRdgenili qarTvelebisa
ganuzomeli iyo, rac gamomJRavnda gansakuTrebiT aTonis mTaze. am
mxareebidan wamosuli iverielebis mier, yovladwmida RvTismSobeli
eweoda imiT, rom qarTul enasa da qarTul sityvas mfarvelobda.
swored aseTi saswaulebrivi gamocxadebis Semdgom mieca myisierad
qarTuli enis codna patara eqvTime mTawmindels.
209
erovnuli identobis aRorZinebis sixarulma aagebina saocari
taZrebi taosa da klarjeTSi mkvidr qarTvelebs, eseni iyvnen niSan-
svetebi maTi erovnuli gamofxizlebisa, somxuri eklesiisagan didi
gaqcevisa, misi uaryofisa da vinaobis aRdgenisa. am gaTavisuflebis
didma Zalam aago swored am kuTxeebSi es arqiteqturis Sedevrebi,
rogorc dagubebul wyalSi grovdeba didi Zala da energia, romel-
ic vlindeba misi gaTavisuflebis Semdeg, aseTi ZaliT afeTqda qarTu-
li kultura samxreT saqarTveloSi.
kirionis `gamofxizlebis~ proeqti
qarTuli enis dasacavad kirionis cnobilma kamaTma somxur ekle-
siasTan da am sakiTxis gamo ganxeTqilebam gamoafxizla samxreT kavkasi-
is provinciaTa is qarTveloba, romelnic iqamde somxuri eklesiis
iurisdiqciaSi imyofebodnen.
sad ganxorcielda kirionis gamofxizlebis proeqti? anu romel
provinciebSi gaTviTcnobierdnen iqamde somxuri wirva-locvis qveS
myofi qarTvelebi da aRidgines qarTulenovani wirva-locva?
gugarqis garda, basiansa, klarjeTsa da taoSi qarTuli enis aRdge-
nas rom mistirodnen somexi RvTismetyvelebi, es Cans uxtanesis
wignidan, romelmac uzarmazari Sroma, savse moTqma-vaebiTa da wuxil-
iT miuZRvna am sakiTxs (uxtanesi, istoria gamoyofisa qarTvelTa
somexTagan, 1975).
kirionis `gamofxizleba~ mxolod qvemo qarTls ar Sexebia, aq ux-
tanesis dros isedac somxuri taSir-Zorakertis samefo hyvaoda somx-
uri saeklesio eniT, uxtanesi mistiris kirionis mier basianis, tao-
klarjeTisa da mezobel olqTa qarTvelebis mier erovnuli identobis
aRdgenas.
210
gamofxizlebis ori mTavari stimuli (IV-X ss.)
jer kidev ilia WavWavaZe SeniSnavda, rom istoriuli somxeTis miwa-
wyali armenielebis Semosvlamde qarTuli tomebiT iyo dasaxlebuli.
mas faqtiurad eTanxmeba n. adonci, romelic mraval wyaroze dayrd-
nobiT gamoTqvams mosazrebas, rom istoriulad qarTvelebis sacxov-
risi vanis tbidan qarTlamde Suaze gahkveTes armenielebma, amitom
armenielebis rogorc samxreTiT, ise CrdiloeTiT qarTvelTa qvey-
nebi moeqca.
magaliTad, n. adoncis azriT, vanis tbis samxreTiT mdebare qvey-
ana kordueni da CrdiloeTiT mdebare qarTli _ qarTvelTa qveynebi
iyvnen.
rac Seexeba qarTvelebis dasaxlebas armeniis dasavleTiT, is xe-
luxleblad iqna SenarCunebuli _ igulisxmeba qaldevelTa anu Wan-
Ta qveyana.
qaldu anu `kardu~ _ iv. javaxiSvilis kvleviTac qarTvelTa is-
toriuli samSoblo yofila, romlis saxeli qarTvelTa samive Stos
_ svanebs, megrel-lazebsa da aRmosavleT saqarTvelos qarTvelebs
hqoniaT Semonaxuli.
dasavleT da Crdilo armeniaSi moqceul iberiis yofil miwebze
xorZenasa, pariadresa da gogarenaSi qarTvelTa armenizaciis pro-
cesma gaqristianebis Semdeg religiuri saxe miiRo, rac imiT gamoix-
ata, rom am qarTvelTa saojaxo ena kvlav qarTuli iyo (an misi di-
aleqtebi), magram somxuri maTTvis RvTis sadidebeli da saRvTism-
saxuro enad iqca (Tumca, isic unda aRiniSnos, rom qarTvelTa arc
Tu mcire nawili, romelnic konstantinopolis iurisdiqciaSi iyvnen
moqceulnni _ berZnulenovanni gaxdnen saeklesio TvalsazrisiT).
armeniis qarTvelebi somxuri enis, kulturis, eklesiis, Semecneb-
is da kulturis zegavlenis qveS eqceodnen.
qarTvelTa armenizaciis procesi somxeTis dasavleT da Crdilo
mxareebSi ver dasrulda arabTa Semosevebis gamo.
somxuri kulturuli centrebis Zlierebis moryevisas _ arabTa
Semosevebis epoqaSi, aRmoCnda, rom dasavleT armeniasa da aseve ba-
siansa, taosa da mimdebare mxareebSi qarTvelebis erT nawils, sa-
211
bednierod, jer kidev hqondaT SenarCunebuli erovnuli cnobiere-
ba, nawilobriv ki codna qarTuli enisa da sayofacxovrebo wes-Cveule-
bebisa _ erTi sityviT, kulturuli TavisTavadoba, rac safuZvlad
gadaiqca taosa da basianSi qarTvelTa TviTSemecnebis aRorZinebisa,
erovnuli saxelmwifoebriobis warmoqmnisa da misTvis qarTuli sax-
is miniWebisa.
aseT epoqaSi qarTul enas siwmindis funqcia mieniWa.
es movlena iyo namdvili kulturuli revolucia qarTuli cno-
bierebis aRorZinebisaTvis.
tao-basianis mxareebSi qarTuli Semecnebisa da enis aRorZinebis
safuZveli unda yofiliyo _
1) kirionis mier qarTuli enis aRorZineba gugarqSi da
2) 726 wlis manaskertis monofizituri kreba, ramac somxuri ekle-
sia mononacionalur eklesiad aqcia, sadac aRar iyo eTnikur qarTvel-
Ta (qalkedonitTa) adgili, da ramac eklesiurad gamoafxizla qarTve-
loba. Tumca, unda aRiniSnos, rom monofizituris gverdiT ufro
gamoikveTa somxur-qalkedonuri eklesia, romelSic qarTvelebi mrev-
lad iyvnen gaerTianebulebi, somxuri qalkedonituri eklesiis qarTu-
li frTa mniSvnelovani iyo, aqedanac qarTvelTa erTi nawili eTni-
kuri niSniT ganSorda somxur-qalkedonur eklesias da SeuerTda
mcxeTis dedaeklesias.
erovnulad identobaaRorZinebulma qarTvelobis erTma nawilma
male zurgi Seaqcia somxurqalkedonur eklesiasac da deda qarTuls
daubrunda.
212
wm. daviT da tariWani, isaaki da iosebi
wm. daviT da tariWani, qarTuli eklesiis wmidanebi, uwamebiaT VII
saukuneSi, taos qveyanaSi, nerse somexTa kaTalikosis samwysoSi, sofel
duvSi. `cxovrebis~ mixedviT, maT kavSiri hqondaT somexTa qveyanas-
Tan. miuxedavad amisa somxuri eklesiisaTvis isini ucnobebi arian,
isini ar arian somxuri eklesiis wmidanebi, da arian, rogorc aRiniS-
na qarTulisa. ra iyo amis mizezi?
arsebobs meore msgavsi magaliTic, miCneulia, rom arzrumi, yo-
fili Teodosiopoli, romelic qarTulad karnu qalaqad iwodeboda
somxeTis qveyanaSi mdebareobda, 808 wels aq uwamebiaT isaaki da iosebi,
maTi eTnikuri vinaobis Sesaxeb gvauwyebs zedwodeba `qarTvelni~.
saqarTvelos saeklesio kalendarSi 16 seqtembers ixseniebian `mowa-
meni isaak da ioseb qarTvelni, karnu qalaqis wamebulni 808 wels~, unda
vifiqroT, rom isini karnu-qalaqelni iyvnen, eTnikuri qarTvelebi,
romelnic IX s-Si arabebma awames. XI s-Si konstantine porfirgenetis
cnobiT karnuqalaqelebi did winaaRmdegobas uwevdnen bizantielebs,
ris gamoc alyaSi moaqcies da moqalaqeebi SimSiliT sikvdilisaTvis
gaimetes, qarTvelTa jari ki maT icavda bizantielTa alyiT gamowveu-
li SimSilobisas, amaragebda sursaT-sanovagiT.
aqedanac Cans, rom rogorc IX ise X saukuneSi arzrumi (karnu-
qalaqi) qarTvelebiT iyo dasaxlebuli, arzrumi `karinis~ qveynis mTa-
vari qalaqi iyo. am qveyanaSi hqonda mamulebi Tornike erisTavs, somexi
istorikosebis azriT Tornike am qveyneli iyo, aqve mdebareobda
cnobili qarTuli skriptoriumi erT-erT qarTul monasterTan.
maSasadame, isaaki da iosebi qarTvel wmindanTa rigSi moxvdnen
TavianTi eTnikuri vinaobis (qarTvelobis) wyalobiT, msgavsadve daviT
da tariWani wamebis Semdeg qarTvel wmindanTa rigSi Caweres, radga-
nac isinic eTnikur qarTvelebad, qarTuli eklesiis wevrebad miiC-
neodnen, radganac ara mxolod tao, aramed karini da basianic qar-
TvelTa qveynebad miiCneoda IX-X ss-Si.
213
axali era somxeTis eklesiis istoriaSi
726 wels Sedga manaskertis kreba ioane oZunelis dros. am krebam
axali era Seqmna somxuri eklesiis istoriaSi (n. adonci, somxeTi
iustinianes epoqaSi. 1908, rus. enaze gv. 338) da hqonda pirvelx-
arisxovani mniSvneloba (gv. 338). `aRadgina somxuri saeklesio tra-
diciebi darRveuli VII s-Si qalkedontebis mier ~ (iqve, gv. 338).
meore mxriv, rac CvenTvis ufro mniSvnelovania, Cveni azriT, am
krebam gamoafxizla somxeTis qarTveloba.
kirionis dauviwyari Rvawli saeklesio msaxurebisas qarTuli enis
gamoyenebis Sesaxeb kvlav gaixsenes am krebiT SeSfoTebulma qar-
Tvelebma.
isini, taosa da basianis qarTveloba, ZiriTadad qalkedonitebi
iyvnen da amitom maT somxuri eklesiis iurisdiqciaSi yofna mxolod
im SemTxvevaSi miaCndaT dasaSvebad, Tuki somxuri eklesia qalke-
donituri mimarTulebisa iqneboda, 726 wlis krebam ki am eklesiis
monofizituri mimarTuleba daadgina. amitomac, maT daiwyes gzebis
Zieba somxuri eklesiisagan Tavis dasaxsnelad.
kirionis brZanebani qarTuli enis gamoyenebis Sesaxeb, winapris
mowodebad iqca _ mowodebad, raTa somxeTis qarTveloba ganSorebo-
da ukve araqalkedonitur somxur eklesias da dabruneboda erovnul
qarTuls _ marTlmadideblurs.
214
arseni safareli qarTul-somxuri saeklesio
urTierTobebs Sesaxeb VI-VII saukuneebSi
(`ganyofisaTvis qarTvelTa da somexTa~)
ubrZana berZenTa mefem somxeTis kaTalikos moses elivardels
(574-604) da mis episkoposebs, raTa misuliyvnen konstantinopolSi
da kvlav gamowvlilviT gamoeZiaT sarwmunoebrivi simarTle, marTa-
li ki daemtkicebinaT. xolo mose kaTalikosi ar daemorCila da ar
wavida, aramed uTxra berZenTa mociqulebs: ar gadaval mdinare
azatze, romelic sazRvaria sparsTa da berZenTa Soris, ar SevWam
berZenTa furnids da ar Sevsvam berZenTa Termons (furnids afue-
bul purs ewodebda, Termons wyliT gazavebul Rvinos), aseve upa-
suxes vaspuraganis episkoposebmac, romelnic sparsTa saxelmwifos
emorCilebodnen. arc maT inebes wasvla. xolo taos episkoposi da
sxva berZenTa morCili somexi episkoposebi saswrafod Cavidnen kon-
stantinopolSi. kvlav gamoiZies da meored daamtkices qalkedonis
krebis siswore mavrik mefis winaSe. yvelam erTobiT aRiara qristes WeS-
mariti ori buneba. daweres fici berZnebTan erTobis Sesaxeb da wamov-
idnen. roca somxeTSi movidnen, maTi sarwmunoeba ar Seiwynara mose kaTa-
likosma da misma sxva episkoposebma, romelnic sparsTa mier dapyro-
bil nawilSi cxovrobdnen da gaiyo somxeTi sarwmunoebrivad. qalke-
donitebma daidgines kaTalikosad ioane kogoviteli (590-611).
V muxli _ qarTvelma kaTalikosma kirion mcxeTelma da herTa kaTa-
likosma abazma ixiles, rom somxuri eklesia kvlav dvinis im krebis
erTgulia, romelic abdiSo asuris xeliT Caatares da romelmac wmi-
da msoflio sayovelTao kaTolike eklesias Camoacila somxuri ek-
lesia. am krebam somxuri eklesia Camoacila oTx msoflio sapatri-
arqos, amiT ki dairRva wmida grigol ganmanaTleblis anderZi ke-
sariis eklesiisadmi, rom somxuri eklesia ukunisamde ar ganSorde-
boda kesariis eklesiaSi somexi episkoposebis xeldasxmas (somxeTi ki
kesariis eklesiaSi xeldasxmas ganSorda imis gamo, rom sparsTa me-
fisgan miiRo brZaneba, TviT somxeTSive xeli daesxaT episkoposebi-
saTvis). roca aseTi praqtika kvlav aRorZinebuli ixiles kirion
215
kaTalikosma (591-615), herTa kaTalikosma abazma (552-596) da sivni-
eTis episkoposma grigorma, Seiqna didi dava somxeTsa da qarTls
Soris. qarTvelni ambobdnen, rom wmida grigolma saberZneTidan mogv-
ca Cven sarwmunoeba, romelic Tqven dauteveT, misi wmida anderZi
uaryaviT da abdiSo asurs da sxva borot mwvaleblebs daemorCilen-
iT. am mxilebis Semdeg somxebma qarTli daabezRes sparsTa mefesTan,
rom qarTvelebs rom-saberZneTis sarwmunoeba aqvTo. aseTive dava iyo
qarTvelTa da somexTa Soris nerse II-is drosac. aseve iyo mis sakaTali-
koso taxtze mjdom abraamis drosac. am dros gandevna qarTlis kaTa-
likosma kirionma mose curtavis episkoposi Tavisi eparqiidan, romel-
ic wmida SuSanikis saflavze iyo. Txova abraamma kirions es eparqia,
xolo man ar misca. da gadidda maT Soris ciloba. mouxmo abraamma
araratis provinciis samRvdeloebas da uTxra maT: an SeaCveneT qalke-
donis kreba, an gadiT Cveni samkvidrebelidan. zogierTi daemorCila
da SeaCvenes wmida kreba, zogierTi ki ar daemorCila da ganidevnen.
VI muxli _ abraamis Semdgom dajda kaTalikosad komitasi (607-
629), romelic Zalze mdidari iyo, Sesamoslis moyvare, bivrilis pa-
tiosani TvlebiT amkobda kverTxis Tavebs. es ufro metad moZule
iyo qalkedonis krebisa. misca Svidi saepiskoposo herTa kaTalikoss
da SeierTa is. misca jvris tarebis pativi sivnieTis episkoposs. ase-
Ti xerxiT mTeli somxeTi gaaerTiana qalkedonis krebis sawinaaRmde-
god. gamoZebna vinme dawyevlili ioane mairagomeli, aRWurva qalke-
donianobis sawinaaRmdego wignebiT da aRuTqva mis Semdeg sakaTali-
koso taxti. aTargmnina monofizit da sxva mwvalebel eresiarqTa
wignebi, gaavrcela da am tyuiliT mTeli somxeTis qveyana daajera.
Secvala Tavdapirveli saeklesio wesebi da kanonebi, TviTon ki axa-
li mrudeni SemoiRo. am dros aiSala Zveli da axali ki ver daamt-
kices (ar dainerga). amis gamo dRemde yoveli kaci somxeTSi Tavis
mier Seqmnil-gamogonebul saeklesio kanonebs iyenebs. yvelaferi es
komitas kaTalikosma gancofebuli ioane mairagomelis xeliT gaake-
Ta. Semdeg sakaTalikoso taxtze qristefore dajda (628-630), romelic
mairagomelis mteri iyo. gamwarda suliT ioane, Semdeg ki gaixara,
radganac kaTalikosi gadaayenes, magram mas mainc ar misces sakaTa-
likoso taxti. kaTalikosad ezra (630-641) dajda. ufro Sewuxda mai-
216
ragomelis mzakvari suli. aseTi mzakvareba pirvelad moxsenebuli
komitasis gamo moxda, Sedegad mairagomelis wvalebis swavlebiT aiv-
so mTeli somxeTi.
aqedan Cans, rom somxur eklesias araratis olqic ganSorda VII s-
is dasawyisSi, Cans, eTnikur-religiuri niSniT, radganac, im epoqaSi
araratis anu araqsis xeobis mkvidr qarTvelTa armenizaciis proce-
si jer kidev ar iyo dasrulebuli (Sesabamisad, qarTveli kirioni
araratis olqis saeklesio mmarTveli iyo), Tumca maleve es procesi
dasrulda.
217
Tavi VIII
e. w. somex-qalkedonitTa vinaoba
araswori Teoriebi iberebisa da somexi
qalkedonitebis Sesaxeb
vikipediasa da zogadad saerTaSoriso samecniero wreebSi amJamad
damkvidrebulia umarTebulo, araswori Tvalsazrisi, TiTqosda ivere-
bi (ivirebi) ewodebodaT ara mxolod qarTvelebs, aramed somex-qalke-
donitebsac da amasTanave iberiis Temis mcxovrebTac (iberiis Temis
mcxovreblebad rogorc wesi eTnikur somxebs miiCneven). rogorc wesi
aRniSnuli mosazrebis wyaroebad uTiTeben ara Zvel avtorebs, aramed
ZiriTadad v. aruTinova-fidanianis Sromebs, (magaliTad: mis grigol
pakurianis tipikons, erevani 1978, anda nina garsoians, romelmac 1977
wels niu-iorkSi gamosca Tavisi wigni).
somexi qakedonitebis iverebad moxseniebas safuZveli daedo XIX
s-is bolosa da XX s-is dasawyisSi, roca niko marma pirvelad uwoda
egreTwodebuli somex kalkedonitebs iverebi. v. fidanianis sityviT
niko marma somexi qalkedonitebi gamoiyvana legendebis sferodan,
kerZod TiTqosda niko mars mougrovebia yvela cnoba. aseve epi-
grafikuli da arqeologiur monacemebi da ase dauweria somexi qalke-
donitebis Sesaxeb Tavisi naSromi, romlis safuZvelzec taos, misi
mimdebare regionebis, aseve klarjeTis mkvidri qarTveloba cxadde-
ba somex qalkedonitebad, Sesabamisad am mxareTa qarTuli kultura,
eklesia-monastrebi somxurad. da am mxareebidan gamosuli wminda
mamebi da moRvaweebi eTnikur somxebad, (ioane da eqvTime mTawmind-
elebi, Tornike erisTavi da misi sagvareulo Cordvanelebisa. grigol
bakurianis Ze da sxva qarTveli didebulebi eTnikur somxebad cxad-
debian, maTi mtkicebiT isini qarTvelebi iyvnen ara eTnikurad, aramed
218
mxolod saeklesio-kulturuli TvalsazrisiT, maTi marTlmadide-
bluri aRmsareblobis gamo). cxadia es aris Teoria romelic amJamad
iwodeba `qarTizaciis Teoriad~. yvela statiaSi romelic ki somex
qalkedonitebs eZRvneba sainterneto sferoSi aRniSnulia, rom niko
marma Tavisi es aRniSnuli Teoria pirvelad wamoayena statiaSi _

(1906 w.). am statiaze dafuZnebiT Sesabamis cnobarSi
weren _ `somexi _ qalkedonitebis fenomeni pirvelad aRmoaCina aka-
demikosma n.i. marma~ (`somexi _ qalkedonitebi~, fond `haiazgis~ en-
ciklopediis masala).
iqve aRniSnulia `gamoCenilma aRmosavleTmcodnem (n.marma) Tavis
am naSromSi gamoikvlia, rom somxeTSi qalkedonizmi iyo cocxali,
progresuli religiur-kulturuli moZraoba da somexi qalkedonite-
bi aqtiurad monawileobdnen saeklesio, politikur da kulturul
cxovrebaSi. somxeTSi marTlmadidebluri Temis istoriisa da kul-
turis Seswavla gagrZelda mTeli XX saukunis manZilze sxvadasxva
mkvlevarebis mier. somex-qalkedonitebis Sesaxeb werdnen, v. aruTi-
nova-fidaniani, p. xaranisi, r. bartikiani, p. muradiani. n. maris mravali
Sroma mieZRvna somxur-qalkedonitur Zeglebs, romelnic somxuri-
dan qarTulad iTargmna. somexi qalkedonitTa mTargmnelobiTi moR-
vaweobis Sesaxeb werdnen i. abulaZe, n. akiniani, p. muradiani, a. ka-
zariani. arsebobs Sromebi n. adoncisa da i. akinianisa Cordvanelis,
varaz vaCes, Tornikesa da saerTod taoel somex-qalkedonitTa Sesaxeb
da aseve sasuneli Tornikianebis Sesaxeb~ (iqve gv. 2/2).
sabolood, mTeli msjelobani da mosazrebani CamoTvlili avtore-
bisa midis iqamde, rom TiTqosda termini `iviri~ gamoiyeneboda ara
mxolod eTnonimad, aramed iveriis Temis mcxovrebTa aRsaniSnad da
aseve gamoiyeneboda konfesionalurad, kerZod ki ivirebad (ivere-
bad) iwodeboda `rogorc wesi qarTul eklesias mikedlebuli somexi
_ qalkedonitebi~. amis TvalsaCinod mohyavT Semdegi magaliTebi _
`1. ana komina araorazrovnad uwodebs grigol bakurians somexs,
didebulTa gvaridan, xolo maTeos urhaeci _ mas qarTvels uwodebs,
amave dros TviTon (grigol bakurianis) mier Sedgenili baCkovis mo-
nastris wesdebaSi is Tavis Tavs eTnikur ivers uwodebs, maSin, roca
219
iqve naTqvamia, rom es wesdeba Sedgenilia romaelTa iverTa da somexTa
enebze da man xeli moawera somxuri asoebiT.
2. anisis taZris warweraSi bagrat vxkaci _ iverad iwodeba, amave
dros berZen avtorTa mier is somxad iwodeba. amave dros mis (bagratis)
Svils smbats maTeosi somexad moixseniebs, Cans, mxedvelobaSi hqon-
da smbatis dabruneba somxuri eklesiis mimdevarTa rigebSi.
3. maTeos urhaeli ambobs, rom, roca vasil apukapi dabrunda edesa-
Si, somxebi xarobdnen, aqedan Cans, rom is somexi iyo, magram is (ma-
Teos urhaeci) vasils pirdapir romaels uwodebs, mxedvelobaSi hqonda
an misi administraciuli funqciebi, anda qalkedonitoba.
4. am aRniSnuli vasilis Zma _ farsmani iverad iwodeba siklicas
mier, xolo atalaiteti mas somexs uwodebs~ (somxuri forumi `vard-
ananqi~, gverdi `iverebi~).
am magaliTebidan umarTebulod askvnian, rom, magaliTad `maTeos
urhaeci mraval wminda sisxlis somexs `romaels~ anda `ivirs~ uwodebs,
am dros mxedvelobaSi aqvs, rom isini somexi qalkedonitebi arian,
mikedlebulni an berZnul, anda qarTul marTlmadidebel eklesias~
(iqve gv. 2/3).
iqve am gverdze amateben Semdegs _ `eTnikonma `ivirma~ veraviTar
SemTxvevaSi ver gamoaZeva termini `somexi~ (iqve gv. 2/3) magaliTad
kvlav grigol bakurianis Ze mohyavT, TiTqosda is iyo somexi, romel-
mac qarTuli icoda. maTmier srulad gabaTilebulia maTeos urhae-
cis cnoba, romelic grigol bakurianis Zes tomiT qarTvels uwodebda,
da rac mTavaria, TviT grigolisave cnoba, romelSic is Tavis Tavs
iverTa brwyinvale gvariSvils uwodebs, da mas Tavi mohqonda, rom is
mTeli cxovrebis manZilze mxne qarTveli meomari iyo.
samxreT saqarTvelosa da mis mimdebare regionebSi, ZiriTadad tao-
klarjeTSi mcxovrebi qarTvelebis somex-qalkedonitebad gamocxa-
deba gaamyara, Zalze didi saerTaSoriso avtoritetis mqone organ-
om `pravoslavnaia enciklopediam~. vikipediis statia `somexi-qalke-
donitebi~ amis Sesaxeb miuTiTebs amonarids am organodan _ `saqarTve-
los mosazRvre somxeTis raionebSi mcxovrebi somexi marTlmadide-
blebi xdebodnen saqarTvelos marTlmadidebeli eklesiis kanoni-
220
kuri daqvemdebarebis qveS~ _ `pravoslavnaia enciklopedia~ (t. III,
moskovi, 2001, gv. 326).
aqve aRniSnulia `XI s-is meore naxevarSi Turq-selCukebis Semoseveb-
ma, romlebmac bizantiur yofnas armeniaSi bolo mouRo, aiZula somexi
qalkedonitebi TandaTanobiT gadasuliyvnen saqarTvelos sakaTaliko-
soSi da XIII s-Si maTi saepiskoposo kaTedrebi ukve `qarTulad~ miiCne-
odnen~ (pravoslavnaia enciklopedia, t. III, moskovi, 2001, gv. 327).
am Tvalsazrisis umarTebuloba Tundac a. lastivertecis Sromi-
dan Cans, roca anisis jvris lursmnebi~, rogorc is ambobs basianel-
ma qarTvelebma~ Seuracxyves, rac a. lastivertecisve sityviT, mizezi
gaxda maTi dasjisa, roca basili bulgarTmmusvreli SeiWra iberiaSi
(e.i. tao-basianSi) da sastikad dasaja, daxoca didZali mosaxleoba
da daangria iqamde ayvavebuli iverTa qveyana (tao-basiani, saerTod
daviT kurapalatis yofili samefo), TviT amave avtoris lastiverte-
cis sityviT, maSasadame Turq-selCukebamde am regionSi, mravali
qarTvel-qalkedoniti cxovrobda da maT, Sesabamisi qarTuli saepisko-
posoebic eqnebodaT, Tumc ki wyaroebi maT Sesaxeb jer kidev ar aris
saTanadod Seswavlili. es xels ar uSlis am organos (pravoslavnaia
enciklopedias), raTa oSki _ somex-qalkedonitTa monastrad war-
moadginos, xolo fotoze, romelsac miwerili aqvs sityvebi _ `avanis
eklesia~, sinamdvileSi mcxeTis jvris eklesiaa gamosaxuli. pravo-
slavnaia enciklopediaSi somex-qalkedonitebis Sesaxeb dastambuli
statiis avtoria v. aruTinova-fidaniani.
v. aruTinova-fidaniani `pravoslavnaia enciklopediis~ statiaSi
`somexi-qalkedonitebi~ TviTve aRniSnavs _ `somex-qalkedonitTa Ses-
wavlis sirTule aixsneba wyaroTmcodneobiTi bazis siZneleebiT:
somex-qalkedonitTa Sesaxeb cnobebi moipoveba sxvadasxva enovan (somx-
ur, berZnul, qarTul, siriul da arabul) wyaroebSi da aseve sxva-
dasxva heterogenur wyaroebSi (istoriul qronikebSi, wmidaTa cxov-
rebebSi, saRvTismetyvelo da polemikur traqtatebSi, epigrafikasa
da a.S). Tumca ki arcerT maTganSi ar arsebobs raime pirdapiri anda
obieqturi informacia somex-qalkedonitTa Sesaxeb. saerTod somex-
qalkedonitTa kuTvnili nawarmoebebi cota SemorCa, esenia sinas mTis
wm. ekaterines monasterSi aRmoCenili antimonofizituri saRvTis-
221
metyvelo dokumentebi, istoriul polemikuri Txzuleba `Txroba
somexTa Sesaxeb~, somexi _ anonimi avtorisa (VII s. I naxevari) da grigol
bakurianis (XI s. ) tipikoni da sxva nawarmoebebis rigi~ (v. aruTinova-
fidaniani, somexi-qalkedonitebi, pravoslavnaia enciklopedia).
aqedan kargad Cans, rom TviT yvelaze tendenciuri v. fidanianis
aRiarebiTac ki somex-qalkedonitTa Sesaxeb ar miuTiTebs arcerTi
wyaro. am mizezis gamo wyaroTa saocar ar qonas avseben magaliTad
iseTi TxzulebiT, rogoricaa petriwonis tipikoni, romelic somxur
qalkedonitur Txzulebad cxaddeba usabuTod.
a. fidanianis tendenciurobisa da arakoreqtulobis Sesaxeb kar-
gad miuTiTa Tavis ramdenime naSromSi istorikosma stepanenkom `bi-
zantiiskii vestnikis `59-e tomSi. am tomSi dabeWdilia v. stepanenkos
naSromi romlis saTauria: `somexi-qalkedonitebi XI s-is bizantiis
istoriaSi (v. aruTinova-fidanianis wignis gamo)~.
am naSromSi stepanenkom mkacrad gaakritika v. aruTinova-fidani-
anis wigni `somxur-bizantiuri sakontaqto zona (X-XI ss). kultura-
Ta urTierTqmedebaTa Sedegi~ (moskovi, 1994, rus. enaze).
stepanenko wers _ `fidanianis am naSromma ufro meti kiTxva war-
moSva, vidre gasca pasuxebi, misi mizezia, ara mxolod mkvlevaris sak-
uTari Secdomebi, romelnic naTelia, aramed is, rom ar arsebobs saer-
Tod aRiarebuli gasagebi aparati eTnokulturuli procesebis Sesas-
wavlad, saWiroa sxva midgomebi, sxva meTodika da ara is, rac demon-
strirebulia v. aruTinova-fidanianis wignSi~. (.. -
XI . . . 59, . 60).
stepanenko agrZelebs _ `saWiroa monacemTa bazis Seqmna somexi
qalkedonitebis Sesaxeb bizantiasa da saqarTveloSi, imis gaTval-
iswinebiT, rom qarTuli teritoriebis nawili X s-Si aRmoCnda im-
periis SemadgenlobaSi. es mkveTrad Seamcirebs istoriuli konte-
qstebidan amoglejili informaciiT manipulirebis SesaZleblobas.
fesvebi eTnopolitikuri situaciisa, romelic Seiqmna imperiis aR-
mosavleT sazRvrebTan X s-Si, unda veZioT misi istoriis ufro adrin-
del periodebSi~ (v. stepanenko, dasax, naSr, gv. 61) .
IX-XI ss-Si imperiis aRmosavleTiT (istoriuli saqarTvelos
samxreTSi) Seqmnili eTnopolitikuri da eTnokulturuli situaci-
222
is fesvebs, piradad Cven veZebT ara mxolod VI-VIII saukuneebSi, aramed
gacilebiT adreul periodSi. am sakiTxebis rkvevas exeba Cveni wigni
`arian-qarTli~. saWiroa wina saukuneTa periodebis kvleva aRniSnul
e.w. `somex-qalkedonitTa~ sakiTxis Sesaswavlad. samwuxaroa, rom
qarTveli filologebis da istorikosebis elitam mTlianad gaiTavisa
n. maris `qarTizaciis~ Teoria. isini, rogorc Tundac v. stepanenko,
darwmunebulebi arian, rom imperiis aRmosavleTis e.w. `sakontaqto~
zona eTnikuri somxebiT iyo dasaxlebuli, romelTa gaqalkedonite-
biT, TiTqosda maTi gaqarTveleba xdeboda. aseTi mosazreba ki war-
moiqmneba `istoriuli konteqstebidan amoglejili informaciis ma-
nipulirebiT~.
rogorc aRiniSna, TviTon v. aruTinova-fidaniani wers, rom ar
arsebobs raime wyaro, romelSic pirdapiri da obieqturi informa-
cia iyos imis Sesaxeb, rom iverebi (ivirebi) eTnikurad somxebi iyvnen.
sinamdvileSi, kidev erTxel, rom vTqvaT, istoriuli saqarTvelos
samxreT nawilSi mcxovrebi qarTvelebi anu iverebi somex-qalkedo-
nitebad gamoacxades istoriuli konteqstebidan amoglejili infor-
maciis manipulirebis Sedegad, pirveli magaliTi maT niko marma mis-
ca, roca grigol xanZTelis cxovrebis cnobili fraza (`qarTlad
friadi qveyana aRiracxebis~, sadac qarTuli eniT wirva-locva xde-
ba), gaaukuRmarTa, masSi im azris CadebiT, TiTqosda vincki qarTuli
eklesiis wevri xdeboda, yvelas qarTvels uwodebdnen. aseve esmis es
fraza amJamindeli filologebisa da istorikosebis did nawils. si-
namdvileSi ki jer kidev bizantielTa mier imier taosa da mimdebare
qarTuli miwebis aneqsiamde, iq Camoyalibda qarTuli saeklesio er-
Teuli, romlis saxelwodebac iyo `aRmosavalis~ anu `meore iveriis
sakaTalikoso~, romelsac Tavisi TavisTavadi kaTalikosi hyavda. am
ukanasknelT qarTul samyaroSi `aRmosavalis kaTalikosebs~ uwodebd-
nen, `aRmosavals~ ara konstantinopolidan, aramed antioqia ieru-
salimis sapatriarqoebidan hqondaT TavisTavadoba miniWebuli da
Sesabamisad maT mirons iqidan ugzavnidnen. grigol xanZTelis mowa-
fem efremma izruna da iRvawa, raTa am meore iveriis anu `aRmosava-
lis~ kaTalikosebs mironi mieRoT ara antioqia-ierusalimidan aramed,
TviTve, adgilzeve ekurTxebinaT, radganac es qveyanac igive qarTlia.
223
meore iveriac, qarTlia, qarTvelebis qveyanaa, aqac qarTulad aRev-
lineba wirva-locva, rogorc mcxeTis qarTlis vrcel qveyanaSi. al-
baT, ase unda gavigoT es aRniSnuli cnobili fraza. TviT v. fidani-
anic exeba sakiTxs, rom `iveriis Tems~ _ `aRmosavleTs~ uwodebdnen _

(. ... 185.193).
maSasadame, iveriis Tems anu im miwa-wyals sadac es Temi (fema)
warmoiqmna `aRmosavleTi~ erqva qarTul wyaroebSi, Sesabamisad mis
qarTvel kaTalikosebs `kaTalikosni aRmosavalisani~ erqvaT, aRmo-
savalis qarTuli sakaTalikosos saeklesio TavisTvadoba VIII s-Si
aRiara antioqiam (es sakiTxi ganxilulia am wignis sxva TavebSi), mas
Seexeba grigol xanZTelis cnoba `qarTlis qveynis friadobis~ anu
sididis Sesaxeb. mcxeTis iveria am meore iveriasTan erTad marTlac
didi qveyana iyo, qarTuli eklesiis iurisdiqciaSi. isic (meore iver-
iac) qarTlia, isic didi qarTlis nawilia, amis magaliTad giorgi
merCules mohyavs is rom aqac qarTulad aRevlineba wirva-locva.
aseTi unda iyos n. maris manipulirebis Sedegad sastikad damaxinje-
buli cnobili frazis paTosi da ara is, rom somxebi qarTveldebod-
nen anu iverielebad iqceodnen qalkedonitobis aRiarebiT. es mo-
sazreba imdenad aris gamjdari, rom samwuxarod v. stepanenkoc ki
miiCnevs, rom am mxaris mosaxleoba warmoSobiT somxuri iyo, romelnic
Semdeg mTlianad gaqarTvelda, mis mier aruTinova-fidanianis kri-
tika ki imiT gamoixateba, rom am ukanasknels uwunebs kvlevis me-
Todebs, amCnevs mis Secdomebs, arakoreqtulobas, sicrues sxvadasx-
va faqtebis gadmocemisas da sxva. sabolood ki cdilobs ufro ma-
Ral simaRleze aiyvanos `somex-qalkedonitTa~, istoriis kvlevis
saqme. Sesabamisad, stepanenko v. fidanianis mimarT xSirad xmarobs
frazebs _ `misi mtkiceba dausabuTebelia, (iqve, gv.
48), `avtors pasuxi ara aqvs~ _
(iqve, gv. 50). kerZod, sakiTxi Seexeba v. fidanianis mtkicebas TiTqosda
arsebobda `somex-qalkedonitTa eTnosi~. sinamdvileSi es eTnosi iyo
iverebi anu qarTvelebi, romelnic iqamde anu taos samefos daarse-
bamde Seadgendnen mrevls somxuri eklesiisa da manaskertis 726 wlis
krebis Semdeg ki daurbundnen dedaqarTul eklesias. stepanenko agr-
224
Zelebs fidanianis kritikas aseTi sityvebiT _ `mcdaria~ _
(iqve, gv. 51) . anda `dausabuTebelia _
(iqve, gv. 53). (kerZod sakiTxi Seexeba imas rom TiTqosda e.w. bizanti-
ur `sakontaqto~ zolSi `ZiriTadad erTmaneTs xvdeboda ori eTni-
kuri masa _ somxebisa da berZnebis~ stepanenkos azriT aq iyo mesame
eTnikuri masa _ qarTvelebisa). aseve uwodebs fidanians _ `arako-
reqtuls~ da wers _
: - -
, .
fidaniani Tavis gamokvlevebSi aRniSnavs, rom iqamde sagangebod
ar iyo gamokvleuli eTnikuri TviTSemecneba somexi-qalkedonitebi-
sa, rom somex-qalkedonitTa ganmasxvavebeli niSania maTi marTlma-
didebloba, magram aviwydeba, rom marTlmadidebloba ZiriTadad bi-
zantiuri fenomenia, amitomac ismis kiTxva marTlmadidebeli somxe-
bi bizantiaSi, marTlmadidebelTa umTavres samyaroSi, ratom uwodeb-
dnen TavianT Tavs `tomiT warmoSobiT, naTesaviT qarTvels~! Tu mar-
Tlmadidebeli mrwamsi gansazRvravda eTnikur vinaobas, maSin mar-
Tlmadidebel somxebs bizantiaSi TavianTi Tavi berZnebad unda war-
moedginaT da ara qarTvelebad. fidaniani amtkicebs, TiTqosda somexi-
qalkedonitebi `uaryofdnen somxur enasa da RvTismsaxurebas~, Tum-
ca sxva naSromSi is aRniSnavs, rom somexi qalkedonitebi amayobdnen
TavianTi (somxuri) STamomavlobiT, sad aris marTali am SemTxvevaSi
mkvlevari, somexi qalkedonitebi uaryofdnen Tu ara somxur enasa
da kulturas? sinamdvileSi ki somxur enas mxolod am mxareTa is
eTnikurad iberieli anu qarTveli pirebi uaryofdnen, romelTac
726 wlis Semdeg gadawyvites SeerTebodnen mSobliur-qarTul ekle-
sias, xolo eTnikuri somxebi an SeuerTdnen somxur monofizitur
eklesias, anda SeinarCunes siyvaruli TavianTi somxuri warsulis
mimarT rasac SeniSnavs kidec mkvlevari.
samwuxarod, 1071 wlis Semdegac, rac maTi miwa-wyali Turq-sel-
Cukebis xelSi gadavida, mravali qarTveli, anu eTnikuri iveri yo-
fili iberiis Temidan gadasaxlda kilikiaSi, sadac kvlav gagrZelda
maTi armenizaciis procesi (aq bakurianis Zeebis nawilic ki gadasax-
lebula), amasTanave adgilzeve (yofil iberiis Temis miwaze) darCe-
225
nili eTnikuri iverebic kvlav moiqcnen somxuri monofizituri ek-
lesiis iurisdiqciaSi, rasac maTi saRvTismsaxuro wignebic miuTiTebs.
rasac ikvlevda, oRond Taviseburad r. bartikiani. miuxedavad amisa
am wignebSi am kidev erTxel armenizebuli iverebis qarTuli fesvebi
Turme mainc naTlad Cans. aseve miuTiTeben evfratispireTSi ibere-
bis cxovrebas. aRsaniSnavia, rom edesaSi qarTuli koloniis arsebo-
ba dastureba v. goilaZis kvlevebiT. fidanianis azriT iberiis TemSi
wirva-locva TiTqosda qarTul enaze aResruleboda e.w. `somex-qalke-
donitTa~ Soris, da mxolod amis gamo maT `iverebi~ ewodebodaT,
sinamdvileSi, rogorc Cveni gamokvleva aCvenebs, iberiis TemSi wir-
va-locva iyo ara qarTul enaze, aramed berZnulad, Tumca Zalian
ecadnen qarTveli mamebi da didxans ibrZoles raTa bizantias neba
daerTo, raTa iveriis TemSi wirva-locva qarTul enaze yofiliyo.
amisTvis iRvwoda zaqaria valaSkerteli, aTonis mTis mamebi, magram
uSedegod, iveriis TemSi, sabolood, wirva-locva berZnulad iyo.
miuxedavad amisa, iveriis Temis mosaxleoba Tavis Tavs `iverebs~
uwodebda. rogorc es mravali mxridan Cans, fidanianis Tvalsazrisi
am mxriv usafuZvloa. bizantiaSic cnobil iberebs, magaliTad grigol
bakurianis Zes, wirva-locva Tavisi mravali laSqrobisas, cxadia
berZnulad hqonda, magram is mainc Tavis Tavs `qarTvels~ uwodebda.
fidanianis apelireba mxolod wirva-locvis enaze _ usafuZvloa. am
xalxs didi qarTuli warsuli hqonda, maT TviTonve es kargad icod-
nen, Tumca ki isini `armeniaSi cxovrobdnen~. aRniSnaven, rom mravali
aseTi `iviri~ iyo bizantiur aristokratiaSi, cxadia maTi saeklesio
ena berZnuli iyo miuxedavad amisa, isini TavianT Tavs qarTvelebs
uwodebdnen, maTi mematianeebic maT `iverebs~ uwodebdnen. iveriis
Temidan bizantiaSi CasulT TiTqosda yvelas `iviri~ erqva. iveriis
Temi am olqs, misi mosaxleobis udidesi nawilis, maTi eTnikuri ive-
rielobis gamo ewoda. isini iyvnen vinaoba aRdgenili, iqamde armeni-
zebuli mosaxleoba. cxadia, maT iverebi erqvaT maTi eTnikuri war-
momavlobis gamo.
stepanenko wers, rom fidaniani faqtebiT umarTebuloT manipu-
lirebs (iqve, gv. 57). kerZod, saqme exeba CordvanelTa sagvareulos,
Tornike erisTavs, aseve grigol bakurianis Zes (masala faqtiurad
226
arc ki gaaCniaT, magram faqtebis gayalbebiT saerTaSoriso asparez-
ze danerges TavianTi Tvalsazrisi).
Codvanelebis sakiTxi (sxva statiaSi) sagengebod gamoikvlia v.
stepanenkom. aruTinova-fidanianis daskvniT grigol bakurianis Ze
iyo eTnikurad somexi, radganac man TiTqosda Tavis tipikons xeli
somxuri asoebiT moawera, amasTanave TiTqosda tipikoni somxur enazec
daiwera, Tundac ase iyos es mainc eTnikuri vinaobis gansazRvris
saSualebas ar iZleva. magaliTad, ilia WavWavaZe da olRa guramiS-
vili (misi coli) erTmaneTs werilebs rusul enaze werdnen da amis
gamo isini rusebad unda CaiTvalon, anda Tavis sabanko wesdebas igive
ilia WavWavaZe radganac rusul enaze werda is amis gamo rusia?
somxuri wera-kiTxvis codnasTan dakavSirebiT, Cven am naSromSi
gamovikvlieT, rom VII-VIII ss-Si, roca aRniSnul mxareTa iverebi aR-
moCndnen somxur-qalkedonur saeklesios samrevloSi, codna-ganaTle-
bas iRebdnen somxurad, amis gamo maT kargad icodnen somxuri wera-
kiTxva, magram TandaTanobiT swavlobdnen qarTuls. 726-iani wlebis
pirvel xanebSi, anu IX-X saukuneebSic am mxareebidan gamosulma mraval-
ma qarTvelma icoda da zogjer ukeTesadac somxuri wera-kiTxva,
iseve rogorc magaliTad XIX saukunis qarTvelma sasuliero pirebis
erTma nawilma rusuli wera-kiTxva ufro ukeT icoda vidre qarTu-
li, amis mizezi iyo am dros Seqmnili politikur-eklesiuri viTare-
ba. aseve iyo iberiis Temis miwazec mis dapyrobamde da Semdegac _ es
areali somxur-monofizituri eklesiiT uZlieresi zegavlenis qveS
iyo, iqaurma qarTvelebma mxolod erT periodSi SeZles Tavis gaTa-
visufleba misgan, es iyo daviT kurapalatis epoqa, bizantiuri saCu-
qari, axali miwebis Sesvla qarTul saxelmwifoebriobaSi, amiT aRfr-
Tovanebuli adgilobrivi mosaxleobis mier myisierad Tavisi eTno-
erovnuli vinaobis gamovlena da erovnuli dauokebeli sixaruli
(mCagvrelTa mxridan) da eklesiuri gaTavisuflebis gamo, rac aRw-
erilia Cvens wignSi.
n. maric da v. fidanianic ara mxolod taos da iveriis Tems exebi-
an, klarjeTic ki somex-qalkedonitTa qveyanad warmoadgines, rac
TviT v. stepanenkosac ki aRaSfoTebs, radganac daskvnebs akeTebs
wyaroebis pirdapiri Cvenebebis gareSe. fidanianis azriT mTeli zeda-
227
fena mmarTveloba samxreT saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebSi TiTqosda
somxuri iyo. Tu es ase iyo amiT misi xalxi unda gasomxebuliyo, is ki
`somexTa gaqarTvelebis~ Sesaxeb saubrobs.
iberiis Temisa da mimdebare teritoriebidan gamosuli cnobili
pirebis qarTvelobis Sesaxeb naTlad weren somexi qronistebi (e.i.
somxuri wyaroebi), rogorc amas v. stepanenko miuTiTebs. somxuri
wyaroebi maT eTnikur `qarTvelebs~ uwodeben. aRniSnuli mkvlevare-
bi am wyaroebs `arasakmarisad miiCneven~ da maT pirdapir Cvenebebs
gangeb amaxinjeben da abundovaneben.
v. stepanenkom sagangebo Sroma miuZRvna Tornike erisTavisa da
misi CordvanelTa ojaxis eTnikuri vinaobis kvlevas (. . .
( . .
) 1999).
mkvlevari aRniSnavs, rom axali qarTuli istoriografiiT Torni-
ke qarTvelia, xolo somxuriT (n. adonci, n. akiniani, v. ariuTinova) _
somexi. maTgan erTni `Tornikianebs~ miiCneven somexi bagratidebis
STamomavlad, sxvani ki mamikonianebad. maTi azriT somxuri sagavreulo
_ Cordvanelebi flobdnen xaltoi-ariws da Cormairs, iyvnen mTavre-
bi derjanisa da taronisa~.
v. stepanenko msjelobs _ `VIII s-mde tao (taiqi) Sedioda armeniis
SemadgenlobaSi, domeni iyo mamikonianebis naxararuli sagvareulo-
si. mis mosaxleobis umetesi nawili TiTqosda somxebi iyvnen, misi
azriT taos somxuri warsuli Semoinaxa toponimikam da arqiteqtur-
is naSTebma, magaliTad bana da iSxanis eklesiis absida, iSxanis ageba
ukavSirdeba nerse kaTalikoss (aRmaSenebel stepanenkos cnobiT Cu-
binaSvili banas somxur VII-VIII ss. arqiteqturasTan akavSirebda (rad-
ganac aq `qarTvelebi ufro gvian gamoCdnen~). maSin roca sumbat da-
viTis ZiT bana aago aSot kuxma 918 wlamde, `SesaZloa aRadgina Zveli
somxuri Zegli~).
v. stepanenkos azriT grigol xanZTelis cxovreba TiTqosda adas-
turebs rom tao mosaxleobisagan daclili iyo, roca iq qarTvelebi
Casaxldnen. aseTi Tvalsazrisi sayovelTaod gaavrcela n. marma, mag-
ram mainc unda iTqvas, rom aseT cnobas TviT giorgi merCule ar
iZleva, tao qarTvelebiT odiTganve iyo dasaxlebuli, da aq somxuri
228
eklesiis iurisdiqciaSi myofi qarTvelebi cxovrobdnen, radganac
VII-VIII s-Si, 726 wlamde, somxuri eklesia qalkedonuri iyo da mis
mrevlad yofna qarTvelebs SeeZloT (rogorc magaliTad XIX s-Si
saqarTveloSi qarTveloba iyo rusuli eklesiis mrevli, misi mar-
Tlmadideblobis gamo), grigol xanZTelis cxovrebaSi mxolod isaa
aRniSnuli, rom mtris mier taos eklesia-monastrebis dadumebis Sem-
dgom aq RvTismsaxurebis ricxvi Zalze damcrobili iyo. cxadia, xalxis
raodenobac Semcirdeboda, magram qarTvelTa iq Casaxlebis Sesaxeb
araferia aRniSnuli, aq mxolod qarTveli erTeuli mamebi midian,
radganac 726 wlis Semdeg adgilobriv qarTvelebs maTTan surdaT
urTierToba da ara ukve monofizit somxebTan.
fidanianis miRebuli daskvniT, TiTqosda taoSi cxovrobda somex-
qalkedonitTa eTnikuri, gancalkevebuli jgufi, iverebad saxelde-
buli, aseTi eTno hibridis arseboba Zveli qarTuli da somxuri
wyaroebisaTvis ucnobia.
stepanenko kargad amxels n. adoncisa da n. akinianis Secdomebs,
romlis mixedviTac Tornikesa da misi ojaxis somxobas TiTqosda
miuTiTebdes anissa da karinSi mdebare somxuri xaCkarebi.
anisis somxur xaCkarze, adoncis sityviT, TiTqosda weria sityva
`varazvaCe~, stepanenkom gamoikvlia TviT am xaCkaris teqsti da daaskv-
na rom n. adoncma dauSva Secdoma, am xaCkarze es saxeli ar weria,
Sesabamisad am xaCkaris gamoyeneba TornikeTa ojaxis somxobis samt-
kiceblad _ miuRebelia. amis miuxedavad, aruTinova-fidaniani mainc
am xaCkars miuTiTebs Tornike erisTavis sagvareulos somxobis samt-
kiceblad. msgavsadve v. stepanenkom Kkarin-Teodosiopolisis Semog-
arenSi mdebare somxuri xaCkari gamowvlilviT gamoikvlia da daaskv-
na, rom es xaCkari arafers uTiTebs Tornike erisTavis Sesaxeb.
aqedanac Cans, rom somexi-qalkedonitebis `iverebad~ saxeldebas
cdiloben sxvadasxva ukadrisi meTodebiT, ararsebuli da gamogoni-
li warwerebiT da stefanoz taroneli, cnobili somexi avtori Torni-
ke erisTavis epoqisa, pirdapir wers, rom Tornike _ qarTveli, iveri-
eli iyo erovnebiT, da man iverTa jari Sekriba saimperio saWiroebi-
saTvis ( . 134).
229
stepanenkos daskvniT `Tornikianebis taos Stos arsebobis mtki-
ceba aris Secdoma n. adoncisa~. (gv. 143). (saerTod somxeTsa da bi-
zantiaSi cxovrobda e.w. `tornikianebis~ sagvareulo, romelTanac
stepanenkos daskvniT Tornike erisTavs araferi akavSirebda _ is
CordvanelTa sagvareulodan iyo). Tornikes `somxobis~ mtkicebebi
faqtiuri siyalbea anda Secdomis Sedegia wers stepanenko (gv. 144),
Tumca ki stepanenko cdeba, roca miiCnevs , rom TiTqosda Tornike
marTalia qarTveli iyo, magram mas da mis sagvareulos `somexi winapre-
bi hyavda~. (iqve, gv. 144), es daskvnac ar eyrdnoba araviTar wyaros
da mxolod mkvlevaris analizis Sedegia. am analizis dros ki ar
aris gaTvaliswinebuli rom tao-basiani da mTeli araqsispireTi eT-
nikuri iberebis qveyana iyo, romelic mxolod qristeSobamde II sauku-
neSi Sevida armeniis SemadgenlobaSi, roca artaqsiam da bzariadrem
iberebisagan miitaces xorZene, gogarena da pariadres kalTebi, xolo
xalibebisagan karinis qveyana. aq, am miwa-wyalze mitacebis Semdegac
cxadia sacxovreblad darCnen iberebi anu qarTvelebi, Tumca ki IV
saukunidan somxuri eklesiis iurisdiqciaSi, romlis uReli gada-
igdes 726 wlis krebis Semdeg.
stepanenkos azriT aqaur qarTvelebs somexi winaprebi hyavdaT, am
mosazrebas uaryofs Cveni naSromi `arian-qarTli~.
iverebis somex-qalkedonitebad gamocxadeba Secdomaa, romlis ga-
mosworebazec unda izrunos qarTulma istoriografiam, romelic am-
Jamad `qarTizaciis Teorias~ emxroba, rac misi dabrkolebis lodia.
01.06.2014
230
v. stepanenkos sqema, eyrdnoba iveronis xelnawerTa kolifons
(Lefort Actes d Iviron p. 8-10).
Tornike erisTavis genealogia
abuxarbi Cordvaneli + maria arSuSa
ioane-
varazvaCe
Tornike-
ioane
bagrati arSuSa abuxarbi
Tornike miqaeli Coroldi Cordvaneli-
zorvari
Cordvanel
patriki
bagrat
patriki
bagrat
magistri
231
somxur-qalkedonuri eklesiis qarTuli frTa
(qarTvelebi somxeTSi)
somxeTSi Zalze didi raodenobis mkvidri qarTuli mosaxleobis
cxovreba, rogorc aRiniSna, gamowveuli iyo imiT, rom jer kidev
qristeSobamde II saukuneSi iberebisagan armeniam miitaca _ xorZene,
gogarena da pariadres kalTebi. cxadia es regionebi qarTvelebiT
iyvnen dasaxlebulni.
somxuri eklesiis daarsebis Semdeg somxeTis mkvidri qarTveloba
gadaiqca somxuri eklesiis mrevlad, magram maT qarTuli eTnoSemec-
neba SenarCunebuli hqondaT, gansakuTrebiT somxeTis CrdiloeT da
dasavleT nawilebSi.
kirion kaTalikosis moZraobam qarTuli enis dasacavad, erTgvar-
ad SeanjRria da gamoafxizla gugarqisa da taos qarTveloba.
a. karaSevi Tavis wignSi `msoflio saeklesio krebebi~ aRniSnavda,
rom aRmosavleTSi, zogjer, aRmsareblobis gaTaviseba xdeboda eT-
nikuri niSniT, magaliTad, misi azriT bizantieli berZnebisagan aR-
mosavleTis qristianuli xalxebi gancalkevebas cdilobdnen imiT,
rom iRebdnen antibizantiur saeklesio aRmsareblobas. amis gamo,
miiRo TiTqos egviptis, siriisa da armeniis mosaxleobam monofiz-
itoba, riTac gaberZnebisgan daicves Tavi.
Sesabamisad vfiqrobT, rom armeniis qarTvelebic cdilobdnen
Zlieri somxuri kulturuli gavlenisgan Tavis dacvas msgavsi qmede-
bebiT.
SeiZleboda albaT amiTac agvexsna qarTvelTa survili somxuri
eklesiisagan gancalkevebisa jer kidev VI saukuneSi sparsTa mmarTve-
lobisas. monofizitur armeniaSi qalkedonuri sarwmunoeba qarTvelTa
bunebrivi safari iyo erovnulobis SesanarCuneblad VI saukuneSi da
VII s-is dasawyisSi.
male viTareba Seicvala, herakle keisris sparseTSi laSqrobis Sem-
deg TviTon somxuri eklesiis centrma Sekra `unia~ bizantiur ek-
lesiasTan. somxeTSi mravali qalkedonuri saepiskoposo warmoiqmna.
somxur-qalkedonuri saepiskoposoebis ricxvi Zalze didi iyo (70-ze
meti) da isini ganfenilni iyvnen uzarmazar teritoriaze vanisa da
urmiis tbebidan trapezuntamde da _ antioqiamde.
232
amis gamo, somxeTis am mxareebis qarTul-qalkedonuri mrevli, VII
s-Si, moeqca somxur-qalkedonur eklesiaSi, isini ZiriTadad dasav-
leT armeniasa da gugarqSi (Woroxidan Tbilisamde) cxovrobdnen.
qarTveli moRvaweebi TavianTi ganswavlulobisa da Sromis moy-
vareobis gamo somxur eklesiis umaRlesi ierarqebic ki xdebodnen.
herakle keisramde aseTi iyo airaratis qorepiskoposi Semdeg ki qar-
Tveli kaTalikosi kirioni, aseve eTnikuri qarTveli unda yofiliyo
somexi-qalkedoniti kaTalikosi nerses III mSenebeli. man devnilobis
dros Tavi Seafara Tavis mSobliur kuTxes taos, sadac saepisko-
poso centri daaarsa iSxanSi. somxur-qalkedonuri eklesiiis eTni-
kur qarTuli frTa mcire, magram mniSvnelovani nawili iyo.
patriarq nikoloz mistikosis miTiTeba
tao-basianis qarTvelTa da aseve
albanelTa Sesaxeb (X s.)
(werilidan Cans, rom dasavleT saqarTvelo arasodes yofila
konstantinopolis iurisdiqciaSi)
konstantine porfirogenetis Tanaxmad, imperatoris leon VI-is
(886-912) dros, taronis samTavros bagratuni mmarTvelebi cdilobd-
nen bizantiasTan dakavSirebas.
X saukunis 20-iani wlebidan bizantiam SeZlo arabebis (mahmadia-
nebis) winaaRmdeg Seteva zemo evfratis aRmosavleTiT mdebare miwa-
wyalze. bizantiis jarma ioane kurkuasis meTaurobiT daapira dvinis
aRebac, magram mas winaaRmdegobas uwevda somexTa mefe aSot II erkaTi
(914-929), romelic dvinis amiras uWerda mxars. aSotma xalifasgan
miiRo SahinSas tituli.
dvinTan warumateblobis Semdeg ioane kurkuasma mahmadianebisgan
gaaTavisufla qalaqi xlaTi da 931 wels bizantielTa jarebi Sevid-
nen xlaTsa da berkrSi, vaspurakanis samefo bizantielTa gavlenis
sferoSi aRmoCnda.
233
978 wels barda skliarosis damarcxebis jildod daviT kurapalats
gadaeca sxva regionebTan erTad harkis da apahuniqis olqebi q. ma-
naskertTan axlos. es qalaqi am droisaTvis mahmadiani amiras xelSi
iyo (is daviT kurapalatma bizantielebs waarTva).
990 wels daviT kurapalatma dalaSqra manaskerti da alyis Semdeg
aiRo. aq mas Causaxlebia didi raodenobiT qarTvelebi da somxebi.
amis gamo, Tavrizis amiras didZali jarebi dauZravs daviT kurapa-
latis winaaRmdeg, daviTs gverdiT amoudgnen qarTvelTa mefe bagrat
II, anis-Sirakis mefe gagiki da vanandis (yarsis) mefe abasi. daviTi da
misi mokavSireebi q. valaSkertSi dabanakebulan.
997-998 wlebSi qarTvelebi ibrZodnen xlaTTan, magram ver aiRes,
Tumca sastikad daamarcxes Tavrizeli amira da misi mokavSireebi.
eklesiurad, rogorc Cans, konstantinopolis sapatriarqo ewinaaRm-
degeboda qarTvelebis saeklesio iurisdiqciis gavrcelebas taodan
vanis tbamde _ daviT kurapalatis mier gaTavisuflebul miwa-wy-
alze, magram TviTon, Cans, am periodSi ver axerxebda Tavisi iuris-
diqciis ganvrcobas an SenarCunebas am regionSi, albaT amitom Tanax-
ma yofila iq somxuri eklesiis uzenaesoba ecno. es Cans ioane drasx-
anakertelis naSromidan, sadac Semonaxulia konstantinopolis pa-
triarqis nikoloz mistikosis werili.
berZeni patriarqi werda somex kaTalikoss: `Seni RvTismoyvarebi-
saTvis vgoneb ar aris gaugebari Cveni gulis didi wuxili da daunele-
beli tkivili somexTa, qarTvelTa da alvanelTa Sendami rwmunebuli
erToblivi samwysosaTvis Wiris gamo, romelic Tavs dagatydaT sarki-
noz ismaitel moZaladeTagan. aw Tu Tqveni uwmidesoba marTebulad mi-
iCnevs, upirveles yovlisa, saWiroa RmrTis moxilvis da Sebralebi-
saTvis mTeli guliT yovlismpyrobeli RmrTis mimarT vedreba. somex-
Ta, qarTvelTa, alvanelTa Seni samwysosTvis, aRar Seeguo maT daRup-
vas da izrune, rom ganswavlo isini yvelaferSi saRmrTo metyvelebiT.
Cven werili gamovugzavneT mag kurapalatsac da afxazTa meTaursac da
vurCevdi, rom maT esminoT Tqveni darigeba~ (ioane drasxnakerteli,
somxeTis istoria, cagareiSvilis gamocema, 1965, gv. 189-193).
Tu es werili sandoa, masSi Cans, rom patriarqi nikoloz mistiko-
si (852-925) somxur eklesias ar miiCnevs eTnikuri niSniT Seqmnil
234
samamamTavrod, radganac mis mrevlad somxebTan erTad miiCnevda
qarTvelebic da alvanelebic. am werilSi orjer xazgasmiT aRniSnavs
kidec _ `somexTa, qarTvelTa da alvanelTa Sendami kuTvnili samwyso~.
erTi SexedviT ise Cans, TiTqosda `qarTvelTa~ qveS am werilSi
igulisxmeba sruliad saqarTvelos mosaxleoba, magram es ase araa,
radganac Tanamedrove saqarTvelos imJamad `afxazeTs~ uwodebdnen,
Sesabamisad `qarTvelTa qveyanas~ taosa da mis mimdebare regionebs
uwodebdnen, mis mosaxleobas ki _ `qarTvelebs~.
am werilSi `qarTvelTa~ qveS igulisxmeba im miwa-wylis mrevli,
romelic imJamad bizantiis interess warmoadgenda, kerZod, tao-basi-
anis, Teodosiopolis (karin-arzrumis) qristianebi, vidre vaspurakan-
amde. Semdgomi iveriis Temis mosaxleoba.
karin-evfratis mosaxleoba, VII s-Si taos mrevlic ki somxuri ek-
lesiis iurisdiqciis qveS imyofeboda. igive iTqmis amave regionis
momijnave albanur olqebzec. ase rom, nikoloz mistikosis am saqmi-
ani weriliT konstantinopoli cnobda ara sruliad saqarTvelos
mrevlze somxuri eklesiis uzenaesobas, aramed mxolod arzrum-va-
nis tbis qarTul segmentebze. mizezi unda yofiliyo survili, raTa
Zlier somxur eklesias xeli ar SeeSala bizantiuri jarebis winsvli-
saTvis vanis tbisken.
am damamSvidebeli weriliT konstantinopoli acxadebda, rom is
ar iyo somxuri eklesiis metoqe am regionSi, e.i. Teodosiopolidan
_ vaspurakanamde.
marTlac, amave werilSi naxsenebia kurapalati (e.i. qarTvelTa ku-
rapalati) da afxazTa meTauri (e.i. afxazTa mefe), romelTac TiTqosda
mouwodebda, rom maT esminaT somxuri eklesiis meTauris darigeba,
magram es albaT diplomatiuri CanarTia, Tumca am sityvebidan Cans,
rom bizantiur iurisdiqciaSi arasdros yofila dasavleT saqarTve-
lo, xolo tao saWiroebda zewolas, raTa iq somxuri saeklesio damok-
idebuleba aRdgeniliyo.
Tuki dasavleT saqarTvelo iyo bizantiis iurisdiqciaSi da is bi-
zantiuri iurisdiqciisagan swored nikoloz mistikosis epoqaSi (IX-X
ss-Si) gamovida, (rogorc amtkicebs qarTizaciis Teoria), maSin konstan-
tinopolis patriarqi somxuri eklesiis meTaurs imas ki ar miwerda _
235
`Seni darigeba isminos afxazTa mefemo~, aramed albaT miwerda _ `Cemi
saeklesio miwa-wyalia dasavleT saqarTvelo da afxazTa mefem aq Cemi
uflebamosileba ar unda SebRaloso~.
am werilidanac Cans, rom dasavleT saqarTvelo arasodes yofila
konstantinopolis iurisdiqciaSi.
am werilidan Cans, rom `qarTvelTa qveyana~ tao-karini, aseve
vaspurakanis segmentebi, anu `zemo qveyanaTa~ meti nawili somxebTan
erTad dasaxlebuli iyo qarTveli xalxiT, da isini somxuri eklesi-
is iurisdiqciis qveS imyofebodnen. am mosazrebas adasturebs meore
arapirdapiri, Tumca mniSvnelovani cnoba, romelic aseve konstan-
tinopolis patriarqs exeba.
konstantinopolis patriarqs wmida fotis (857-867, 877-886) mi-
akuTvneben cnobas keisar basili I-is (867-886) somex arSakunTagan
warmomavlobis Sesaxeb. a. abdalaZis sityviT, am Tvalsazriss ar uary-
ofdnen basil I-is memkvidreebi, radganac erT-erT maTgans, konstan-
tine porfirogenets (912-959) es azri Seutania Tavis TxzulebaSi
`basilis cxovreba~. Cveni azriT, marTali unda yofiliyo wmida foti
aseTi cnobis gavrcelebis dros, erTi qarTuli wyaroc am Tval-
sazriss amarTlebs, kerZod, wmida ilarion qarTvelis cxovrebaSi
nabrZanebia, rom basili keisarma (866-886) Tavisi Svilebis moZRvre-
bad daayena wmida ilarionis mowafeebi, romelTac daavala impera-
toris vaJebisTvis qarTuli ena eswavlebinaT. wmida ilarion qarTve-
lis mowafeebs `mohgvara mefeman orni Zeni leon da aleqsandre da rqua
_ `locva yavT amaTTvis wmidano mamano da aswaveT amaT enai da wigni
Tqveni~, (Zveli qarTuli literaturis qrestomaTia, I, 1946, gv. 175).
vfiqrob, aqedan Cans Semdegi _ basili I keisari an misi winaparebi
warmoSobiT iyvnen `armeniidan~, anu im mxaredan mcire aziisa, romelic
armeniad iwodeboda, magram basili I keisris winaprebi eTnikurad ara
somxebi, aramed qarTvelebi, radganac basilim brZana Tavisi Svileb-
isTvis, momavali imperatorebisTvis eswavlebinaT qarTuli ena da
qarTuli mwignobroba (da ara somxuri). sxva saqmea is, rom am mxa-
reebs, miuxedavad misi mosaxleobis qarTuli warmomavlobisa, erqva
armenia. basilis winaprebi aqedan makedoniaSi gadasaxlebulan, ma-
gram basilis, Cans, hqonia cnoba Tavisi qarTuli warmomavlobis Sesaxeb
236
da amitomac daavala qarTvel mamebs misi SvilebisaTvis qarTuli ena
da mwignobroba eswavlebinaT.
basilis memkvidreebis dros, kerZod, konstantine porfirogene-
tis dros, am armeniis iberiuli mxareebis arabebisagan gasaTavisu-
fleblad bizantielebTan erTad yvelaze aqtiurad qarTvelebi
ibrZodnen.
am mxareTa mkvidrma qarTvelobam gaTavisuflebis Semdeg (X-XI
saukunidan) _ gaimyara erovnul-qarTuli TviTSemecneba da cdilob-
da eklesiuradac ganSoreboda somxur eklesias, Tumca nikoloz mis-
tikoss es sadavo mrevli, politikuri mosazrebiT somxuri eklesii-
saTvis miukuTvnebia Semdegi sityvebiT: `Sendami rwmunebuli somex-
Ta, qarTvelTa da alvanTa samwyso~.
aseTi viTarebis gamo, bizantiaSi armeniis iberiul mxareTa mkvid-
ri qarTvelebi yvelas arwmunebdnen, rom isini eTnikuri warmomav-
lobiT, gvar-tomobiT qarTvelebi iyvnen. erTi aseTi iyo am mxareTa
mkvidri, taoeli grigol bakurianis Ze. is, Cans, iyo aseve vanandis
olqis memamulec, anu is Cans ufro vanandeli (kareli) iyo, vidre
taoeli.
armeniaSi mcxovreb iberielTa TviTSemecnebis aRorZinebis pro-
cesma gamoiwvia iqamde polieTnikuri somxuri eklesiis daSla. somx-
uri eklesiis iurisdiqciaSi moqceulma qarTvelebis nawilma erovnul-
eTnikuri niSniT datova somxuri eklesia da qarTuli eklesiis wiaRs
daubrunda.
237
wmida mamebi eqvTime mTawmideli,
stefane mtbevari da sxvani somxuri eklesiis
mZlavrobis Sesaxeb
erovnul-eklesiuri gaTavisufleba, rac jer kidev kirionma dai-
wyo, gugarqis qarTvelTa Soris gagrZelda Semdeg saukuneebSic `e.w.
armeniis iberiaSi~.
tao-basianisa da sxva regionebis qarTveloba~ VIII-IX saukuneebSi
Tavs iTavisuflebda somxuri eklesiis uRlisagan, romlis qveSac
maTi winaprebi aRmoCdnen istoriuli kataklizmebis Sedegad.
`zemo qveynebis~ mkvidr qarTvelTa erovnul-patriotul sulis-
kveTebas kargad gamoxataven ZiriTadad am mxareebidan gamosuli somx-
uri saeklesio uRlisagan gaTavisuflebuli qarTvelebi, kerZod, is
berebi, romlebic Seadgendnen umravlesobas aTonisa an sinas mTis
qarTuli saZmoebisas.
maTi gulanTebuli erovnuloba maTi locvebidanac Cans, magali-
Tad, sinas mTis qarTveli berebi SesTxoven ufals _ `qriste Seiwy-
ale... yovelni Zmani da yovelni qristianeni da ufrois yovelTasa
yovelni qarTvelni~ (Zveli qarTuli literaturis qrestomaTia, I,
1946, gv. 86).
maTi locva Sesmenil iqna, rasac asaxavs XII s-is somexi moRvawe:
`SexedeT Cvengan gamoyofili qarTvelTa naTesavi dRiTi dRe rogor
brwyindeba qristes mimarT~ (a. abdalaZe, dasax. naSr. iqve, gv. 87)
somxuri eklesiis uRlisagan gaTavisuflebis Sedegad qarTulma
eklesiam did brwyinvalebas miaRwia gaTavisuflebul mxareebSi.
sabWoTa epoqaSi aRorZinda XIX s-Si peterburgis universitetis
armenologiis kaTedraze Camoyalibebuli Teoria, romlis mixedvi-
Tac tao-basianis mkvidri somxuri mosaxleoba TiTqosda `gaqarTvelda
maTi gaqalkedonitebis Sedegad~, sinamdvileSi ki am regionSi somx-
uri eklesia mZlavrobda rogorc bizantiis imperiis, ise arabTa ba-
tonobisas. amis gamo, Zlieri iyo rogorc somxur-qalkedonuri, ise
somxur-monofizituri eklesia.
VII s-Si herakle keisris Semdeg somxuri `uniaturi~ eklesia mrava-
li qalkedoniti kaTalikosis mier imarTeboda, rac masSi qalkedoni-
ti mrevlis siWarbes gulisxmobs.
238
arabTa Semosevebma garkveulwilad gaaZliera somxuri monofizi-
turi eklesia, magram iq mainc ar gamqrala qalkedoniti mrevli, qalke-
donur sarwmunoebaze moqceula somexTa kaTalikosi vahan I (968-69)
da sxvani, romelTa ricxvi ise didi yofila, rom asoRikis cnobiT,
jer kidev vahan I-mde, kaTalikos ananias (946-68) dros somxur ekle-
siaSi daudgeniaT `qalkedonanTa wesiT monaTlulis xelaxla monaTv-
la~ (iqve, gv. 91).
qalkedonit somexTa didi ricxvis gamo n. maris mosazreba, rom
xdeboda maTi denacionalizacia-gaqarTveleba, arasworia, radgan
qalkedoniti somexi kaTalikos-patriarqebi qarTvelebad ar gadaqceu-
lan, iseve, rogorc maTi samwyso. sinamdvileSi, mravalerovani somxuri
eklesia VIII saukunis Semdeg daiSala eTnikuri niSniT (isic mxolod
nawilobriv), kerZod, qalkedonituri aRmsareblobis eTnikuri somx-
ebis nawili mSobliuri somxuri (e.i monofizituri) eklesiis wiaRs
daubrundnen, xolo eTnikuri qarTvelebi, romelnic sarwmunoebiT
qalkedonitebi iyvnen, cdilobdnen Tavi daeRwiaT aramSobliuri somx-
uri eklesiisagan, da SeerTebodnen deda qarTuli eklesiis samwysos.
unda iTqvas, rom am epoqaSic ki qarTvelTa umravlesobam, miuxe-
davad xelsayreli viTarebisa, mainc ver SeZlo somxuri eklesiis
datoveba da darCa am eklesiis wevrad, sabolood ki gasomxda.
somxur saeklesio wiaRSi qarTvelTa armenizaciiT didad dazianda
da dazaralda raodenobrivad da zneobrivad qarTveli xalxi.
aRniSnuli adgilebidan, kerZod, taodan iyo warmoSobiT eqvTime
mTawmindeli.
tao somxuri saeklesio batonobis qveS imyofeboda ramdenime sauku-
nis manZilze, amitomac aqurma wmida mamam, eqvTime mTawmindelma, kar-
gad icoda im erovnuli gadagvarebis safrTxis Sesaxeb, rac eloda
somxuri eklesiis wevr qarTvelobas.
eqvTime mTawmindeli amitomac Seagonebda am mxareTa (tao-basian-
valaSkertis) mamebs, sasuliero qarTvelobas _ `somexTa ekrZale, nu
asvindikozeb, nurc amzaxeb qarTvelTa _ ukanono ars~, anu `somexTa
ekrZale, nu moanaTvlineb da nu daunaTesaveb qarTvelebs _ ukanono
aris~ (iqve).
239
qarTvelTa masobrivi gasomxebiT SeZrwunebul eqvTime mTawmidels,
imisTvis, raTa SemdgomSic ar gagrZelebuliyo es procesi, grigol
nazianzelis erT-erT TxzulebaSi naTqvami sityvebi somexTa Sesaxeb
ase uTargmnia _ `ars naTesavi igi somexTa ara wrfeli, aramed mzakvari
da gularZnili da boroti... sxvaY uc gulsa da siwrfoeba maT Tana ara
ars~ (a. abdalaZe, dasax. naSr. gv. 106). sityva `naTesavi~ eTnikur
warmoSobas gulisxmobs da ara sarwmunoebriv aRmsareblobas.
stefane mtbevaric Tavisi gamocdilebiT, raTa Tavidan aicdinos
qarTvelTa kvlav armenizacia, grigol nazianzelis msgavsad afasebs
somxebs. amis saSiSroeba ki realuri iyo. magaliTad, roca eTnikurma
qarTvelma `taSiris mamfalma~ `qarTuli rjuli~ aRidgina, is sastikad
dausjia taSir-Zorakertis mefes daviTs (996-1049) (iqve, gv. 109).
amave periodSi wmida dinara dedofalma SeZlo Tavisi hereTis
samefos gamoyvana somxuri ekelsiis iurisdiqciidan, riTac hereTis
qarTveloba gasomxebis safrTxes gadaarCina.
basianis mxare da mimdebare olqebi mkvidri eTnikuri qarTvelebiT
(da ara gaqalkedonitebuli somxebiT) rom iyo dasaxlebuli, TviT
somxuri wyaroebidanac Cans. magaliTad, asoRikis cnobiT, X s-is bo-
los cnobili somexi vardapeti (moZRvari) hovhanesi sicocxles gamoe-
salma `gacofebuli qarTvelTa tomisagan maxviliT da daimarxa sava-
neSi, romelsac askigomi ewodeba, basianis gavarSi~ (iqve, gv.110).
asoRiki wers _ `qarTvelTa tomi~, da gulisxmobs im basianelebs,
romelTac somexi moZRvari mokles, e.i. miuTiTebs eTnikuri qarTve-
lebis Sesaxeb. isini qalkedoniti somxebi rom yofiliyvnen, miuTiTebda
kidec. aristakes lastiverteci ki wers valaSkertis qarTuli saepis-
koposos da am eparqiis mRvdelmTavris zaqaria valaSkertelis Sesaxeb
(aristakes lastiverteci, gv. 45-51).
is eTnikuri somexi rom yofiliyo, lastiverteci amas uTuod miu-
TiTebda.
am mxareTa mflobel somexTa mefe aSot I-s IX s-is bolos arabTa
xelisuflebam mianiWa: `somexTa da qarTvelTa mTavarTa mTavari~, xolo
922 wels somexTa mefe aSot erkaTs arabebma uboZes tituli _ `somexTa
da qarTvelTa SahinSa~. am titulSi moxse niebul qarTvelTa qveS tao-
basianis qarTveloba igulisxmeba.
240
ioane drasxanakertelis cnobiT, somxeTis mezobeli mahmadiani
mmarTvelebi ukmayofiloni iyvnen imis gamo, rom maT qveynebSi da
maT samTavro karzec ki somxuri eklesia didi qrTamis gaRebiT ax-
erxebda `somxuri qristianobis gavrcelebas~ (ioane drasxnakerteli,
somxeTis istoria, 1905, gv. 92-94), miTumetes, somxuri eklesiisaTvis
gacilebiT advili iqneboda maTi saxelmwifoebrivi gavlenis sfero-
Si, kerZod taSir-Zoragertis samefosa da tfilisis saamiroSi moqceul
qarTul mxareebSi (qvemo qarTli, taSiri, gugarqi, da aseve karinidan
vanis tbamde) qarTvelTa Soris somxuri qristianobis gavrceleba.
Sida qarTlic garkveul dros am sferoSi moqceula.
ioane drasxanakertelis sityviT, somexTa mefe smbatis sabrZanebel-
Si Sedioda tao-klarjeTi da sxva qarTuli mxareebi da mas taos
`qarTvelTa mefed~ daudgenia adarnase.
drasxanakerteli taos `ZvelisZvel qarTul~ provinciad, `qarTvel-
Ta mefis~ adarnases mamulad Tvlida (iqve, gv. 90), amasTanave, Zveli
somxuri saxelmwifos nawilad miCnevda, e.i. misi azriT _ tao armeni-
is saxelmwifos SemadgenlobaSi Sedioda, magram is eTnikuri qarTve-
lebiT iyo dasaxlebuli, iseve, rogorc taSir-Zorakertis samefo,
eTnikuri qarTvelebis qveyana, romelsac somxuri eklesiis wevri
mmarTvelebi hyavda.
vanandis somxur, anu yarsis samefoSi qarTvelTa wili mniSvnelo-
vani iyo. qarTvelTa mkvidrobis Sesaxeb anis-Sirakis somxur samefoSi
miuTiTebs anisSi qarTuli saepiskoposos arseboba, qarTvelTa patri-
arqs aq, anisis axlos, sxva qarTuli eklesiebic ukurTxebia, da isini
nakurTxni iyvnen ara `gaqarTvelebuli somxebisaTvis~, rogorc miiC-
nevs sabWoTa istoriografia, aramed im mkvidr qarTvelTaTvis, romel-
nic saerTod aq, istoriulad md. araqsis marcxena sanapiroze cxov-
robdnen.
somxur qveynebSi cxovrebisas (igulisxmeba bizantiuri armenia,
persarmenia da Semdeg arabuli armenia) mkvidri qarTvelebi masi-
urad rom somxdebodnen, somexi istorikosebis mierac dadasture-
bulia, magaliTad cnobili somexi istorikosi a. alpoaWiani wers _
`selCukebis asparezze gamosvlis droisaTvis saqarTvelo sanaxevrod
gasomxebuli mxare iyo~ (a. abdalaZe, dasax. naSr. gv. 242).
241
gasomxebisagan Tavisi eris dasacavad iyo mimarTuli stefanoz mtbe-
varis, eqvTime da giorgi mTawmindelebis, giorgi mcires, Rrtilis kre-
bis mamebis da sxvaTa gamonaTqvamebi somexTa eklesiis `mtaceblobis~
Sesaxeb, yvelani isini aRniSnuli mxareebidan iyvnen da kargad icnobd-
nen TavianTi mxareebis cxovrebas.
yofili armeniis erovnebiT qarTveli qalkedonituri mrevli, ro-
melmac Tavi daaRwia somxur eklesias, didwilad ver daubrunda mSob-
liur qarTul eklesias, radganac maTi qveynis mpyrobelma bizantiam
maTTvis e.w. lazikis samitropolito daaarsa (centriT trapezuntSi).
yofili armeniis qalkedonituri mrevli berZnul saepiskoposoebSi
gaaerTianes (. , , ., 1947,
c. 31, 58).
safiqrebelia, rom maleve Turq-seljukebis Semosevis gamo ukan-
daxeul bizantielTagan upatronod mitovebuli lazikis samitro-
politos marTlmadidebeli mrevlis erTi nawili, kvlav somxurma
eklesiam miisakuTra, risi Zlieri unaric mas Seswevda saukuneTa man-
Zilze, erTi nawili ki deda qarTul eklesias daubrunda.
rogorc iTqva, am mxareebidan, `zemo qveynebidan~ da taodan gasu-
li qarTvelebi IX-X-XI ss-is ucxoeTis qarTuli monastrebis berebis
mniSvnelovan ricxvs warmoadgendnen, magram radganac am miwa-wyals
bizantiaSi arabobamde `armenia~ ewodeboda, zogjer am adgilebidan
gamosulebs aseve `somxebs~ uwodebdnen. Tumca ki, aseTi `somexi~ be-
rebi TavianT Tavs `gvar-tomobiT qarTvelebs~ uwodebdnen.
am viTarebis Sedegi unda yofiliyo giorgi mcires cnobaSi asaxu-
li faqti imisa, rom antioqiis patriarqis winaSe `somxebi~ uwodes
Savi mTis monastris qarTvel berebs _ `ar viciT, isini somxebi arian
Tu qarTvelebio~, iCivles maT patriarqTan, rasac giorgi mTawmind-
elma saTanadod upasuxa. saqme isaa, rom Turme es qarTveli berebi
sakuTari samosiT, e.i. sagangebo samRvdelo Sesamoselis gareSe aRas-
rulebdnen zogierT wess, es ki cotaodeni xniT adre aikrZala saek-
lesio krebis mier, cnoba akrZalvis Sesaxeb am `soflur mamebamde~
miRweuli ar yofila. `qveyanasa mas somxiTisasa Tvinier Sesamoselisa
xucesni aRasruleben wirvasa Tvisive SesamoseliTa da ese didi wvale-
ba ars~ _ werda am ambamde cota xniT adre `mcire sjulis kanonSi~
242
eqvTime mTawmindeli (mcire sjuliskanoni, 1972, gv. 33-77). e.i. `qvey-
anasa mas somxiTisasa~ uwodebda saeklesio kreba qarTvelTa im uZve-
les sacxovrisebs, romelnic imJamad armeniaSi iyvnen moqceulni.
XI saukunis 60-iani wlebisaTvis bizantielebis xelSi iyo mTeli
e.w. istoriuli somxeTis miwa-wyali, masSi Semavali qarTuli `zemo
qveynebi~ lazikis eparqiis centralur nawilad iqca.
iqamde anis-Sirakis mefem Tavisi samflobelo XI s-is I naxevarSi
anderZiT gadasca bizantielebs iseve, rogorc ufro adre daviT
kurapalatma. bizantielTa xelSi yarsis (vanandis) samefoc moeqca,
am mxareebSi bizantiuri mflobeloba dakanonda imperator basili II-
s Semosvlisas, romelmac saqarTvelos mefe giorgi I daamarcxa da
CamoarTva misi samefos samxreTi mxareebi XI s-is dasawyisSi, Tumca
bizantia anisisTvis 1045 welsac ibrZoda. taSir-Zorakertis mefec
ki Tavis Tavs bizantiis vasalad miiCnevda.
saqarTvelos saxelmwifoc ibrZoda anisisa da taSir-Zorakerti-
saTvis, 1045 wels is dakarga bagrat IV-m, magram 1064 wels anisidan
bizantielebi gandevnes Turq-selCukebma. iqamde, taroni (966 wl-
idan), tao (1001 wlidan), vaspurakani (1021 wlidan), anis-Siraki (1045
wlidan), vanandi (yarsi) (1065 wlidan) _ bizantielebs ekuTvnodaT.
somxuri eklesiis polieTnikuroba, anu mravalerovnuloba da
somxuri eklesiis batonoba arasomxur mosaxleobaze unda yofiliyo
im mwvaleblobaTa warmoSobis mizezi, romelnic aRmocendnen isto-
riul armeniaSi X-XI saukuneebSi (iqamdec da mis Semdegac), magali-
Tad, Tondrakeloba, pavlikianoba da sxva.
somxur monofizitur eklesias sastikad ebrZodnen Tondrakele-
bi. istorikos lastivercis cnobiT, Tondrakeloba aRmocenda harkis
gavarSi da mravalni Seacdina, harki mdebareobda basianis samxreTiT
vanis tbisaken. TondrakelTa mier somxuri eklesiis wes-Cveulebebis
sruli siZulvili gvafiqrebinebs, rom Tondrakeloba gavrcelda im
arasomxur mosaxleobaSi, romelTac surdaT gasvla somxuri monofiz-
ituri eklesiidan, magram amis saSualeba maT ar misca Zlierma somxur-
ma eklesiam.
sapasuxo protesti, Cans, gamoixata imiT, rom warmoiSva seqta,
romelic swored somxur eklesias uaryofda. seqtantebi gansakuTre-
243
biT monofizitur somxur eklesias da mis wes-Cveulebebs ar cnobd-
nen (aristakes lastiverteci, istoria, e. cagareiSvilis gamocema,
1974, gv. 114-125). somxeTis saero da sasuliero xelisuflebam X-XI
saukuneebSi ver SeZlo Tondrakelobis aRmofxvra, imdenad mZlavri
da sicocxlisunariani iyo is (a. abdalaZe, dasax. naSr. gv. 92).
am periodSi, anu XI saukuneSi, unda daarsebuliyo da, Cans, amave
saukuneSive, (Turq-selCukTa Semosevis gamo) gaqra kidec lazikis,
anu trapezuntis samitropolito, Tumca mahmadianur garemoSi ter-
itoriulad damcrobili saxiT is SesaZloa Semdgomac axerxebda ar-
sebobas.
`somex-qalkedonitTa~ namdvili vinaoba
(aRmsarebloba da ena)
n. adonci wers: `lazikis mTavari qalaqebi iustinianem I armeniaSi
Seiyvana~. adoncisaTvis lazika iyo ara dasavleT saqarTvelo, aramed
ZiriTadad trapezuntis regioni, mimdebare mxareebiT, qaldea-
WaneTiT. bizantiaSi Semaval am miwa-wyalze saimperatoro karma kidev
ramdenime `armenia~ daafuZna. Tumca, trapezuntis mTebSi mcxovrebi
mosaxleoba eTnikuri qarTuli tomebi iyvnen da ara somxebi.
n. adonci Civis, rom dasavleT armeniaSi somxur-qalkedonituri
saepiskoposoebis mrevli berZnulenovani RvTismsaxurebis danergvis
Sedegad berZndeboda, es SeiZleba sadavo iyos, radganac somxebi ax-
erxebdnen berZnuli iurisdiqciis qveSac wirva-locvis ena somxuri
yofiliyo, amis Sesaxeb adonci TviTve miuTiTebs. Tumca ki samarTli-
anad wers _ `nacionaluri ideisa da grZnobebisaTvis konfesionaluri
sakiTxebi arcTu mcire safrTxes warmoadgendnen, romelnic drois ms-
vlelobasTan erTad ise iZabebodnen, rom SeeZloT erovnuli intere-
sebis CaxSoba. aRmsareblobiTi gansxvavebebis mixedviT im droisTvis
isazRvreboda enis gamoyeneba~ (n. adonci, armenia iustinianes epoqa-
Si, 1908. gv. 202).
244
rogorc aRiniSna, n. adonci werda _ `aRmsareblobiTi gansxvavebu-
loba im dros gansazRvravda enis gamoyenebas ara mxolod RvTismsax-
urebisas, aramed saeklesio suliskveTebiT gamsWvalul literatur-
aSic. amis Sesabamisad somxebi, romlebic miekedlnen saimperio ekle-
sias, unarmoklebulni aRmoCdnen SeeqmnaT erovnuli damwerloba mcire
armeniis sazRvrebSi. erovnuli ganaTlebisa da literaturis ar arse-
bobisas, enis bedi da erovnuli cnobiereba xdeboda aramyari. somxoba,
somxuri cnobiereba SeiZleba CaxSobiliyo mcire armeniaSi saxelmwi-
foebrivi cxovrebisa da interesebis oromtrialSi, rom ara axali sa-
sicocxlo Zalebis mozRvaveba mezobeli somxeTis kuTxeebidan mas rom
ar ganeaxlebina axali suliT da ar gaeRviZebina mcire armeniaSi
erovnuli TviTSemecneba~ (n. adonci, armenia, gv. 202).
n. adonci Zalze wuxs, rom dasavleT anu mcire armeniaSi berZnul
eklesias `mikedlebul somxebs~ erovnuli Zala ar SeswevdaT Seeqm-
naT somxurenovani literatura da isini somxur enas iviwyebdnen,
magram, samwuxarod, ar warmoaCens sinamdviles, rom imperiam mcire
armeniis olqSi Seiyvana sxvadasxva warmoSobis arasomxuri tomebi. si-
namdvileSi, dasavleT armeniis, anu trapezuntis aRmosavleTi Savi-
zRvispireTisa da mis iqiT mTebSi mcxovrebi mosaxleoba eTnikuri
qarTuli tomebi iyvnen da ara somxebi.
Teodosiopolisidan trapezuntamde vrceli regioni WanebiTa da
sxva qarTuli tomebiT iyvnen dasaxlebulni. isini VI-VII saukuneebSi
imperiam `armeniis~ erT-erT olqSi Seiyvana, iq arsebobda mravali
saepiskoposo. konstantinopolis patriarqis iurisdiqciaSi. konstan-
tinopolis sapatriarqos kaTedraTa nusxebSi dasavleT armeniis olqSi
mdebare cnobili qalaqebis bizanis, lerionis, Tu paipertis saepisko-
posoebi umizezod ar iwodebodnen `lazikis qveyanaSi mdebare trape-
zuntis samitropolitos saepiskoposoebad~.
n. adonci xSirad axsenebs am saepiskopsoebs, magram arasodes miu-
TiTebs, rom berZnuli saeklesio geografia am saepiskoposoebis mom-
cvel qveyanas lazikas uwodebs, Tumca ki administraciulad isini
namdvilad imyofebodnen erT-erT `armeniaSi~. n. adoncis wuxili, rom
dasavleT armeniaSi somxebi ar iyenebdnen somxur damwerlobasa da
literaturas, rom maTSi somxuri erovnuli cnobiereba mimqrali
245
iyo, araa gulwrfeli, radganac, sinamdvileSi, dasavleT armeniis
mkvidri mosaxleoba ver flobda somxur enas da maTSi somxuri nacio-
naluri grZnobebi ar iyo imitom, rom isini saerTod ar iyvnen am eris
Svilebi (e.i. somxebi) .
Woroxis, evfratis da araqsis saTaveebSi da mis CrdiloeTiT, dasav-
leT armeniis olqSi, mosaxleobis umravlesobas warmoadgenda ara
somxoba, aramed adgilobrivi mkvidri mosaxleoba, eTnikuri qarTve-
li tomebi (Wanebi, lazebi, mesxebi), romlebsac n. adonci somxebs
uwodebs, romelnic, TiTqosda, `miekedlnen saimperio (e.i. berZnul)
eklesias da amis gamo isini unarmoklebulni aRmoCdnen SeeqmnaT
erovnuli damwerloba (n. adoncis azriT, somxuri) mcire armeniis
sazRvrebSi. erovnuli (n. adoncis azriT _ somxuri) ganaTlebisa da
literaturis ararsebobis gamo enis bedi da erovnuli cnobiereba
xdeboda aramyari~. TiTqosda, dasavleT armeniis mosaxleobaSi, aRniS-
nulis gamo (e.i. berZnuli eklesiisadmi daqvemdebarebis gamo) somx-
uri cnobiereba aramyari xdeboda, sinamdvileSi ki adgilobrivTa
umravlesobas Sinaganad arc arasdros hqonia somxuri, e.i. maTTvis
ucxo cnobiereba. maTi cnobiereba kerZo tomobrivi (Wanuri, lazuri
an mesxuri) iyo. samwuxarod, maTi namdvili anu qarTuli cnobiereba
didi xnis Seryeuli iyo (igulisxmeba Woroxis, araqsisa da evfratis
saTaveebSi mcxovrebi qarTuli mosaxleoba, aseve maTi mezobeli re-
gionebis mkvidri qarTveloba), mizezi amisa iyo isa, rom maTi samSob-
lo qveyana jer kidev qristeSobamde CamoaWra armeniam iberias, stra-
bonis cnobiT, Semdeg ki romaul-berZnuli mpyrobelobis dros impe-
riam isini erT-erT somxur provincias miakuTvna. am faqtma qarTu-
li da ara somxuri cnobiereba Searyia maTSi. maTi didi nawili mar-
Tlmadidebeli iyo, amitomac berZnul eklesias miekedlnen kidec
(iberiis samefo sakmaod daSorebuli iyo maTgan, gansakuTrebiT ius-
tinianes epoqaSi), Tumca, mainc, isini Tavs qarTvelebad, arasomxebad
rom Tvlidnen, gamoCnda VIII-IX ss-dan, roca bedis waRmarTi Semotri-
alebis Sedegad maTi gansaxlebis axlos Camoyalibda tao-klarjeTis
qarTvelTa samefo. am politikurma movlenam armeniis mosaxleobis
Sesabamis nawils gauRviZa minavlebuli erovnul-qarTuli cnobiere-
ba da uswrafesad, erTbaSad siamayiT ganacxades qarTveli erisadmi
246
TavianTi kuTvnilebis Sesaxeb da saswrafod erovnul-qarTuli ek-
lesiis uerTgules mrevlad gadaiqcnen. ase rom, xdeboda ara e.w.
`somexi qalkedonitebis~ gaqarTveleba, rogorc es miRebulia sab-
Wour istoriografiaSi, aramed mkvidri, iqamde somxur-berZnuli
eklesiis (anu somxur-qalkedonituri) eklesiis wiaRidan TavdaRweu-
li qarTvelebi daubrundnen mSobliurs.
aRniSnuli regionis mosaxleobis (Teodosiopolisidan trapezun-
tamde) sacxovriss n. adonci somxeTs miakuTvnebs, xolo berZnuli
saeklesio geografia _ lazikas (aq iyo lerionis, bizanis, paipertisa
da lazikis sxva saepiskoposoebi). am mosaxleobis eTnoistoria Zalze
waagavs XVII-XIX ss-Si samcxe-javaxeTis mkvidri kaTolike qarTveleb-
isas. kerZod, es ukanasknelni (axalcixis regionis qarTveloba) osma-
leTis imperiaSi cxovrebis dros sarwmunoebrivad iyvnen e.w. `frange-
bi~ (kaTolikebi), eklesiebSi somxurenovani wirva-locva (riti) utar-
debodaT, xolo saxelmwifoebrivad mahmadianur qveyanaSi cxovrobd-
nen. ase rom, am ukanasknelT, samcxis qarTvelebs osmaleTis imperi-
aSi, araviTari qarTuli instituti ar gaaCndaT TavianT istoriul
samSobloSi, Sesabamisad, isini (es qarTvelebi) erTdroulad iyvnen
frangebic, somxebic da osmalebic. samcxeli kaTolikebis eTnocno-
bierebac Sesabamisad iyo Seryeuli, maTi qarTveloba sammagi Sris
iqiT iyo Camaluli, gasomxdnen kidec, radganac kaTolikuri sarwmu-
noeba maTSi somxurenovnebiT iyo Semofargluli, ganaTlebac, Sesa-
bamisad, somxuri gaaCndaT, samcxelTagan mxolod erTi mcire nawili
daubrunda qarTul cnobierebas mas Semdeg, rac rusebma osmalebi
gandevnes axalcixidan. XIX s-is bolos maTgan gamosulma ramdenime
sasuliero pirma gaixsena Tavisi bunebrivi erovnuli vinaoba.
saukuneebiT adre aseTive viTarebaSi imyofeboda trapezuntis
samitropolitos saepiskoposoebis mrevli `lazikaSi~. isini VI s-Si
da VII s-is dasawyisSi (iqamdec da Semdegac) bizantiis imperiis mier
somxuri regionisadmi iyvnen mikedlebulni, Tumca eklesiebSi berZnu-
lenovani wirva-locva hqondaT, Sesabamisad, somxdebodnen anda berZn-
debodnen imis mixedviT, Tu romeli mxare gamoavlenda ufro met
dainteresebas maT mimarT.
Tu ra saxisa iyo mcire armeniis mkvidr mosaxleobaze somxuri
kulturuli Zaladoba, Tavisdauneblied kargad aRwers n. adonci _
247
`somxuri cnobiereba mcire armeniaSi sabolood Cakvdeboda, Tu ara
axali Zalebis mozRvaveba mezobeli somxuri olqebidan. isini anaxlebd-
nen mkvidri mosaxleobis suliskveTebas da acocxlebdnen maTSi
erovnul (e.i. somxur) Semecnebas~ (n. adonci, armenia... 1908, gv. 202).
e.i. mcire armeniis qarTuli tomebis saboloo armenizacias somx-
eTidan axali migracia apirobebda.
rogorc iTqva, aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTis mkvidri qarTuli
mosaxleoba romaul-bizantiuri administraciuli dayofis Sedegad
somexi eris hegemonobis qveS aRmoCda, rasac mudam Tan sdevda, rogorc
n. adonci uwodebs, aq Sida somxuri olqebidan somxur-nacionaluri
suliskveTebis gavrceleba, ris Sedegadac bizantiuri imperiis xe-
lqveS myofi qarTveloba ucxo-somxuri kulturis zegavlenis qveS
aRmoCda, amave dros am qarTvelebs arc erovnuli eklesia gaaCndaT.
es procesi ki n. adoncs miaCnia `aRorZinebis dasawyisad~. sinamd-
vileSi ki qarTvelTa Soris somxuri TviTSemecnebis dasawyisad. is
wers _ `is garemoeba, rom iustinianes provincialuri reformisas
mcire armeniis miwebma ara mxolod armeniis saxeli SeinarCunes, aramed
es saxeli gavrcelda maT mezobel miwebzec, gvimtkicebs, rom aRor-
Zinebis procesi iqamdec dawyebuli iyo~ (n. adonci, armenia... gv. 202).
maSasadame, n. adoncis Tanaxmad, `aRorZinebis~, anu qarTvelTa
gasomxebis procesi iustinianemdec sakmao xnis dawyebuli iyo, da am-
itomac maTi miwa-wyali moeqca kidec `mcire armeniis~ provinciaSi.
aqedan Cans, rom strabonis mier aRweril faqts iberiis miwebis
pariadres, xorZenesa da gogarenis mitacebas armeniis mier ukvalod
ar Cauvlia.
iustinianes epoqamde am qarTul miwa-wyalze ukve dawyebula mkvid-
ri qarTuli mosaxleobis gasomxebis procesi, rac daufiqsirebia ius-
tinianes Tavisi administraciuli reformiT, roca iberiis es yofili
miwebi (xorZene da pariadre) armenias miakuTvna.
n. adonci, marTalia arapirdapir, magram mainc aRiarebs, rom e.w.
mcire da didi armeniebis dasavleT periferiebze mcxovrebi mosax-
leoba qarTvelTa eTnojgufs warmoadgenda. magaliTad, is aRniS-
navs, rom saimperio dayofis Semdeg kapadokiac somxur miwa-wyals
miakuTvna iustinianem, am faqtis gamo n. adoncs axsendeba movses
248
xorenaci, romelic aRniSnavda, rom pontos miwa-wyali somxeTis
sazRvrebSi Sedioda. aq isic unda gaxseneboda n. adoncs, rom ponto-
maJaqis miwa-wylis mmarTvelad iverieli mTavari iqna daniSnuli. saer-
Tod ki, m. xorenacis Tanaxmad, aRniSnuli miwa-wyali saerTod qar-
TvelebiT (iverielebiT) iyo dasaxlebuli, mas Tavisi Teoriac hqonda
am faqtis asaxsnelad. pontos anu Savi zRvis aRmosavleTSi qarTvelebi
qristeSobamde 600 wliT adre nabuqodonosors dausaxlebia. amis gamo
teritoria ponto-kapadokiidan dasavleT saqarTvelos CaTvliT
qarTvelebiT yofila dasaxlebuli. am orive qarTul mxares (e.i. pon-
to-kapadokia-lazikas da dasavleT saqarTvelos) erTi mmarTveli di-
nastiac _ mirdatianebi hyolia. m. xorenaci gugarqis pitiaxSebs pon-
tos mefeebis naTesaur maxloblebad miiCnevs _ `Saras naSiers, guSars
ergo kangarqi, naxevari javaxeTi, kolbi, wofi da Zori hnakertis cixe-
simagre. aSocis uflad da taSiris sepuhad valarSakma haikiani guSa-
ris STamomavali ganamwesa, xolo kavkasiis mTis mopirdapire mxares,
CrdiloeTiT ganmgeblad daadgina didi da Zlevamosili gvari, romlis
ufalT gugarelTa pitiaxSebi daerqvaT. isini iyvnen STamomavalni dare-
his naxararis mihrdatisa, romelic wamoiyvana aleqsandrem da mTavrad
dausva nabuqodonosoris mier tyved moyvanil iverielTa modgmas. amis
Sesaxeb abidenosi ambobs: `Zlevamosilma nabuqodonosorma, romelic
herakleze ufro Ronieri iyo, Sehyara jari da miaRwia libielTa, agre-
Tve iverielTa qveynebs, Semusra da daimorCila isini da maTi erTi naw-
ili wamoasxa iqidan da pontos zRvis marjvena mxares daasaxla~ (iveria
qveynierebis dasavleT sazRvarze mdebareobs). basianis did xevSi xe-
lisuflad daadgina ortuni, haikis Tesl-tomi~ (movses xorenaci, som-
xeTis istoria, 1984, gv. 406).
m. xorenaci CamoTvlis qarTul qveynebs _ javaxeTs, kolbs, wofs,
Zors, aSocs, taSirs, `CrdileTs~, `pontos zRvis marjvena mxares~, ba-
sians, maT ricxvSi, Cans, is ponto-kapadokiasac miiCnevda, radganac
ponto-kapadokiisa da misi dedaqalaqis maJaqis mmarTvelad qarTvelTa
samTavro saxlis Svili mihrdati iqna daniSnuli _ somxeTis mefe
tigranma `mihrdats miando maJaqi~ (iqve, gv. 114).
Semdgom tigranma mas `aRar misca arc Tavisi samflobelo, arc kuTv-
nili qarTvelTa qveyana~ (iqve, gv. 116).
249
`qarTvelTa qveyana~ kavkasiis mTebTan mdebare gugarqi da dasav-
leT saqarTveloa aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTTan erTad, sadac nabu-
qodonosorma Caasaxla isini, xolo ponto-kapadokia, marTalia, somx-
uri administraciuli erTeulia m. xorenacis mixedviT, magram misi
marTva qarTuli samTavro saxlis wevris mier miuTiTebs, rom albaT
m. xorenacis ponto-kapadokiac qarTveli xalxiT dasaxlebul mxared
miaCnia da amitomac mis qarTvel mmarTvels raRac mxardaWera eqne-
boda mosaxleobis mxridan.
xorenacidan erTi saukunis Semdeg iustinianes ponto-kapadokia,
armeniis administraciul erTeulSi Seuyvania. is wers _ `iustini-
anem gaafarTova mcire armeniis miwebi mezobeli mxareebis xarjze da
maT miiCnevs armeniad, imperiis nawil didi armeniis Tanasworad~ (n.
adonci, armenia, gv. 203).
m. xorenacis Tanaxmad, rogorc iTqva, mTeli pontos anu Savi zRvis
aRmosavleTi mxare qarTvelebiT iyo dasaxlebuli uZvelesi droi-
danve, yovel SemTxvevaSi nabuqodonosoris droidan. magram imdenad
Zlier Seryeula iqaur qarTvelTa cnobiereba aRmosavleTidan Semo-
suli somxuri suliskveTebiT, rom VII s-is dasawyisSi bizantiis impe-
rias aq Camouyalibebia `armeniakonis Temi~ - axali administraciuli
erTeuli (iqve, gv. 203).
`armeniakonis Temi~ ganvrcobili yofila kesaria-kapadokiidan Sav
zRvamde _ sinopidan fazisamde da evfratamde (iqve, gv. 203).
aRsaniSnavia, rom armeniakonis Temis sasazRvro mdinare `fazisi~
iyo ara rioni, aramed Woroxi. xufaTi _ sasazRvro punqti saqarTve-
losa da bizantias Soris axlos mdebareobda WoroxTan, anu `fazis-
Tan~, Cans aqamde aRwevda es Temi.
adoncis mixedviT mTel am mxareebSi gaZlierebula somxuri ele-
menti, somxuri suliskveTeba. is amas xsnis imiT, rom am mxareebSi
Sida somxeTidan gadasaxlda somxuri mosaxleoba. SesaZloa es mar-
Tlac ase moxda da ponto-zRvispireTSi marTlac gadasaxldnen som-
xebi, magram es miwa-wyali xom ar iyo ukacrieli mxare, iq xom adgi-
lobrivi mkvidri mosaxleoba cxovrobda. somxebis gadasaxlebis gamo
maT miatoves TavianTi miwa-wyali? cnobebi adastureben aseT mig-
racias?
250
somexTa mimarT mkvidri qarTveli mosaxleobis damokidebulebas
kargad gamoxatavs SavSeTis episkoposi mtbevari stefanozi, romel-
ic wmida gobronis cxovrebaSi aRwers im mZime suraTs, romlic am
dros qarTvelebs gasCeniaT somexTa mimarT. meore mxriv, gabatoneb-
ul somxebsac CamouyalibdaT azri qarTvelTa Sesaxeb _ maTi azriT,
qarTvelebi, rogorc mdabali da daCagruli fena `ugunurebi~ arian
magaliTad, somexi istorikosi XIII saukunisa vardan arevelci qar-
Tvelebs `ugunurebs~ uwodebs, miuxedavad daviT aRmaSeneblis poli-
tikuri warmatebisa, _ `is Zlier zrunavda ugunur qarTvel xalxze~ (v.
arevelci, msoflio istoria, Tb. 2002, gv. 140).
qarTvelebi SavizRvispirsa da Sida mxareebSi imyofebodnen bizan-
tielTa da arabTa xelqveS, orive dampyroblis epoqaSi isini iyvnen
pasiuri, inertuli, Sesabamisad, uunaro da `ugunuri~, romelic aqti-
uri da unariani somxuri mxaris mier denacionalizaciis procesSi im-
yofeboda (kargavda erovnul vinaobas da TviTSemecnebas).
qarTvelebi, rogorc monofizitebi, ise qalkedonitebi somxuri
eklesiis wiaRSi somxurenovnebi xdebodnen. es politikuri beduku-
RmarTobis Sedegi iyo.
sabednierod, klarjeT-SavSeTSi da Semdeg taoSic qarTvelobam,
ucxo politikuri uRlisagan gaTavisuflebisTanave, gaicnobiera
denacionalizaciis safrTxe da Sesabamisi Sefasebac mieca somxur
sulier mpyrobelobas, romelic politikurze ufro mZimea _ `rameTu
miwa igi somxiTisa ampartavan, uwyalo, uyvarul da yovliTa uke-
TurebiTaa savse~ (stefane mtbevari episkoposi, wameba wmidisa mowa-
misa gobronisi, Zveli qarT. agiogr. lit. Zeglebi, I, 1964, gv. 175).
qarTvelebi Tvlidnen, rom somxebis qmedeba, romelic qarTvelTa
denacionalizaciisaken iyo mimarTuli, borotebas warmoadgenda, ami-
tomac werda qarTveli episkoposi _ `scoda boroti didman saxlman
somxiTisaman, viTarca Tqva ieremia, `sityviTa gmobisaTa Seawuxes suli
wmida da saqmiTa bilwebisaTa gardareulad ganarisxes Semoqmedi
Tvisi~ (iqve, gv. 174).
somexTa anu ufro zustad somex-qalkedonitTa, Tu somex-monofiz-
it saeklesio mesveurTa sulieri Zaladoba _ uwyaloebad da uyvaru-
lobad fasdeboda qarTvel episkoposTa mier. ase afasebda maT arsen
251
didi kaTalikosi wignSi `ganyofisaTvis somexTa da qarTvelTa~ da
episkoposi stefane (mtbevari) naSromSi `wameba wmidisa gobronisi~ _
`uyvarul da yovliTa ukeTurebiTa savse, romelsa Sina ara ipova
Tavisa misadrekeli qristeisi, romelTaTvis qriste cudad mokvda~
(Zveli qarTuli agiogr. lit. Zeglebi, I, 1964, gv. 175).
ra igulisxmeba sityvebSi `misTvis qriste cudad mokvda~. esaa iseTi
kaci Tu sazogadoeba, romlisTvisac aSkara faqti, WeSmariteba _
arafers niSnavs, romelic realobas sicruiT amrudebs. aseTni yofi-
lan ara mxolod stefane mtbevaris Tanamedrove zogierTi somexi
ierarqebi da swavlulebi.
somex swavlulTa mier ioane da eqvTime mTawmidelebi da grigol
bakurianis Ze somxebad cxaddebian, Tumca ki es moRvaweebi sxvadasx-
vagvari xerxiT da miniSnebiT, pirdapir Tu arapirdapir werdnen, rom
isini arian naTesaviT e.i. eTnikuri qarTvelebi gvar-tomobiT, Camo-
mavlobiT, suliskveTebiT, cxovrebis wesiT, amasTanave isini gmobd-
nen somxur Tu berZnul Zaladobas qarTvelTa mimarT.
252
somex-qalkedonitTa
ierarqiuli damokidebuleba
imperiis eklesiis mimarT (VI-VII-VIII ss.)
n. adonci wers, rom sparseTs da bizantias Soris gayofil somxeT-
Si warmoiqmna sxvadasxva ierarqiuli damokidebuleba.
kesariaSi Semdgari saeklesio krebis gadawyvetilebiT wmida ba-
sili didis epoqaSi, bizantiuri somxeTis episkoposTa kurTxeva
uTuod unda momxdariyo kesariis samitropolitoSi. xolo sparsul
somxeTSi somxurma eklesiam miiRo erovnuli saeklesio xasiaTi imiT,
rom iq Camoyalibda sakaTalikoso _ ierarqiulad damoukidebeli
avtonomiuri sistema.
bizantiaze saeklesio daqvemdebareba gaRrmavda VI-VII ss-Si.
imperias SeuerTda Sida somxeTic. SemoRebuli wesis mixedviT aqau-
ri somxuri saepiskoposoebic damokidebulni gaxdnen imperiis ekle-
siaze, imiT, rom misgan (e.i. bizantiuri samitropolitoebidan) iRebd-
nen kurTxevas (n. adonci, somxeTi iustinianes epoqaSi. 1908, rus.
enaze. gv. 364). kerZod ki, maxlobeli umaRlesi taxtisagan (wina sauku-
neebSi aseTi iyo kesariis eklesia), Sesabamisad, dasavleT da Sua somxe-
Tis saepiskoposoebi uSualod eqvemdebarebodnen konstantinopolis
patriarqs (n. adonci, gv. 364).
arabebis Semosevis Sedegad, rac bizantiis imperiam dakarga gav-
lena somxeTis Sua nawilze, da, nawilobriv, dasavleT somxeTze
(romelSic eTnikurad qarTuli provinciebic Sediodnen), somxuri
erovnuli (monofizituri) eklesia arabTa xelSewyobiT TandaTan
gaZlierda da misi ierarqiuli avtonomiuroba kidev ufro gaizarda.
bizantiam VIII s-saTvis TandaTanobiT SeZlo arabebis mier dapyrobili
miwebis gaTavisufleba da bizantiam kvlav moiTxova Zveli ierarqiuli
damokidebulebis ganaxleba, magram, amis sapirispirod, 726 wlis ma-
naskertis krebaze gaimarjva somxur-erovnulma saeklesio mimarTule-
bam, amis Sedegad iqamde somxur-qalkedonuri eklesiebi uars ambobd-
nen bizantiasTan ierarqiul damokidebulebis ganaxlebaze da uerTde-
bodnen somxur-erovnul eklesias, anu somxur sakaTalikosos.
253
am sayovelTao, somxur-erovnul eklesiasTan dabrunebis process
Tavi aarides bizantiis somxeTis arasomxurma qalkedoniturma epar-
qiebma, kerZod ki qarTveli mrevlis saepiskoposoebma.
bizantiuri somxeTis eTnikurad qarTuli mrevlis erTi nawili
axal viTarebaSi SeuerTda ara somxur eklesias, aramed qarTul, maT-
Tvis erovnul, eklesias, imavdroulad, saqarTvelos moSorebiT
mcxovrebi bizantiuri somxeTis qarTuli mrevlis umetesma nawilma
umjobesad miiCnia berZnulSi darCena da kategoriulad ar Sevida
somxuri eklesiis iurisdiqciaSi.
mizezi amisa is iyo rom qarTuli eklesiis iurisdiqciis Zala ver
wvdeboda maT areals _ sacxovrebel olqs romelsac berZnebi `lazikis
qveyanas~ uwodebdnen. isini iyvnen trapezuntis mitropolitis iuris-
diqciis qveS. somxebi maT amJamad `somex-qalkedonitebs~ uwodeben
da somxur-qalkedonuri eklesiis nawilad miiCneven. sinamdvileSi
ki isini, rogorc iTqva, iyvnen eTnikurad qarTveli qalkedonitebi,
zogjer somxuri liturgikuli eniT, oRond konstantinopolis iuris-
diqciis qveS (rogorc aRiniSna, somxuri erovnuli eklesia monofi-
zitobas miemxro).
254
somxur-qalkedonuri eparqiebi lazikaSi
e.w. `somexi-qalkedonitebi~ lazikas ukavSirdebian. qarTuli isto-
riografiis ori gadauWreli da, amasTanave, sakvanZo sakiTxi erTmaneT-
Tan dakavSirebuli aRmoCnda. pirvelia e.w. somxur-qalkedonuri epar-
qiebis sakiTxi, meore ki aris is, Tu sad mdebareobda lazika.
qarTvel mecnierTa TvalsazrisiT, lazika dasavleT saqarTvelos
erqva, magram noticiebis mixedviT, `lazikis~ eparqiaSi mdebareobda
paipertis, lerionis, bizanis, olnutis da sxva saepiskoposoebi (ix.
georgika, IV, nakveTi II, 1952, gv. 185, noticiebi Xa da III).
aRniSnuli saepiskoposoebis adgilmdebareobis sakiTxi ganxilulia
`pravoslavnaia enciklopedias~ statiaSi `somexi-qalkedonitebi~ da
maTi adgilmdebareoba iqve darTul rukazea datanili (ix. . ., 2001,
t. III, gv. 328). am rukidan Cans, rom lerionis, bizanas, olnutis da
paipertis (baiberdis) da sxva saepiskoposoebi moqceulni iyvnen tra-
pezunt-vanis tbis SemaerTebel gzaze, kerZod, trapezunt-giumiSx-
ane-arzrum-manaskert-vanis tbis SemaerTebel gzaze, am qveyanas somx-
ebi uwodebdnen `dasavleT armenias~, amitomac Tanamedrove somex
mecnierebs miaCniaT, rom aRniSnuli saepiskoposoebi iyvnen e.w. `somex-
qalkedonitTa~ kaTedrebi. am qveyanas noticiebSi ewodeba `lazika~.
esaa istoriuli Wanika (WaneTi) _ basianis zoli, trapezuntidan vanis
tbamde, uZveles xanaSive qarTvelTa modgmis tomebis sacxovrisi.
ase rom, `lazika~, berZnuli saeklesio geografiis mixedviT, erq-
va ara dasavleT saqarTvelos, aramed WaneT-basianis mxares, amJamad,
sakmaod daSorebuls saqarTvelodan, amitomac am erTian ekonomikur
da, SeiZleba iTqvas, erTian geografiul arialze Tanamedrove qar-
Tvelebs Zalze bundovani warmodgena aqvT, magram istoriulad, ro-
gorc berZnuli noticiebis miTiTeba aCvenebs, es yofila qarTvel-
ebiT dasaxlebuli qveyana, romlis saepiskoposoebic eqvemdebarebod-
nen konstantinopols, mas berZnebi eklesiurad `lazikas~ uwodebd-
nen, miuxedavad imisa, rom es mxare, Semavali bizantiis imperiaSi,
bizantiuri politikur-administraciuli dayofis Sesabamisad `ar-
meniad~ iwodeboda. miuxedavad amisa, am qveynis mosaxleoba eTnikuri
lazebi (qarTvelebi) iyvnen da Sesabamisad mrevli maT qveyanaSi mde-
bare e.w. somxur-qalkedonuri saepiskoposoebisa, amitom isini iyvnen
ara `somexi-qalkedonitebi~ aramed eTnikuri `lazebi~.
255
Tavi IX
qarTuli warmoSobis ierarqi armeniis iberiaSi
wmida nerse iSxneli
nerse iSxnelis Sesaxeb misi epoqis sxvadasxva avtorebi weren, ese-
nia:
`daviT da tariWanis cxovrebis~ avtori, romelmac aRwera VII s-is
ambebi, is nerse iSxnels `wmidas~ uwodebs.
`iyo sanaxebTa maT soflisa somxiTisasa, JamTa netarisa didisa nerse
kaTalikozisa, ...xevsa basianisasa, dabasa onkom~ (saq. samociq. ekl. is-
toria. 2009, gv. 531).
basianidan deda da Svilebi `warmoivltoda CrdiloiT kerZo qvey-
anad tavoisa~ `nerse srbiT miiwia divris~.
`euwya saqme ese wmidasa mamasa Cvensa nerses kaTalikozsa somxiTi-
sasa~ (gv. 698).
valaSkertSi nerse somexTa kaTalikosma aago RvTismSoblis ekle-
sia, lastivertecis cnobiT, aq X s-Si `ijda qarTveli episkoposi~ (n.
adonci, armenia iustinianes epoqaSi, gv. 24).
arsen safareli wers _ `ezras Semdgom sakaTalikoso taxtze RvTis
nebiT avida nerse iSxneli. kaci Rirsi da marTlmorwmune~ (saq. samo-
ciq. ekl. istoria. 2009, gv. 378).
giorgi merCule _ `nebiTa RvTisaTa iqmna saba episkopos iSxans zeda,
netarisa nerse kaTalikozisa aRSenebulisa kaTolike eklesiasa da say-
darsa misisa, romeli weliwadTa mravalTa daqvrivebul iyo~ (iqve, gv. 459).
qarTuli wyaroebi nerses uwodeben _ `wmidas~, `netars~, `Rirss~
da `marTlmorwmunes~.
256
bizantiis imperatori konstans (konstantine) II
somxeTSi
imperatori konstans II me-7 saukunis Sua wlebSi akontrolebda
somxeTs da cdilobda somxuri eklesiis qalkedonuri frTis ga-
Zlierebas. somexTa kaTalikosi nerse III taoeli (641-661) iyo misi
moZRvari, Zalze daaxloebuli sasuliero piri bizantiis am impera-
torisa, romelic Tavis moZRvrisaTvis ar iSurebda saxsrebs, kon-
stans II-is saxsrebiT nerse taoelma aaSena cnobili zvartnocis taZ-
ari wmida grigolis saxelze (v. goilaZe, bizantiis aRmosavluri
politikis asaxva qarTul epografikaSi, 2008, gv. 40).
somexi istorikos sebeosis cnobiT somexTa kaTalikosi nerse sofel
iSxnidan iyo warmoSobiT, axalgazrdobaSi Seiswavla romaelTa ena
da mwerloba, radganac bizantiaSi aRizarda, Sevida samxedro samsaxur-
Si, gaecno mraval qveyanas, iyo marTlmadidebeli qalkedoniti, mag-
ram Tavis am sarwmunoebas umalavda somxebs. somxeTSi miaRwia saepisko-
poso xarisxs da miwveuli iqna sapatriarqo taxtze (iqve, gv. 41).
661 wels kaTalikosma nersem daasrula zvartnocis taZris mSe-
nebloba da mis kurTxevas daeswro imperatori konstans II, am taZris
mSenebloba 20 weli gagrZelda.
valaSkertSi nersesis mier agebuli yovladwmida RvTismSoblis
taZris Sesaxeb wers n. adonci. rogorc iTqva, valaSkertSi nerses
somexTa kaTalikosma aago RvTismSoblis eklesia, lastivercis cno-
biT, aq X s-Si ijda qarTveli episkoposi~ (n. adonci, gv. 24).
v. goilaZis varaudiT somexTa kaTalikosi nerse SesaZloa yofil-
iyo tao-klarjeTis bagrationTa saxlis warmomadgeneli (v. goil-
aZe, bizantiis aRmosavluri politikis asaxva qarTul epografikaSi,
2008, iqve, gv. 42).
giorgi merCules cnobiT, nersess taoSi - iSxnis eklesia auSenebia,
romelic Semdeg arabTa Semosevebis dros daqvrivebula (iqve, gv. 43).
ra iZleva safuZvels imisa, rom vivaraudoT nerse iSxnelis somex-
Ta kaTalikosis eTnikuri qarTveloba?
amis mizezi mravalia, erT-erTia is, rom e.w. somexTa da qarTvel-
Ta ganyofis Semdegac somxur eklesiaSi mravali eTnikurad arasomexi
257
eTnosi iyo gaerTianebuli (magaliTad, eTnikuri albanelebi somxur
eklesiaSi Zlier frTas qmnidnen). am gayofis Semdegac somxuri ek-
lesiis erTgul mrevls VII s-saTvis warmoadgendnen taoeli, basiane-
li, spereli da Teodosiopoleli qarTvelebi, im epoqaSi maTi sacx-
ovrebeli are (e.i. tao, basiani, speri da Teodosiopolis mxareebi)
iwodeboda `iveriad~ (IX-X ss-Si) da ara aRmosavleT saqarTvelo.
saqme is iyo, rom afxazTa samefos gafarToebis Sedegad IX-X sauku-
neebSi, rac afxazTa samefom Tavisi sazRvrebi miitana Tbilisamde,
Sida qarTli mis nawilad, e.i. `afxazeTad~ iqca, amave dros Tbilisis
saamiros erT did nawilSi (qvemo qarTlSi) e.w. `somexTa samefo~ (ta-
Sir-Zorakertisa) Camoyalibda. maSasadame, Sesabamisad, am mxares som-
xiTi ewoda, xolo Tbilisis aRmosavleTiT kaxeTis saqorepiskoposo
Camoyalibda.
Sesabamisad, IX-X saukuneebSi aRmosavleT saqarTvelo politikuri
TvalsazrisiT `afxazeTad~, `somxiTad~ da `kaxeTad~ iwodeboda, xolo
iveria anu `qarTvelTa qveyana~ im epoqaSi tao-basian-sper-Teodoso-
poliss erqva.
am politikurma terminologiam asaxva hpova bizantiaSi. kerZod,
konstantinopolSi saimperatoro karma `iberiis Temi~ uwoda swored
tao-sper-basian-Teodosiopoliss, xolo imave epoqis bizantieli is-
torikosebi im qveyanas, romelsac Cven `saqarTvelos samefos~ vu-
wodebT, uwodebdnen ara iverias, aramed `afxazeTs~, mis mefeebs ki
`afxazTa mefeebs~.
maSasadame, im epoqaSi imJamindel saqarTvelos erqva `afxazTa same-
fo~, xolo `iveria~ ewodeboda tao-basian-spersa da Teodosiopoli-
sis olqs.
rogorc iTqva, iqamdec e.i. VII da VIII saukuneebSi, iberebi (e.i. tao-
basian-sperelebi) da albanelebi somxuri eklesiis mrevlad iTvle-
bodnen.
somxuri eklesiis mrevlad gadaqceuli albanelebi, iseve, rogorc
iberebi, cxadia ar iyvnen eTnikuri somxebi. somxeTSi mcxovrebi ibere-
bis eTnikur qarTvelobaSi mxolod patkanov-maris momxre istori-
kosebsa da filologebs SehqondaT eWvi XX s-Si.
tao iyo iberiis erT-erTi umTavresi nawili, Tumca ki somxuri
eklesiis iurisdiqciaSi Sedioda.
258
mxolod nerse kaTalikosis gardacvalebidan naxevari saukunis Sem-
deg, 726 wlis manaskertis krebis Semdeg, TandaTanobiT gauCndaT
taoelebs survili gasuliyvnen somxuri eklesiis wiaRidan da SeerTe-
bodnen TavianTi eTnikuri TanamoZmeebis e.i. qarTvelebis eklesias.
sababi amisa iyo is, rom manaskertis krebam dagmo qalkedonitoba
da aRiara monofizitoba.
es kargi sababi iyo taoeli qarTvelebisaTvis mxurvaled Seenar-
CunebinaT qalkedonituri sarwmunoeba da qarTuli eklesiis wiaRs
SeerTebodnen.
maSasadame, `ganyofa~ somxuri da qarTuli eklesiebisa, romelic
kirionis dros, daiwyo gugarqSi, dasrulda VIII s-is 20-30-ian wlebSi
taosa da basianSi.
kirionis epoqaSi `ganyofis~ I etapma moicva mxolod qvemo qarTli
e.i. gugarqis vrceli qveynis erTi nawili, xolo ganyofis II etapma VIII
s-Si moicva tao, basiani da iveriis vrceli mxareebi araqsamde, ev-
fratis saTaveebamde, arzrumamde da SeiZleba vanis tbamdec ki, rad-
ganac es vrceli mxareebi iberebis bunebriv sacxovriss warmoadgen-
da qristeSobamdec. amis axsna Semdegia _ zogadad, rogorc mraval-
jer iTqva, iberia anu `iberiis Temi~ moicavda istoriuli arian-qarT-
lis miwa-wyals anu tao-klarjeT-basian-karin-vanands. es iyo yofili
e.w. `didi iberiis~ is nawili, romelic strabonis cnobiT armeniam
waarTva iberias. es momxdara qristeSobamde II s-Si.
iqamdec, Zv. w. IV-III s-Si azonis mamis (iaredosis) epoqaSic, Cans, Semo-
Wrili somxebis samxedro warmatebam arian-qarTlSi aiZula azoni axa-
li politikuri centri eZebna ufro CrdiloeTiT _ Tanamedrove
saqarTveloSi.
marTalia, Semdeg am mxareebs, anu arian-qarTlis erT nawils, dasav-
leT armenia uwodes, magram iq darCenila Zveli iberebis didi naw-
ili, romelTac SeZles SemdgomSi, xelsayreli momentis dadgomis-
Tanave, taos anu `qarTvelTa samefo~ daaarses.
xelsayreli momentis dadgomisas aRniSnul `somxeTis miwa-wyalze~
taoSi Camoyalibda `qarTvelTa samefo~, romelic swrafad gaizarda.
aqedan Cans, rom sinamdvileSi VII-VIII saukuneebSic didi dapiri-
spireba iyo e.w. dasavleT somxeTis qarTvelebsa da Sida somxeTis
259
somxebs Soris. aman asaxva hpova sxvadasxva cnobebSi. magaliTad, roca
bizantiis imperatori konstans II nerse kaTalikosis miwveviT mivida
somxeTSi zvartnocis taZris kurTxevaze monawileobis misaRebad, is
jer, gzis Sesabamisad, Sevida TeodosiopolSi (karinSi). aq masTan
Sesaxvedrad mividnen am qalaqis irgvliv mdebare iverTa miwebis dide-
bulebi, kerZod `sperelebi, bagratuni Tavadebi, didebulebi taosa
da basianis provinciidan, aseve sxva mxareTa didebulebi jarebiTa
da TavianTi naTesavebiT. imperatorTan Sesaxvedrad taodan Cavida
kaTalikosi nersec~ (v. goilaZe, bizantiis aRmosavluri politikis
asaxva, 2008, gv. 44).
imperatoris irgvliv, bizantielTa mier `somxeTad~ saxeldebuli
qveynis qarTveli didebulebi Seikribnen, romelTac, rogorc Cans,
mtrobdnen somexi didebulebi, es mtroba gamoixateboda sxvadasxva
saxiT, magaliTad, imperatorTan misuli qarTvelebi mxars uWerdnen
somxeTis im sardals, romelsac mxardaWera ar hqonda Tanamemamule
somxebis mxridan, magram, roca man es mxardaWera moipova, mas qar-
Tvelebi ganudgnen (igulisxmeba sardali Teodoros rStuni).
maSasadame, somxeTis mniSvnelovan Tanamdebobaze qarTvelebi da
somxebi erTmaneTs edavebodnen.
somxeTSi somexTa da qarTvelTa urTierTqiSpi gadaizarda sar-
wmunoebriv urTierTbrZolaSi, rac bolos dasrulda saeklesio gan-
xeTqilebiT _ taoelebma da saerTod somxeTis qarTvelebma, rogorc
iTqva, SeinarCunes qalkedonitoba, xolo eTnikuri somxebi, maT Soris
qalkedonitebic (erTi nawili), SeuerTdnen somxur monofizitur ek-
lesias.
somxeTis qarTvelebisa da eTnikuri somxebis am mtroba-davis dros
nerse kaTalikosis mxares yovelTvis qarTvelebi idgnen.
magaliTad, aRmosavleTSi Tavisi erT-erTi yofnisas imperatorma
angariSi gauwia somex didebulebs (romelnic Zalze did Zalas war-
moadgendnen) da Tanamdebobidan gadaayena Teodoros rStuni (romelTa
mokavSireebi iyvnen qarTvelebi da albanelebi).
konstans II-m somxeTis cxenosani jaris sardlad daniSna muSel
mamikoniani, amave dros sagangebo macneebi gaagzavna iberiasa, alba-
neTsa da sivnieTSi raTa maT Teodosos rStunTan kavSiri gaewyvitaT
(iqve, gv. 44).
260
konstans II, am dros, SeCerda q. dvinSi, kaTalikos nerses saxlSi.
nerse III-m isargebla am momentiT, moiwvia saeklesio kreba da ga-
moacxada Tavisi qalkedonituri rwmena, marTalia imperatoris iq
yofnisas zogierTma somexma Tavi Seikava, magram umetesi nawili aR-
SfoTda.
amis gamo, SeSfoTebuli nerse III Tan gahyva dvinidan ukan dab-
runebul imperators.
nersem Tavi Seafara taos, sadac misi damcvelebi iyvnen taoeli
qarTvelebi.
sebeosis TxrobiT nerses qalkedonitobiT aRSfoTda somxeTis
jari, maT miemxro Teodoros rStuni, miiRo arabebisagan damxmare
Zalebi, daiwyo omi bizantielTa winaaRmdeg da aiRo trapizoni.
rogorc iTqva, kaTalikosi nerse imperatorTan erTad gamgzavre-
bula konstantinopolSi da dabrunda ukan taoSi da iq darCa Teo-
dosos rStunis gardacvalebamde.
6 wliani devnis Semdeg qarTvelebisa da imperatoris SewevniT ners-
esi kvlav avida somxeTis sapatriarqo taxtze da daamTavra zvart-
nocis qalkedonituri taZris mSenebloba, romlis kurTxevasac im-
peratori daeswro (`istoria episkopos sebeosisa~ (rusul enaze),
erevani, 1939, gv. 119-127). somex monofizitebs es taZari ucxod,
araerovnulad miaCndaT.
maSasadame, nerse taoels mtrobdnen somexi didebulebi da is im-
Jamindeli somxeTis qarTvelebis mxardaWeriT sargeblobda. mis dros
somxeTis mravalma eTnikurma qarTvelma aRiara qalkedonitoba taos
gareTac.
rogorc iTqva, taoSi nerses, kerZod iSxanSi, episkoposobisas VII
s-is 30-ian wlebSi augia iSxnis imJamad mrgvali taZari (banasa da
zvartnocis tipisa).
saerTod, rogorc avanis, ise zvartnocis qalkedonituri da sxva
qalkedonituri taZrebi somxeTis qarTvelTa TavSesafars, maTi eT-
noidentobis sadgurebs warmoadgendnen. somxur eklesiaSi TavianTi
yofnis dros qarTvelebi cdilobdnen saeklesio arqiteqturiTac gan-
sxvavebuli yofiliyvnen eTnikuri somxebisagan.
261
qalkedonituri taZrebi avanisa da zvartnocisa warmoadgendnen
somxeTSi mcxovrebi qarTvelebis saeklesio TviTgamoyofis, eTnoiden-
tobis warmoCinebis niSan-taZrebs, amitomac uwodebdnen zvartnocis
mSenebel nerses qarTvelebi `wmidas~.
nerses garda qalkedonituri sarwmunoeba somxeTis sxva kaTali-
kosebsac hqondaT, magram qarTvel mamebs isini wmidaTa rigSi ar Seuy-
vaniaT, maTgan nersesi gamorCeuli iyo Tavisi eTnikuri warmomavlo-
biT, is qarTveli iyo taoelTa msgavsad da amitomac mudam daculi
da pativcemuli Tanamemamuleebis (e.i. somxeTSi mcxovrebi qarTveleb-
is) mier.
somex-qarTvelTa davis epoqaSi mcxovrebi arsen safareli, giorgi
merCule, daviT da tariWanis cxovrebis aRmweri da sxvebi, wmidas da
`RvTis kacs~ ar uwodebdnen somexTa araqarTvel kaTalikoss.
arsen safarelis cnobiT, sakaTalikoso taxtze nerse `RvTis nebiT~
avida, is iyo `Rirsi da marTlmorwmune~, xolo giorgi merCule mas
`netars ~uwodebs. ufro metad ganadidebs maT daviT da tariWanis
cxovrebis aRmweri da uwodebs `Cvens wmida mamas~.
somxeTSi, rogorc aRiniSna IV-VIII ss-Si mravali qarTveli sasuli-
ero piri moRvaweobda. maT Soris, CvenTvis cnobilia kirion kaTali-
kosi - somxeTis centraluri nawilis, airaratis episkoposi, mose
gugarqel qarTvelTa episkoposi (Tumca monofiziti), wmida grigor-
is cxovrebis arabulad mTargmneli da albaT sxvebic, romelTac
momavali mkvlevarebi gamoavlenen.
somxur eklesiaSi, SemdgomSic, kerZod XVII-XVIII ss-Sic, uamravi qar-
Tveli monofiziti sasuliero piri moRvaweobda, rac Cans matena-
daranSi daculi maTi qarTulenovani werilebidan, zogierTis qarTu-
li gvaric cnobilia. erT-erTi aseTia somxur eklesiaSi droebiT
moRvawe qarTveli sasuliero piri cnobili arqimandriti ioane xe-
laSvili. ioane batoniSvils `kalmasobaSi~ aRwerili aqvs aseTi am-
bavi: qarTl-kaxeTis samefos gauqmebiT anu qarTvelTa umoqmedobi-
Ta da uTavbolobiT ise aRSfoTda ioane xelaSvili, rom man datova
qarTuli eklesia da gadavida somxur eklesiaSi. maSinve, erT-erT
somxur monasterSi mas gauCines ulufa da misces Tavisi senaki, sa-
dac mis locvas aRwers kidec mwerali (ioane batoniSvili), Semdgom
ioane xelaSvili kvlav daubrunda mSobliur eklesias. ase, rom qar-
262
Tvelebi IV saukunidan XIX saukunis CaTvliT mravlad iRwodnen som-
xur eklesiaSi.
rogorc iTqva, VII-VIII ss-Si somxur eklesiaSi gaerTianebulni iyo
ramdenime qarTuli Temi, maT Soris yvelaze mniSvnelovani taoa. mx-
olod qarTvelTa TviTSemecnebis gamoRviZebis Semdeg daubrunda es
mxare dedasamSoblos eklesiuradac.
vfiqrob, arzrum-lazistanis qarTvelTa eTnikuri TviTgamoRvi-
Zebis procesi jerac ar damTavrebula, kerZod, qristiani lazebi
XVI-XIX saukuneebSi Seerivnen `urumebsa~ da `romeosebs~ (berZnebs),
xolo mahmadiani lazebi _ osmalo-Turqebs. SesaZloa maTi TviTSe-
mecnebis gamoRviZebis SemTxvevaSi isini kvlav daubrundnen TavianT
eTnoidentobas.
gugarqeli, taoeli, vanandeli da arzrumeli
aznaurebi somxuri eklesiis winaaRmdeg
mkvidri mosaxleobis Tvalsazrissa da nebas, rogorc wesi, Sua
saukuneebSi gamoxatavda mosaxleobis Tavisufali fena, anu aznau-
rebi. dabali fena _ glexebi uufleboni da ZiriTadad uidentoni
iyvnen. aznaurebi _ mepatroneni iyvnen da qveynis eTnikur saxesac
warmoaCendnen.
sabednierod, gugarqSi somxuri eklesiis gaZlierebisas, mis agre-
siul survils Tavis mrevlad gadaeqcia qarTuli mosaxleoba, win
aRudga mkvidri aznauroba anu gugarqelma aznaurebma qarTul ekle-
sias dauWires mxari kirion kaTalikosis dros (ix. a. jafariZe, saqar-
Tvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria, t. II).
Tu ara maTi (mkvidri aznaurebis) mxardaWera, somxuri eklesiis
Semotevas imJamad dasustebuli qarTuli eklesia ver daupirispird-
eboda.
qarTuli eklesiis dasusteba ki gamoiwvia Cveni qveynis dampyrobe-
li sparseTis Sahebis prosomxurma mikerZoebam, kerZod, maTma mono-
fiziturma saeklesio orientaciam.
263
sparselebi qarTuli eklesiis diofizitizms probizantiur ori-
entaciad miiCnevdnen da devnidnen.
roca mavrike keisarma SeZlo bizantia-sparseTis sazRvris Tbili-
samde motana, amiT zurggamagrebulma kirionma gabeda da nabiji gada-
dga gugarqis mkvidr qarTvelebisaTvis wirva-locvis qarTulenovnebis
asaRorZineblad, ramac sastikad gaaRiziana somxuri eklesia.
gugarqi _ kirionis samwyso iyo. am qveynis namdvili mflobelebi
ki, rogorc iTqva mkvidri aznauroba iyo, amitomac somexTa kaTaliko-
sma sagangebo epistoliT mimarTa gugarqis aznaurebs mxari daeWiraT
somxuri eklesiisaTvis kirionis nebis sawinaaRmdegod iqauri mose
kvlav episkoposad daebrunebinaT, is imJamad Tavs somxeTs afarebda.
swored am gadamwyvet momentSi gugarqelma aznaurebma mxari dauWires
qarTul eklesias, riTac Zlier ganawyenda somexi kaTalikosi. `Cven
es sarwmunoebac gvaqvs da egec, Tu unda mose episkoposs, movides da
kirions daemorCilos~ aseTi iyo gugarqel aznaurTa pasuxi. aqedan
kargad Cans maTi eTnikuri vinaoba - isini saeklesio mTlianobas anu
qarTuli eklesiis gaubzarvelobas ufro did mniSvnelobas aniWebd-
nen, vidre somexi kaTalikosis mowodebas.
lastivertecis Tanaxmad, arzrumelma, taoelma da basianelma
aznaurebma gugarqel aznaurTa msgavsad dauWires mxari qarTul ek-
lesias (a. lastiverteci, istoria, 1974, gv. 44).
aq SeiZleba gavixsenoT, rom eTnikur somxur olqebSi aznaurebi
mxars somxur eklesias uWerdnen. magaliTad, `epistoleTa wignSi~
kargad Cans, rom vrkanis marzpani devnida qarTul eklesias da mxars
uWerda somxurs.
xolo eTnikur qarTul regionebSi aznaurebi, rogorc iTqva, mx-
ars qarTul eklesias uWerdnen, am faqtis kargi gamoxatulebaa ma-
galiTi taoel-vanandel-kareli didebulebisa: bakurianisZeebisa,
Cordvanelebisa, vanandeli aznaurebisa, Tornike erisTavisa da misi
Tanamosagre qarTveli didebulebisa _ isini iyvnen erTguli mrevli
qarTuli eklesiisa.
gugarqelma, taoelma, vanandelma da arzrumelma aznaurebma kar-
gad icodnen, rom Tu isini mxars dauWerdnen qarTul eklesias qveyana
SeinarCunebda qarTvelobas, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi ki gasomxdeboda.
264
basianis sofeli okomi
da anisis somxuri jvari
aristakes lastivertecis cnobiT, basiani da 12 axlo gavari dasax-
lebuli iyo qarTvelebiT, romelnic ebrZodnen somxur eklesias. maT
anisis somxuri jvris lursmnebi moaZvres da gaiZaxodnen `am lursm-
nebisgan cxenis nalebs gavakeTebTo~, qarTvelebi. avtoris azriT, amis
gamo, daisajnen basili imperatoris xeliT.
basili imperatorma, qarTvelTa qveynebi da soflebi moaoxra,
maT Soris iyo basianis erT-erTi centri da mTeli mxareebi okomi _
`mefe Zlier ganrisxda da brZana cecxliT, maxviliTa da tyveobiT
gaenadgurebinaT didi daba-qalaqi okomi da mis garSemo mdebare sof-
lebi, aoxrda miwis savargulebi, romlebic im mxareSi iyo, xolo tyvee-
bi waeyvanaT qaldiis gavarSi, TviTon ki basianisaken gaemarTa da miaR-
wia vanandis gavars... mefem qveynis oTxive mxares jari gagzavna marbie-
li mohfina, mkacri brZanebiT moiTxova, raTa ar daendoT arc moxuci,
arc axalgazrda, arc yrma, arc asakovani, arc kaci, arc qali da saer-
Tod arcerTi asakisa, amgvarad, man daangria da moaoxra Tormeti ga-
vari... gadaiwva, daingra, ganadgurda, maTi patronebi maxviliT amowyd-
nen... es Tavs gadaxdaT nacvlad imisa, rom maT moglijes wmida kaTolike
eklesiis karidan samefo niSnis mqone jvris lursmnebi da Seuracxmy-
ofelad gaiZaxodnen: cxenebisTvis nali unda gavakeToTo. ase samarTli-
anad maT Tavs daatydaT ubedureba.. vai mefis Seubralebel brZanebas...
gaukacrielda keTilmowyobili qveyana da dacarielda. magram ar vici
risTvis SeemTxva maT yovelive es, Wkuis darigebisTvis Tu qveynis mo-
saxleobis aRviraxsnilobis gamo~ (aristakes lastiverteci, istoria,
1974, gv. 47).
aqedan Cans, rom daba-qalaqi okomi, basiani da mis irgvliv 12 sxva
mxare _ qarTvelebiT iyo dasaxlebuli, romelnic anisis `jvris lursm-
nebis~ upativcemulobis gamo daisajnen _ wers a. lastiverteci e. i.
ar iyvnen somxebi, amitomac ar scemdnen pativs somxur niSnebs.
265
anisis jvris lursmnebi
aristakes lastivertecis cnobiT, taoel da basianel qarTvel
aznaurTa jarma, romelic Tan axlda afxazTa mefe giorgi I-s, pativi
ar sca anisis jvars, misi lursmnebi daaZvres da waiRes.
`SahinSad wodebuli anisis mefis gagikis gardacvalebis Semdeg
memkvidreobisTvis erTmaneTs waekidnen misi Svilebi sumbati da aSo-
ti, saWiro Seiqmna sasamarTlo, maTTan viTarca mosamarTle movida
afxazTa mefe giorgi da mSvidobianad Seariga isini, sumbats misca
anisis cixe gavarebiTurT, xolo aSots qveynis Sida mxare, romelic
sparseTsa da saqarTvelos uyurebda~ (aristakes lastiverteci, is-
toria, 1974, gv. 44).
maleve sumbaTma giorgi I-is es sasamarTlo gadawyvetileba daar-
Rvia, amitomac giorgi I kvlav Sevida anisSi damnaSavis dasasjelad.
anisidan gamosvlisas giorgis mxleblebma gaZarcves sakaTedro taZris
mokazmuloba, moglijes jvris lursmnebi da Tan lanZRviT gaiZax-
odnen `migvaqvs, raTa cxenebis nali gavakeToTo~ (iqve, gv. 44).
aristakes lastiverteci Semdgom ufro dawvrilebiT wers, rom
sumbats ergo qalaqi anisi Tavisi SemogareniT, xolo mis Zmas aSots
Sida mxare somxeTisa, anu anisis samxreTiT mdebare qveyana, romel-
sac aRmosavleTiT sparseTi, xolo dasavleTis mxridan ki `saqarTve-
lo~ esazRvreboda. am SemTxvevaSi is saqarTvelos uwodebs tao-ba-
sian-vanand-karinis mxareebs, romelTac bizantielebi iverias uwodeb-
dnen. maSasadame, aristakes lastivertecisaTvis `saqarTveloa~ ara
anisis CrdiloeTiT mdebare qveyana, aramed am qalaqis dasavleTiT
mdebare, marTlac, anisis CrdiloeTiT Tbilisis saamiro mdebareob-
da, xolo dasavleTiT ki tao-basianis mxareebi, karinis (arzrumis)
veli da vanandis nawili, saqarTvelos mefis sagamgeo qveyana. am am-
bidan ramdenime wlis Semdeg am iverias _ saqarTvelos Semoesia im-
peratori basili bulgarTmmusvreli, da dadga `karinis farTo velze~,
Semdeg gadavida basianiSi da vanandSi (yarsis mxares).
a. lastivertecis cnobiT, basili bulgarTmmusvrelma am qarTu-
li qveynebis e.i. karinis, taos, basianis da vanandis `oTxive mxares
jari gagzavna, marbieli mohfina, mkacri brZanebiT moiTxova ar daen-
266
doT arc moxuci, arc axalgazrda, arc yrma, arc asakovani, arc kaci da
arc qali arcerTi asakisa, amgvarad man daangria da moaoxra Tormeti
gavari... am drois borotmoqmedebani: sisxlSi amosvrili moxucTa sap-
atio WaRara, maxviliT amowyvetili axalgazrdebi, uricxvi brmebi,
romelTac Tvalebi daubneles, vfiqrob, yovelive es Tavs gadaxdaT
nacvlad imisa, rom maT moglijes wmida kaTolike eklesiis karidan same-
fo niSnis mqone jvris lursmnebi da Seuracxmyofelad gaiZaxodnen: cx-
enebisaTvis nali unda gavakeToTo. ase samarTlianad maT Tavs daaty-
daT ubedureba, rac sazarel sanaxaobs qmnis - aznauri qalebi moedanze
gamoiyvanes, moxades Tavsaburavebi, ZuZumwovara yrmebs zogs dedis
mkerdidan glejdnen da qvebs urtyamdnen, nawils ki dedis mkerdze ak-
lavdnen SubiT da dedis rZes yrmebis sisxls urevdnen, sxvebs gzaj-
varedinebze cxenebis CliqebSi agdebdnen da miT xocavdnen... vai mefis
(bizantiis imperatoris) Seubralebel brZanebas, magram ar dacxra misi
risxva, kvlav aRmarTa xeli, raTa yvela borotebisaTvis gadaeWarbebi-
na, aseTi saqmianobiT gaukacrielda qveyana, zamTris mosvlamde aoxr-
da da dacarielda irgvliv yovelive~ (iqve, gv. 47).
basilma dasaja saqarTvelos mefis erTguli mosaxleoba, isini
eTnikuri qarTvelebi, iqedan Cans, rom isini ar aRiarebdnen somxur
sarwmunoebas da amitom maT, lastivertecis sityviT, Seuracxyves
anisis somxuri taZari. isini eTnikurad ucxoni iyvnen lastiverte-
cisaTvis, is am qarTvelebs miiCnevs ara Tavisi eris, aramed sxva eris
nawilad, ara `Cven~ jgufis identuri nawilad, aramed sxva `imaTi~
erisa, amitomac wers _ `ar vici risTvis SeemTxvaT maT yovelive es,
Wkuis darigebisaTvis, Tu qveynis mosaxleobis aRviraxsnilobis gamo~
(aristakes lastiverteci, istoria, 1974, gv. 47).
maSasadame, basianis, taos, vanandisa da karinis mosaxleoba somex
istorikoss miaCnda sxva eTno jgufad _ qarTvelebad, romelnic daisa-
jnen aRviraxsnili cxov rebisa da somxuri anisis eklesiis gaZarcvis
gamo. basilma sastikad dasaja jer didi daba-qalaqis okomis mosaxle-
oba da mis garSemo soflebi `cecxliT, maxvilTa da tyveobiT~ (gv. 45),
Semdeg ki 12 vrceli qarTuli qveyana basiansa da mimdebare qveynebisa.
olTisis (anu somxurad uxtiqis) Senobebi ki okomis sanacvlod
saqarTvelos mefes giorgis gadauwvavs.
267
olTisis mosaxleobis qarTvelobas miuTiTebs iqve lastiverteci
_ giorgim `ubrZana jarebs gadaewvaT lamazi nagebobebi, iavareyoT misi
mTeli saqoneli, magram xalxisaTvis vneba ar mieyenebiaT~ (iqve, gv. 45).
xalxs ratom ar unda miayenos qarTvelma jarma vneba? iqneb imis
gamo, rom mosaxleoba qarTulia. nagebobebSi Senaxuli qoneba ki mters
ar unda gamoeyenebina, am mizeziT gadawva olTisi giorgi mefem, am
dros, Cans ramdenime eklesiac daiwva, ramac safuZveli misca sabWo-
Ta epoqis istorikosebs ganecxadebinaT rom TiTqosda `giorgi mefem
gadawva somxuri eklesiebi~.
rac Seexeba anisis jvris lursmnebis moments, isini daaZrves ara
sarwmunoebrivi uTanxmoebis gamo, aramed imitom, rom lursmnebze
amotvifruli yofila anisis mflobelis damnaSave sumbatis niSani,
mas didis didebiT Seumkia es jvari am niSnebiT, sumbatis dasasjelad
Sesul qarTvelTa jars, Cans sadac ki unaxavs sumbatis niSani, moux-
snia da Tan wauRia, maT Soris jvris lursmnebic. `moglijes eklesi-
is karidan samefo niSnis mqone jvris lursmani~ gasagebad wers mema-
tiane, vfiqrobT am sakiTxSic araswori iyvnen sabWoTa epoqis is-
torikosebi, magaliTad, i. abulaZe, romelic olTisis eklesiebis
gadawvisa da anisis jvarTan dakavSirebul ambebs ise aRwerda TiTqosda
es Zaladoba gamoiwvia qarTuli eklesiis Zaladobrivma SeWram simx-
uri eklesiis iurisdiqciis sferoSi, is wers _ `erTi eklesia iWreba
meoreSi, eklesiaTa wva da jvrebis msxvreva amas miuTiTebs~, TiTqosda
qarTuli eklesia SeiWra somxurSi, dawva somxuri eklesiebi da amaT
taoeli da basianeli somxebi `gaaqarTvela~, aseT yalb safuZvelze
aigo e.w. `qarTizaciis~ Teoria.
maSasadame, anisis jvris lursmnebi ar mouxsniaT sarwmunoebrivi gan-
sxvavebis gamo da arc eklesiebi dauwvavT am niSniT. am mxriv, sabWoTa
epoqis istorikosebis naazrevs ewinaaRmdegeba aristakes lastivertecis
cnobebi. misi azriT, am qmedebebs eTnikuri safuZveli hqonda.
aRsaniSnavia, rom imperatorma basilim, tao-basianis iveriis ga-
nadgurebiT faqtiurad xeli Seuwyo Turq-seljukebis mier tao-basan-
vanand-karinisa da sxva qveynebis dapyrobas, radganac man am qveyneb-
is mkvidri qarTveli mosaxleoba sastikad daasusta sakuTari dana-
Saulebrivi qmedebebiT, romelTac lastiverteci `borotmoqmedebebs~
uwodebs (gv. 46).
268
Tavi X
`aRmosavleTis~ sakaTalikoso
`iverTa~ (avanis) sakaTalikoso (VII s-is dasawyisi)
(`kaTalikosni aRmosavalisani~)
X-XVI ss-Ta qarTul samyaroSi `aRmosavleTi~ erqva samxreT tao-
basiansa da maT momijnave mxareebs. wina saukuneTa msgavsad sityva
`aRmosavleTi~ am mniSvnelobiT gvxvdeba XVI s-is dokumentebSic.
saqarTvelos daSlis Semdeg samcxeli mTavris separatizmis gama-
rTlebis mizniT konstantinopolSi berZnul enaze Seiqmna Txzuleba
e.w. `manuelis gardamocema~. `is asaxavs mzeWabukis suliskveTebas _
mefobis survils samcxis miwa-wyalze~ (m. zaldastaniSvili, kidev
erTxel aTabagTa gankerZoebis Sesaxeb, macne, istoriis seria, 2012,
2. gv. 57).
samcxis mTavari, imJamad, did teritorias flobda basianidan tra-
pezuntis regionamde.
separatisti mTavris dakveTiT antioqiis patriarq doroTeossac
gamoucia sagangebo `wigni~. `masSi mzeWabuki moxsenebulia, rogorc,
`yovlisa aRmosavleTisa xelmwife~ (qr. SaraSiZe, samxreT saqarTve-
los istoriis masalebi (XV-XVI ss.), 1961, gv. 96).
orive dokumentSi mzeWabuks `mTeli zemo iberiis TviTmpyrobeli~
ewodeba. maSasadame dokumentebSi `aRmosavleTis~ qveS moiazreba _
`zemo iberia~ anu samcxe, tao da basiani mimdgomi mxareebiT vidre tra-
pezuntis regionamde.
amave mniSvnelobiT ixmareboda sityva `aRmosavleTi~ wina sauku-
neebSic.
mas Semdeg rac `zemoni qveyanani~ daviT kurapalatma Tavis qarTvel-
Ta samefos SeuerTa, mis politikur memkvidreTa titulaturaSi gaCnda
269
wodeba _ `yovlisa aRmosavleTisa kurapalati~, rac aRniSnuli qvey-
nebis flobis memkvidreobiTobas miuTiTebda. am tituls flobdnen
bagrat III, giorgi I da bagrat IV (v. goilaZe, `yovlisa aRmosavleTisa
kurapalatis~ wodeba, bizantia, qarTuli wyaroebi, 2010. gv. 129).
`aRmosavleTi~ qarTvelTaTvis, rogorc aRiniSna, im periodSi, tao-
basianis regions erqva, gadaSlils vidre avanamde, im qveynebs, sadac
Semdgom bizantiam daarsa iberiis Temi.
Sesabamisad, `aRmosavleTis kaTalikosni~ da `aRmosavleTs patri-
arqi~ erqva, im regionis qarTvel mamamTavars, romelic Semdgom `iberi-
is Temma~ moicva.
jer kidev kirion II-m gamoTqva Tvalsazrisi, rom saqarTvelos `aR-
mosavleTis~ provincias, anu imiertao-basiansa da mimdebare olqebs
hyavda Tavisi qarTveli kaTalikosi. mas `iverTa kaTalikossac~ uwo-
debdnen, qveynis saxelis Sesabamisad, iveria ki, rogorc somxur, ise
berZnul wyaroebSi imJamad (VIII-X ss-Si) tao-basianis regions erqva
da amitomac aq, XI s-Si, bizantiam `iberis Temi~ Camoayaliba.
saqme isaa, rom am periodSi, ukve TiTqmis IX saukunedan, mcxeTa-
Tbilisis regionis dasavleTiT mdebare regions ukve `afxazeTs~ mi-
akuTvnebdnen, radganac Sida qarTli afxaz mefeTa miswrafebis re-
gionad iqca. rac Seexeba termin `iveria~-s, imJamad is tao-basiansa
da mis mimdebare mxareebs erqva.
VI s-is bolos (VII s-is dasawyisSi) avanis sakaTalikoso sarwmunoe-
brivi niSniT gamoeyo dvinis sakaTalikosos. is Tavis iurisdiqcias
ZiriTadad avrcelebda qarTvelebiT dasaxlebul miwa-wyalze, tao-
basianze da agreTve gugarqad wodebul teritoriaze, romelic somx-
uri geografiis mixedviT Woroxamde vrceldeboda. am regions erqva
rogorc `aRmosavleTi~, ise `iveria~, mas `qarTvelebi~ aRmosavleTs
uwodeben, ucxoelebi ki `iverias~. es olqebi marTalia qarTvelebiT
iyo dasaxlebuli, magram saukuneTa manZilze iyo mitacebuli da somx-
eTis SemadgenlobaSi Sedioda VI-VII saukuneebSi, avanis sakaTalikosos
arsebobisas, romelic maleve gaauqmes.
iqauri qarTveloba imJamad, somxuri kulturisa da eklesiis gav-
lenis qveS iyvnen, Tumca eTnikur-erovnuli (qarTuli) identoba bo-
lomde dakarguli ar hqondaT.
270
am mosaxleobam SemdgomSic, kerZod VIII s-dan wamoiwyo udidesi
mniSvnelobis saqme: kerZod, rogorc ki SesaZlebeli gaxda, ganerida
somxuri saeklesio centris monofizitur aRmsareblobas da qalke-
donitoba aRiara Tavis sarwmuneobriv mimarTulebad 726 wlis kreb-
is Semdeg, tao-basiansa da maT gverdiTa olqebSi, iqamde, VI s-is bo-
los, avanis sakaTalikoso sarwmunoebrivi niSniT, magram Sinagani
erovnulobis, Tavisi arasomxurobis (anu qarTvelobis) gamo ganSor-
da somxur eklesias da Tavis sarwmunoebad qalkedonitoba anu
qarTul-erovnuli aRmsarebloba gamoacxada, aseve mizandasaxulad
miiRo qarTuli eklesiisaTvis sxva damaxasiaTebeli niSnebic, magal-
iTad saeklesio arqiteqtura (avanis taZari mcxeTis jvris aslia.
avanis taZari erTi amosunTqviT aigo ioane bagaranelis mier, radga-
nac mas ukve hqonda nimuSi mcxeTis jvris saxiT, rac Seexeba TviTon
mcxeTis jvars, misi mSenebloba IV saukunidanve daiwyo, aRwerilia
mis centrSi mdgari xis wmida jvris gumbaTiT gadaxurvis istoriac
da mxolod VI-VII saukuneTa mijnaze miiRo saboloo saxe mcxeTis ek-
lesiam, avanisaTis is ukve mzamzareuli nimuSi iyo, viTarca qarTul-
qalkedonuri saeklesio arqiteqturisa).
avanis sakaTalikoso, mas rom dacloda, aseve miiRebda saeklesio
da kulturuli saWiroebisaTvis qarTul enasac. avanis sakaTaliko-
so maleve gaauqma somxurma eklesiam. avanis sakaTalikosoSi tao-
basian-airarati moiazreba.
SemdgomSi, rogorc aRiniSna, es dawyebuli saqme mainc gagrZelda.
daaxloebiT erTi saukunis Semdeg, gugarqis msgavsad, taosa da basi-
anis qarTvelobam TandaTanobiT aRidgina qarTulenovneba, anu Tuki
iqamde maTi wirva-locvisa da literaturis ena iyo somxuri, axla is
uaryofil iqna da mis nacvlad mosaxleobam qarTulenovneba daibruna
saeklesio saWiroebisas (e.i. maTi saSinao-ojaxuri (qarTuli) ena axla
ukve sazogadoebrivi urTierTobis saSualebad, kulturis enad iqca).
271
`iberieli~ ioane bagaranelis delegacia
antoqiaSi da misi taZari avanSi
aristakes lastivertecis cnobiT iveria mdebareobda ara anisis
CrdiloeTiT, aramed mis dasavleTiT, radganac, rogorc aRiniSna,
misi periodis somxur saistorio geografiaSi `iveria~ ZiriTadad erqva
taosa da basians.
VI s-Si `iverTa mTavari~ taos mflobels erqva.
rac Seexeba Sida qarTlisa da anisis CrdiloeTis regions, VII-X ss-
Si, arabTa Semosevebis Semdeg, anisis CrdiloeTiT mdebare saxelmwi-
foebriv warmonaqmnebs oficialurad ewodeboda ara `iveria~ aramed
Tbilisis saamiro da taSir-Zorakertis samefo, xolo Sida qarTli
sadavo qveynad iyo afxazeTis, kaxeTis, somxeTisa da Tbilisis saamiro-
samTavroTa Soris.
am drosac saxeli `iveria~ Zveleburadve erqva taos miwa-wyals (ba-
sianTan erTad) da taos momijnave mxareebsac, anisis dasavleTiT.
am mizezis gamo, rogorc aRiniSna, XI s-Si, imier taos samefos
miwa-wyals bizantielebma misi dapyrobis Semdeg, `iveriis Temi~ uwodes
da masSi anisic Seiyvanes.
bizantielebi `iverias~ konstantine porfirogenetis epoqamdec
uwodebdnen taos olqsa da mis momijnave mxareebs.
X s-Si aRniSnuli imperatoris cnobiT iverielebs araqsis marcxena
sanapiros qveynebi ekuTvnoda.
konstantine porfirogeneti bevrs saubrobs amis Sesaxeb.
maSasadame, araqsis dasavleT sanapiros qveynebi, sadac mdebare-
obdnen TviT dedaqalaqebic ki somxuri administraciuli erTeuleb-
isa, mainc `iveriad~ iwodeboda da es wodeba (iveria) am mxareebi-
saTvis ar iyo usafuZvlo:
amis mizezi iyo is, rom rogorc mravalgzis aRiniSna, istoriula-
dac iverielebiT dasaxlebuli miwebi, Zv.w. II saukunisaTvis, strabo-
nis cnobiT, armeniam miitaca. strabonis xorZena swored am mxareebSi
unda veZioT.
somxuri eklesiis Camoyalibebis Semdeg, aRniSnul mxareebis ar-
menizaciis xarisxi jer kidev ar iyo yovlismomcveli.
272
Cans, am mizezis gamo, avanis sakaTalikoso gamoeyo somxuri eklesi-
is mTavar centrs _ dvins.
am gamoyofis mizezad miiCneva sarwmunoebrivi momenti, magram mas
ufro metad eTnikuri safuZveli unda hqonoda.
kerZod, 588 wlidan (sxva azriT 591 wlidan) Zvel sofel avanSi (Tan-
amedrove erevnis Crdilo-aRmosavleTiT) rezidencia daido armeniis
marTlmadidebelma (qalkedonitma) patriarqma.
miiCneva, rom amas safuZveli daudo imperator mavrikes (582-602)
sazavo xelSekrulebam sparseTTan, ris Sedegadac avani da tao bi-
zantiis imperiaSi moeqca.
es faqti unda yofiliyo safuZveli (da ara mizezi), ramac gaabe-
dina adgilobriv, metwilad qarTuli warmoSobis taoel-basianel da
avanel mosaxleobasa da samRvdeloebas mieRoT im sarwmunoebrivi
mimarTulebis sapirispiro aRmsarebloba, romelsac dvinis somxuri
sakaTalikoso aRiarebda.
cnobili kanonisti kartaSevi, Tavis wignSi `saeklesio krebebi~
(parizi, 1963, rus.enaze), wers, rom VI saukuneSi egviptelebma, siri-
elebma da somxebma monofizituri aRmsarebloba ZiriTadad miiRes
ara sarwmunoebrivi, aramed eTnikuri niSnis gamo. kerZod, maT surdaT
bizantiis centrisagan TavianTi eTnikuri gansxvavebulobis sarwmunoe-
brivi saxiTac gamoxatva. amitomac roca bizantiis centrma mtkiced
dauWira mxari qalkedonitobas, periferiebma mis sapirispirod _
monofizitoba aRiares.
Tu kartaSevis am mosazrebas mivusadagebT eTnikurad iseT rTul
regions, rogoric iyo tao-basian-avanis mxareebi, SeiZleba msgavsi su-
raTi davinaxoT.
tao da basiani iyo arasomxuri mxareebi, misi mosaxleoba `ivere-
bad~ ZvelTaganve iwodeboda, Tumca ki somxuri saeklesio da admin-
istraciuli uRelis qveS. airaratis provinciaSic mravali mkvidri
qarTveli cxovrobda da somexTa iq damkvidrebamde Zveli tomis _
alarodielebis samSoblod iwodeba. qsenofontis cnobiT, aq cxov-
robdnen fasianebi, xalibebi da taoxebi, qarTuli tomebi, alarodi-
elebi qarTvelTa erT-erTi tomi unda yofiliyo, yovel SemTxvevaSi
airaratis provinciaSic VII s-is daswyisSi uamravi qalkedoniti cxov-
273
robda, romelnic miemxrnen avanis qalkedonis kaTalikoss. amis Sesaxeb
miuTiTebs arsen safarelic Tavis TxzulebaSi `ganyofisaTvis somexTa
da qarTvelTa~. is wers: `ubrZana berZenTa mefem somxeTis kaTali-
kos mose elivardels (574-604) da mis episkoposebs, raTa misuliyvnen
konstantinopolSi da kvlav gamowvlilviT gamoeZiaT sarwmunoebrivi
simarTle, marTali ki daemtkicebinaT. xolo mose kaTalikosi ar
daemorCila da ar wavida, aramed uTxra berZenTa mociqulebs: ar
gadaval mdinare azatze, romelic sazRvaria sparsTa da berZenTa
Soris, ar SevWam berZenTa furnids da ar Sevsvam berZenTa Termons
(furnids afuebul purs ewodebda, Termons wyliT gazavebul Rvi-
nos), aseve upasuxes vaspuraganis episkoposebmac, romelnic sparsTa
saxelmwifos emorCilebodnen. arc maT inebes wasvla. xolo taos
episkoposi da sxva berZenTa morCili somexi episkoposebi saswrafod
Cavidnen konstantinopolSi. kvlav gamoiZies da meored daamtkices
qalkedonis krebis siswore mavrik mefis winaSe. yvelam erTobiT aRi-
ara qristes WeSmariti ori buneba. daweres fici berZnebTan erTobis
Sesaxeb da wamovidnen. roca somxeTSi movidnen, maTi sarwmunoeba ar
Seiwynara mose kaTalikosma da misma sxva episkoposebma, romelnic
sparsTa mier dapyrobil nawilSi cxovrobdnen. gaiyo somxeTi sarw-
munoebrivad. qalkedonitebma daidgines kaTalikosad ioane kogovite-
li (590-611). qarTvelma kaTalikosma kirion mcxeTelma da herTa kaTa-
likosma abazma ixiles, rom somxuri eklesia kvlav dvinis im krebis
erTgulia, romelmac wmida msoflio sayovelTao kaTolike eklesias
Camoacila somxuri eklesia. roca aseTi praqtika kvlav aRorZinebu-
li ixiles kirion kaTalikosma (591-615), herTa kaTalikosma abazma
(552-596) da sivnieTis episkoposma grigorma, Seiqna didi dava somx-
eTsa da qarTls Soris. am mxilebis Semdeg somxebma qarTli daabezRes
sparsTa mefesTan, rom qarTvelebs romaelTa (saberZneTis) sarwmu-
noeba aqvTo. aseTive dava iyo qarTvelTa da somexTa Soris nerse II-
is drosac. aseve iyo mis sakaTalikoso taxtze mjdom abraamis dro-
sac. am dros gandevna qarTlis kaTalikosma kirionma mose curtavis
episkoposi Tavisi eparqiidan, romelic wmida SuSanikis saflavze iyo.
Txova abraamma kirions es eparqia, xolo man ar misca. da gadidda
maT Soris ciloba. mouxmo abraamma araratis provinciis samRvde-
274
loebas da uTxra maT: an SeaCveneT qalkedonis kreba, an gadiT Cveni
samkvidrebelidan. zogierTi daemorCila da SeaCvenes wmida kreba, zo-
gierTi ki ar daemorCila da ganidevnen~ (arsen safareli, ganyofi-
saTvis...).
arsen safarelis Txzulebidan Cans, rom avanis kaTalikosis iuris-
diqciaSi taosTan erTad airaratic Sedioda, amitomac sparselTa
mxardaWeriT dvinis kaTalikosma abraamma airaratis qalkedoniti
samRvdeloebac dasaja, amitomac mouxmo abraamma araratis provinciis
samRvdeloebas da uTxra maT: `an SeaCveneT qalkedonis kreba, an gadiT
Cveni samkvidrebelidan. zogierTi daemorCila da SeaCvenes wmida kre-
ba, zogierTi ki ar daemorCila da ganidevnen~.
airaratis provincia, Cans, miuxedavad misi Rrma armenizaciisa,
mainc gansxvavebul olqad darCenila, es unda yofiliyo nakvalevi
imisa, rom sul ramdenime saukunis win is iberTa miwas warmoadgenda.
Cans, mas (airarats) straboni xorZenas uwodebda.
strabonis cnobiT, xorZena, pariadresa da gogarenasTan erTad,
armeniis mefeebma Zv.w. II saukuneSi iberebs waarTves da armenias Se-
uerTes. radganac gogarenas straboni aTavsebda `mtkvris iqiT~, anu
marcxena sanapiroze, amitomac xorZena mdebareobda pariadredan vi-
dre mtkvramde, anu Semdegdroindeli airarati strabonis epoqaSi
xorZenad iwodeboda. misi mosaxleoba, miuxedavad TiTqmis 500 wlo-
vani armenizaciisa, Cans kvlav grZnobda Tavis TavSi iberiul sawyisebs,
amitomac, mis realizebas cdilobda sarwmunoebriv sferoSi, mijnav-
da TavisTavs dvinis somxurnacionaluri eklesiidan da cdilobda
daaxloeboda mcxeTis qarTul eklesias. tao-basian-airaratma xel-
sayreli politikuri momentis dadgomisTanave, bizantiis imperatoris
mxardaWeriT, myisve Seqmnes dvinis sawinaaRmdegod saeklesio cen-
tri avanSi, qalkedonituri sakaTalikosos saxiT, mkveTrad gamoxat-
uli qarTuli arqiteqturiT agebuli eklesiebiTa da Cans, aseve sxva
mravali qarTuli niSniT.
v. aruTinova-fidaniani ra Tqma unda, avanis arqiteqturas ar akav-
Sirebs qarTulTan da miiCnevs, rom `mas aqvs eCmiaZinis, bizantiuri
martiriumebis da konstantinopolis sofiis taZris~ gavlena (`pra-
voslavnaia enciklopedia~ t 1. moskovi, 2000, gv. 74 ). avanis `arqite-
275
qturuli ansambli somxuri arqiteqturis erT-erTi pirveli miRw-
evaa, mis gverdiT mdebare sasaxlesTan erTad agebulia 588-597 wleb-
Si kaTolikos ioanes mier~ (iqve gv.74).
TiTqosda, jer is augiaT da Semdeg misi gegmiT mcxeTis jvari,
magram rogorc aRiniSna, qarTul wyaroebSi naTlad Cans, Tu rogor
miiRo saukuneTa manZilze mcxeTis jvarma Tavisi Camoyalibebuli
saboloo saxe, avanis agebis Sesaxeb aseTi cnobebi ar arsebobs.
kerZod, mcxeTis borcvze wminda ninos mier jer aRimarTa didi
zomis jvari, Semdeg ki es jvari gumbaTiT gadaaxurina rev mefem IV s-
is bolos, amave dros jvars garSemo gaukeTes `kubo~. anu is Semo-
sazRvres kedlebiT. e.i. mas hqonda kedlebic da saxuravic (gumbaTi).
jvris taZris gumbaTis simaRle gansazRvra im xem, romelic
mokveTes wminda ninos dros da romlisganac Seamzades jvari.
matianeSi moTxrobilia: `viTarca naTel iRes mefeman da ... yovel-
man erman, maSin dga xe erTi adgilsa erTsa... auwyes episkopossa xisa mis-
Tvis, xolo episkoposman Tqva... `mis xisagan jer ars Seqmnad jvari pa-
tiosani, romelsa Tayvani sces yovelma simravleman qarTlisaman... mo-
hkveTes xe igi... moaqvnda aTsa aTeulsa kacsa... saswauliTa zecisaTa
CvenebiT jvari patiosani mcxeTas ipyres xeliTa kacobriviTa da mive-
diT borcvsa mas qveSe... xolo xvalisa dRe aRvides kldesa mas zeda...
mun aRimarTa jvari igi didebiTa mefeTagan da modrka eri igi uricxvi
da Tayvani sces jvars... raodenisame dRisa Semdgomad, martvilisa ukan,
ixiles saswauli didi... sveti naTlisa, saxed jvarisa dga jvarsa mas zeda
da Tormetni igi varskvlavni saxed gvirgvinisa, garemos misa, xolo
borcvi igi kumoda saxed sulnelad da xedvides saswaulsa amas yovelni
da mravalni uRmrToTaganni moiqces... mere kualad ixilnes sxva saswau-
li jvarisa, viTarca ra cecxli dga Tavsa zeda misa, Svid wilad mzisa
ubrwyinvalesi zeda daadgra mas da, viTarca saxumilisa naberwyalni
aRavlen, egresaxed angelozni RvTisani aRvidodes da gardamovidodes
mas zeda, xolo borcvi igi iZvroda Zlierad... iqmnebodes saswauli igi
wliTi wlad da yoveli eri... movidodes Tayvanismcemad gulsmodgined.
da mas Jamsa revis Zesa mefisasa, esva ymawvili mcire da iyo sneul da
miwevnul iyo sikvdilad ... da moiRo da dadga igi winaSe jvarisa da
cremliT ityoda: `ukueTu miboZo yma ese cocxali aRvaSeno kubo sayu-
276
delad Senda~ da munqvesve ganikurna yrma igi... movida (revi) aRnaTq-
vamisa aRmasruleblad... da gulmodginebiT aRaSena kubo jvarisa mcxe-
Tisa rev, Zeman mefisaman... guaram kurapalati dadga morCilebasa zeda
berZenTasa... aman iwyo eklesia jvarisa patiosnisa da aqamomde jvari
velsa zeda iyo da qmna eklesia weliamdis oden... guaram kurapalatsa
esxnes Zeni... stefanoz da demetre. ...Zma stefanozisi saxeliT demetre
aRaSenebda eklesiasa jvarisa patiosnisa, rameTu senica iyo mis Tana d
aver SemZlebel iyo ganSorebad karsa eklesiisasa~ (q. c., I, gv. 120-140).
stefanozi da demetre bagrationebi herakle keisarma prosparsu-
li orientaciisaTvis taxtidan gadaayena, mis nacvlad qarTlis tax-
ti misca adarnase xosroians `...maSin mouwoda keisarma Zesa bakurisasa,
qarTvelTa mefisasa naTesavsa daCisasa, vaxtangis Zisasa, romeli
erisTaobda kaxeTs, romelsa erqva adarnase~.
matianedan Cans, rom mcxeTis jvris taZris mSenebloba daiwyo IV
s-is bolos rev mefem, man `kubo~ anu kedlebi da saxuravi (gumbaTi)
auSena jvars, mis gverdiT sxva eklesiis mSenebloba guaram kurapa-
latis dros VI s-is bolos daiwyo.
Cans, rom rev mefis mier aSenebuli `kubos~ forma imeorebda jvris
frTebis formas.
jvris eklesias ukve meoTxe saukunis bolosve eqneboda jvris ori
frTis Sesatyvisi kedeli, romelmac sabolood tetrakonqis saxe
miiRo anu tetrakonqis mSenebloba gansazRvra taZris centrSi aR-
marTulma jvris formam.
imdenad misaRebi yofila qarTuli eklesiisaTvis jvris taZris
forma, rom ukve VI s-is Sua wlebSi mis Sesabamisad aages ninowmidis
eklesia. VI s-is bolos kvlav aRsdga jvris taZris mSenebloba magram
ara nebismieri arqiteqturiT, aramed im formiT, romelic axsovda
mosaxleobas da borcvze aRmarTuli am jvrisaTvis ukve tradiciu-
li iyo. VII s-is jvris taZris arqiteqtura gaimeores WyondidSi.
ase, rom mcxeTis jvris taZari saukuneTa manZilze Sendeboda da
man Tavisi arqiteqturuli saxe TandaTanobiT miiRo, xolo gumbaTis
forma qarTuli xalxuri arqiteqturisaganaa gadmoRebuli.
soflis saxlebSi mcxeTis jvris gumbaTis msgavs gumbaTebs XX s-is
dasawyisSic ki agebdnen. magaliTad, is (gumbaTi) gamoyenebulia leCx-
umSi sofel sairmis sacxovrebeli saxlebis gadaxurvis sistemaSi.
277
aqedan gamomdinare IV-VI ss-Si Camoyalibda jvris taZris arqiteq-
tura, romelic gaimeores avanis arqiteqtorebma, radganac qarTul-
eTnikuri warmomavlobis gamo cdilobdnen avanis arqiteqturaSic
qarTuli elementebi SeetanaT.
rogorc iTqva _ tao-basians da mis mimdebare miwebs _ somxebic da
bizantielebic `iverias~ uwodebdnen.
amitomac unda vifiqroT, rom am regionis momcveli avanis qalke-
donuri sakaTalikoso _ `iveriis eklesiad~ iwodeboda saerTaSoriso-
saeklesio wreebSi.
Cans antioqiis sapatriarqo avanis sakaTalikosos da mis memkvidre
qalkedonur eparqiebs _ `iveriis eklesias~ uwodebda.
saqme isaa, rom Teodosiopolis-arzrumis regionSi antioqiis iuris-
diqciis qveS iyo ramdenime qalkedonuri saepiskoposo, saerTod, es
miwa-wyali _ antioqias Tavisi sapatriarqo iurisdiqciad miaCnda.
amitomac, SesaZloa avanis anu `iberiis sakaTalikoso~ mas Semdeg, rac
ganSorda dvins, Tavdacvis mizniT SeuerTda Zlieri antioqiis sapa-
triarqos iurisdiqcias (anda is romelime sxva eklesias unda mikedle-
boda avtokefaliis saerTaSoriso dadasturebamde).
arabebis Semosevebis Semdeg kavSiri antioqiasa da avanis memkvi-
dre qalkedonur eparqiebs Soris gawyvetila, Semdeg ki Cans antio-
qiaSi kvlav ganuxilavT am e.w. meore `iveriis eklesiis~ sakiTxi.
saqme isaa, rom marTalia avanis erTaderTi kaTalikosis ioane baga-
ranelis (+609/10) Semdeg gauqmda avanis kaTedra, magram misi qalke-
donuri memkvidreoda miiRo taom, sadac VII saukuneSi qalkedonuri
saepiskoposo centri iSxnisa da sxva Camoyalibda.
somxurma eklesiam VII s-Si ukanve SeierTa qalkedonuri kaTedrebi,
riTic Cans antioqiac gaanawyena. antioqias miwa-wyali arzrumamde
Tavis iurisdiqciaSi Semaval `iberiad~ miaCnda.
somxuri eklesia VII s-Si Tavis saeklesio mTlianobas imiT inar-
Cunebda rom garkveul kompromisze midioda da saerTo somxur saek-
lesio taxtze qalkedonit kaTalikosebsac svamda, rCeuli maT Soris
nerse III taoeli, Cans, eTnikuri qarTveli iyo, iseve, rogorc, vTqviT,
iqamde somxur eklesiaSi moRvawe airaratis qorepiskoposi kirioni.
278
726 wels manaskertis monofizituri krebis Semdeg qalkedonuri
tao-basaini ganSorda somxur eklesias. am dros, Cans, aq, anu `iveri-
aSi~, kvlav, gaixsenes antioqiis eklesia da misgan moiTxoves avtoke-
falia, saeklesio TavisTavadobis saerTaSoriso dasturi. am dros
ara mxolod tao-basianSi. aramed mis gareTac qarTveli qalkedo-
nitebi aarsebdnen TavianT kaTedrebs, magaliTad valaSkertSi.
valaSkertis mRvdelTmTavris wodeba `mamaTmTavari~ SesaZloa ni-
Snavdes, rom is erT periodSi iqca `iveriis qalkedonuri~ eklesiis
memkvidred, romelsac saTave, Cans, aseve qarTuli warmoSobis, ioane
bagaranelma daudo.
e.w. antioqiuri qronikebis nawyvetebi iZleva kidec zemoT aRni-
Snuli mosazrebis safuZvels _ `qarTlis cxovrebis~ cnobili Canar-
Ti unda exebodes avanis anu iverielTa (qarTvelTa) qalkedonur ek-
lesiasa da antioqias Soris urTierTobas da ara mcxeTisa da antio-
qiisa: `da wargzavnes antioqias monazoni erTi sakurTxevelad, rameTu
ganwesebul iyo kurTxeva antioqiiT kaTalikosisa da verRaravis xele-
wifeboda svlad gzasa antioqiisasa... xolo dReTa Teofilaqte antio-
qiel patriarqisa waravlines mociqulni.. da miuTxres... didsa Wirsa
Sina arian qristianeni, mkvidrni qarTvelTa soflebisani, rameTu dRiT-
gan netarisa anastasi mRvdelmowamisaTa (VII s-is dasawyisi) ara kurTx-
eul ars siZnelisaTvis gzaTasa. xolo man hyo kreba da ganaCina... raTa
Sekrbebodnen episkoposni simravlisa misisani da akurTxevdnen kaTa-
likossa JamiTi-Jamad ... xeldasxmul hyo... erTi movlinebulTa mona-
zonTagani, saxeliT ioane... amas antioqiis krebasa Sina gapatiosnda~ (q.c.
I, gv. 226).
`qarTlis cxovrebis~ am CanarTis Sesaxeb jer kidev 1906 wels
gamoTqva Tavisi mosazreba kirion II kaTalikosma, rom es monaTxrobi
exeboda samxreT saqarTvelos tao-basianis mxareebis saeklesio mow-
yobas, v. goilaZis azriT ki, aq, gadmocemulia afxazeTis sakaTali-
kosos daarsebis cnoba. misgan gansxvavebiT, afxazeTis sakaTaliko-
sos daarsebis Sesaxeb cnobas gvawvdis qarTlis cxovrebis sxva Ca-
narTi - `aman bagrat ganaCina kaTalikosi afxazeTs~ (IX s-Si).
e.i zemoT aRniSnuli pirveli CanarTi qarTlis cxovrebis mixed-
viT ar ukavSirdeba afxazeTs, amitomac swori unda iyos kirion II,
279
rom es CanarTi ukavSirdeboda tao-basianis (Sesabamisad avanis) saek-
lesio mowyobis sakiTxs.
CanarTSi naxsenebia `qristianeni, mkvidrni qarTvelTa soflebi-
sani~ (q. c., I, gv. 226).
`qarTvelTa~ provincia erqva, rogorc zemoT aRiniSna, tao-basi-
anis mxareebs da mis irgvliv teritorias, romelic droebiT, arme-
niaSi mdebareobda.
am CanarTSi amitomac ganmartavs antioqiis patriarqi, rom saqme
Seexeba `qarTvelTa soflebis mkvidrT~.
aseT SemTxvevaSi qronologiuradac ufro dalagebulia msjelo-
ba _ anastasi antioqieli patriarqi TiTqmis Tanamedrove iyo avanis
qalkedoniti kaTalikosis ioane bagaranelisa, romelic 609 Tu 610
wels gardaicvala.
amis Semdgom, arabobis Semosevebis gamo, rTuli iqneboda antioqi-
isa da tao-avanis saeklesio urTierToba.
avanis kaTedra marTlac umRvdelTmTavrod darCa da qalkedoni-
ti episkoposebi SeierTa somxurma eklesiam VII s-Si, magram es mdgo-
mareoba, anu eTnikuri mRvdelTmTavris gareSe yofna, ar akmayofileb-
da tao-basianis qarTuli qalkedonituri soflebis mrevls.
maT Cans, surdaT saerTaSoriso mxardaWeris mopovebiT gamoexs-
naT TavianTi Tavi somxuri eklesiisagan.
magaliTad, moRweulia iSxanis taZris minaweri, sadac adgilobrivi
mRvdelTmTavari trapezuntSi Cavida, raTa konstantinopolis pa-
triarqs daesxa misTvis xeli. amiT iSxnis mRvdelmTavars surda Tavis
daxsna somxuri iurisdiqciisagan.
arzrum-Teodosiopoli tradiciulad antioqieli patriarqis sam-
wysos ganekuTvneboda da iqve mdebareobda kidec avanis memkvidre
tao-basianis qalkedonituri vrceli qarTuli samrevlo.
iberiis eklesiis pirvelierarqad antioqiam daniSna qarTveli mon-
azoni saxeliT ioane. aseve, ioane erqva VIII s-Si aRdgenil iveriis
avtokefaluri pirveli eklesiis meTaursac.
es niSneulia, radganac avanis pirvel kaTalikossac ioane erqva.
ase, rom avanis qalkedonituri kaTedris warmoSobis mTavari mizezi
unda yofiliyo eTnikuri gansxvavebulobis gamo qarTuli mrevlis
280
gamoyofa somxuri eklesiisgan da damoukidebel sakaTalikosod Camoy-
alibeba.
aseT Tvalsazrisamde mivalT Tuki aRniSnul CanarTs davukavSirebT
samxreT saqarTvelos _ tao-basianis mxareebs.
samxreT taos samefo karze _ daviT III kurapalatis epoqaSi, mrava-
li ucxoeli avtori axsenebs qarTvel kaTalikoss Tu qarTvel pa-
triarqs. SesaZloa samxreT saqarTvelos am saeklesio erTeuls mar-
Tlac mianiWa antioqiam avtokefalia, Semdeg aTaswleulSi ki es cnobe-
bi mcxeTis eklesias daukavSires da miiCnies mcxeTis eklesiis av-
tokefaliis damadasturebel dokumentad.
taos (iberiis) samefos adgilze daviT kurapalatis memkvidreobis
dauflebis Semdeg, rogorc iTqva, bizantiam Camoayaliba adminis-
traciuli erTeuli _ `iberiis Temis~ saxelwodebiT _ XI s-s dasawyisSi.
maSasadame, SesaZlebelia, avanis sakaTalikoso ucxoelTaTvis, ker-
Zod ki antioqiis qalkedonitebisaTvis warmoadgenda ara somxur,
aramed qarTvelTa, anu `iverielTa~ eklesias. mizezi amisa iyo misi
mrevlis umetesi nawilis (tao-basianis) qarTuloba.
rogorc iTqva, ioane bagaranelis dros, somxur monofizitur ek-
lesias gamoeyo qalkedonituri frTa, romelmac damoukidebeli
sakaTalikoso daarsa. ismis kiTxva: ecdeboda Tu ara es eklesia Tavisi
damoukideblobis aRiarebas, anda dakavSirebas ucxoeTis sxva mar-
Tlmadidebel sapatriarqoebTan, rogorc TavisTavadi eklesia?
Cans, aseTi urTierToba maT daumyarebiaT antioqiis sapatri-
arqosTan netari anastasi mRvdelmowamis zeobisas, magram Semdeg avanis
eklesiis TavisTavadoba gauqmda. tao-basianis iverielma mosaxle-
obam moiTxova kvlav eZebnaT TavisTavadi eklesiis Camoyalibebis gzebi
da misi saerTaSoriso aRiareba.
es mouxerxebiaT antioqiis patriarq netari Teofilaqtes dros _
Sesabamisad, Camoyalibda tao-basianis, anu daviT kurapalatis same-
fos saeklesio samamamTavro, ukve qarTuli saeklesio erTeuli.
amiT iqamde somxurenovanma avanis sakaTalikosos memkvide epar-
qiebma aRadgines qarTulenovaneba.
saerTod, unda aRiniSnos, rom III msoflio krebaSi (431 w.) monawi-
le iberieli (urhaeli) qarTveli episkoposi ieremia unda yofiliyo
281
istoriuli arian qarTlis miwaze mcxovrebi iberielebis episkoposi,
anu is Sedioda ara mcxeTis (qarTlis) eklesiis iurisdiqciaSi, aramed
e.w. sparsuli qarTlis saepiskoposoTa iurisdiqciaSi. es e.w. spar-
suli qarTli mdebareobda ZiriTadad araqsisi xeobasa da vanis tbisak-
en mimarTul miwa-wyalze. es iyo qarTvelTa istoriuli sacxovrisi.
431 wels efesos III msoflio saeklesio krebis momzadebaSi mona-
wile qarTlis e.w. `sparsuli nawilis~ episkoposi ieremia (v. goila-
Ze, qarTlis samefo. avtoreferati doqtoris xarisxis mosapoveblad,
1998 w., gv. 20), rogorc mas uwodeben, `iberieli ieremia~ yofila
nestorianelTa winaaRmdeg mebrZoli (k. kekeliZe, etiudebi I. 51, 62).
wm. grigol feraZis cnobiT, konstantinopolSi yofila `didaqes~,
anu `12 mociqulTa moZRvrebis~ kanonikuri mwerlobis erT-erTi
adrindeli Zeglis _ Targmani, gadaRebuli 1923 wels, vinme feiqriS-
vilis mier. feraZis azriT, igi gadaTargmnilia berZnulidan qarTul
enaze V s-Si, ieremia iberielis mier. es ieremia Tavis Tavs ase uwodebs:
`ieremia urhaeli qarTveli marTlmadidebeli, yaribobis gamo Tavi-
sianebsa da samSoblos daSorebuli~ (k. kekeliZe, ieremia iberieli
antinestorianeli moRvawe V saukunisa, Tbilisis universitetis moam-
be, #9, 1928 w. gv. 187, 198).
`sparsuli iberiidan~ warmoSobili ieremia q. urhaSi iyo gadasu-
li samoRvaweod.
SesaZloa, ieremia iberielis samSoblo `sparsuli iberia~ is teri-
toriaa, sadac Semdgom avanis sakaTalikosos iurisdiqcia ganivrco,
rogorc vTqviT, es iyo iberielebis sacxovrisi. sabolood, kidev
erTxel aRvniSnavT, rom aq, mravlad cxovrobdnen iberielebi, romel-
Ta gamalebuli armenizacia mimdinareobda IV-V ss-Si, mas Semdgom,
rac am miwa-wyalze mZlavri somxuri eklesia Camoyalibda. somxeTSi
mcxovrebi iberielebi mudam cdilobdnen eklesiurad rogorme gamoy-
ofodnen somxur eklesias, rac mxolod VI s-is Semdgom, sabolood ki
VIII s-dan gaxda SesaZlebeli.
282
mamaTmTavar-patriarqi
daviT kurapalatis karze (X s.)
asoRikis cnobiT daviT kurapalatis karze iyo pirovneba patri-
arqis wodebiT, magaliTad 1001 wels, rodesac daviTis gardacvalebis
Semdeg basili II mivida qarTvelTa qveyanaSi, erT-erTi Sida SebrZoleb-
is dros daixocnen taos didebulebi, maT Soris iyvnen: `didi mTavar-
TmTavari patriarxi, oCopentres ori Svili gabrieli da ioane, abulx-
abris SviliSvili Cordvaneli da sxva mravalni~ (v. kopaliani, saqar-
Tvelosa da bizantiis politikuri urTierToba 970-1070 wlebSi, 1969,
gv. 76).
asoRikis cnobiT gardacvlili patriarqi taos didebulTa wres
ekuTvnoda.
iahia antioqielic aseve iZleva cnobas, rom daviT kurapalatis
karze namdvilad iyo kaTalikosi, romelic amave wres ganekuTvneba.
iahia antioqielis cnobiT, iqamde, ramdenime xniT adre `damarcxe-
bulma daviT kurapalatma kaTalikosi da didebulebi gagzavna bi-
zantiaSi, raTa maT erTgulebis fici miecaT basil keisrisaTvis~ (iqve,
gv. 307).
maSasadame, sxvadasxva wyaro miuTiTebs, rom daviT kurapalatis
karze namdvilad iyo umaRlesi sasuliero pativis mqone piri patriar-
qis an kaTalikosis wodebiT adgilobrivi warmoSobisa.
is basili II-sTan molaparakebisaTvis bizantiaSi gamgzavrebula,
xolo molaparakebis CaSlis Semdeg taoSi Semosul mters mouklavs.
daviT kurapalatis karze mcxeTeli kaTalikos-patriarqi imyofe-
boda Tu adgilobrivi, taoSi Camoyalibebuli axali qarTuli saek-
lesio-administraciuli olqis, axali qarTuli sakaTalikosos me-
Tauri?
iqneb daviT kurapalatma Tavis samefoSi administraciulad axali
qarTuli samitropolito olqi Seqmna, romlis meTaursac mamaT-
mTavris wodeba hqonda afxazTa samefoSi Camoyalibuli afxazeTis
kaTalikosis msgavsd?
misi memkvidre xom ar iyo sakaTalikoso taxtze zaqaria valaSkerte-
li? qarTuli wyaro miuTiTebs, rom zaqaria valaSkertelsac hqonia
283
`mamaTmTavris~ wodeba, rac, rogorc iTqva, sityva patriarqis Sesa-
tyvisia da Seesabameba samitropolito olqis meTaurs.
zaqaria mamaTmTavari (iseve, rogorc 1001 wels mokluli taoeli
patriarqi) ganekuTvneboda taos (anu iberiis) ubrwyinvales sagvareu-
los, kerZod zaqaria iyo grigol bakurianis biZis Tevdrates naTe-
savi, aseve feris jojikis Zis naTesavi.
marTlac, wyaroebi iZleva SesaZleblobas imisa, rom davuSvaT
varaudi taoSi sakaTalikoso (samitropolito)-saeklesio olqis Camoy-
alibebisa, amis varauds exmianeba faqti imisa, rom daviT kurapalats
Tavisi samefo srulyofili samoxeleo sistemiT aRuWurvia: daviT
kurapalatis karze iyvnen iseTi iSviaTi moxeleTmTavrebi, rogori-
caa _ `mweralTa mTavari~, an `meganZurTa uxucesi~. aseve mis samefo
karze yofila piri `mTavarTa mTavris~ wodebiT.
v. kopalians garkveuli aqvs, rom `somxeTis samefo karze mTavar-
Ta-mTavris tituls is piri atarebda, romelic pasuxismgebeli iyo
mefis winaSe yvela vasalis moqmedebaze~ (v. kopaliani, saqarTvelosa
da bizantiis politikuri urTierToba 970-1070 wlebSi, 1969 gv. 34).
masve eqvemdebarebodnen sagadasaxado moxeleebi, igive piri niSnavda
cixisTavebs. farnavazis dros aseTi moxele qarTlis samefoSi iyo
spaspeti, mas erisTavebi emorCilebodnen. aseTi moxele (mTavarTamTa-
vari) daviT kurapalatis karze yofila cnobili didebuli jojiki,
mas Tavisi sakuTari `meganZurTa uxucesi~ _ gvirpeli hyolia.
aseTi srulyofili samoxeleo ierarqiis arseboba samxreT taos
samefo karze kidev ufro gvafiqrebinebs, rom zaqaria valaSkerte-
lis tituli _ `mamaTmTavari~ ar iyo SemTxveviTi saxeli, rom rogorc
mTavarTamTavris mimarT vasalebs ekisrebodaT pasuxismgebloba, aseve
zaqarias (viTarca mamaTmTavris) mimarT episkoposebs gaaCndaT pa-
suxismgebloba, anu is episkoposTa mTavari anu samxreT taos admin-
istraciulad TavisTavadi saeklesio olqis mmarTveli iyo. misi wina-
mosaydreni unda yofiliyvnen taos mefis karze myofi patriarqi da
kaTalikosi, erTerTi aseTi patriarqi unda yofiliyo ioane (Sesa-
Zloa, misi saxelia warwerili X s-is parxalis eklesiis kedelze, is
qarTlis anu iveriis patriarqi yofila anu taos samefoSi arsebuli
samitropolito olqis meTauri).
284
taos samamamTavros sazRvrebi (X s.)
aSot didi bagrationi _ tao-klarjel bagrationTa winapari _
`nebiTa berZenTa mefisaTa~ flobda teritoriebs vidre qsnamde, sum-
bat daviTis Zis matianiT ki _ vidre bardvamde.
misi STamomavloba or samTavro saxlTa Soris gadanawilda _ taosa
da klarjeTisa.
taos Sto rezidenciad irCevs banas, ukve adarnase I kurapalatis
droidan (888-923), is iyo pirveli `qarTvelTa mefe~ (narkv. II, gv.
455), klarjeTis Sto artanujis cixe-simagres.
rogorc aRiniSna, taos (anu qarTvelTa) samefoc or nawilad iyo-
foda, erTs X s-is meore naxevarSi `qarTvelTa mefe~ bagrat II regve-
ni marTavda, meores ki daviT kurapalati.
safiqrebelia, rom bagrat II regvenis gardacvalebis Semdeg `qar-
TvelTa mefis~ wodeba daviT kurapalatma miiRo, viTarca `sagvareu-
loSi uxucesma~, daviT kurapalatis gardacvalebis Semdeg ki `qar-
TvelTa mefis~ wodeba miiRo `uxucesma~ gurgen magistrosma (bagrat
II-is Zem, Cans 1001 wels), misgan ki misma Svilma _ bagrat III-m, romelic
iqamde ukve iyo afxazTa mefe.
amier tao bagrat qarTvelTa mefes ekuTvnoda, xolo imier tao,
Crdilo basianiTurT, TorTomi da speri X s-is 60-iani wlebidan dav-
iT didi kurapalatis samflobelos Seadgenda~ (v. kopaliani, bizan-
tia-saqarTvelos urTierTobis istoriidan. gv. 111).
imier taos samefo damoukidebeli saxelmwifo iyo iseve, rogorc
amier taos samefo da afxazTa samefo da mas yvelaze didi Zlierebis
dro daviT kurapalatis Jams daudga X saukunis meore naxevarSi.
misi saeklesio-administraciuli olqi _ taos eparqia _ uSualod
emijneboda lazikis eparqias, tao qarTuli eklesiis nawili iyo, xolo
lazikis eparqia _ bizantiurisa.
`samxreT-dasavleTidan taos samefo uSualod bizantiis imperiis
samflobeloebs emijneboda da misi sazRvari md. araqsze gadioda~ (ge-
orgika IV, gv. 271-272).
samxreT-aRmosavleTiT taos samefos Turquli modgmis xalxiT
dasaxlebuli somxeTis miwa-wyali emijneboda, sadac am dros mahma-
dianuri saamiroebi iyo Seqmnili.
285
taos qarTvelTa samefo eklesiur-eparqialuradac or nawilad
iyo gayofili TavianTi sakuTari mmarTvelebiT.
amier anu Crdilo taoSi ori umTavresi saepiskoposo kaTedra ar-
sebobda _ iSxnisa da banasi, xolo samxreT taom, Tavisi sazRvrebi
vrclad gadawia araqsisa da vanis tbis mimarTulebiT, rac aseve misi
momcveli eparqiis sazRvrebis zrdasac ganapirobebda. is TandaTano-
biT samamamTavrod yalibdeboda q. valaSkertis kaTedris meTaurobiT.
taos samefos nawilad iqca e.w. bizantiis `zemoni qveyanani~, kari-
nis olqi, iqamde bizantiasTan sadavo samxreT basiani, Cor-mairis
Temi Woroxis saTaveebTan, cixe sevuki araqsTan, apapunis provincia.
am provinciebsve moicavda samxreT taos qarTuli samamamTavro, romel-
ic iseTive damoukidebel qarTul samitropolito olqad yalibdebo-
da daviT kurapalatis dros, rogoric iyo magaliTad afxazeTis sakaTa-
likoso.
Tuki samxreT taos eparqia Camoyalibda viTarca samitropolito
olqi, ris safuZvelsac warmoadgenda taos damoukidebeli saxelmwi-
fos arseboba, misi sazRvrebi saeklesio wesebis Tanaxmad unda damTx-
veoda kidec saxelmwifo-administraciul sazRvrebs.
maSasadame, taos samamamTavro moicavda im provinciebs, romelnic
Sediodnen taos samefoSi. eseni ki, rogorc aRiniSna iyvnen TviT `tao,
orive basiani (zemo da qvemo), karinis olqi arzrumiTurT, Cormairis
Temi, sevuki araqsis saTaveebTan, haqsisa da apapunis provincia aRmo-
savleT evfratis zemo xeobaSi (saq. ist. narkvevebi, II, gv. 478). mas
saxelmwifo sazRvrebis gafarToebasTan erTad kidev unda Sematebo-
da axali teritoriebi vanis tbis dasavleT sanapiromde.
samitropolito olqis (anu qarTulad samamamTavros) arseboba Ta-
visTavad gulisxmobs saeklesio olqis meTaur mRvdelmTavars, romel-
sac uSualod eqvemdebareba Tavisi episkoposebi. aseTi samamamTavro
olqebi qarTul eklesiaSi kidev sxvebic arsebobda, aseTebi iyvnen
magaliTad, afxazTa sakaTalikoso da qarTlis sakaTalikoso. afxaz-
Ta sakaTalikosoSi adgilobriv kaTalikoss uSualod eqvemdebare-
obdnen sakuTari anu dasavleT saqarTvelos episkoposebi, qarTlis
kaTalikoss ki aRmosavleT saqarTvelos episkoposebi, Sesabamisad,
klarjeTis saepiskoposoebi mcxeTel kaTalikoss eqvemdebareboda,
Cans aseve gagrZelda Semdgomac.
286
taoSi damoukidebeli samefos warmoqmnam, Seqmna pirobebi imisa-
Tvis, rom am, e.w. bizantiuri `zemo qveynebis~ eTnikurad qarTuli
mosaxleoba eklesiurad daqvemdebareboda ara berZnul-bizantiur
anda somxur qalkedonur centrebs, aramed maTi saxelmwifos _ imier
anu samxreT taos saeklesio olqs, rasac saeklesio kanonebic moiTx-
ovda. albaT, am politikurma siaxlem safuZveli Cauyara taos sa-
mamamTavros. misi umTavresi kaTedra iyo banaSi, Semdeg ki valaSker-
tis saepiskoposo iyo. Cveni kvleviT valaSkertis kaTedra mdebare-
obda ara sofel CanglSi, aramed amJamindel qalaq valaSkertSi, saer-
TaSoriso savaWro gzaze.
unda vifiqroT, rom taos samamamTavro TavisTavadi samitropoli-
to olqis saxiT arsebobda friad mcire xnis manZilze, (`zemo qvey-
nebis~ taos samefoSi yofnis periodSi).
rogorc viciT e.w. `zemoni qveyanani~ bizantiam daviT kurapalats
gadasca daaxloebiT 979-980 wlebSi, xolo 20-22 wlis Semdeg, misi
damoukidebloba Sewyda da basili II-m am miwebis erTi nawilis xelSi
Cagdeba SeZlo. amis Semdeg cxadia Semcirda taos sazRvrebi, `zemoni
qveyanani~ daikarga.
unda vifiqroT, am miwebis suverenitetis dakargvis Semdeg misi
qarTuli marTlmadidebeli mosaxleoba bizantiam lazikis eparqiaSi
Seiyvana.
ase, rom albaT taos qarTuli samamamTavro daaxloebiT 20-22 weli
arsebobda, taos suverenul samefoSi basilisa Tu romanoz keisreb-
is dros misi mrevlis didi nawili lazikis eparqiaSi moeqca.
rogorc cnobilia, basili II-is Semdeg lazikis berZnuli eparqiis
(anu samitropolito olqis) sazRvrebi ganivrco trapezuntidan vi-
dre vanis tbamde. taos qarTuli samamamTavros adgili am mima-
rTulebiT bizantiurma lazikis eparqiam daiWira (iSxnis warweriT
misi erT-erTi pirveli mRvdelmTavrisaTvis xeli dausxams ara mcx-
eTel kaTalikoss, aramed trapezuntSi stumrad Casul konstanti-
nopolis patriarqs, albaT somxur eklesiasTan davis gamo Tu miiC-
nies saWirod taos mesveurebma aseTi demonstraciuli ceremoniali,
amasve miuTiTebs oSkis warwera basili II-is moxseniebiT).
287
`aRmosavleTis kaTalikosni~
romel qveyanas erqva Zvel saqarTveloSi `aRmosavleTi~, romel-
sac TavisTavadi saeklesio xelisufali hyavda kaTalikosis titu-
liT?
gvxdeba Tu ara wyaroebSi tituli `aRmosavleTis kaTalikosi~ anda
`aRmosavleTis patriarqi~?
rogorc cnobilia, tao-klarjeTSi parxlis monastris warweraSi,
romelic Sesrulebuli aris mefe daviT kurapalatis (+1001) dros (X
saukunis 80-ian wlebSi) moxseniebuli aris `qarTlisa da yovlisa aR-
mosavleTisa patriarqi iovane~ (v. silogava, patriarqi X s-is saqarTve-
loSi, gv. 302).
amave periodSi zaqaria valaSkerteli Tavis anderZSi axsenebs `pa-
triarq asaTs~, romelic baneli pirvelierarqi anu taos upirvelesi
mRvdelmTavari yofila e. metrevelis azriT (e. metreveli, narkvevi
aTonis kulturul-saganmanaTleblo keris istoriidan, 1996, gv. 177).
aRmosavleTis patriarqis garda wyaroSi Cven gvxvdeba tituli
`aRmosavleTis kaTalikosi~. wyaroTa monacemebi aSkarad miuTiTebs
rom sityva `aRmosavleTis~ qveS Cveni winaprebis mier igulisxmeboda
qarTveli xalxiT dasaxlebuli `zemoni qveyanani~, anu samxreT tao,
basiani da sxva mimdgomi mxareebi.
v.goilaZis kvleviTac `yovlisa aRmosavleTisa kurapalatis~ wodeba
gulisxmobda flobas anda pretenzias im miwebze, romelic daviT
kurapalatis samefoSi Sedioda misTvis e.w. `zemo qveynebis~ gadace-
mis Semdeg (v. goilaZe, aTaswlovani sveticxoveli, 2011, gv. 196).
amave teritorias moicavda Tavis iurisdiqciaSi `aRmosavleTis
kaTalikosi~ basili II-is Semosevebamde.
grigol xanZTelis cxovrebaSi naxsenebi cnobili fraza, rom `aR-
mosavalisa kaTalikosTa wm. mironi ierusalimiT mohyvandaT~, gulisx-
mobda ara mcxeTis qarTlis anda ara afxazeTis sakaTalikosos, aramed
imiertao-basian-zemoqveyanaTa sakaTalikosos. CamoTvlili mxareebi-
sagan Sedgenil qveyanas erqva aRmosavleTi, romelsac Tavisi qarTveli
kaTalikosi marTavda. mas SeiZleba vuwodoT qarTuli `aRmosavle-
Ti~. maSasadame, tao-basianis kaTalikosebs mohqondaT wmida mironi
ierusalimidan.
288
qarTuli `aRmosavleTis kaTalikosebs~ mironi ierusalimidan mi-
hqondaT TavianT eklesiebSi, episkopos efremis RvawliT qarTuli
`aRmosavleTis kaTalikosebi~ SemdgomSi mirons iRebdnen ara ieru-
salimSi, aramed mcxeTis qarTlSi, mironis kurTxeva qarTls ganewe-
sa, radganac qarTlia tao-basiani da yvela is mxarec, sadac qarTul
enaze aResruleba wirva locva.
kidev erTxel davsvaT kiTxva _ romel qveyanas erqva qarTvelTa
samyaroSi `aRmosavleTi~?
rogorc iTqva, ufro metad tao-basianis mxareebsa da agreTve im
qveynebs, romelnic daviT kurapalatma SemouerTa Tavis samefos.
am qveynebs bizantiaSi `zemoni qveyanani~ erqva, magram imJamad he-
gemon afxazTa samefoSi mcxovreb qarTvelTaTvis es qveynebi realu-
rad aRmosavleTSi mdebareobdnen, amitomac Cans `aRmosavleTs~
uwodebdnen kidec, ufro dasavleTiT mdebare afxazTa samefo ki
imJamad, Tbilisis arabTagan pyrobis gamo, qarTuli saxelmwifoe-
briobisa da Semecnebis centrs warmoadgenda. swored masTan Sedar-
ebiT, mis aRmosavleTiT mdebare mxares erqva `aRmosavleTi~.
aRniSnuli qarTuli wyaroebis garda, ucxouri wyaroebic miuTiTe-
ben taos samefoSi patriarqisa da kaTalikosis wodebis mqone pireb-
is Sesaxeb.
iahia antioqielisa da asoRikis cnobebiT mefe daviT kurapalatis
karze iyo umaRlesi rangis sasuliero piri patriarqisa da kaTaliko-
sis wodebiT. SemdgomSi valaSkertel episkopossac `mamamTavris~ wode-
ba hqonda.
Cven gamoTqmuli gvaqvs mosazreba, rom daviT kurapalatis same-
foSi erT periodSi Camoyalibda TavisTavadi qarTuli saeklesio-
administraciuli erTeuli afxazeTis sakaTalikosos msgavsi, romel-
sac Tavisi mmarTveli umaRlesi sasuliero piri hyavda. Cans swored
mas uwodebdnen qarTvelebi `aRmosavleTis sakaTalikosos~.
daviT kurapalatis drois parxlis eklesiis warweraSi naxsenebi
`aRmosavleTis patriarqi ioane~ _ unda iyos ara mcxeTis patriarqi,
aramed mis daqvemdebarebaSi myofi taos samefos marTlmadidebelTa
mamamTavari anu `patriarqi~. misi saxeli iyo ioane.
289
ufro savaraudoa, rom `qarTli~ anu mcxeTis samwyso da aRniSnu-
li `aRmosavleTi~ anu taos samefos samwyso, am periodSi gaerTianda
da erTiani mmarTvelobis qveS moeqca. TiTqos amas miuTiTebs war-
wera:
rogorc iTqva, parxlis monastris warweraSi, romelic Sesrule-
buli aris mefe daviT kurapalatis (+1001) dros, moxseniebuli aris
`qarTlisa da yovlisa aRmosavleTisa patriarqi iovane~. maSasadame,
`qarTlisa da yoveli aRmosavleTis~ samwysoebi ioanes dros gaer-
Tianebulia, Tumca am warweraSi `qarTli~ da `yoveli aRmosavleTi~
SeiZleba sinonimuri mniSvnelobiTac ixseniebodes.
`meore iveriis~ anu `aRmosavleTis~ qarTul sakaTalikosos av-
tokefaloba moupovebia ara konstantinopolidan, aramed antioqi-
idan VIII saukuneSi, misi TavisTavadoba realobad iqca X saukuneSi
mefe daviT kurapalatis dros da gauqmda XI saukunis dasawyisSi im-
ier taos samefos gauqmebis kvaldakval basili II bulgarTmmusvre-
lis mier.
davT kurapalitis samefos gauqmebis Semdeg taos anu aRmosavle-
Tis yofili eklesiis teritoria imperiam lazikis eparqias anu tra-
pezuntis samitropolitos miuerTa.
amis Semdgom, taos samRvdeloeba zaqaria valaSkertelis meTau-
robiT cdilobda mieRwia, rom yofili taos samefos miwa-wyalze
mdebare eklesiebSi, romelnic ukve bizantiis saeklesio centrebs
eqvemdebarebodnen, wirva-locva da RvTismsaxureba ara berZnul,
aramed qarTul enaze mainc yofiliyo.
am ideis aRsrulebis saqmes emsaxureboda is didi muSaoba, rac
gaswies imJamad aTonis wmida mTasa da imperiaSi mcxovrebma mamebma
berZnulidan qarTul enaze saRvTismsaxuro wignebis Targmnisas. v.
silogavas kvleviT daviT kurapalatis dros taoSi TavisTavadi
qarTuli saeklesio erTeuli Camoyalibda, romlis meTauris Ziri-
Tadi rezidencia banaSi iyo, misi titulebi iyo `mamaTmTavarTa mTa-
vari~ da patriarqi. `taos mflobelma daviT kuropalatma, romlis
samflobeloSic Sedioda banas eparqia, banis eparqiis mmarTvelisaTvis
patriarqis titulis miniWebiT, konstantinopolis sapatriarqosa-
gan eklesiis sruli damoukideblobis gzaze pirveli nabiji gadad-
290
ga~ _ wers v. silogava (v. goilaZe, aTaswlovani sveticxoveli, 2011,
gv. 158).
v. silogavas wyaroTa mravali Cveneba uflebas aZlevda, evarauda
taoSi TavisTavadi eklesiis arseboba, Tumca, am eklesiam avtokefa-
lia miiRo ara X s-Si konstantilopolidan, aramed VIII s-Si antioqi-
isagan, mas avtokefaloba esaWiroeboda somxuri eklesiisagan Tavis
dasacavad. Tumca `meore iveria~ avtokefalobis miRebis Semdeg valde-
buli iyo mironi mieRo antioqiidan da ierusalimidan. daviT kurapa-
latis epoqaSi is am valdebulebisaganac gaTavisuflda. amis Semdeg
mironis kurTxeva iveriaSi anu qarTlSive ganwesda.
aRmosavleTis sakaTalikosos miwa-wyali anu igive `zemoni qveya-
nani~ marTalia qarTvelebiT iyo dasaxlebuli, magram VIII s-mde,
rogorc iTqva, somxuri eklesiis iurisdiqciaSi iyo moqceuli, mis-
gan gaTavisuflebis Semdeg is wm. mirons ierusalimidan iRebda TiTqmis
saukunis ganmavlobaSi, magram qarTveli mamebis mecadineobiT IX s.-
dan axla ukve `qarTls~ (e.i. meore iveriaSi) ganewesa mironis kurTx-
eva, radganac es e.w. `aRmosavleTi~ TviTonac qarTlis nawils war-
moadgenda iqaur taZrebsa da monastrebSi gaCaRebuli qarTuleno-
vani wirva-locvis gamo. pirvel iveriaSi anu mcxeTis qarTlSi miro-
ni uZvelesi xanidanve, am ambebisagan damoukideblad, ikurTxeoda.
taos anu iveriis eklesiis patriarqebi yofilan 1. ioane; 2. asaTi; 3.
savaraudod zaqaria valaSkerteli. asaTi erT-erTi SebrZolebisas
mouklavT bizantielebs.
291
`qarTlisa da yovlisa aRmosavleTisa
patriarqi iovane~
(parxlis monastris warwera mefe daviT kurapalatis (+1001) droisa)
efrem mcirem XI saukunis bolosTvis gamoaqveyna naSromi `uwyeba
mizezisa qarTvelTa moqcevisasa, Tu romelTa wignTa Sina moixseneb-
is~ (T. Jordania, qronikebi, I, 75-76). misma cnobebma erTgvarad gauge-
bari gaxada giorgi mTawmindelis mier dalagebuli cnobebi saqarTve-
los eklesiis avtokefaliis Sesaxeb.
kirion meoris azriT VIII-XI saukuneebSi avtokefaliisaTvis ibrZo-
da ara mcxeTis sakaTalikoso, aramed e.w. samxreT iveriis eklesia
anu tao-basianisa da mimdebare olqebis momcveli eklesia, romelmac
moipova kidec avtokefalia im dros. Cans am avtokefalias aRwerda
efrem mcire.
wm. kirion meorem 1906 wels gaarkvia, rom efremis cnobebi exeboda
ara mcxeTis sakaTalikoso eklesiis avtokefalias, aramed `meore iveri-
is~ eklesiis avtokefalias.
meore iveria mdebareobda iq, sadac Semdgom bizantiam `iberiis Temi~
daarsa, is moicavda miwawyals avanidan (anisisa da airaratis nawilis
CaTvliT) basian-taomde, istoriuli arian-qarTlis miwawyals.
avani qalkedonituri TavisTavadi eklesiis centri iyo VII s-is
dasawyisSi.
avani punqtia amJamindel erevanTan, somxeTSi.
im epoqaSi, kerZod VII s-is dasawyisSi, sparseTis imperiis sruliad
gansakuTrebuli mxardaWeriT somxurma eklesiam SeZlo albanelebi-
sa da tao-basian-gugarqis iberebis eklesiuri damorCileba da isini
gadaaqcia somxuri eklesiis mrevlad.
am dros mravaleTnikuri somxuri eklesiis erTerTma ierarqma
ioanem gabeda da eklesiurad gamoeyo somxeTis sapatriarqos. somx-
uri eklesia orad gaiyo. misi erTerTi centri gaxda aRniSnuli pun-
qti avani, mdebare araqsis marcxena sanapiroze mdebare vrcel qvey-
anaSi, romelic yovelTvis da maT Soris konstantine porfirogene-
tis drosac iberebiT iyo dasaxlebuli.
292
iqamde somxurma eklesiam swored es iberebi anu Woroxidan avana-
mde mcxovrebi qarTveli mosaxleoba gadaaqcia somxuri eklesiis mrev-
lad.
avanis sakaTalikosos ucxoelebi, Cans, iverTa sakaTalikosos uwo-
debdnen misi samwysos eTnikuri niSnis mixedviT. es sakaTalikoso VII
saukuneSive gauqmda, misi mrevlis didi nawili maleve daubrunes
somxuri eklesiis wiaRs da sadac isini sabolood gasomxdnen al-
banelebis msgavsad.
ara mxolod qarTvelebi, albanelebic VII s-Si (gansakuTrebiT ar-
abTa Semosevebis Semdgom) kidev ufro Rrmad dauqvemdebares somex
sasuliero mmarTvelebs, magram sabednierod tao-basianis qarTvelo-
bam VIII s-is Semdeg, ZiriTadad IX-X ss-Si gadaigdo somxuri eklesiis
batonobis uReli da daubrunda erovnul, e.i. qarTul saeklesio
wiaRs, albanelebma ki es ver SeZles, maTi erovnuli eklesia somxur-
ma eklesiam STanTqa, albanurenovani wirva-locva gauqmda da armeni-
zebuli albanelebi ufals somxur enaze adidebdnen. somxurenovneba
mTel albaneTSi ganivrco.
rogorc aRiniSna, iverebis anu qarTvelebis erTma jgufma, rom-
lebic basianidan avanamde saxlobda albanelebis msgavsad veRara-
sodes SeZlo somxuri sasuliero mmarTvelobis wiaRidan Tavis daR-
weva, ramac sabolood es xalxi somxebad aqcia.
am process patkanov-maris gundi sapirispirod saxavda _ TiTqos-
da, am saukuneebSi mimdinareobda somxebis e.w. qarTizacia da amJama-
dac maT mier SemuSavebuli `qarTizaciis Teoria~ batonobs postsa-
bWour saistorio da filologiur sivrceSi.
efrem mcires es cnoba, romelic mas antioqiis qronikebSi unaxavs
Seexeboda im iverebs, romelTac VII s-is dasawyisSi gabedes da avanis
sakaTalikoso daaarses somxuri eklesiisagan gamoyofis mizniT.
avanis kaTalikosma ioanem somxuri eklesiisgan gamoyofa SeZlo
mxolod sarwmunoebrivi niSniT.
kerZod, avanis kaTalikosi ioane mxars uWerda qalkedonitur aRm-
sareblobas, mis ierarqebTan da misi samrevlos morwmuneebTan er-
Tad, maSin roca somxuri sapatriarqo Zveleburad monofizitur
platformaze idga.
293
avanis kaTalikosebma isic ki moaxerxes, rom VII s-is dasawyisSi
daukavSirdnen antioqiis sapatriarqos da misgan moiTxoves aRiareba
iveriis am sakaTalikoso eklesiis Tavisuflebisa. magram Semdgom,
avanis sakaTalikosom kvlav dakarga Tavisufleba. male arabebi Semoe-
sivnen kavkasias, situaciis erTgvari dawynarebis Semdeg, daaxloe-
biT, VIII saukunisTvis aRniSnuli mxaris iverielebis nawilma, yofili
avanis sakaTalikosos mrevlma, kerZod taosa da basianis iverebma,
kvlav SeZlos qalkedonitur niadagze ganacalkevebdnen somxur sap-
atriarqos da damoukidebel saeklesio olqad Camoyalibdnen. am dros
maT, Cans, gaixsenes antioqiis sapatriarqo da misgan kvlav moiTx-
oves aRiareba TavianTi TavisTavadobisa.
ai, es antioqiuri cnoba Cavardnia xelSi efrem mcires da gamou-
qveynebia. is wers _ ioane `wargzavnes antioqias da misTana monazoni
erTi mociquladca da sakurTxeveladca [e.i. VII s-is dasawyisSi], rameTu
ganwesebuli iyo kurTxeva antioqiiT kaTalikosisa. da veRaravis xe-
lewifeboda slvad gzasa antioqiisasa [arabobis gamo]. amisTvis didi
zrunva aqunda qarTvelTa. xolo dReTa Teofilaqte antioqiel pa-
triarqisa waravlines mociqulni da mivides winaSi Teofilaqte an-
tioqiel partiarqisa (745-751) da miuTxres netarsa Teofilaqtes,
viTarmed didsa WirsaSina arian qristianeni, mkvidrni qarTvelTa
soflebisani [igulisxmeba tao-basian-valaSkert-avanis iverielebi],
rameTu dRiTgan netarisa anastasisa (602-610) mRvdelmowamisaTa (602-
610) ara kurTxeul ars siZnelisaTvis gzaTasa. xolo man hyo sazoga-
do kreba da ganaCina bWobiTa krebisaTa, mTavarepiskoposTa, mitro-
politTa da episkoposTa TvisTa Tana raTa Sekrbebodes episkoposni
samrevlosa misisani da akurTxevden kaTalikossa JamiTi Jamad,
romelTaca saRmrToman madlman uCvenos maT da romelni gamoirCion
da Tndes mefesa da episkoposTa [igulisxmeba taos mefeebi] da ersa
moyvasTa mis eklesiisasa da Seuqmna maT aRwerili mosaxsenebeli Tavisa
TvisisaTvis _ mun Semokrebulisa krebisaTvis da xeldasxmul hyo
erTi orTa maT missa movlinebulTan monazonTagan, saxeliT ioane,
mis Jamisa kaTalikosad maTda. xolo amas antioqiis krebasa Sina gap-
atiosnda da gaTavisuflda maTgan kaTalikosi, rameTu xelqveiT aRar
aris patriarqTa, aRarc akurTxevden, aramed Tvisni episkoposni
294
akurTxevdnen, da mieriTgan ganefina qveyanasa zeda viTarmed gaTa-
visuflda krebasa Sina antioqiisasa~ (q. c., I, gv. 226).
am cnobaSi ar ixsenieba sityvebi `qarTli da mcxeTa~, ixsenieba
`iberielni~. iberielebi, rogorc cnobilia cxovroben ara mxolod
`qarTlSi~, aramed mis samxreTiTac, rogorc iTqva konstantine por-
firogenetis drosac ki mdinare araqsi erTmaneTisagan hyofda ibe-
rielebisa da bizantielTa miwebs.
yvela eri taos samefos `iberias~ uwodebda, xolo mis axlo mcx-
ovreb qarTvelebs iberielebs. es areali anisidan arzrumamde iberi-
elebis istoriuli sacxovrisi iyo, amas miuTiTebs ara mxolod is
faqti, rom bizantielebma XI s-Si swored am miwebze anisidan arzru-
mamde daaarses saxelmwifoebrivi erTeuli `iberiis Temis~ saxel-
wodebiT, amas miuTiTebs strabonis cnobac, rom Zveli welTaRricx-
vis II saukuneSi armeniam iberielebs waarTves xorZena, gogarena da
pariades kalTebi. antioqias swored taos, anissa da arzrums Sua
mdebare qveynis iverielebisaTvis miuniWebiaT neba sakuTari mRvdelT-
mTavris yolisa, romelic aRar iqneboda vinmes xelqveiT da miuRwe-
viaT SedegebisaTvis, rogorc iTqva ihaia antioqieli da aristakes
lastiverteci adastureben taos samefoSi daviT kurapalatis karze
`patriarqisa~ da `kaTalikosis~ yofnas.
ra damokidebuleba iyo mcxeTasa da avans Soris? miuxedavad sar-
wmunoebriv-eTnikuri mTlianobisa, mcxeTas VII s-is dasawyisSi, iseve
rogorc VI s-Si ar SeeZlo daxmareboda avans, rame sakiTxis gadaWri-
sas, radganac TviTonve iyo sparselebis Tu arabebis mier sastikad
devnili am dros. amitomac, avans antioqiis mxardaWera esaWiroebo-
da. avanis samxreTi mxareebi odesRac pirvelqristianTa epoqaSi an-
tioqiis iurisdiqciaSi Sedioda rogorc provincia `aRmosavleTi~.
jer kidev kirion kaTalikosma ganacxada 1906 wels `winasakrebo
sasinodo Sekrebaze~, rom iberiis eklesiis avtokefaliis Sesaxeb
cnobili efremiseuli cnoba exeboda ara zogadqarTul eklesias,
aramed `aRmosavlis~ anu tao-basianis mxareebis qarTul saeklesio
erTeuls.
avanis sakaTalikosos damxobis Semdeg iveriis anu tao-basianis
mxareebis eklesias Cans `aRmosavlis sakaTalikosos~ uwodebdnen,
295
radganac mas aRar gaaCnda gamokveTili saeklesio centri. es iyo
iverebiT dasaxlebuli vrceli regionebi, romlis ierarqebi zogjer
valaSkertSi, ufro ki Cans iSxansa da bana-olTisSi cxovrobdnen.
XI s-is `valaSkerteli mamamTavari~ zaqaria erT-erTi bolo `kaTa-
likosi~ unda yofiliyo iveriis am mxareebisa, romlis pirvelierar-
qi odesRac iyo antioqiaSi nakurTxi zemoaRniSnuli `ioane~.
ioanedan zaqariamde bevrjer iveriis anu `aRmosavlis~ (ase erqva
am qveyanas politikuradac) sakaTalikoso taxti daqvrivebuli iyo.
es iverielebi erT-erT maT ierarqad moiazrebdnen nerse maSenebel-
qalkedonit kaTalikossac VII s-Sive.
mcxeTasa da `aRmosavlis sakaTalikosos~ Soris urTierTobis sak-
iTxi dadga grigol xanZTelis epoqaSi.
am wmida mamis sulierma Svilebma gadawyvites wmida mironiT gaeer-
TianebinaT iveriis ori didi eklesia _ mcxeTa da `aRmosavali~.
mas Semdeg, rac 726 wlis manaskertis saeklesio krebis Semdeg
somxuri eklesia sabolood daukavSirda monofizitobas, kvlav aRorZ-
inda idea iverielebis, anu qarTvelebis somxuri eklesiisgan gaTa-
visuflebisa qalkedonuri aRmsareblobis safuZvelze. marTlac, tao-
basianisa da mimdgomi mxareebis iverielebi kidev erTxel ganSord-
nen somxeTis eklesias, taos samefos daarsebam maTi mcdeloba gama-
rjvebul saqmed aqcia _ Camoyalibda `aRmosavlis sakaTalikoso~,
Cans, maSinve dasmula kiTxva Tu visgan unda mieRo mas mironi kano-
nieri gziT.
es rTuli sakiTxi ierusalimsa da antioqiaSi gadauWriaT _ `aRmo-
savleTis~ iverielebi winaT maTgan yidulobdnen mirons, maTgan mo-
hqondaT mironi.
grigol xanZTelis mowafeebma am saqmes sxva, erovnuli kuTxiT
Sexedes.
maT ibrZoles da antioqia-ierusalimisagan miiRes kanonikuri ufle-
ba raTa am iverielTa eklesiis `aRmosavlisa kaTalikosebs~ ara anti-
oqia-ierusalimidan, aramed mcxeTidan mieRoT mironi: `rameTu pirve-
lad aRmosavlisa kaTalikosTa mihroni ierusalimiT mohqondaT, xolo
efrem qristesmieriTa brZanebiTa mironis kurTxeva qarTls ganawesa
ierusalimis patriarqisa ganwesebiTa~ (giorgi merCule).
296
anu `aRmosavlis~ iverielTa qveyanac `qarTlia~, radganac aq wir-
va locvis ena qarTulia da ara somxuri. Sesabamisad, mironic aq
qarTlidan unda yofiliyo miRebuli. `aramed qarTlad friadi qvey-
ana aRiracxebis, romelsaca Sina qarTuliTa eniTa Jami Seiwirvis da
locva yoveli aResrulebis~ (giorgi merCule, grigol xanZTelis
cxovreba).
efrem mcireseuli cnobiT, mironis kurTxevis saqme ase yofila:
`mironis Sesasyidad qarTvelebs antioqiisaTvis unda eZliaT aTasi
komlis gadasaxadi.
mcire xnis Semdeg antioqiam aTasi komlis gadasaxadis nacvlad iTx-
ova aTasi drahkani yovelwliurad.
maleve antioqiam, berZenTa mefis SuamavlobiT, qarTvelebis 1000
drahkani gadasca ierusalimis sapatriarqos, axla ukve mironis Sesasy-
idad Tanxa qarTvelebs ierusalimisTvis unda eZloT~ (mitropoliti
anania jafariZe, saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria, 2009,
gv. 509).
efremis wyaroSi naxsenebi ierusalimis patriarqi oresti da mefe
basili _ VIII-X saukuneTa moRvaweni.
maSasadame, realuri viTareba Cans aseTi yofila _ avanis, anu iverTa
sakaTalikosos TavisTavadoba aRiara antioqielma patriarqma anas-
tasi mRvdelmowamem (602-610). arabTa pirveli talRisa da 726 wlis
manaskertis monofizituri krebis Semdeg xelgaxsnili qalkedoni-
tobis momxre iberielebi mTlianad ganSordnen somxur eklesisas.
am iverebma, VIII s-is Sua wlebSi antioqieli Teofilaqte patriar-
qisagan miiRes kidev erTi axali dadastureba saeklesio TavisTava-
dobisa, magram erTi pirobiT _ mironi antioqiaSi unda SeeZinaT 1000
drahkanis safasurisa.
es Tanxa Semdeg imperatorma ierusalims gadasca, xolo grigol
xanZTelis mowafis efremis dros qarTvelebs ierusalimisave nebiT
ufleba miecaT mironi mieRoT mcxeTidan, anu adgilzeve ekurTxebi-
naT. saxeli `iovane~ memkvidreobiT gadaecemodaT aRmosavleTis kaTa-
likosebs da maTTvis niSneuli iyo. magaliTad, mraval afxazeTis
kaTalikoss erqva saxeli iovakime, aseTi samemkvidreo saxeli aRmo-
savleTis iverTa eklesiaSi iyo ioane. saxeli ioane erqva avanis pirv-
297
el kaTalikoss ioane bagaranels, efremis cnobiT, ioane iyo VII s-is
dasawyisSi antioqiaSi nakurTxi iverTa kaTalikosi. aseve, ioane iyo
VIII s-Si nakurTxi kaTalikosi da aseve, ioane ixsenieba davT kurapa-
latis epoqis parxlis eklesiis warweraSi.
efrem mcires Sesaxeb iv. javaxiSvili (qarTveli eris istoria, I,
gv. 403-404) wers _ `efrem mcire Tavis cnobil gamokvlevaSi `uwyeba-
Ta mizezsa qarTvelTa moqcevisasa, Tu romelTa wignTa Sina moix-
senebis~ sxva sakiTxTa Soris im problemasac Seexo `Tu odes iwyes
xeldasxmad, viTarmed ara Tvinier wesisa da brZanebisa~ cnoba am
sakiTxis Sesaxeb mas upovia `xronografsa Sina antioqias aRwerilsa~
_ am cnobis mixedviT gamodis, rom VII s-is damdegidan moyolebuli
VIII s-is Sua wlebamdis qarTul eklesias da antioqiis eklesias Soris
kavSiri Sewyvetili yofila. am gancxadebis Tanaxmad safiqrebeli
xdeba, rom manamde, VII saukunis damdegamde, qarTuli eklesiis saWeT-
mpyrobeli xeldasxmisTvis antioqiaSi midioda iqaur patriarqTan~
(iv. javaxiSvili. qarTveli eris istoria I, gv. 40) am `antioqiur
xronografiaSi~ Semdegi yofila moTxrobili: VIII s-is antioqiis pa-
triarq Teofilaqtesa (745-751) da imperator konstantine skoris
(741-775) dros iberiidan antioqiaSi Casulma orma monazonma ganacx-
ada, rom anastas patriarqis (anastasi II (602-610) Semdeg maT aRar
ukurTxebiaT iberiis sayovelTao episkoposi (kaTalikosi).
Teofilaqtem (745-751) moiwvia saepiskoposoTa kreba, romelmac
gamosca werilobiTi nebarTva imisa, rom amis Semdeg iberTa eklesiis
episkoposebis mierve xeli dasxmoda iberTa kaTolikoss da iqve
akurTxes iberTa axali kaTalikosi.
es cnoba mraval gaugebrobas iwvevs mkvlevarTa Soris. Tu am wyaros
vendobiT TviT VIII saukunis Sua wlebSic ki qarTuli eklesia avtoke-
faluri ar yofila.
sinamdvileSi ki, `antioqiuri qronografis cnoba~ exeba ara mcxe-
Tis sakaTalikoso eklesias, aramed avan-basian-taos iverTa ekle-
sias, romelic Tavs iTavisuflebda somxuri eklesiisagan.
ufro adre, wina wlebSi, vfiqrobdiT, rom es cnoba exeboda afxa-
zeTis sakaTalikosos (mitropoliti anania jafariZe, eklesiis isto-
ria, 2009, gv. 333), magram Cveni axali kvleva aCvenebs, rom antioqi-
298
uri qronografi Seexeba avanis anu iberTa sakaTalikosos, e.i tao-
basian-valaSkert-avanis eklesias. grigol xanZTelis cxovrebaSi moy-
vanili fraza, rom `aRmosavleTisa kaTalikosTa mironi ierusalim-
iT mohyvanda~ _ unda gavigoT ase, rom mcxeTisa da afxazeTis sakaTa-
likosoebis garda arsebobda kidev erTi qarTuli sakaTalikoso _
`aRmosavalis-aRmosavleTisa~. aRmosavleTis anu avan-valaSkert-taos
kaTalikosebs antioqia-ierusalimis sapatriarqosTan hqoniaT kavSi-
ri, mironsac maTgan iRebdnen grigol xanZTelis mowafe episkopos
efremamde, romlis damsaxurebiTac antioqia-ierusalims ucvnia `aR-
mosavleTis~ qarTul saeklesio sivrceSi daruneba, anu mas ukve wm.
mironi mcxeTidan unda mieRo.
iSxani _ avani
sofeli avani mdebareobda erevnis axlos mis Crdilo-aRmosavleTiT
(amJamad erevnis sazRvrebSia), xolo dvini erevnis samxreT-aRmosav-
leTiT. avani marTlmadidebluri somxuri eklesiis centri iyo, xolo
dvini _ monofiziturisa.
588 (591) wlidan avanSi mdebareobda centri qalkedonuri somxuri
sakaTalikososi. is Seiqmna imperator mavrikes (582-602) mxardaWer-
iT, somxeTis im nawilisTvis, romelic bizantiis SemadgenlobaSi Sev-
ida. erTaderTi kaTalikosi avanisa iyo ioane bagaraneli (+609), spars-
Ta Semotevis Semdeg avanis kaTedra gaauqmes (602-603 ww.).
avanis arqiteturuli ansambli _ somxuri arqiteqturis miRwevad
miiCneva. misi mTavari nawili, Tu davujerebT mis mkvlevars aruTi-
nova-fidanians, aris jvris tipis eklesia (588-597), tetraqonqi (ms-
gavsia _ mcxeTis jvari da rifsime eCmiaZinSi). miiCneva, rom kompozi-
ciaSi aqvs gavlena eCmiaZinis taZris arqiteqturisa da bizantiuri
martiriumebisa (oqtagonebisa), aseve konstantinopolis sofiis
taZrisa. aq aris qalkedoniti kaTalikosis ezra I-is (630-641) berZnul-
somxuri warwerebi, 1219 wlis `somxebisa da qarTvelebis aTabagebisa~
ivanesi (mxargrZelisa), 1285 wlis qarTveli daviT ufliswulis, 1287 w.
299
aTabag xutlubuRasi, avanis mosaxleoba XIII s-is bolomde marTlmadide-
bluri iyo (prav. encikl., I, gv. 74).
avani, iseve rogorc iSxani, mdebareobda mxareSi, romelic Ziri-
Tadad dasaxlebuli iyo armenizebuli qarTvelebiT. amitomac, avanisa
da iSxanis `qalkedonitobis~ safuZveli iyo eTnikurad qarTuli mo-
saxleoba, romelic cdilobda Tavis ZiriTad ers _ e.i. qarTvelobas
sarwmunoebiTac damsgavseboda. ase rom, avanis qarTuli warwerebi da
qarTuli arqiteqtura, ise, rogorc iSxanisa _ qarTuli da ara somxuri
movlenaa. mimdinareobda ara `somxebis gaqalkedoniteba-gaqarTvele-
ba~, aramed `armenizebuli qarTvelebis~ dabruneba `erovnul-sarwmu-
noebriv~ wiaRSi.
mcxeTis jvris arqiteqtura iqmneboda TandaTanobiT, saukuneTa
manZilze. magaliTad, mirianis Zem revma mis jvars daadga `gumbadi~,
rac gaimeores albaT Semdegma arqiteqtorebma. maT Soris avanis ar-
qiteqtorma, radganac misTvis yovelive qarTuli qalkedonitobis
simbolos warmoadgenda. avans ar hqonda sarwmunoebrivi warsuli
anu is ar warmoadgenda qristianuli siwmidis mqone sarwmunoebriv
adgils. aq igulisxmeba is, rom mcxeTis jvris istoria wmida ni-
nosTan iyo dakavSirebuli. garda amisa, rac ufro mniSvnelovania, IV
s-Si jvris aRmarTvis Semdegve, moxda udidesi saswauli, jvars daadga
didi naTeli, mcxeTis mosaxleoba xedavda jvarze gadmosul angelo-
zebs, amave dros mTa iryeoda miwisZvris msgavsad da idga sakmevlis
suni. am saswaulma xeli Seuwyo qarTlis mosaxleobis masobriv gaqris-
tianebas. am jvars mieniWa didi saswaulTmoqmedi Zala. aRadgenda
avadmyofebs, acocxlebda mkvdrebs _ wm. ninos cxovrebis Tanaxmad.
yovelive es CvenTvis imiTaa saintereso, rom am jvarze arqiteqtu-
ruli nagebobebis Seneba daiwyo IV saukunidanve, kerZod, mefis Ze
revs jvarma mkvdari Svili gaucocxla. amitomac, man aRasrula Tavisi
aRnaTqvami RvTisadmi da iqamde Ria cis qveS mdebare jvari gumbaTiT
gadaxura. sityva gumbaTs TviT wyaro axsenebs. jvarze mTxveva da
Sexeba, uSualod mis win locva _ xalxs SeeZlo, radgan SexebiT iRebd-
nen jvris madls anu gumbaTiT da misi damWeri kedlebiT jvari ki ar
daifara mlocvelTaTvis, aramed masze daidga eklesiis msgavsi nage-
boba Tavisi gumbaTiT. gumbaTis aRmarTvas ki iTxovda jvris STambe-
300
Wdavi simaRle. wyarosve cnobiT jvari daamzades mTel aremareSi
yvelaze gamorCeuli xisagan, ase, rom is maRali iqneboda da misi
gumbaTic Sesabamisi iqneboda. bunebrivia, qristianobis ganmtkicebi-
sa da misi saxelmwifoebriv simaRleze ayvanis kvaldakval mcxeTis
jvarze dadgmuli arqiteqturuli nageboba ixveweboda, TandaTan
ufro srulyofili xdeboda. xis kedlebi qviT Seicvleboda da masze
dadgmuli gumbaTis formac gaumjobesdeboda. es procesi ki or _ V
da VI saukuneebs moicavda.
ase, rom mcxeTis jvris TavisTavadi da originaluri arqiteqtura
avanis taZris aSenebamde sam saukunes moicavda da mis formas sa-
maswlovani saeklesio tradicia hqonda.
mas Semdeg, rac arsen safarelis cnobiT, VI saukunis Sua wlebSi
nerse mijinis dros somxuri eklesia ganSorda marTlmadideblobas,
qarTuli eklesia da Sesabamisad, misi arqiteqtura qalkedonituri
sarwmunoebis simbolodac gadaiqca.
maSasadame, mcxeTis jvris arqiteqtura ukve VI s-is bolos qalke-
donitobis simbolos warmoadgenda.
am droidan am taZris aRdgena da mis qvis erTian ansamblad gada-
qceva samefo ojaxis zrunvis sagnad iqca. misi ukve tradiciuli qalke-
donuri arqiteqtura gaimeores avanis, martvilis, ninowmidisa Tu
rifsimes qalkedonitma mSeneblebma.
301
somxuri ganmartebiTi warwerebi
armeniis mier iberiis teritoriebis mitacebis gamo, xorZenasa da
pariadres mkvidri iberiuli (qarTuli) mosaxleoba gaqristianebis
Semdeg TandaTan somxuri eklesiis mrevlad gadaiqca somxuri saek-
lesio eniT.
maTma erTma nawilma amis miuxedavad SeZlo qarTuli identobis
SenarCuneba, 726 wlis Semdeg armeniis am qarTvelebma Seadgines somx-
ur-qalkedonuri eklesiis raodenobrivad Zalze mniSvnelovani nawili,
xolo ufro CrdiloeTiT, basian-taosa da mimdebare mxareebis
qarTveloba dedaqarTuli eklesiis mrevlad iqca. axla isini eklesie-
bSi ukve ara somxur, aramed qarTul wirva-locvas ismendnen. yofil
saeklesio somxurenovan qarTvelTa mier qarTulenovnebis dabrune-
ba Tavis etapebs moicavda. arsebobs ramdenime saintereso magaliTi:
daviT garejis erT-erT monasterSi freskebze aRmoCnda somxuri
ganmartebiTi warwerebi, msgavsi somxuri minawerebi aRmoaCina i. abu-
laZem miqael modrekilis krebulSi da sxvaganac.
qarTuli saeklesio kulturis am Zeglebze aRmoCenilma somxurma
ganmartebiTma warwerebma aRafrTovana `qarTizacia-gaqarTvelebis~
Teoriis skolis warmomadgenlebi, maTi TvalsazrisiT aseTi somx-
uri warwerebis arseboba faqtia imisa, rom eTnikuri somxebi
qarTveldebodnen.
Cveni azriT, es Zeglebi aCveneben, rom mimdinareobda piriqiTa
procesi _ yofili armeniis eTnikuri qarTvelebi ibrunebdnen erovnul
anu qarTul-kulturul identobas, rac qvemoTaa aRwerili.
i. abulaZe ganmartavs Tu rogor `qarTveldebodnen~ somxebi tao-
klarjeTSi, is wers, rom efrem mcire `warmoSobiT im kuTxidan iTv-
leba sadac somxuri ena da am enaze arsebuli mwerloba misi moRvaweo-
bis xanaze uwinares erT dros gavrcelebuli iyo garkveul wreebSi. es
kuTxea tao, sadac sakuTari eniT da mwerlobiT arsebobda IX saukunem-
de somxuri mosaxleoba, romelic garkveuli mizezebis gamo am sauku-
nidan daadga gaqarTvelebis gzas eniTac da kulturiTac~ (i. abulaZe,
Sromebi. t. II, 1971, gv. 115).
i. abulaZe xmarobs sityva `gaqarTvelebas~.
302
i. abulaZis skolis TvalsazrisiT, taos somxebma IX-X saukuneebSi
daiviwyes mSobliuri somxuri ena, ris Sedegadac `gaqarTveldnen~.
Tumca am skolis azriT, `gaqarTvelebul~ somxebs mainc scodniaT
somxuri ena da mwerloba, romelsac iyenebdnen kidec, magaliTad
miqael modrekilis naSromis gadaweris dros.
miqael modrekilis iadgaris gadaweris dros (savaraudod 978-988
wlebSi) sxvadasxva gverdze sagalobelTa muxlebis ukanasknel stri-
qonze, adgil-adgil miuweriaT somxuri sityvebi an frazebi e.i. zo-
gierT qarTul sagalobels miwerili aqvs ramdenime sityviani somx-
uri warwera. rogorc viciT sagaloblebi uamravia, xsenebuli somx-
uri warwerebi ki sul 29 daiTvala i. abulaZem (i. abulaZe, somxuri
dialeqturi formebi, Sromebi. t. II, 1976, gv. 276).
es somxuri sityvebi zogierTi qarTuli sagaloblis bolos miuw-
eriaT maT, vinc gadawera miqael modrekilis iadgari. somxuri minaw-
erebi ganmartaven, Tu romel dResaswauls eZRvneba esa Tu is saga-
lobeli. aRniSnuli 29-dan 15 minaweri pirdapir ganmartavs Tu rome-
li dResaswaulis qarTuli teqstia minaweris win.
magaliTad, minaweri nomeri 8, `SobaY qristesi~ (somxurad), aRniSnavs,
rom am sityvebis wina teqsti qarTuli sagalobelia qristeSobisa.
nomeri 11 minaweri, somxurad, aris `transliteracia imave stri-
qonze mis win mdgomi qarTuli sityvisa _ `brwyinvalesa~.
danarCeni 19 minaweri, am ukanasknelis msgavsad, maT win uSualod
mdgomi qarTuli teqstis bolo sityvas gadmoscems, mxolod ara
transliteraciiT, aramed TiTqmis zedmiwevniTi somxuri Targman-
iT~ (iqve, gv. 277).
maSasadame, 29 minaweridan 20 aSkarad warmoadgens ganmartebas im-
isa Tu ra qarTuli sagalobelia am somxuri minaweris win.
msgavsivea danarCeni 9 minaweric.
somxuri minawerebis daniSnulebaa ganumartos somxuri anbanis
mcodne mkiTxvels, Tu ra saxis qarTuli sagalobelia mis win. maSasa-
dame, zogierTi sagalobelis somxuri minaweri ganumartavs somxuri
wera-kiTxvis mcodnes, Tu ra saxisaa qarTuli sagalobeli.
visTvis iyo saWiro somxuri ganmartebiTi warwerebis arseboba?
pasuxi aseTia: saWiro iyo im eTnikur qarTvelTaTvis, romelTac
ainteresebdaT qarTuli sagaloblebi, magram ar SeeZloT qarTuleno-
303
vani teqstebis advilad wakiTxva, radganac maT siymawvilidanve taosa
da zogierT mimdebare mxareSi Seaswavles ara qarTuli, aramed somx-
uri wera-kiTxva da amitom maT uWirdaT qarTuli naweris wakiTxva-
gageba.
SesaZlebelia Tu ara yofiliyo aseTi mkiTxveli?
diax, SesaZlebelia, Cvens istoriaSi iyo identuri magaliTebi.
magaliTad, me piradad mixilavs XIX saukunis qarTuli kondakebi,
romlebsac hqondaT am kondakTa Tavdapirvel mepatrone qarTvel
mRvdelTa mier gakeTebuli rusuli ganmartebiTi minawerebi Sesrule-
buli melniT an fanqriT.
visTvis iyo isini saWiro? im qarTveli sasuliero pirebisaTvis,
romelTac XIX saukuneSi daamTavres rusulenovani seminaria, iswav-
les rusuli wera-kiTxva da Semdeg samsaxuri miiRes qarTuli sof-
lebis eklesiebSi, es qarTveli mRvdlebi gaWirvebiT kiTxulobdnen
qarTul, miT ufro xucur teqstebs, maT rusuli ufro exerxebo-
daT, amitomac, isini wirva-locvisas, drois dazogvis mizniT windawin
rusul ganmartebiTi warwerebs ukeTebdnen vrcel nabeWd qarTul
teqstebs, sadac wirvis moqmedebaTa wesebi iyo gadmocemuli.
aseTi qarTuli wignebi rusulenovani minawerebiT uamravi iyo sa-
bWoTa epoqaSi. Cven, XX s-is qarTveli sasuliero pirebi, aTeistur
anu sabWoTa epoqaSi, Zvel, XIX saukuneSi nabeWd wignebs vxmarobdiT.
imis gamo, rom imJamad aRar ibeWdeboda sasulieri wignebi, Cven
vsargeblobdiT XIX saukunis naxmari wignebiT, rogorc iTqva isini
im qarTveli mRvdlebisa iyvnen, romlebic rusuli wera-kiTxvis ukeT
mcodneni iyvnen vidre qarTulisa, rusulenovan seminariaSi ganswav-
lis gamo.
avtokefaliis aRdgenisa da qarTulenovani wirva-locvis dakanon-
ebis Semdeg aTeisturi epoqac dadga, am dros ukve Zveli, naxmari
qarTuli wignebi gamoiyeneboda, maT ki rusuli ganmartebiTi warw-
erebi hqondaT. Zveli samRvdeloeba garusebuli iyo im TvalsazrisiT,
rom maTTvis rusuli wera-kiTxva bunebrivi iyo, qarTuli ki Semdeg
naswavli. maT, rusul seminariaSi naswavl qarTvel mRvdlebs, rTu-
li qarTuli teqstebis wakiTxva uWirdaT.
304
kidev erTi magaliTi, axlaxan batonma akaki bregaZem gamosca XIX-
XX ss qarTvel mRvdelmTavarTa qadagebani (`mwignobroba qarTuli~,
t. 16, 2013), masSia XIX s-is erT-erTi qarTveli mRvdelmTavris (imJa-
mad arqimandrit aleqsandre oqropiriZis 1861 wlis) Canawerebi, ro-
melic dasavleT saqarTveloSi moRvaweobda, is TviT ixdis bodiSs
Tavisi Zalze cudi qarTulisaTvis, enis cud codnas abralebs rusul
seminarias. maSasadame, am qarTvelma sasulieri pirma rusuli kargad
icoda, qarTuli ki cudad. rusulis ucodinars imJamindel saqar-
TveloSi mRvdelmTavrad arc daniSnavdnen, radganac misi qarTuli
qveyana rusuli eklesiis iurisdiqciaSi imyofeboda.
Cans, msgavsi viTareba iyo IX-X saukuneTa taoSi, iqamde es qarTu-
li qveyana somxuri eklesiis iurisdiqciaSi imyofeboda. gaTavisu-
flebis epoqaSi, anu IX-X ss-Si, qarTveli sasuliero pirebi somx-
urenovani saswavleblebis dasrulebis Semdeg qarTul wignebSi rTavd-
nen somxur ganmartebebiT warwerebs, radgan maT ukve qarTuleno-
vani liturgia moeTxovebodaT, am qarTvelebs ki somxurenovani qalke-
donuri saswavleblebi hqondaT damTavrebuli, da albaT, qarTulze
ukeT somxuri wera-kiTxva exerxebodaT.
VI-VIII saukuneebSi somxeTSi mravali qarTveli cxovrobda da isini
iqve swavlobdnen. erTi magaliTia kaTalikosi kirion I, cxadia, man
somxuri brwyinvaled icoda.
ismis kiTxva, romel enaze iRebdnen swavla-ganaTlebas taoeli
qarTvelebi vTqvaT VII saukuneSi, roca iq, taoSi, iSxanSi, somxuri
saepiskoposo kaTedra moqmedebda?
cxadia, mkvidri qarTveloba iyo bunebiTi mrevli taos marTlma-
didebluri somxuri saepiskopososi, romlis erT yvelaze cnobil
mRvdelmTavars, kaTalikos nerse iSxnels netarad moixseniebdnen
TiTqmis misi Tanamedrove qarTveli sasuliero pirebi.
netari nerse iSxneli, marTlmadidebeli somxurenovani iSxanis
taZridan mwysavda taoel qarTvelebs, sxvadasxva kuTxis samwysos-
Tan erTad. aseT viTarebaSi, wirva-locvis ena cxadia iyo somxuri,
amitomac, Sesabamisad mTel taos saswavleblebSi qarTveli ymawvilebi
swavlobdnen ara qarTul, aramed somxur wera-kiTxvas, emzadebodnen
somxur eklesiaSi samoRvaweod, romelic imJamad maTTvis sruliad
305
misaRebi iyo am eklesiis marTlmadideblobis gamo, iseve, rogorc
XIX s-Si qarTl-kaxeTis qarTvelobisaTvis Tbilisis sionis taZarSi
rusulenovani wirva-locva iyo misaRebi.
viTareba, rogorc mravalgzis aRiniSna, mkveTrad Seicvala 726
wlidan, mas Semdeg, rac somxuri eklesia sabolood gaemijna marTl-
madideblobas da mtkiced miiRo monofizituri mrwamsi. am momentma
gamoafxizla taoeli qarTvelebi da ara marto isini, saerTod iqam-
de somxuri eklesiis omforis (iurisdiqciis) qveS moqceuli qar-
Tveloba.
726 wlidan daiwyo mtkice nacionalizacia somxuri eklesiisa anu
somxur-qalkedonuri eklesiis wevri eTnikuri somxebi SeuerTnen
maTTvis ukve deda somxur monofizitur eklesias, xolo iqamde somx-
uri eklesiis mrevli eTnikuri qarTvelebi cdilobdnen gamosuliyvnen
maTTvis ukve araerovnuli somxuri eklesiidan da mikedlebodnen
sakuTars _ qarTulerovnuls.
marTlmadideblobis moyvarul qarTvelebs axla saSualeba eZle-
odaT qarTuli marTlmadidebeli eklesiis wiaRSi damkvidrebuliyvnen.
mTeli tao _ qarTul eklesiad iqca.
dedaqarTul eklesiasTan dabrunebis procesi, rogorc iTqva,
aRmtaci da sixarulis momgvreli iyo qarTvelebisaTvis ormagad,
radganac isini ukve rogorc erovnuli, aseve marTlmadidebeli ek-
lesiis wevrebi iyvnen. maT iqamde es sixaruli akldaT. Cans kargad
grZnobdnen, rom iqamde VI-VIII ss-Si marTalia iyvnen qarTvelebi, ma-
gram somxuri saeklesio kulturis sferoSi imyofebodnen, Cans maT
aRelvebdaT is, rom qarTuli ena maTi mSobliuri ena kulturuli da
saxelmwifoebrivi sferoebidan gandevnili iyo, rasac miuTiTebs,
swored aRniSnuli qarTveli mxareebidan gamosuli qarTveli bereb-
is mier naloliavebi da gadawerili `qebaY da didebaY qarTlisa enisaY~,
romelSic qarTuli ena warmoCenilia, rogorc mdabali, dawunebuli
da damarxuli (Senaxuli, mouxmarebeli), rogorc marTlac iyo qarTu-
li ena taoSi VI-VIII ss-Si.
erTi sityviT, VI-IX saukuneebSi, taodan da mimdebare qarTuli
provinciebidan gamosulma qarTvelebis nawilma qarTuli ena ki ico-
da, magram naklebad icoda qarTuli wera-kiTxva, samagierod naswav-
306
li da SeTvisebuli hqondaT somxuri mwignobroba, amitomac, Cans
maTTvis, IX da Semdeg saukuneebSic, qarTul wignebSi rTavdnen somx-
ur ganmartebiT warwerebs, raTa advilad gaegoT Sinaarsi anda arsi
romelime vrceli qarTuli teqstisa. vTqvaT vrceli sagaloblis
gverdiT keTdeboda somxuri ganmartebiTi warwera, rom esaa ama da
am wmidanis sagalobeli anda ama da am dResaswaulisa. es aadvilebda
maTTvis RvTismsaxurebas. Cven piradad msgavsi qarTuli wignebi rusu-
li ganmartebiTi minawerebiTac gvinaxavs, rac zemoT aRiniSna. ase
rom msgavsi praqtika miRebuli iyo.
msgavsia daviT garejis erT-erTi monastris freskebis somxuri
ganmartebiTi warwerebic. hereTelma qarTvelebma taoeli qarTveleb-
is msgavsad somxuri eklesiis uRlidan aseve X saukuneSi daixsnes
Tavi. maT, taoeli TanamoZmeebis msgavsad icodnen somxuri wera-kiTxva,
radganac siyrmidanve naswavli hqondaT da amave dros, aRniSnul gar-
damaval momentSi naklebad icodnen qarTuli wera-kiTxva. am eTni-
kuri qarTvelebisaTvis gakeTda kidec daviT garejis erTerTi mo-
nastris freskebze warwerebi. magaliTad, jvarcmaze waaweres somx-
urad `esaa jvarcma~ da a.S.
sabolood, unda vifiqroT, rom `qarTizacia-gaqarTvelebis~ Teori-
is momxreebis, maT Soris ilia abulaZisa da sxvaTa analizi ar asax-
avs realobas. am somxur warwerebs e.w. gardamaval periodSi akeTebdnen
ara gaqarTvelebuli somxebi, aramed somxurenovani eTnikuri qar-
Tvelebi.
maT qarTvelobas isic miuTiTebs, rom zogierTi somxuri warwera
SecdomiT, aragramatikuladaa dawerili.
am bolo faqtma ilia abulaZes aRuZra fantazia, rom taoSi cx-
ovrobdnen ucnobi somxuri dialeqtis mqone somxebi, romlebic
qarTveldebodnen da TavianT dialeqtze werdnen somxurad. somxuri
kulturis istoriisaTvis faqti somxuri dialeqtis Sesaxeb ucno-
bia, TviT somex mecnierTaTvisac ki.
i. abulaZe wers _ `iadgaris somxuri minawerebis enis gacnoba
udavod metyvelebs imaze, rom somxuris forma is mainc araa, rac
maSindeli saliteraturo somxurisaTvis iyo damaxasiaTebeli. minaw-
erebis ena ufro cocxali sametyvelo somxuri enis Tvisebebs am-
307
JRavnebs, vidre samwerlo enisas. misi gadaxvevani saliteraturo
somxuri enis gramatikuli normebisagan dialeqtis damaxasiaTebel
niSnebze migviTiTeben fonetikisa da morfologiis dargSi. ramdena-
dac es minawerebi tao-klarjeTSi sruldeba, imdenad dialeqturi
movlenebi, romlebic maTSi SeiniSneba, SeiZleba miviCnioT somxuri
enis taos dialeqtis damaxasiaTeblad X saukunisaTvis~ (i. abulaZe,
Sromebi, II, gv. 278).
i. abulaZe askvnis, rom X saukunisaTvis taoSi cxovrobdnen som-
xebi, romelTa enac iyo somxuris erT-erTi dialeqti, radganac, maT
mier Sesrulebuli somxuri minawerebi aragramatikuladaa Sesrule-
buli.
sinamdvileSi ki am minawerebs is qarTveli berebi asrulebdnen,
romelTac surdaT somxuri wera-kiTxvis mcodne qarTveli berebi-
saTvis miewodebinaT informacia maT win mdebare qarTuli teqstis
Sinaarsis Sesaxeb. maSasadame, termini `somxurenovani qarTveli~ ewode-
ba iseT qarTvels, romelmac icis qarTuli ena, magram ganaTleba
miiRo somxur saswavlebelSi, iswavla somxuri wera-kiTxva, Tumca ki
somxuri ena mainc ver aiTvisa srulyofilad. maTTvis keTdeboda
praqtikuli daniSnulebis ganmartebiTi warwerebi.
qarTvelTa mier Sesrulebuli minawerebis avtorebs arc hqondaT
miznad literaturuli normebis dacva, maTi mizani iyo, rogorme
iqamde somxuri eklesiis wiaRSi moRvawe qarTvelebisaTvis gaecnoT
qarTuli teqstebi, romelTac gamoiyenebdnen praqtikuli daniSnuleb-
isaTvis mocemul momentSi.
taos mosaxleoba somxuri rom ar iyo da amitom maT VI-VIII ss-Si
kargad rom ar icodnen somxuri ena, amas miuTiTebs VIII s-is somexi
avtoris stefanos sivnielis cnoba, rom `taoSi arsebobs Taviseburi
metyveleba~ (iqve, gv. 281). Cven es cnoba migvaCnia dasturad imisa,
rom taoSi qarTvelebi cxovrobdnen, romelnic marTalia imJamad
somxuri eklesiis iurisdiqciaSi iyvnen moqceulni, magram mainc
`Taviseburad~, e.i. qarTulad, metyvelebdnen.
308
didi gaqceva somxuri eklesiidan
(gvirpelis sakiTxi)
vinc gaecnoba eqvTime da giorgi mTawmindelebis, giorgi mciresa
da sxvaTa Rvawls, raTa qarTuli wmida werilidan aRmofxvriliyo
somxuris yovelgvari nakvalevi, ris Sesaxebac miuTiTebda kidec gior-
gi mcire, misTvis maincdamainc Zneli ar iqneba warmodgena imisa, rom
e.w. yofili `armeniis~ miwa-wyalze mcxovrebi qarTvelebis mizani iyo
rogorme ganeSorebinaT TavianTi Tavi somxuri eklesiisagan, somx-
uri kulturisagan, somxuri tradiciebisagan, raTa SeenarCunebinaT
TavianTi erovnuli vinaoba. isini kargad xedavdnen, rom maT Tvalwin
kvlav grZeldeboda saukuneTa win dawyebuli masobrivi procesi somx-
ebSi qarTvelTa asimilaciisa.
X saukunis meore naxevridan samxreT iberiaSi imZlavra Zlierma
patriotulma politikurma dasma, romlis saTaveSi imier taos mefe
daviT kurapalati idga, qarTuli enis, qarTuli kulturis, qarTu-
li saxelmwifoebriobisa da eklesiis didi moamage. marTalia is uS-
vilo iyo, magram misi ideebi da miswrafebebi misi qveynis Taobebma
aitaca da sabolood ganaxorciela kidec. `wyaroebi aSkarad miu-
TiTeben, rom daviTis qveSevrdomebi, saero Tu saeklesio pirebi,
samSobloSi Tu bizantiur samyaroSi, mtkiced atarebdnen daviTis
ideebs~ _ wers v. kopaliani (v. kopaliani, bizantiisa da saqarTvelos
urTierToba, 1969, gv. 64).
taosa da samxreT iberiis mxareebidan gamosuli moRvaweebi mxur-
vale SemarTebiT aSenebdnen qarTul kulturas, TavianT Tavs `qarTve-
lebad~ moixsenebdnen da amasTanave mtkice TanmimdevrulobiT uary-
ofdnen yovelive somxurs. miuxedavad amisa, n. maris Semdeg, maT mainc
somxebad moixsenieben, gansakuTrebiT somexi avtorebi zogierT, me-
ore xarisxovan cnobaze dayrdnobiT.
erTi aseTia cnoba: `movida gvirpeli, jojikis meganZurTa uxucesi
da moinaTla, rameTu somexi iyo da arseni uwodes~ (cxovreba iovanesi
da eqvTimesi, gv. 112).
am cnobaze dayrdnobiT, weren, rom eTnikurad somexi gvirpeli
monaTvlis Sedegad `gaqarTvelda~, amiT TiTqos eTnikur somexs
uwodes qarTveli. sinamdvileSi ki aseTi ram wyaroSi ar weria.
309
amasTanve unda aRiniSnos, rom im droisaTvis anu IX-XI saukuneebSi
taosa da mimdebare mxareebSi ar arsebobda `qarTuli sarwmunoeba~
am sityvis pirdapiri mniSvnelobiT, piriqiT qarTvelebis sarwmunoe-
ba iyo berZnuli, anu qalkedonitur marTlmadidebluri sarwmunoe-
ba. qalkedonitoba, am regionSi, sazogadod, gaidentebuli iyo
berZnul eTnosTan da ara qarTulTan, maSin, roca aRniSnuli droi-
saTvis am regionSi somxuri eklesia warmoadgenda monofizituri
sarwmunoebis yvelaze saxelovansa da cnobil umZlavres keras, Sesa-
bamisad, arsebobda `somxuri sarwmunoeba~.
im dros `sarwmunoebiT somexi~ niSnavda somxuri eklesiis wevrs.
somxuri eklesiis wevrebi ki samxreT kavkasiaSi mravali arasomexi
iyo, aseve qarTvelebi.
rogorc cnobilia, sparselebica da arabebic bizantiuri orient-
aciis qarTvelebs gacilebiT ufro metad devnidnen, vidre monofizit
somxebs, romelnic berZnuli sarwmunoebis sawinaaRmdegod yvelgan
da yoveli SemTxvevisas RaRadebdnen.
aqedan gamomdinare, sparselTa da arabTa mier somxuri sarwmu-
noebis mqone pirebi ufro daculebi iyvnen, Sesabamisad, am regionis
(yofili persarmeniis) qarTvelTaTvis somxuri sarwmunoeba mimzid-
veli iyo. politikur-socialuri viTarebisa da iZulebis gamo am
regionSi mravali qarTveli iRebda somxur sarwmunoebas. eTnikur
qarTvels, romelic somxuri eklesiis wevrs warmoadgenda `somexs~
uwodebdnen. erTi aseTi piri anu `sarwmunoebiT somexi~ eTnikurad
ki qarTveli unda yofiliyo taoeli gvirpeli.
Cans, zemoT aRniSnuli cnobis avtors surda daewera `movida gvir-
peli da moinaTla, rameTu somexi iyo sarwmunoebiT~ anu gvirpeli
iyo eTnikuri qarTveli, romelsac hqonda somxuri sarwmunoeba, msgav-
sad imisa, rogorc eklesiurad iyvnen imier taoeli qarTvelebi wina
ramdenime saukune, im epoqaSi roca iZulebulni iyvnen ecxovraT
somxur saxelmwifoSi.
somxuri sarwmunoebisgan gaTavisufleba da erovnuli eklesiis
wiaRSi dabruneba taoelTa da samxreTel iberielTa didi nawilis oc-
neba iyo, romelic maT aRusruldaT daviT kurapalatisa da misi
winaprebis dros.
310
samxreT iberiel qarTvelTagan qarTuli wera-kiTxva yvelam ar
icoda, radganac isini somxuri eklesiis zegavlenis wiaRSi aRizard-
nen, Tumca ki Zalze cdilobdnen am naklis Sevsebas, grigol bakuri-
anisZis monasterSi am codnas yuradReba eqceoda _ `qarTuli wera-
kiTxvisa da enis mcodne~ berebi, tipikonis mixedviT sruli wevrebi
iyvnen monastrisa. ucodinarebs ki saswavlebelSi aswavlidnen.
grigol bakurianisZis mier SemuSavebuli tipikonidan Cans, rom is
kargad arCevda erTmaneTisagan eTnikur kuTvnilobasa da sarwmu-
noebas. magaliTad, roca aRniSnavs, rom Cven qarTvelebi varT mxne
mebrZolebi da iqve aRniSnavs _ `arasodes damizogavs sisxli, bizan-
tiis imperiis gaZlierebisaTvis arc CemTan myof naTesavebisa, rom
kargad yofiliyo maTi mefobis Zalaufleba... e.i. bizantieli imper-
atorebisa. iSviaTad Tu vinme Cveni tomisagani sakuTar sarecelze
bunebrivi sikvdiliT momkvdara, yvelam sisxli daRvara saberZneTis
mterTa maxviliTa da xeliTo~ (georgika, V, 119). am CanawerSi lapar-
akia ara sarwmunoebriv orientaciaze, aramed eTnikur vinaobaze da
grigoli axsenebs kidec Sesabamis termins `toms~, Cveni tomis qveS
`Cven qarTvelebs~ _ eTnikur qarTvels gulisxmobs da ara somexs.
samxreT iberiis, maT Soris tao-basianis mosaxleoba amtkicebda,
rom isini `naTesaviT qarTvelni~ iyvnen da ara `qalkedoniti somxe-
bi~, rogorc surT maTi warmodgena.
magaliTad, giorgi mTawmindeli, roca antioqiis patriarqs eka-
maTeboda da ambobda `ugunurad Segiracxies naTesavi qarTvelTa da
Tavni Tqvenni brZen da mZime giyofiano~, cxadia, sityva `naTesavis~
qveS gulisxmobda erovnebiT qarTvels da ara `somex qalkedonitebs~.
karinelma Tornike erisTavma da taoelma ioane mTawmindelma iverTa
monasteri `qarTvelTa naTesavisaTvis~ aages da ara `qalkedoniti
somxebisaTvis~, am ukanasknelT isedac mravali saepiskoposo da mon-
asteri hqondaT bizantiis imperiaSi, sadac ganadidebdnen kidec som-
xur eTnoss.
VII saukuneSi, iseve rogorc iqamdec, mravali somexi iyo marTlma-
didebeli eklesiis wevri, magram isini somxebi iyvnen da ara qarTvele-
bi. taoel didebulTa wres ganekuTvneboda patara `ufliswuli~ eqv-
Time, romelsac TviT yovladwmida RvTismSoblis CvenebiT daubrun-
311
da qarTuli enis codna, radganac mas is daaviwyda bizantiaSi mZev-
lad yofnis wlebSi. maSasadame, misi mSobliuri siyrmis ena iyo qarTu-
li da am enis codna daubrunda mas.
unda iTqvas isic, rom bizantia da misi imperatorebi ar swyalobdnen
qarTul eklesias, iseve, rogorc adre sparselebi da arabebi. magal-
iTad, iberiasTan omis dros, rogorc aRvniSneT imperatorebi ganar-
isxa qarTuli eklesiis patriotizmma. Sesabamisad, isini sjidnen kidec
qarTul eklesias, auqmebdnen qarTulenovan saepiskoposoebsa da sam-
revloebs iberiis TemSi, maSin, roca imave dros swyalobdnen somxur
eklesias. lastivertecis aRwerili aqvs, roca qarTvel episkoposebs
bizantiaSi asaxlebdnen da sxva qarTveli episkoposebi saxalxo oms
meTaurobdnen bizantiis sawinaaRmdegod, im dros somexTa patriarqebi
didad aRzevebulni iyvnen keisarTa mier.
v. kopaliani wers: `anisis warCinebulTa erTi nawili, romelTa
Soris pirveli kaTalikosi petrosi iyo bizantiis imperiis agentis
rolSi gamovida, keisars mxari dauWira da misi survilis dakmay-
ofileba moiTxova~ (iqve, gv. 106). keisris survili ki anisis somxuri
samefos dapyroba iyo. cxadia, radganac somexi patriarqi aseT mZime
dros mxars uWerda bizantias, keisaric loialurad iyo ganwyobili
somxuri eklesiis mimarT. saerTod herakle keisridan, vidre basili
II-mde da mis Semdegac, bizantiis imperatorebi arc Tu iSviaTad somx-
uri eklesiis mfarvelebad warmoCndebodnen kidec. amitomac somx-
eTSi miiCneoda, rom mravali imperatori iyo somxuri warmoSobisa,
maT Soris herakle keisari da makedonelTa dinastiac, romlis war-
momadgenelni iyvnen basili meore da konstantine VIII, maT faqtiurad
mospes samxreT iberiis qarTuli saxelmwifo, riTac xeli Seuwyves
politikuri TvalsazrisiT Turq-seljukebis winsvlas bizantiisak-
en, xolo sarwmunoebrivi TvalsazrisiT iberiis TemSi darCenili
qarTvelebis kvlav armenizacias, anu maT ukan, kvlav somxuri ek-
lesiis wiaRSi dabrunebas. bizantielebma qarTuli saeklesio insti-
tutebi am regionSi mospes (arsebobs mosazreba, rom Tondrakeloba
swored im olqebSi Camoyalibda, sadac erovnul eklesias mowyvetili
qarTvelebi cxovrobdnen, romelTac aiZulebdnen gamxdariyvnen som-
xuri eklesiis wevrebi, maT ki irCies raRac sxva sarwmunoebrivi gzis
312
gamonaxva. jer kidev IX s-dan es moZraoba dawyebula apahunikis mx-
areSi. safiqrebelia, rom mas Semdeg rac es regioni Sevida daviT III
kurapalatis qarTvelTa samefoSi, albaT moZraoba Senelda, radga-
nac SesaZloa aq qarTulma eklesiam SeZlo moRvaweobis warmarTva,
magram radganac maleve aq bizantia gabatonda, moZraoba albaT kv-
lav ganaxlda. Tondrakelebi ar eridebodnen arc arabebTan da arc
bizantielebTan oms, radganac oriveni mxars uWerdnen maTTvis mi-
uRebel somxur eklesias).
313
kari mesame
qarTvelTa saxelmwifoebrivi
erTeulebi istoriul
arian-qarTlSi
Tavi XI
`qarTvelTa samefosa~ da `iveriis Temis~
aRorZineba istoriul arian-qarTlis miwaze
somxuri saxelmwifoebrivi erTeulebis
dauZlurebis Semdeg
314
`qarTvelTa samefos~ daarseba (IX-X ss.)
(ioane drasxanakerteli, somexTa istoria, 1965)
ioane drasxanakerteli gvauwyebs _ `qarTvelTa didi kurapalati
adarnase smbat mefesTan yvelaferSi erTobis, siyvarulisa da mSvido-
bis mtkice pirobas icavda. igi mTeli Tavisi SegnebiTa da ZlierebiT,
didi mokrZalebiT, rogorc mamas, anda amaze ufro metadac emorCile-
boda mas... Tvals ar aSorebda mefes... da sakuTari Tavic miando. amis
gamo smbat mefe metad kmayofili iyo adarnaseTi da moswonda igi. man
didi mzrunvelobiT adarnase TavisTan miiyvana da gaamxneva. Semdeg di-
di pativiTa da didebiT gvirgvini daadga mas, Sesaferisi lamazi samkau-
liTa da saWurvliT Seamko mefis wesis Tanaxmad, _ qarTvelTa qveynis
mefed daadgina da mis Semdeg, Tavisi samflobelos meore pirad daamt-
kica igi. miiRo ra samefo pativi, da miaRwia warmatebas, adarnase ki ar
gamedidurebula, aramed mudam Tavmdablad eqceoda smbats~ (ioane
drasxanakerteli, somexTa istoria, e. cagareiSvilis gam. Tb., 1965,
gv. 89-90).
Tanamedrove istorikosebis TvalsazrisiT Tavdapirveli `qarTvel-
Ta samefo~ moicavda artanujis klarjeTis teritorias.
magram es ase ar iyo.
somxuri wyaroebidan Cans, rom `qarTvelTa qveyana~ VI-VII ss-Si moicav-
da `somexTa mefis~ im teritoriebs, romelnic qarTvelebiT iyo dasax-
lebuli, pirvel rigSi imier taos (saerTod taos) da momijnave mxareebs.
Tu es ase iyo, da `qarTvelTa qveyana~ Tavdapirvelad erqva imJamindel
somxeTis samefoSi (anu yofil arian-qarTlSi) mdebare taos, maSin Se-
darebiT gasagebi xdeba somexTa smbat mefis qmedeba. imJamad somxeTis
samefo da masSi Semavali imier tao, romelsac aseve `iveria~ erqva, ar-
abTa gavlenis sferoSi Sedioda, xolo misi mezobeli klarjeTi _ bi-
zantiiis gavlenis sferoSi. klarjeTs qarTveli bagrationebi marTavd-
nen _ bizantiis vasalebi (klarjeTs qarTvelTa sakurapalato erqva).
somexTa mefeebi ki arabTa vasalebi iyvnen, imJamad arabTagan miiRes
kidec `mefis~ tituli da didi uflebebi.
rogorc iTqva, tao da misi momijnave mxareebi anu `iveria~ imJamad
somxeTis mefeTa samefoSi Sedioda, amitomac maT `somexTa da qarTvel-
315
Ta mefeebic~ erqvaT. maSasadame, klarjeTis qarTvelTa qveyana bizan-
tiis, xolo taos qarTvelTa qveyana arabTa gavlenis sferoSi iyvnen.
Tavdapirvelad smbats taxtze asvlaSi daexmara adarnase, mezobe-
li klarjeTis erTerTi mflobeli, samagierod, madlierebis niSnad,
mas smbatma samflobelod gadasca Tavisi samefos qarTuli nawili
(tao) da amave dros daadgina `Tavisi samefos meore pirad~ anu somx-
eTis vrcel samefoSi taos mmarTveli adarnase gaxda somexTa sax-
elmwifos meore piri. maSasadame, klarjeTis qarTvelTa sakurapala-
tos gverdiT amoudga taos qarTvelTa samefo.
aRsaniSnavia, rom Zvel drosac, bagratunebi arSakunianebis same-
foSi meore pirebi iyvnen. SemdegSic vaSden qarTvelTa (e.i. taos)
mTavari somxeTis ufalTa Soris erT-erTi upiratesi piri iyo.
termini `qarTvelTa samefo~, imJamad, IX-X ss-Si, mxolod taos
gulisxmobda, `qarTvelTa sakurapalato~ ki artanuj-klarjeTs, rac
Seexeba Sida qarTls, is imJamad danawilebuli iyo afxazeTisa da
kaxeTis samefoTa Soris, misi erTi nawili Tbilisis saamirosac ekuTvn-
oda, amitomac is TavisTavadi politikur-administraciuli erTeu-
lis saxiT ar arsebobda, aqedan gamomdinare mas arc gaaCnda poli-
tikuri saxeli: imJamad `iveria~ erqva ara Sida qarTls, aramed taos
administraciul olqs, romlis mmarTveliba (mefoba) aRmoCnda klar-
jeTis kurapalatis xelSi. es orive Tanamdeboba _ mefoba da kura-
palatoba axla ukve erTi piris, adarnases ojaxis xelSi gaerTianda
da gadaecemoda kidec memkvidreobiT.
imxanad `kurapalatoba~ _ bizantiis vasalobas gulisxmobda, `qar-
TvelTa mefoba~ ki _ arabi xalifisagan gamomdinareobda.
arabTa xalifam IX-X saukuneebSi somexTa mefeebs uwyaloba titu-
li `somexTa da qarTvelTa mefe~. am titulSi `qarTvelTa samefos~
qveS igulisxmeboda ara Sida qarTli, aramed somxeTis samefoSi Semava-
li qarTvelebiT dasaxlebuli tao-basiani. taos mmarTvelebs iqamde
ukve hqondaT `iverTa mTavris~ tituli, axla ki arabTa mier ~qarTvel-
Ta mefis~ titulis tarebis ufleba mieniWa somexTa mefes, rac mas
udasturebda, rom SeeZlo qarTvelTa aRniSnuli mxareebis avtono-
miuri marTva. erT-erTi bolo `somexTa da qarTvelTa~ mefe iyo smba-
ti, man ki qarTvelTa mefis tituli gadasca adarnase qarTvelTa
kurapalats.
316
am tituls atarebdnen:
aSot I 884 _ somexTa da qarTvelTa mefe;
smbat I 914 _ jer somexTa da qarTvelTa mefe, mere somexTa mefe;
aSot erkaTi 918/922/ _ somexTa da qarTvelTa mefe (safiqrebelia,
rom aSot erkaTma qarTvelTa mefis tituli miiRo saojaxo-dinasti-
uri gziT, kerZod misi meore simamri yofila `qarTvelTa didi mTa-
vari sahaki~, romelsac, i. drasxanakertelis sityviT, aSoti Tavis
memkvidred gamoucxadebia).
maSasadame, qarTvelTa mefis tituli taos mflobelobas gulisxmobda.
bagrat aSotis Ze bagrationma `qarTvelTa mefis~ tituli miiRo
colis mziTvis saxiT.
bagratis coli iyo `somexTa da qarTvelTa~ mefis aSot I bagra-
tunis dai, mas mziTvis saxiT gaayoles qarTvelebiT dasaxlebuli
imier tao-basiani, romelic imJamad somexTa samefoSi Sedioda.
taos _ iverias anu `qarTvelTa qveyanas~ uwodebdnen somxebi, bi-
zantielebi da arabebi.
imier taos qarTvelTa qveyana, imJamad, rogorc aRiniSna, somxe-
Tis samefoSi Sedioda, amitomac armeniis (somxeTis) mefes arabTa
xalifam `somexTa da qarTvelTa mefis~ tituli mianiWa.
male am samefos gamoeyo `qarTvelTa~ anu taos samefo.
misi mefeebi atarebdnen tituls `qarTvelTa mefe~, amave ojaxis
wevrebi kidev ufro adridan atarebdnen tituls `klarji xelmwi-
feebi~. rogorc iTqva, klarjeTTan erTad tao qarTvelTa qveynis
saxels atarebda.
tao, samTavros saxiT kidev ufro adridan arsebobda, bagrati
SesaZloa Tavdapirvelad `qarTvelTa mTavris~ tituls atarebda, rac
taos mflobelobas udrida (es ufleba man, rogorc aRiniSna colis
gziT miiRo), Cans, aseve misi vaJi _ daviTic, xolo daviTis Svili
adarnase II `qarTvelTa mefed~ ukve oficialurad iqna aRiarebuli.
wina saukuneebSi `qarTvelTa mTavaris~ tituli SesaZloa taos sxva
sagvareulos hqonda, magram axla ukve es tituli klarjma bagra-
tionebma moipoves aSot kurapalatis Zis bagratisa da SviliSvileb-
is dros.
317
am sqemidan Cans, rom adarnase meorem `kurapalatis~ tituli mi-
iRo aSot bagrationis xaziT, xolo `qarTvelTa mefis~ tituli mi-
iRo aSot bagratunis xaziT.
marTlac, kurapalatebi iyvnen bizantiis imperatoris vasalebi,
xolo bagratunebi, arabTa xalifas emorCilebodnen, maT `qarTvelTa
da somexTa mefis~ tituli miiRes arabi xalifasagan, viTarca xal-
ifebis vasalebma. `qarTvelTa mefis~ tituli gulisxmobda tao-basi-
anis anu iveriis miwis mflobelobas.
aSot I kurapalati
bagrationi (780-826)
aSot I bagratunis `somexTa da
qarTvelTa mefis~ daY
+
bagrat I
(826-876)
somexTa da qarTvelTa mefis
aSot bagratunis daY
+
adarnase II (888-923)
qarTvelTa mefe da kurapalati
daviT I kurapalati
(876-881)
sumbat I mamfalis
colis biZaSvili
+
318
mefeebi samxreT-dasavleT saqarTveloSi
`qarTvelTa samefos~ saxelwodeba da `qarTvelTa mefis~ tituli
dakavSirebulia taosTan da basian-karinTan.
magaliTad, sumbat daviTisZis Txzuleba `qarTvelTa mefed~ pirve-
lad axsenebs adarnases, daviT I-is Zes _ `aman adarnase aRaSena bana,
xeliTa kvirike banelisaTa~ (`cxoreba da uwyeba bagratonianTa~, 1990,
gv. 48) es moxda IX saukunis bolos.
adarnase (mefobda 888-923) iyo SviliSvili bagrat I kurapalatisa
(+876) da, rogorc aRiniSna, Svili daviT I-isa (+881) mas hqonda `qar-
TvelTa mefis~ wodeba.
adarnase I ekuTvnoda aSot I-is (786-826) STamomavalTa taos Stos
(mxolod am Stos hqonda `qarTvelTa mefis~ titulis tarebis ufleba).
aSot I-is STamomavalTa meore, klarjeTis Sto am tituls ar ata-
rebda. bizantiuri karic gansxvavdeboda am Stoebs da taos Stos
wevrebs ufro maRal tituls `kurapalatisas~ aniWebda, maSin, roca
klarjuli Stos zogierT wevrs `magistrosobiT~ akmayofilebda.
923 wlidan 958 wlamde adarnase I-is Svilebs _ daviT II-s, bagrat I-
s, aSot II-sa da sumbat I-s morigeobiT gadaecaT `qarTvelTa mefis~
tituli, anu isini (Zmebi) Cans, asakis ufrosobis Sesabamisad, erTim-
eoris Semdeg atarebdnen am tituls. maT Svilebsac (STamomavlo-
basac) Cans asakiT ufrosobis mixedviT mieniWaT ufleba `qarTvelTa
mefis~ wodebisa.
kerZod, sumbat I-is Svili bagrat II regveni 958-994 wlebSi iyo
`qarTvelTa mefe~, mis Semdeg ki maTi didi ojaxis (saxlis) Svili
bagrat pirvelis Ze daviT III kurapalati 994-1001 wlebSi iyo `qarTvel-
Ta mefe~.
aqedan Cans Semdegi, `qarTvelTa mefis~ tituli gadaecemoda ara
mamidan ufros Zes (rogorc mcxeTel mefeebs hqondaT aseTi wesi),
aramed gadaecemoda samefo saxlis (samefo ojaxis) wevrebs ufroso-
bis mixedviT, es ufrosoba albaT ganisazRvreboda asakiT, xnovanebiT.
`qarTvelTa samefo saxlis~ Tanabaruflebiani wevrebi iyvnen adar-
nase I-is Svilebi da SviliSvilebi, e.i. daviT II, bagrat I, aSot II da
sumbat I, maTi Svilebi bagrat II regveni, daviT III kurapalati da sxva
319
is wevrebi am samefo ojaxisa, romelnic imJamad yvelaze ufrosebi
iyvnen xnovanebiT. roca maT Soris romelime gardaicvlebida `qar-
TvelTa mefis~ tituli samefo ojaxis im wevrs gadaecemoda, romel-
ic asakiT yvelaze ufrosi iyo.
Zveli iberiis samefo saxlSi aseTive wesis arsebobis Sesaxeb miu-
TiTebda straboni.
es wesi Cans asaxulia farnavazis cxovrebaSi, roca quji ucxadebs
farnavazs, rom `Sen xar Svili TavTa maT qarTlisaTa, Sen gmarTebs
ufloba Cemi~, anda `me var mona Seni~, aqedan Cans rom quji da far-
navazi erTi samefo saxlis wevrebi iyvnen, magram am dros saxlis
ufrosoba albaT asakis Sesabamisad farnavazs ekuTvnoda. radganac
farnavazis daY qujim SeirTo, SesaZloa marTlac quji asakiT far-
navazze ufro patara iyo.
yovel SemTxvevaSi aseTi wesis arseboba taos anu qarTvelTa same-
foSi cxadia.
rogorc aRiniSna `qarTvelTa mefoba~ gadaeca adarnase I-s da Sem-
deg mis Svilebs morigeobiT. kerZod, jer qarTvelTa mefe gaxda
daviT II magistrosi (923-937 wlebSi), mis Semdeg 937-945 wlebSi
qarTvelTa mefe iyo misi Zma bagrat I magistrosi, amis Semdeg aSot II
kurapalati 945-954 wlebSi, 954-958 wlebSi ki sumbat I erisTavT-
erisTavi, am ukanasknelis Ze bagrat II regveni gaxda qarTvelTa mefe
958-994 wlebSi, 994-1001 wlebSi ki `qarTvelTa mefe~ iyo daviT III
kurapalati, romelic iyo bagrat II regvenis mamis `saxlis~ wevri, anu
bagrat II regvenis mamis Zmis (`qarTvelTa mefis~) bagrat I magistro-
sis SviliSvili.
bagrat II-is Semdeg asakis mixedviT Cans `qarTvelTa mefoba~ unda
mieRoT bagrat II-is ZmaTa Svilebs ufrosobis mixedviT da radganac
adarnase II gardacvlili iyo, es tituli da taxti ergo mis Zes daviT
III kurapalats (ZmaTa Soris samefo taxtis gadacemis wesi aRdgenila
Semdeg muxranel bagrationTa ojaxSi. magaliTad, giorgi XI-is Semdeg
qarTlis taxti mis Zmas ergo, Semdeg ki sxva Zmebs. am wesis aRdgenas,
rogorc fiqroben, cdilobda darejan dedofali, erekle II-is meuRle,
raTa ufrosobis wesiT, ZmaTa Semdeg taxti mis Svilsac rgeboda).
320
ismis kiTxva, ratom miiRo aSot I didis STamomavalTagan mxolod
erTma Stom `qarTvelTa mefis~ tituli? es tituli, mxolod taos
qveynis mflobelebs eniWebodaT da es tituli imavdroulad taos
mefobas niSnavda. saerTod, `qarTvelTa mefis~ wodeba taosTanaa dakav-
Sirebuli.
aSot I-is STamomavalTa taos Stos es tituli unda mieRo an mcx-
eTeli xosroani mefeebis memkvidreobiT, anda sxva gziT.
fiqroben, rom mcxeTis xosroiani mefeebi taos ar flobdnen, maSas-
adame saZebnia sxva gza.
savaraudod, `qarTvelTa mefis~ tituli aSotis ojaxSi mziTvis
saxiT Seitana aSotis Zis bagrat I-is meuRlem, somexTa mefis sumbat
aRmsareblis asulma. misi Zma, aSot I bagratuni namdvilad flobda
tituls _ `somexTa da qarTvelTa mefe~.
taos `qarTvelTa samefos~ legitimaciis Sesaxeb Cven cnobebi Sesa-
Zloa moviZioT armeniis bagratuni mefeebis IX-X ss-is titulaturi-
dan: `somexTa da qarTvelTa mefe~.
ufro adre maT hqondaT tituli `somexTa da qarTvelTa erisTavT-
erisTavi~.
cnobilia, rom XII s-dan gaerTianebuli saqarTvelos mefeebsac
hqondaT msgavsi tituli `afxazTa, qarTvelTa, ranTa, kaxTa, somex-
Ta mefeebi, SahinSa da SirvanSa~, magram armeniis mefeebs gacilebiT
adre, arabobis dros hqondaT wodeba `somexTa da qarTvelTa mefe~.
es tituli TavisTavad gulisxmobs, rom misi mflobeli aerTianebda
somxebisa da qarTvelebis qveynebs.
sad mdebareobda is `qarTvelTa qveyana~, romelsac imJamad arme-
niis mefe flobda? cxadia es iyo saqarTvelos romeliRac mxare.
CvenTvis sainteresoa, is Tu IX-X ss-Si armeniis mefeTa titula-
turaSi romel teritoriaze mdebare administraciuli erTeuli ig-
ulisxmeboda `qarTvelTa qveynis (qarTvelTa saerisTavos, qarTvel-
Ta samefos)~ qveS?
Tu vityviT, rom aq igulisxmeboda mcxeTis qarTlis samefo, unda
iTqvas, rom arabobis Semdeg aseTi samefo aRar arsebobda, piriqiT,
TbilisSi Camoyalibda arabuli saamiro, romelSic mcxeTac moiazre-
boda teritoriulad, ase rom, Tanamedrove Sida qarTlSi IX-X sauku-
321
neebSi saxelmwifoebrivi erTeulis _ `qarTvelTa samefos~ saxiT ar
arsebobda. arabTa saamiros dasustebis Semdeg Sida qarTli `afxa-
zeTis~ nawilad moiazreboda. uxtanesTan mcxeTis da Tbilisis mi-
mdebare qarTls `afxazTa qveyana~ ewodeba. mas `afxazTa~ mefeebi
marTavdnen da ara `qarTvelTa~ mefeebi. maSasadame, armeniis mefeTa
titulatura `qarTvelTa mefe~, ar gulisxmobda Sida qarTlis mmar-
Tvelobas.
`qarTvelTa samefos~, rogorc wesi, am periodSi (X s-dan) uwodebd-
nen tao-klarjeTis samefos, ufro zustad taos samefos. mas bagra-
tioni mefeebi marTavdnen klarjeTTan erTad.
kidev erTxel, rom vTqvaT `qarTvelTa samefos~ qveS igulisxme-
boda taos samefo.
iqneb armeniis mefeTa titulaturaSic `qarTvelTa mefe~ gulisxme-
boda taos da aseve mimdebare qarTuli provinciebis (basinis, kari-
nis an vanandis) mflobelobas?
marTlac armeniis mefeebis tituli `somexTa da qarTvelTa mefe~
ar gulisxmobda Sida qarTlis flobas, radganac is sadavo terito-
ria iyo, gansakuTrebiT saamiros dasustebis Semdeg iqca sadavod.
armeniis mefeebis tituli `qarTvelTa mefe~ realur administraci-
ul erTeuls gulisxmobs da es unda yofiliyo `tao-basiani~.
marTlac, es ase Cans aristakes lastivertecis naSromis mixed-
viT. aristakes lastivertecisTvis `qarTvelTa qveyana~, `saqarTve-
lo~ mdebareobda ara anisis CrdiloeTiT, aramed anisis dasavleTiT.
misTvis `qarTvelTa qveyana~ da `saqarTvelo~ moqceuli iyo berZen-
Ta da sparselTa qveynebs Soris. mizezi amisa iyo is, rom marTlac,
anisis CrdiloeTiT taSir-Zorakertis `somxuri samefo~ mdebareob-
da, xolo mis maRla, rogorc iTqva Tbilisis saamiro, romelic
ebrjineboda `kavkasieli mTielebis~ qveynebs.
Cven gvainteresebs, rogorc iTqva, IX-X saukuneebSi romel qve-
yanas uwodebdnen somxebi `qarTvelTa qveyanas~, `saqarTvelos~ da
`qarTvelTa samefos~. aristakes lastiverteci gamWvirvaled wers
imis Sesaxeb, rom `qarTvelTa~ qveynebi moqceulni iyvnen anisis dasav-
leTiT, karinis (arzrumis) mxares da masSi taosTan erTad basianic
igulisxmeboda.
322
magaliTad, a. lastiverteci gadmogvcems aseT ambavs, giorgi afx-
azTa mefem Seariga anisis mefis gagikis Svilebi _ `movida afxazTa
mefe giorgi da mSvidobianad Seariga isini. sumbats asakiT ufrosobis
gamo giorgim misca wili _ anisis cixe, mis garSemo mdebare gavarebi-
TurT, xolo aSots _ qveynis Sida mxare, romelic sparseTsa da saqarTve-
los uyurebda. sumbati daTanxmda da dabrunda Tavis qalaqSi~ (a. las-
tiverteci, istoria, 1974, gv. 44).
am istoriidan Cans, Tu sad mdebareobda im epoqis somxebisaTvis
`saqarTvelo~: sumbats mieca anisis qveyana, mis Zmas - aSots, anisis
qveynis samxreTiT mdebare armeniis `Sida mxare~, romelsac dasav-
leTiT esazRvreboda `saqarTvelo~ (is `saqarTvelos uyurebda~),
aRmosavleTiT ki `sparseTi~ (`sparseTs uyurebda~). anu `saqarTve-
lo~ (`qarTvelebis qveyana~) Sida somxeTis dasavleTiT iyo, im Sida
somxeTisa, romelsac CrdiloeTiT anisis mxare esazRvreboda, aRmo-
savleTiT ki sparseTi (Sida somxeTs CrdiloeTidan anisis mxare es-
azRvreba, dasavleTidan saqarTvelo-qarTvelTa mxare (tao-basiani),
aRmosavleTidan _ sparseTi).
maSasadame, aristakesis mier igulisxmeboda, rom `Sida somxeTis~
dasavleTiT mdebare basiani, tao da sxva mxareebi iyo `saqarTvelo~.
giorgi I-is samflobelo ki iyo anisis CrdiloeTiT mdebare `af-
xazeTi~ anu is rasac Cven amJamad vuwodebT `saqarTvelos~ arista-
kesisaTvis iyo `afxazeTi~, xolo basiani (da tao) misTvis iyo `saqar-
Tvelo~.
aristakesi mudam wers, rom basiani _ qarTvelTa qveyanaa, magali-
Tad, basianis aRmosavleTiT mdebare Sirimnis brZolis Sesaxeb a.
lastiverteci gadmogvcems aseT ambavs, Sirimnis (somxurad SRfa)
brZolaSi qarTvelTa damarcxebis Semdeg, moxda bunebis saswauli,
kerZod daiWira Zalze didi yinvebi, iseTi, rom yinvis gamo basilis
jari ukuiqca da maTi qoneba adgilobriv mosaxleobas darCa. sabo-
lood, bizantiis imperatori `aSkarad mixvda, rom mxolod uflis xels
SeuZlia misTvis qarTvelebis qveynis gadacema, rogorc mefeTa wignSi
weria: `ver uZlos Zlierman kacman, ufalman uZlur yos mxdomi Tvisi~,
mefe daiZra jariT, ganvlo mravali adgili, wavida da miaRwia Tavis
qalaq konstantinopols. sami wlis Semdeg man didi ZRveniT gagzavna
323
afxazis Svili, TviTon ki igi sasikvdilo senma Seipyro~ (a. lastiverte-
ci, istoria, 1974, gv. 53).
maSasadame, marTalia basili bulgarTmmusvrelma daamarcxa qar-
Tvelebi tao-basianSi, magram mainc qarTvelTa qveyana sabolood mas
ar misca ufalma, radganac uflis mier movlinebuli yinvis gamo
basianidan iZulebiT dabrunda konstantinopolSi da mZevlad wayva-
nili `afxazi~ mefis giorgi I-is Ze 3 wlis Semdeg ukan daabruna.
aq CvenTvis mTavaria, Tu romeli qveyana iyo qarTvelTa qveyana
aristakes lastivertecis mixedviT eseni iyvnen _ tao, basiani da Tvi-
Ton SRfas anu Sirimnis qveyana, romelic airaratis arSaruniqis gavar-
Si, arSavirSi, araqsisa da aSurianis SesarTavSi mdebareobda, am arealSi
jer kidev cxovrobdnen qarTvelebi, romelTac ufali SeewiaT ba-
sili II-is konstantinopolSi ukandaxevis dros yinvis saxiT, amito-
mac wers aristakes lastiverteci _ am adgilebidan yinvis gamo gaq-
ceuli basili mixvda, rom `mxolod uflis xels SeuZlia misTvis
qarTvelTa qveynis gadacema~ (iqve, gv. 53).
maSasadame, `qarTvelTa qveyana~ (iverTa qveyana) qalaq anisis dasav-
leTiT mdebareobda.
amitomac daarsa aRniSnul teritoriaze (anisis dasavleTiT) ba-
sili II-is Zmam imperatorma konstantinem bizantiuri administraciu-
li erTeuli `iberiis Temi~.
iberiis TemSi anisic ki Seiyvanes, marTlac anissa da mis garSemo
mravali qarTuli eklesia da qarTuli saepiskoposoc arsebobda, rasac
Cqmalavdnen sabWoTa istorikosebi.
am ukanasknelTa azriT `prozeliturma qarTulma eklesiam~ daiw-
yo aRniSnul qveynebSi (e.i. tao-basin-karin-airarat-SiraqSi) somxeb-
is `gaqarTveleba~ qalkedonitobis miRebiT. sinamdvileSi, qarTul
eklesias aseTi qmedebis survili arasodes hqonia, misi gamarjveba
emyareboda mkvidri mosaxleobis eTnikur qarTul TviTSemecnebas,
maT erovnul gamofxizlebas arabTa uRlis gadagdebis Semdeg.
istoriuli iberiis miwa-wyalze (gugarqSi, xorZenasa da paria-
dreSi), mcxovrebi qarTvelebi marTalia, TiTqmis aTasi weli somx-
ur-bizantiur-sparsul da arabul garemoSi imyofebodnen, magram maT
mainc SeZles erovnul-eTnikuri vinaobis SenarCuneba I aTaswleul-
324
Si, amitomac Seqmnes kidec maleve `iberiis Temi~, administraciuli
erTeuli bizantiis imperiaSi. arzrum-tao-basian-valaSkertSi qarTve-
loba kidev didxans cxovrobda, maT saboloo gamusulmanebamde anu,
XVII-XVIII saukuneebamde (erTi-ori qarTveli mRvdeli aq XIX saukune-
Sic moqmedebda).
tao-basianis mflobel somex mefeebs IX-X ss-Si (am teritoriaze
qarTvelTa cxovrebis gamo) aseve hqondaT tituli `qarTvelTa me-
fisa~, ufro adre ki `somexTa da qarTvelTa erisTavT-erisTavebi-
sa~. es tituli gulisxmobda somxeTis samefoSi Semaval qarTvelebiT
dasaxlebul tao-basian-karanis flobas.
armeniaSi Semavali `qarTvelTa samefos~ qveS, rogorc iTqva, ar
igulisxmeboda Sida qarTli da mcxeTa, aramed tao da basiani mimde-
bare mxareebiTurT.
p. ingoroyvas kvleviT ufro adre, daaxloebiT VII s-saTvis, taos
mflobels hqonia `qarTvelTa mTavris~ tituli. misi saxeli vaSdeni
yofila. maSasadame, tao-basiani `qarTvelTa samTavrod~ VI-VII ss-Sic
iwodeboda, Tumca armeniaSi iyo moqceuli, Semdeg is `qarTvelTa
samefod~ iwoda kvlav armeneli mefeebis mflobelobis qveS.
SesaZloa, armeniis mefe sumbat aRmsarebelma, romelic albaT
aseve iwodeboda `somexTa da qarTvelTa mefed~, Tavis qaliSvils
mziTvad gaatana `qarTvelTa samefo~ (anu tao-basiani), es qaliSvili
ki SeirTo aSot I kurapalatis Zem bagrat I-ma, romelic 876 wels gar-
daicvala. bagrat I-is Zeebs ewodaT `taos Sto~ da isini rogorc
aRvniSneT mis Semdeg iwodebodnen `qarTvelTa mefeebad~. maSasadame,
Tu aseTi mosazreba sworia, bagrat I-is STamomavlebs `qarTvelTa
mefis~ tituli ergoT dedisagan anu bagrat I-is meuRlisagan, romelic
somexTa mefis sumbat aRmsareblis qaliSvili iyo. SesaZloa man mz-
iTvis saxiT qmris, bagrat I-is, ojaxSi Seitana tao-basianis mflobe-
loba titul _ `qarTvelTa mefesTan~ erTad da es tituli misma
Svilebma da STamomavlebma dainarCunes. I aTaswleulSi es Cveulebrivi
movlena iyo.
aSot kurapaltis Zis bagrat I bagrationis coli iyo `somexTa da
qarTvelTa~ mefis aSot I bagratunis dai (Svili sumbat aRmsare-
blisa~).
325
qarTvelTa mefis tituli
`somexTa da qarTvelTa~ mefis aSot I bagratunis daY (Svili sum-
bat aRmsareblisa) SerTes bagrat aSotis Ze bagrations da mas mziT-
vis saxiT gaayoles `qarTvelTa qveyana~ anu tao-basiani.
am naSromis gverd 315-ze moyvanili sqemidan Cans, rom adarnase
meorem `kurapalatis~ tituli miiRo aSot bagrationis xaziT, xolo
`qarTvelTa mefis~ tituli miiRo aSot bagratunis xaziT.
marTlac kurapalatebi iyvnen bizantiis imperatoris vasalebi,
xolo `qarTvelTa da somexTa mefis~ tituli bagratunebma miiRes
arab xalifasagan, viTarca xalifebis vasalebma. `qarTvelTa mefis~
tituli gulisxmobda tao-basianis anu iveriis miwis mflobelobas.
sxva sakiTxia is, Tu IX-X ss-mde ratom hqonda somxeTis mefes titu-
li `qarTvelTa mefe~ ?
amis mizezi unda yofiliyo is, rom armeniam adridanve xelSi Caigdo
is miwa-wyali, romelsac odesRac `arian-qarTli~ erqva. mis mefes, ars-
en beris sityviT, arian-qarTvelTa mefis tituli hqonda anu mas
`qarTvelTa mefe~ ewodeboda.
`qarTvelTa samefo~ anu arian-qarTli moicavda tao-basianis nawilsa
da mimdebare arzrumis regionis mxares.
SemdegSi, somxeTSi Semavali `qarTvelTa samTavro~ ZiriTadad amave
olqs moicavda, axla ukve mis mflobel somxeTis mefes Sesabamisad ewo-
da - `qarTvelTa mefe~, rac am qveynis (tao-basianis) mflobelobas
gulisxmobda.
rogorc aRiniSna, es `qarTvelTa samefo~ IX saukunidan artanujeli
kurapalatebis xelSi gadavida da amis Sesabamisad miiRes kidec
`qarTvelTa mefis~ tituli klarjma xelmwifeebma. e.i. maT xelSi ga-
davida taoc.
326
`somexTa da qarTvelTa mefe~
870-880 wlebisaTvis `somxeTSiac moikribes Zala adgilobrivma
erisTavebma. sxvebze ufro Zlieri iyo erisTavT-erisTavi aSot bagra-
tuni... mas `somexTa da qarTvelTa erisTavT-erisTavis~ saxeli miuRia~
(iv. javaxiSvili, Txzulebani, tomi II, 1983, gv. 102).
iv. javaxiSvilis varaudiT aSot bagratunma `somexTa da qarTvel-
Ta erisTavT-erisTavis~ saxeli albaT imis gamo miiRo, rom mas Sida
qarTlSi ulaSqria, sadac afxazTa mefes SebrZolebia da kidec gaumar-
jvnia, rogorc aRniSnuli tituli afiqrebinebs mecniers. maSasadame,
Sida qarTli somexTa mefis xelSi gadasula. rogorc iTqva esaa varau-
di, raime wyaro amas ar miuTiTebs. iv. javaxiSvils rogorc iTqva
mxolod aSotis `somexTa da qarTvelTa erisTavT-erisTavis~ titu-
li afiqrebinebda amas.
Cveni azriT, ki `qarTvelTa erisTavT-erisTavis~ Tu `qarTvelTa
mefis~ tituli miuTiTebda ara Sida qarTlis, aramed tao-basianis
mflobelobas, marTlac `qarTvelTa mefis~ tituli maleve, SemdgomSi
taos mflobelebs hqondaT.
meore magaliTic gvaqvs, romelic Cvens mosazrebas garkveulad
aZlierebs. es magaliTia tituli tao-basianis mflobelebisa VI-VII
ss-Si. rogorc iTqva, p. ingoroyva Zvel somxur wyaroze dayrdnobiT
miuTiTebs, rom, am mxareebis mflobels VI-VII ss-Si `qarTvelTa mTavris~
anu `iverTa mTavris tituli~ hqonda.
maSasadame, am titulis Sesabamisad tao-basianis mxareebSi VI-VII
ss-Si arsebobda politikur-administraciuli erTeuli `qarTvelTa
samTavro~ (SevadaroT, rom IX-X ss-Si iq iyo `qarTvelTa samefo~).
aRniSnuli `qarTvelTa samTavro~ arsebobda qveyanaSi, romelsac
xan `bizantiuri armenia~ xan ki `persarmenia~ erqva. VI-VII ss-Si tao-
basianis ufals `qarTvelTa mTavari vaSdeni~ erqva. vaSden `qarTvelTa
mTavars~ Tavis diswul hamamTan dava hqonia.
hamami qaldea-WaneT-zRvispireTis mflobeli yofila. vaSdeni ki,
rogorc iTqva, mis zemoT, zeganze gadaSlili da vrceli qveynisa,
tao-basianisa.
327
maSasadame, marTalia es qveyana armeniis nawilad iTvleboda (ig-
ulisxmeba tao-basiani), magram mkvidri mosaxleobis eTnikuri TviT-
saxelis Sesabamisad `qarTvelTa samTavro~ erqva VI-VII ss-Si.
`qarTvelTa samTavro~, Cans, IX saukuneSi somexTa mTavris anu eris-
TavT-erisTavis aSotis xelqveS moqceula. maSasadame, Sesabamisad mas
miuRia wodeba `somexTa da qarTvelTa erisTavT-erisTavisa~ Semdeg
ki wodeba `somexTa da qarTvelTa mefisa~ (daaxloebiT IX saukunis
70-ian wlebSi).
erTi Taobis Semdeg `qarTvelTa mefis~ tituli mieniWa adarnase I
kurapalats, qarTvel bagrationTa Stodan, qarTveli aSot I didi
kurapalatis SvilTaSvils, adarnase amave dros iyo taos erTpirovnu-
li mflobeli. maSasadame, taos mflobeloba mis mepatrones aZlevda
uflebas hqonoda tituli `qarTvelTa mTavari~ anda `qarTvelTa
mefe~, taos mflobeloba mis mepatrones uflebas aZlevda `qarTvel-
Ta erisTavT-erisTavis~ wodeba hqonoda.
Tu davubrundebiT qarTvel bagrationebs SeiZleba daisvas kiTx-
va, rogor gaxda adarnase I taos mflobeli?
taos mflobeloba mas uflebas aZlevda `qarTvelTa mefis~ titu-
li etarebina. iyo Tu ara misi mama daviT I taos mflobeli?
Tu daviT I, romelic 881 wels mokles, ar iyo taos mflobeli
unda vifiqroT, rom misma Svilma adarnase I-ma aSot somexTa mefis
memkvidreebisagan miiRo samarTavad taos (e.i. `qarTvelTa~) qveyana,
xom ar miaTxova aSot somexTa mefis memkvidrem Tavisi qaliSvili
adarnase I-s da mziTevis saxiT miiRo tao siZem? diax, es ase yofila,
rac zemoTaa aRwerili.
aseve sakiTxavia, iyo Tu ara somexi bagrationi aSoti vaSden `iverTa
mTavris~ uflebrivi memkvidre, vaSden iverTa mTavris samarTlebrivi
memkvidreni iqneb qarTveli bagrationebi adarnase, daviT I da misi
mama bagrat I iyvnen?
328
bagrationTa legitimacia
grigol xancTeli _ `daviT winaswarmetyvelisa da uflisa mier
cxebulsa Svilad wodebulo xelmwifeo mefoba misni dagimkvidren
qristeman RmerTman, romlisTvisca amas mogaxseneb:
ara moakldes mTavroba SvilTa SenTa da naTesavTa maTTa qveyanaTa
amaT ukunisamde JamTa, iyvnen igini mtkiced ufrois kldeTa myarTa da
mTaTa saukuneTa da didebul iyvnen ukunisamde~
konstantine porfirogeneti _ `kurapalatis iberebi, amboben rom
isini urias (xeTelis) colis STamomavlebi arian, romelic daviT
winaswarmetyvelma Seacdina, misi Svilisgan STamomavloben, daviTis-
gan rom SeeZina, isini RvTismSoblis naTesavebi arian, radgan isic dav-
iTisaganaa~.
juanSeri, qarTlis cxovreba _ maSin movida misa mTavari erTi, rome-
li iyo naTesavisgan daviT winaswarmetyuelisa, saxeliT adarnase,
Zmiswuli adarnase brmisa, romlisa mama misi mzaxebul iyo bagra-
tionianTadve, da berZenTa mier dadginebul iyo erisTavad areTa somx-
isaTa, da tyveobasa mas yruisasa STasrul iyo igi SvilTa Tana guaram
kurapalitisTa klarjeTs, da mun darComil iyo. iTxova arCilisgan
da rqua: `ukeTu inebo da myo me viTarca mkvidri Seni, momec qveyana.~
da misca artani.~
latavri iyo aSot mefis daY, romelic miaTxoves farnavazian ar-
Cil mefis Zes juanSers.
qarTlis cxovreba _ guram bagrationi (qarTlis mefe me-6 saukune-
Si _ `xolo ese guaram iyo dediT xosroiani da mamiT bagratoani. da ese
bagratoanni SvilisSvilni da naTesavni arian ama guaramisni~
ambavi bagratoanTa, sumbat daviTis Ze _ `da viwyoT yovelive ambavi
bagratoanTa, Tu viTar arian naTesavni daviT winaswarmetyuelisani
da solomonisni, anu viTar moiwivnes queyanasa Cuensa. viwyoT ad-
amiTgan, da warmovTquaT yoveli naTesaoba maTi~
...da eseni Svidni Zmani, Zeni amis solomisani, moiwivnes eklecs
winaSe raqael dedoflisa da misgan naTel-iRes.
da daSTes igini queyanaTa somxisiTisaTa, da mun dReindelad dRemde
Svilni mTavroben somxiTs.
329
da oTxni maTni Zmani movides qarTls. xolo erTi maTgani, saxeliT
guaram, ganaCines erisTavad, da ese ars erisTavi qarTlisa da mamai
bagrationTa. da ese bagratonianni SvilisSvilni da naTesavni arian
guaramisni.
xolo ZmaY misi, saxeliT sahak, warvida kaxeTs da daemzaxa igi nerses.
da sxuani orni igi Zmani amaT, saxeliT asam da varzavard, war-
vides kambeCans, da mokles maT sparsTa spasalari da daipyres kambe-
Cani, da dasxdes mun igini cxovrebad xornabujs. da ama Jamamde Svilni
maTni mTavroben mas Sina.
eseni warmovides ekleciT, romelni monaTla raqael dedofalma,
Zmani Svidni huriani, tyueobiT mosrulni queyaniT filistimiT, da
naTel iRes eklecs xeliTa raqael dedoflisaTa, romelman samTa
maTganTa ucvala saxeli, rameTu erTsa saxel-sdva muSel, da erTsa
bagrat, romel ars mama bagrationTa, erTsa abgavar, erTi Semoiyvana
siZed, da orni maTgani amzaxna somexT mefeTa.
xolo oTxni ese Zmani warmoemarTnes qarTls, viTa zemo vaxseneT,
da guram ganaCines erisTavad~.
330
mirdatis Zeni da bagrationebi klarjeTSi
vaxtang gorgasals meore colisagan, elenesagan SeeZina Ze, mir-
dati da aseve asuli, romelsac wyaroebSi `daY mirdatisa~ ewodeba.
SemdegSi `daY mirdatisa~ SerTes guram bagrations.
sikvdilis win vaxtang gorgasalma keisris asulisagan SeZenili
Svilebis samyofelad daadgina qarTlis samefos is teritoria, romel-
ic moqceulia egriswyalsa da klisuras Sua, radganac es teritoria
mziTvis saxiT moyva maT dedas, keisris qaliSvils qarTlis mefeTa
ojaxSi Sesvlisas, keisarma bizantiis es teritoria qarTls gadasca
keisris asulis xeliT.
vaxtang mefis anderZi ufliswul daCisadmi (momavali mefisadmi)
aseTi iyo _ `sazRvari afxazeTisa, romelic mocemul ars egriswyalsa
da klisuras Sua, igi TviT ZmaTa SenTa dedisa ars _ igi aqundes maT~
(q.c. I, gv. 204). daCis ZmaTa (gerTa) deda iyo keisris asuli elene,
misi mziTvi iyo teritoria egriswyalsa da klisuras Sua.
marTlac, rogorc iTqva, keisris asuls teritoria klisurasa da
egriswyals Sua mziTvad mohyva da is SeuerTda qarTlis samefos. es
teritoria (klisurasa da egriswyals moqceuli) ergo saerisTavos
saxiT elenes Svilebs. am miwa-wyals ewoda `dasavleTi qarTlisa~,
radganac md. klisura qarTlis samefos ukiduresi sazRvari iyo dasav-
leTiT.
vaxtangis anderZis aRsasruleblad _ `coli da orni Zeni vaxtang-
isani wariyvanes erisTavTa da daipyres dasavleTi qarTlisa~ (q. c., I,
gv. 204), e.i. faqtobrivad daeuflnen teritorias egriswyalsa da
klisuras Sua.
rogorc iTqva, egriswyalsa da klisuras Sua moqceul terito-
rias `dasavleTi qarTlisa~ ewodeboda (q. c., I, gv. 204). maTi erisTavebi
iyvnen vaxtangis Svilebi leoni da mirdati.
leonis gardacvalebis Semdeg daCi mefem gadawyvita eTxova am
mirdatisaTvis, raTa mas gaecvala teritoria, e.i. moenacvlebina
Tavisi saerisTavo, marTlac _ `daCi mefeman gaucvala qveyana da aR-
iRo mirdatisagan egris-wyalsa da klisuras Sua mirdatis deduli
sazRvari saberZneTisa da misca nacvlad javaxeTi tasiskaridan vidre
zRuamde sperisa da erisTavobda mun~ (q. c., I, gv. 205).
331
e.i. teritoria egris-wyalsa da klisuras TviT qarTlis mefe daCim
daiWira, rogorc samefo miwa-wyali, sanacvlod iqaur mirdat erisTavs
ufro samxreTiT _ taSiskaridan zRvamde moqceuli teritoria gada-
sca saerisTavod.
klarjeTSi iqamde erisTavebi iyvnen artavazis STamomavlebi. maT
axla daemataT axali erisTavebi _ vaxtang mefis STamomavlebi, maT
`Svilni mirdatisni~ erqvaT.
VI s-Si `Svilni daCisani hmorCilebdes sparsTa, xolo Svili mir-
datisni daadgres morCilebasa berZenTasa~ (q. c., I, gv. 207).
VI s-Si qarTlis sparsTagan dapyrobis Jams _ qarTvel mefeTa sax-
lis Svilebi _ `Svilni bakurisni darCes mTiuleTs kaxeTisasa da
naTesavni mirdatisni, vaxtangis Zisani, romelni mTavrobdes klar-
jeTs da javaxeTs, igini darCes kldeTa Sina klarjeTisaTa~ (q. c., I,
gv. 217).
am umefobis Jams `ra ucalo iqmnes sparsni, maSin SeiTqvnes yovelni
erisTavni qarTlisani zemoni da qvemoni da wargzavnes mociquli
winaSe berZenTa mefisa da iTxoves raTa uCinos mefe~ (q.c. I, gv. 217).
`maSin keisarma mosca mefed diswuli mirdatisi, vaxtangis Zisa,
berZnis colisagan, romelsa erqva guaram, romeli mTavrobda klar-
jeTs da javaxeTs, mosca keisarman kurapalatoba da warmogzavna
mcxeTas~ (q. c., I, gv. 218).
bagrationebi vaxtang gorgaslis berZeni meuRlis STamomavlebis
_ mirdatisa da misi dis genetikuri da legitimuri memkvidreebi
iyvnen, kerZod, mirdatis dis Ze iyo iberiis anu qarTlis samefos
pirveli kurapalati guaram I bagrationi _
`xolo ese guaram iyo dediT xosroiani da mamiT bagrationi. ese
bagratoanni Svilis-Svilni da naTesavni arian ama guaramisni~ (q. c., I,
gv. 218). `ese guaram kurapalati dadga morCilebasa zeda berZenTasa~
(q. c., I, gv. 221).
mematianis cnobiT, sazogadod, vaxtang gorgaslis Zeebidan ori
Sto Camoyalibda _ baqarianebi da mirdatianebi.
baqarianebi marTavdnen qveyanas VI s-Si, roca sparselebma qarTli
daipyres. baqarianebma mefoba dakarges. qveyana umefod darCa. spar-
seTSi areulobis dawyebiT isargebles qarTvelma didebulebma da
bizantiis keisars Txoves maTTvis mefe daeniSna.
332
marTlac, keisarma qarTlis mefed daniSna `mirdatis dis~ Svili _
guaram bagrationi.
aq Seusabamoba qronologiurad isaa, rom mirdati V s-Si cxovrob-
da, xolo guaram kurapalati TiTqmis asi wlis Semdeg. ase rom, `mir-
datis da~ uSualod guaram I kurapalatis deda ver iqneboda.
safiqrebelia, rom `mirdatis dai~ klarjeTSi SeirTo adgilobrivma
didebulma da am ojaxidan gamosuli qaliSvili SemdgomSi SerTes
guaram kurapalats.
yovel SemTxvevaSi, klarjeTidanaa warmomavlobiT guaram kurapa-
lati da misi ojaxi. mematianis cnobiT, kurapalati guaram II bagra-
tioni iyo _ `ocdamecxramete mefe qarTlisa~.
Tu ligan-klarjeTi lazikaa, berZnuli wyaroebiT cnobilia maTi
`basilevsebis~ saxelebi _ eseni iyvnen gubazi da waTe. xolo qarTu-
li wyaroebiT klarjeTis erisTavi iyo artavazi.
am adgilobrivi didebulebis (waTes, gubazis da artavazis) oja-
xebidan unda yofiliyo guaram kurapalatis deda, TavisTavad ig-
ulisxmeba, rom es ojaxebi Tavis droze mirdatTan, vaxtangis ZesTan
iyvnen damoyvrebulni. (SeiZleba `mirdatis dis~ wyalobiT Sevida guba-
zisa da waTes ojaxSi `basilevsad~ wodebis legitimuri ufleba).
Semdeg ki am ojaxis siZem _ guaramma (SesaZloa, aseve `basilevsma~)
miiRo qarTlis mefis wodeba, Tumca imperatorma mxolod `kurapala-
toba~ akmara. arabobis dros ki es ojaxi mcxeTidan kvlav klarjeTs
daubrunda.
333
Zveli lazikis mefeebis warmomavloba
WaneT-taos samefodan
lazebi da Wanebi zogjer erT tomad, zogjer ki erTmaneTis me-
zoblebad warmodgebian bizantiel mweralTa mier, lazika WaneTs
moicavda da ufro zogadi erTeuli iyo.
lazTa ramdenime mefea dasaxelebuli wyaroebSi IV-V saukuneebisa,
Tumca ki iqvea naTqvami, rom arsebobda winandel lazTa mefeTa gene-
alogiuri siebi.
favstos bizantielis Txzulebidan SeiZleba gavigoT, rom lazTa
mefeebis qveS igulisxmeba WanTa mefeebi da WaneTis samefo, romelic
IV saukuneSic arsebobda.
Zveli lazeTis samefo mdebareobda ara dasavleT saqarTveloSi,
aramed istoriuli qarTlis samefos gareT da moicavda WaneTs, mim-
debare zogierT mxaresTan erTad, misgan gansxvavebiT, axali laze-
Tis samefo klarjeT-ligans moicavda.
kerZod, favstosi wers, rom IV s-Si somxeTis mefes mimarTa taos
mflobelma manuel mamikonianma Semdegi sityvebiT: `Cveni winaprebi
Wenastanis mefeebi iyvnen... sisxlisRvris gamo davtoveT samSoblo da
movediT Tqvens karze mSvidobis saZebnelad~, e.i Wenistanis mefeebi
taos mflobelebi iyvnen.
p. ingoroyva imowmebs n. adoncs, rom `Wenastani~ aris WaneTi,
taos gverdiT.
favstosis cnobiT, WaneTis, anu lazeTis Zveli samefo, Cans, erT
periodSi imdenad Zlieri yofila, rom misi mefeebis Rirseba aranak-
lebi yofila somexTa mefeebisaze.
amasTan dakavSirebiT manueli somexTa mefis winaSe ambobs _ `Cven
arasodes vyofilvarT Tqveni msaxurni (e.i. WaneTis samefo damoukide-
beli saxelmwifo iyo), aramed viyaviT Tqveni amxanagi (anu RirsebiT
Tanaswori) da iqneb Tqvenze metad saxelovannic~.
am cnobidan Cans, rom Zvel lazeTs, anu WaneTs IV saukunemde hyavda
saxelovani samefo dinastia.
am dinastiidan unda yofiliyvnen lazTa mefeebi waTe, gubazi da
sxvebi, Semdeg maT sammarTvelod klarjeT-liganic gadaecaT (istori-
334
uli WaneTis gareT VI s-is lazikaSi Sedioda fazisis anu md. Woroxis
SesarTavi da misi dasavleTi sanapiro, aRmosavleTis erT nawilTan
erTad Woroxis saTaveebis CaTvliT).
p. ingoroyva, somxur wyaroebze dayrdnobiT varaudobs, rom III
saukunisaTvis WaneTis samefo WaneTTan erTad moicavda taosac.
III saukuneSi samefo saxlis SigniT Sinauri SfoTis gamo tao iqau-
rma mmarTvelma (WaneTis samefo ojaxis taos Stom) gadasca somexTa
samefos, anu tao dapyrobis gareSe Sevida somxeTis samefos Semad-
genlobaSi (p. ingoroyva, giorgi merCule, gv. 490) da aseve dapyrobis
gareSe (daaxloebiT 500 wlis Semdeg) tao somxeTis mefem ukan gada-
sca saqarTvelos _ aSot I kurapalatis Zes bagrat I-s
WaneTs _ qaldea/qarTea erqva, taos ki _ `qarTvelTa~ samefo. maSas-
adame, orive am qveyanas-WaneTsa da taos anu `qaldeasa~ da `qarTvel-
Ta~ samefos TviTsaxelwodeba _ `qaldea~ _ `qarTu~ erTi fuZidan
amomavali sityvebia, aqedan gamomdinare es ori qveyana albaT odesme
erT mTlian samefos Seadgenda `qarTu~ saxelis mqones (`arian-qarT-
li~-kolxeTi saxelTa fuZeebic /qarT-kol/ identurebi arian).
rogorc aRiniSna, favstos bizantielis saistorio TxzulebaSi
manueli Semdegi sityvebiT mimarTavs somxeTis mefes varazdats (374-
377ww.) `Cven arasodes vyofilvarT Tqveni msaxurni, aramed viyaviT
Tqveni amxanagni da iqneb Tqvenze metad saxelovanic, radgan Cveni
winaparni iyvnen mefeni WenastanSi, magram ZmaTa Soris ganxeTqilebis
gamo moxda didi sisxlisRvra, Cven davtoveT samSoblo da movediT
aq mSvidobis saZebnelad~ (p. ingoroyva, giorgi merCule, gv. 489).
rogorc aRiniSna, Wanistans, anu WaneTs Tavisi mefeebi hyolia ukve
III saukuneSi, radganac manuels mefisaTvis miumarTavs 228-297 wleb-
Si (iqve, gv. 490).
favstos bizantielis es cnoba eTanadeba sxva berZen-bizantiel
avtorTa cnobebs, romlebic lazTa, anu kolxTa mefeebisa da tomis
Sesaxeb ambobdnen: `isini Zalze amayebi arian da qedmaRloben kolxe-
Tis Zveli didebis gamo~, favstosis cnobiTac, Wanebis mefeTa STa-
momavali armeniis mefesTan ambobs: `Cveni dinastia Tqvenze metad
saxelovanic SeiZleba iyos~. es ori cnoba erTmaneTis identuria da
miuTiTebs kolxeT-lazeTis Zveli samefos Sesaxeb.
335
aqedan gamomdinare, SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom Zveli lazikis anu
WaneTis dinastiis erTi frTa, Cans Siga areulobis gamo iZulebuli
gamxdara Tavi somxeTisaTvis Seefarebina da Tavisi samefos erTi
nawilis (taos) gadacemiT somexTa mxardaWera moupovebia, xolo me-
ore frTas WaneTis ZiriTadi nawili daukargavs V saukuneSi. am dros
bizantiis imperatori molaparakebia lazTa mefe gubaz I-s da mis-
Tvis samefos erTi nawili CamourTmevia. am dros sazRvari punqt
xufaTze gadebula. sanacvlod, VI saukuneSi iustinianes dros laz-
Ta mefeebisaTvis mmarTvelobaSi gadauciaT klarjeT-ligani. ase
Camoyalibebula `axali lazikis~ samefo `Zveli lazikis~ saxelovani
dinastiis mmarTvelobiT.
bagrationebi baiberdidan klarjeTSi
bagrationebis sagvareulo (Tavdapirveli) cixe-simagre yofila
baiberdi- istoriul sperSi. n. adonci wers `viciT, rom kantoni speri
ekuTvnoda bagratid mTavrebs~ (n. adonci, armenia iustinianes epoqa-
Si, 1908, gv. 122).
n. adonci cnobebs imis Sesaxeb, rom speri _ bagrationebis Tavda-
pirveli mamuli iyo, iRebs Zveli somxuri wyaroebidan da wyarod
miuTiTebs `fausti~, V, 44; sebeosi, 139.
pontos zRvispireTSi Camosaxlebuli qarTvelebisaTvis nabuq-
odonosors, xorenacis mixedviT, uflad daudgenia mihrdatis _ dare-
his (dariosis) STamomavlebi (m. xorenaci, somxeTis istoria, 1984,
gv.107). es `pontospireTi~ moicavda vrcel mxares sinopidan dasav-
leT saqarTvelos CaTvliT, trapezuntis olqs baiburdisa da Semdgomi
arzrumis CaTvliT. bagrationTa Tavdapirveli sacxovrisi, rogorc
iTqva, baiberdi yofila.
baiberdi CvenTvis imiTaa saintereso, rom aq yofila paipertis
saepiskoposo, Semavali trapezuntis samitropolitoSi. es samitro-
polito ki, noticiebis mixedviT, lazikaSi yofila.
aqve, sperTan mdebareobda WaneTis mTianeTi. maTi saerTo berZnu-
li saxeli `lazika~ yofila, VI s-Si iustinianem daipyro trapezun-
336
tis Crdilo SavizRvispireTi da iq daaarsa qalaqi petra. ramac safuZ-
veli daudo spars-romaelTa omebs petrasaTvis.
g. meliqiSvilis Tanaxmad, kolxeTis barSi Casaxlebula trapezun-
tis samxreT-aRmosavleT mTianeTis mosaxleoba-Wanebi (sanebi?), berZne-
bi maT, Cans, _ lazebs uwodebdnen. maT albaT bagrationebis cnobili
sagvareulos warmomadgenlebic wayvnen (Wanika baiberdTan axlos mde-
bareobda). es sagvareulo VI saukuneSi iberiaSi gamefda droebiT, IX
saukunidan ki cnobilia bagration mefeTa klarjul-artanujuli da
taouri saxlebi. safiqrebelia, rom isini yvelani gamomdinareobdnen
speris (baiberdis) fuZe sagvareulo saxlidan.
kidev erTxel mivuTiTebT adoncis frazas _ `kantoni speri ekuTvn-
oda bagratid mTavrebs~ (n. adonci, armenia iustinianes epoqaSi, 1908,
gv. 122) da is wyarod miuTiTebs `fausti~, V, 44; sebeosi, 139.
bagrationebs TavianTi gvari aRebuli hqondaT
dedis mxridan
`gadmovida arCil egrisiT da dajda nacixarsa xidrisasa. maSin mo-
vida misa mTavari erTi, romeli iyo naTesavisagan daviT winaswarme-
tyvelis, saxeliT adarnase, Zmiswuli adarnase brmisa, romlisa mama misi
mzaxebul iyo bagratonianTadve da berZenTa mier dadginebuli iyo
erisTavad areTa somxiTisaTa da tyveobasa mas yruisasa STasul iyo igi
SvilTa Tana guaram kurapalatisaTa klarjeTs da mun darComil iyo.
iTxova arCilisagan da rqua `ukueTu inebo da myo me viTarca mkvidri
Seni, momec queyana~ da misca Sulaveri da artaani~ (qarTlis cxovre-
ba, 1955, I, gv. 243).
qvemoT SevecadoT avxsnaT, rom adarnase mTavari, romelic mivida
mefe arCilTan, iyo daviT winaswarmetyvelis STamomavali mamis mxri-
dan, xolo dedis mxridan is iyo bagratoniani (bagrationi), anu Tvi-
Ton am mTavars da mis mamasac bagratoniani qalebi hyavdaT SerTuli,
maTi Svilebi dediT bagrationebi, xolo mamiT `naTesavisagan daviT
winaswarmetyvelisa~ anu ebraelebi iyvnen.
337
es Tvalsazrisi gamomdinareobs wyaroSi naxmari sityvidan `mzaxa-
li~. `damzaxeba~ _ niSnavs `damoyvrebas~ (`Zveli qarTuli enis SeerTe-
buli leqsikoni~, 2008, gv. 102). mZaxali axlac colis (rZlis) naTesavia.
`romlisa mama mzaxebel iyo bagratonianTadve~ _ niSnavs, rom adar-
nase mTavris mamasac da TviT adarnasesac bagrationebis qalebi hyav-
da SerTuli, anu bagrationebi adarnases `mzaxlebi~ _ anu naTesavebi
iyvnen dedisa da colis mxridan.
`berZenTa mier dadginebul iyo areTa somxiTisaTa~ niSnavs, Sem-
degs _ artaani arCilis samefoSi Sedioda, klarjeTi `berZenTa~ uf-
lebis qveS iyo, xolo danarCeni qvemo mxareebi (tao, TorTomi, speri
da a.S.) _ im momentSi `somxeTis ared~ iTvleboda (herakle keisris
wyalobiT), sadac bizantielTa nebiT mTavrobda adarnase, daviT winas-
warmetyvelis STamomavali.
arabTa Semosevebis Semdeg is (adarnase) moridebia arabebs da klar-
jeTSi gadasula, sadac darCenila sacxovreblad.
aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi arCil qarTlis xosroiani mefis dab-
runebis Semdeg ki, misula masTan da misTvis uTxovia raTa mieRo
qveynis mkvidrad da Caericxa samefo erisTavTa wreSi.
arCilma Seusrula Txovna da misca samflobelod qarTlis same-
fos artaanisa da Sulavris provinciebi.
maSasadame, adarnases ukve ufleba gaaCnda sam qarTul provin-
ciaze; 1. misi imJamindeli mamulebi bizantiis xeldebul klarjeTSi
iyo; 2. amave dros is iyo qarTlis samefos erisTavi; 3. xolo misi
Zirimamuli tao-speris mxareebi iyo.
klarjeTi, artaani, da tao _ bagrationTa qveynebad iqca.
maSasadame, adarnase mTavari, Tavdapirvelad, dadgenili iyo `somx-
eTis areTa erisTavad~ (igulisxmeba imJamad armeniis qarTuli mxa-
reebi tao-speri da basiani), aqedan Semdeg arabobis gamo gadasula
klarjeTSi (bizantielTa xeldebul qveyanaSi).
klarjeTis mezobeli artaanisa da Sulaveris `qveynebi~ arCilis same-
foSi Sedioda. SemdegSi isini (es qveynebi) gadaeca adarnase bagrati-
ons arCilis mier.
(aqedanaa Semdgomi titulebi `artanujeli xelmwife~, `klarjeli
xelmwife, `taoeli anu qarTvelTa mefe~, radganac tao iveriad iwode-
boda, rogorc somexTa, ise bizantielTa mier).
338
berZnuli sakariskaco titulebi
berZnuli sakariskaco titulebi ar hqondaT farnavazian-xosroian
mefeebs, magram VI s-dan is damkvidrda qarTul samefo karze, am titu-
lis mqoneTagan pirveli, iyo klarjeTis erisTavi guram bagrationi,
vaxtang gorgaslis siZe, romelic avida samefo taxtze. mis Semdgom
es titulebi (`kurapalati~ da sxva) vidre XII s-mde hqondaT qarTvel
mefe-erisTavebs.
Cemi azriT, es tituli iqamde hqondaT lazikis (e.i. klarjeTis)
basilevsebs (erisTavebs) da qarTlSi gamefebis Semdeg (igulisxmeba
guram bagrationi VI s-Si) is (tituli) SeinarCunes.
SesaZloa, aseTi bizantiuri titulebi abazg erisTavebsac hqon-
daT (e.i. VI-VII ss.) da roca saqarTvelos taxtze avidnen Zveli ti-
tulebic dainarCunes).
SesaZloa, pirveli bagrationebi iyvnen legitimuri memkvidreebi
lazTa anu `klarjTa~ `mefeebisa~ anu im `lazTa mefeebisa~, romelT-
ac berZnul-bizantiuri samefo kari aniWebda samefo titulebsa da
sigelebs (amas unda miuTiTebdes pirveli bagrationi mefeebis titu-
latura `klarjeli xelmwife~).
(Cans, am `legitimuri~ uflebiT aRWurvil-gamSvenierebuli guaram
I bagrationi Sevida xosroinTa samefo ojaxSi viTarca siZe vaxtang
gorgaslis dros, xolo SemdegSi ki bagrationebma arCil mefis same-
fo saxlis memkvidreoba miiRes).
339
taoelebi `arian-qarTvelTa~ memkvidreebi
taosa da `zemo qveyanaTa~ mkvidri mosaxleoba odesRac `arian-
qarTvelebad~ iwodeboda, da am mxareebSi ZvelTaganve cxovrobda.
g. meliqiSvilis mtkicebiT arian-qarTlis samefo mdebareobda iberi-
is im miwebze, romelic armeniam Zv.w. II saukuneSi miitaca iberiisagan.
I saukuneSi, roca gaZlierda mcxeTis iberiis samefo, imdenad, rom
somxeTis samefo taxtze qarTvelebi adiodnen, albaT, es `zemo qvey-
nebic~ gaTavisufldnen somexTa batonobisagan.
yovel SemTxvevaSi VI-VII saukuneebSi aq yofila `iverTa samTavro~
vaSdenis meTaurobiT, maleve aq Camoyalibda `qarTvelTa samefo~.
faqti imisa, rom swored taosa da mimdebare regionebsa da mis
mosaxleobas uwodebdnen ucxoelebi `iberiasa~ da `iberebs~, Tanamed-
rove saqarTvelos ki `afxazeTs~, miuTiTebs, rom ucxoelebisaTvisac
taoelebi qarTvelebi iyvnen. amitomac ewoda kidec aq Camoyalibebul
samefos `qarTvelTa samefo~. Cans, aRniSnul miwa-wyalze mcxovreb
`arian-qarTvelebs~ iberielebis saxeliT icnobdnen ucxoelebi. es
eTnosi cxovrobda aq istoriulad da maT X-XI ss-mdec miuRweviaT.
amis Tqmis saWiroeba gamowveulia CvenSi gabatonebuli azris gamo,
romlis mixedviTac am mxareTa ZiriTadi mosaxleoba TiTqosda eTni-
kuri somxebi iyvnen, romelnic `gaqarTveldnen~ da amiT Seadgines am
regionis qarTuli masa.
araa swori mtkiceba, TiTqosda taoSi Casaxldnen qalkedoneli
somxebi, `gaqarTveldnen~ da Semdeg ki ase vTqvaT jaWvuri reaqciis
saxiT `gaqarTvelda~ zemo qveynebis qalkedonuri somxuri mosaxle-
obac.
sinamdvileSi procesi iyo piriqiT _ iqamde armeniaSi (bizantiur
Tu persarmeniaSi) moqceuli qarTveloba, romelic somxurma ekle-
siam daiqvemdebara, arabobis epoqaSi nawilobriv gaTavisuflda som-
xuri eklesiis uRlisagan, arabobis gamo somxebis Zalis Sesustebis
Semdeg iqaurma qarTvelobam aRidgina Tavisi identoba, daibruna
erovnuli saxe.
stefanos taronci (asoRiki) wers: `lmobierebiT daviT kurapalati
yvelas aRemateboda, misi wyalobiT damyarda mSvidoba somxeTsa da
340
iberiaSi~ (, 198, narkv. II, gv. 486). aq, cxadia, iberiis qveS taos
anu `qarTvelTa~ samefo igulisxmeba.
mkvidri mosaxleobis erTguleba (X s.)
daviT kurapalatis mier `zemo qveyanaTa~ floba miuTiTebs, rom
am qveyanaTa aznaur-didebulebi da, Sesabamisad, mkvidri mosaxleoba
warmoadgenda am `flobis~ politikur sayrdens.
imJamindeli socialuri viTarebis gamo romelime teritoriaze
mkvidri mosaxleobis erTgulebis gareSe aravis SeeZlo politikuri
nebis ganxorcieleba. magaliTad, roca bagrat IV-s siymawvilis wleb-
Si didebuli taoeli aznaurebi `warvides saberZneTs~ anu keisris
mxareze gadavidnen (`gandges kualad aznaurni~, `warvida CanCaxi fale-
li saberZneTs, misca cixe garylobisa, mierTo berZenTa~ da aseve
sxvebi) - amis Sedegad taoSi Seirya bagrat IV-is mmarTveloba, miTu-
metes, rom didebulebma `eric aaRelves da aamoZraves~, anu taos
mkvidri mosaxleobac berZenTa mxares gadaixara. aman cxadia Searyia
mefis mmarTveloba (Tu ara saba mtbevari da ezra anCel episkopose-
bis gmiruli Tavdadeba, qveyana daikargeboda) Sesabamisad, msgavsadve,
Tu ara `zemo qveyanaTa~ xalxis erTguleba qarTvelTa mefis mimarT,
daviT kurapalati am qveynebs ver daiWerda.
marTalia, bizantiam daviT kurapalats dauTmo `zemoni qveyanani~,
magram daviTma es qveynebi realurad daiWira ara bizantielTa dax-
marebiT, aramed mkvidri mosaxleobis mxardaWeriT. es mxardaWera da
saocari erTguleba kargad aqvs aRwerili aristakes lastivertecis.
magaliTad, daviT kurapalatis gardacvalebis Semdeg am qveynebSi
gabatoneba inebes bizantielebma, mkvidrma mosaxleobam maT winaaRm-
degoba gauwia, ris gamoc bizantielebi daundoblad da masiurad
xocavdnen xalxs, ar indobdnen arc moxucs, axalgazrdas, qals Tu
bavSvs, mospes uamravi sofeli, daba da qalaqi, daangries mTeli mxa-
reebi da qveynebi.
341
cxadia, `zemo qveyanaTa~, mkvidr mosaxleobas SeeZlo imTaviTve
mimxroboda bizantielebs, ganecxadebinaT erTguleba keisris mima-
rT, gamoexataT orguloba qarTvelTa mefis mimarT, bolos SeeZloT
bizantiuri jaris imediT ajanyebuliyvnen kidec qarTvelTa winaaRm-
deg, magram ara, mkvidri mosaxleobis erTguleba da Tavdadeba qarTu-
li saxelmwifos mimarT mtkice iyo. da, piriqiT, roca bizantielebma
SemdegSi SeZles am mxareTa dapyroba, sakmaod xSir ajanyebebs keis-
ris winaaRmdeg qarTvelebi edgnen saTaveSi, magaliTad feris jojikis
Ze, zaqaria valaSkerteli da sxvebi.
riT iyo ganpirobebuli qarTvelTa mimarT e.w. `zemo qveyanaTa~
mosaxleobis erTguleba? Cveni azriT es imiT iyo gamowveuli, rom
zemo qveyanaTa mkvidri mosaxleobis umetesi nawili qarTvelebi iyvnen
da maTi erTguleba nacionalur safuZvels eyrdnoboda.
arsebobs sxva Tvalsazrisi, romelic gabatonebulia Tanamedrove
istoriografiaSi, rom mkvidri mosaxleoba iyo ara eTnikuri qarTve-
lebi, aramed e. w. qalkedoniti somxebi. Tu isini qarTvelebi ar iyvnen
da mxolod sarwmunoebis gamo debdnen Tavs qarTvelobis mimarT,
gana ufro Zvel marTlmadideblebad berZnebi ar miiCneoda? zemo
qveynebs xom qarTveli mefeebi sul ramdenime aTeuli weli marTavd-
nen, isic didi gaWirvebiT, maT xan mahmadianebTan, xan ki berZnebTan
uxdebodaT brZola. amitomac ismis kiTxva, rogor moxda, rom miuxe-
davad berZenTa mier `zemo qveynebis~ dapyrobisa da mosaxleobis kon-
stantinopolis sapatriarqos iurisdiqciaSi Sesvlisa, mainc am mov-
lenaTa Semdeg, saukuneTa manZilze, aRniSnul qveynaTa mkvidri mo-
saxleoba mtkiced qarTvelobda da saepiskoposoebic. maSasadame, ek-
lesiebic qarTuli hqondaT? erTi aseTia vTqvaT valaSkertis qarTuli
saepiskoposo, romelic TiTqmis vidre XVII saukunemde arsebobda.
342
ganmaTavisuflebeli laSqroba
xalxis mxardaWeriT (X s.)
989 wels barda fokas ajanyebis dacxromis Semdeg ajanyebis Tana-
monawile daviT kurapalati iZulebuli gaxda Tavisi samflobeloe-
bi basili II-isaTvis eanderZebina. magram, amis Semdegac man ilaSqra
vanis tbis mimarTulebiT da 990 wels aiRo Zalze mniSvnelovani qalaq
manaskerti, romelic, asoRikis cnobiT, qarTvelebiTa da somxebiT
daasaxla, radganac is damarcxebul mahmadianebs miutovebiaT.
qarTvelTa xelSi vanis tbis mimdebare qveynebi XI s-is pirvel aTeul
wlebamde iyo.
am qveynebSi (armeniis iveriul zolSi) mravali qarTveli marTl-
madilebeli qristiani cxovrobda, romelTac TavianTi samrevloebi,
eklesiebi da saepiskoposoebic ki hqondaT, Cans, swored isini iyvnen
gaerTianebulni taos samamamTavroSi, erT-erTi udidesi saepisko-
poso am mxareebSi iyo valaSkertisa.
episkoposi valaSkerteli qarTuli eklesiis ierarqiaSi saukune-
Ta manZilze Sedioda.
`marTalia, im politikuri marcxis gamo, mas rom 989 wels SeemTxva,
daviT kurapalati iZulebuli Seiqmna Tavisi samflobelo bizantiis
imperiisTvis eanderZa, magram albaT, mainc fiqrobda am mdgomareobis
gamosworebas da amis sakompensaciod 90-ian wlebSi iwyebs im did dapy-
robiT omebs, romelTa Sedegad xelT igdebs mTel rig somxur provin-
ciebs~ (narkv. II, gv. 487).
sabWouri epoqis istorikosebs am sakiTxSi ver daveTanxmebiT, rom
TiTqos qarTvelTa omebi am mimarTulebiT iyo `dapyrobiTi~, omebi
`somxuri provinciebs xelSi Casagdebad~.
daviT kurapalatis omebi vanis tbis mimarTulebiT iyo ara dapy-
robiTi, aramed ganmaTavisuflebeli.
is im Turqul tomebs ebrZoda, romelTac vanis tbis midamoebi
daipyres.
es teritoriebi qarTvelTa istoriuli samSoblos nawili iyo, am
adgilebTan ixila qsenofontem qarTvelTa tomebi, strabonis cno-
biT, am mxareebTan axlos mdebareobda xorZena, iqve gogarena da par-
iadres kalTebi, romelnic armeniam iberiisagan miitaca.
343
mitacebis miuxedavad iq darCnen da saukuneTa manZilze cxovrobd-
nen aqaur qarTul tomTa STamomavalni, romelTac daviT kurapala-
tis qarTvelTa samefos gafarTovebam erovnul-qarTuli identoba
gamoucocxla. ase, rom am e.w. `somxur provinciebSi~ ZirZveli
qarTvelebic cxovrobdnen da am mxareebSi qarTvelTa gamarjvebebi
aCvenebs, rom maTi ricxvi mcire ar yofila.
daviTis triumfaluri, moulodneli gamarjvebebis ZiriTadi mizezi
unda yofiliyo adgilobrivi qarTuli mosaxleobis mxardaWera.
qarTuli warmoSobis mosaxleoba ormagad iyo aRfrTovanebuli
qarTuli jaris maT qveyanaSi SesvliT, radganac somxuri eklesiis
uRlisaganac Tavisufldebodnen da qarTul saxelmwifoebriobasac
ibrunebdnen.
isini iyvnen ara e. w. `somexi qalkedonitebi~ aramed eTnikuri
qarTvelebi, somxur-qalkedonuri eklesiis arasomxuri mrevli,
romelic eloda xelsayrel moments religiur-eklesiuri Tavisu-
flebis mosapoveblad. es momenti ki maT daviT kurapalatis dros
daudgaT.
Tu ra uTanasworo iyo qarTvelTa brZola manaskertis, xlaTis,
berkrisa Tu arWeSis gasaTavisufleblad iqedanac Cans, rom magali-
Tad manaskertisa da xlaTis gaTavisuflebis Semdeg mahmadianebma
100 000-iani laSqari Sekribes qarTul jarTan saomrad, qarTvelebma
ki maT Zlies sul ramdenime aTasi jariskaciT (6000 mxedari gaigzav-
na feris jojikis Zis sardlobiT).
aseT gamarjvebas 100 000-ian jarTan qarTuli jari ver SeZlebda,
Tu ara adgilobrivi mosaxleobis mxardaWera.
valaSkertSi, sadac qarTuli saepiskoposo kaTedra idga, mniSvnelo-
vani odenobis qarTuli mrevlis cxovrebaze SeiZleba is faqtic miu-
TiTebdes, rom manaskertis brZolebis dros daviT kurapalatis
laSqari valaSkertSi dabanakda, albaT imis gamoc, rom aq Tavs dac-
ulad grZnobda mkvidri mosaxleobis keTilganwyobis gamo, radganac
somxuri mosaxleoba qarTuli jaris mimarT keTilganwyobili ar iyo.
somxur mosaxleobaSi nergavdnen azrs, TiTqosda qarTuli jari
maT somxur saeklesio siwmindeebs bilwavda.
344
stefanos taronelma (asoRiki) gaavrcela cnoba, rom qalaq xla-
Tis aRebisaTvis gacxarebuli omis dros qalaqgareT mdebare mitove-
buli somxuri eklesiebi qarTvelma jariskacebma `gadaaqcies Tavle-
bad da sadgomebad iberielTa laSqrisaTvis~ (asoRiki, gv. 193, narkv.
II, gv. 487).
qarTvelebi am cxare ganmaTavisuflebeli omis dros, Cans, mainc
da mainc ar endobodnen somxebs, piriqiT, isini ar miaCndaT myar
dasayrdenad, es Cans, iqidan, rom, q. xlaTis somxuri eklesiebis Tav-
lebad gadaqcevis Semdeg qarTveli jariskacebi ambobdnen _ `Cven
erTnair mniSvnelobas vaZlevT musulmanur da somxur salocavebs~
(iqve, gv. 193).
eklesiebis Tavlebad gamoyenebiT gaocebuli mahmadianebi qalaqis
kedlebTan mimdgar qarTvelebs uyvirodnen _ `ase scemT qristianebi
pativs qristianul salocavebs? amaze iberielebi pasuxobdnen - `Cven
erTnairad vuyurebT somxur eklesias da Tqvens meCeTs~ (asoRiki, gv.
193, narkv. II, gv. 487).
aqedan Cans, rom qarTuli jarisa da qarTuli ganmanTavisuflebe-
li moZraobis dasayrdeni vanis tbis qveynebSi iyo ara somxuri, aramed
adgilobrivi qarTuli mosaxleoba.
asoRiki wers, rom daviT kurapalati `somexTa mowyale~ xelmwife
iyo, radganac is qristianebis qveyanas dampyroblisagan aTavisuflebda.
Tavis mxriv mahmadianTagan gaTavisuflebuli mxareebis qarTveloba
Tavisufldeboda ara mxolod mahmadianebisgan, aramed somxuri ek-
lesiis batonobisaganac.
vanis tbis mimarTulebiT mcxovrebi qarTvelebisaTvis daviT kura-
palati ormagi ganmaTavisuflebeli iyo.
mkvidri qarTvelebis ricxvi ki am mxareebSi Zalze didi iyo, razec,
rogorc iTqva am mxareebSi qarTuli saepiskoposos arseboba miu-
TiTebs, igulisxmeba CvenTvis cnobili valaSkertis kaTedra, savar-
audod aq CvenTvis ucnobi sxva qarTuli kaTedrebic unda yofiliyo.
somxuri da mahmadianuri zewolisagan gaTavisuflebis Semdeg aqau-
ri qarTvelebi udidesi energiiT avsebdnen daviT kurapalatis
laSqars, es apirobebda qarTvelTa swraf marSs vanis tbis sanapiro
qveynebSi.
345
asoRiki wers, da mas eTanxmebian istorikosebi, rom daviT kurapa-
lati vanis tbis mimdebare gaTavisuflebul da SemoerTebul qalaqebSi
`qarTvelebsa da somxebs asaxlebda~.
ismis kiTxva, saidan unda moeyvana daviTs qarTuli mosaxleoba
aseT Soreul qveyanaSi? taodan?
tao TviTon iyo mcire qveyana, unda vifiqroT, rom mahmadianTagan
gaTavisuflebul qalaqebSi daviT kurapalati asaxlebda am qalaqeb-
is irgvliv mdebare soflebSi mcxovreb qarTul da somxur mosaxle-
obas, qarTvelebi da somxebi ki iqve cxovrobdnen, gaTavisuflebuli
qalaqebis mimdebare soflebSi.
iqamde es qarTvelebi ar Candnen, radganac isini somxuri eklesiis
mrevlSi iricxebodnen, kurapalatis laSqrobebma ki maTi identoba
warmoaCina, amiT gulmicemulebma ukve daufaravad ganacxades, rom
isini ara somxebi, aramed eTnikuri qarTvelebi iyvnen, amiT unda aix-
snas qarTvelTa ricxovnobis saocari zrda taos mimdebare qveynebSi
da ara e.w. `somexTa gaqalkedonitebiT~ e.w. gaqarTvelebiT.
vanistbispira qarTvelobis bedi saqarTvelos politikur wreebs
didxans, aRelvebda, da mis gadaWras cdilobdnen yoveli xelsayre-
li momentis dros. magaliTad, saqarTvelos gaZlierebam XIII sauku-
nis daswyisSi kvlav gaaqtiura es sakiTxi da gadawyda vanistpispireT-
Si samxedro eqspediciis mowyoba. `1204-1210 wlebSi qarTvelTa sam-
xedro eqspediciebi umTavresad mimarTuli iyo vanis tbis regionisak-
en~ (a. TvaraZe, V jvarosnuli laSqroba..., macne, istoriis seria,
2012, 2. gv. 37).
Semdgom saukuneebSi, samcxe saaTabagos samTavromac miaRwia val-
aSkertamde, Cans amave mizezis gamo, Tumca am droisaTvis vanistbi-
spireTis qarTvelobas ZiriTad mTlianad hqonda dakarguli iden-
toba da gasomxebuli iyo.
armeniis iberiuli zolis qarTvelobis armenizacia kidev ufro
daaCqara Tamar mefis epoqaSi Wyondidelobis institutis damarcxe-
bam da Zalovani struqturebis somex mxargrZelTa xelSi gadasvlam.
mxargrZelT miecaT kidec armeniis iberiuli zolis mTavari naw-
ilebi samarTavad. am faqts gadamwyveti mniSvneloba mieca araqsispi-
ra da vanistbispira iberielebis saboloo armenizaciisas.
346
Tavi XII
iberiis Temi
iberiis Temi (XI s.)
(p. ingoroyva)
1021-1023 wlebSi bizantiis imperatori basili bulgarTmmusvre-
li saTaveSi Caudga Tavis jars, romlic trapezuntidan Sevida da
basianSi SeebrZola saqarTvelos mefe giorgi I-s. am omSi damarcxe-
bis gamo saqarTvelom dakarga `zemo qveyanani~. `am teritoriebidan
Seiqmna ori `Temi~ (olqi) bizantiis imperiis farglebSi: erTi _ Teo-
dosiopolis Temi, romelic moicavda dasavleT evfratis xeobaSi
mdebare zonas (arzrumis mxare), meore olqi, romelsac bizantielebma
daarqves `iberiis Temi~, aerTianebda Tavis farglebSi samxreT taos
samflobelos, basianis mxares da arawanis xeobis mimdgom raionebs~
(p. ingoroyva, giorgi merCule, 1954, gv. 526).
Tumca, arsebobs mosazrebac, rom iberiis Temis dedaqalaqi iyo
Teodosiopolisi, maSasadame, is iberiis TemSi Sedioda.
rogorc iTqva, arawanis (aRmosavleT evfratis) saTave vanis tbasTan
axloa.
iberiis da Teodosiopolis (erzrumis) Temebs Soris moqceuli iyo
bizanasa da olnutis saepiskoposoebi, aqve (bizanasa da olnuts Sua)
iyo xorZena, istoriuli mxare. is taronis provinciis Crdilo sazR-
varTan mdebareobda. xorZenas CrdiloeTiT ki manralia iyo. manra-
lia, somxuri VII s. geografiiT, samxreT egrisis qveynis mxares erqva.
`iberiis Temi~ bizantiis SemadgenlobaSi 1023-1074 wlebSi iyo, 1068
wels iberiis Tems SeuerTda karis mxare (is karis somexma mefem gagikma
dauTmo bizantias), iberiis Tems SeuerTda anisic. andakis saepiko-
poso karidan 60-ode km-iT iyo daSorebuli.
347
lazikis eparqia moicavda istoriul samxreT egriss (Semdgom qal-
deas Tems), aseve Teodosiopolisisa da iberiis Temebs.
iberiis Temi `bizantiis istoriis~ mixedviT
( , T. 2, . 1967)
1967 w. moskovSi dastambul `bizantiis istoriis~ II tomSi naTqva-
mia: `imperatorma basili bulgarTmmusvrelma mniSvnelovnad gaafar-
Tova imperiis sazRvrebi Crdilo-aRmosavleTiT mcire aziaSi _ ar-
meniasa da iveriaSi. 990 wels man ilaSqra kavkasiaSi iveriis mmarT-
vel daviTisa da bagratidebis winaaRmdeg, romlebic daexmarnen bar-
da fokas. bagratidebisa da daviTis gaerTianebuli jari damarcxda.
daviTma aRiara bizantiaze damokidebuleba da misi Zalauflebis qveS
mdebare miwebi imperators uanderZa. 1001 wels daviTi gardaicvala.
iveriis zogierTma didebulma ar ineba daviTis anderZis cnoba da
basili saswrafod kavkasiaSi gaemgzavra. taos olqis didebulebi
valdebulni iyvnen damorCilebodnen, Sida iveriis arxontma uari
ganacxada ecno es anderZi.
magram imperiis poziciebis ganmtkiceba iveriasa da armeniaSi basil-
ma mxolod Tavisi mefobis dasasruls SeZlo, 1021-1024 wlebis laSqro-
bisas basili II-m ramdenjerme daamarcxa afxazeTis mmarTveli gior-
gi, SeZlo aRekveTa misi mcdeloba Seekra samxedro kavSiri al-xakimTan
da ajanyebul samxedro didebulebTan, giorgi iZulebuli gaxda ecno
imperiisadmi damokidebuleba, mZevlad misca imperators Tavisi Ze
bagrati.
am laSqrobebis dros vaspurakanis mmarTvelma gadasca basils
Tavisi miwebi. 1020 wels gardacvlili anisis mefis gagik I-is Zem,
smbatma aseve dado basilTan xelSekruleba, imis msgavsad, romelic
basilTan adre dado daviTma.
am SematebaTa Sedegad, imperiis Crdilo-aRmosavleTiT warmoiSva
axali Temebi: vaspurakani, iveria da Teodosiopolisi~ (
, T. 2, . 1967, . 225).
348
manralia da mardalia _ iberiis Temis
ZiriTadi nawilebi
(n. adonci, armenia iustinianes epoqaSi, 1908, rus. enaze)
n. mari Wan-lazebs iberebs uwodebda, megruls ki iveriul enas.
somxuri geografiiT, samxreT egrisSi Semavali olqebi manralia da
mardalia (basianis samxreT-dasavleTiT) iberiis Temis nawilebs Sead-
gendnen.
somxuri geografiiT samxreT egrisis anu `egris~ qveyana moicavda
Wanikas, lazeTs, manralias da egrivs. n. adonci, istoriuli geografi-
is sayovelTaod aRiarebuli mcodne, manraliasa da mardalias olqe-
bis mdebareobas Teodosiopolis-arzrumis samxreTiT da samxreT-
aRmosavleTiT gansazRvravda. rogorc ukve aRiniSna, es mxareebi
(olqebi) XI s-is bizantiuri iberiis Temis centralur nawilebs war-
moadgendnen, anu egri da samxreT iberia erTmaneTs faravdnen. iqve
iyo iberiis Temis sxva nawilebi, anu samxreTis am mxareebSi iberia da
egri (egrisi) erTmaneTs faravdnen. iberiisa da egrisis igiveoba Zvel
epoqaSi albaT arc iyo gasakviri, radganac protoqarTuli enis da
Semdeg misgan miRebuli e.w. zanur-qarTuli enis diferenciacia
gamyreliZisa da maWavarianis mixedviT daiwyo axali welTaRricxvis
dasawyisSi (`welTaRricxvaTa mijnaze~, T. gamyreliZe, g. maWavariani,
`sonantTa sistema~), anu egriselTa da iberTa ena erTi da igive yofila
jer kidev axali welTaRricxvis dasawyisSi, SesaZloa, isini I aTas-
wleulSi erTmaneTis mimarT Zalze axlo mdgom dialeqtebs warmoad-
gendnen, imdenad axlos myof, rom maT qristianuli RvTismsaxurebi-
saTvis SemoiRes orive tomisaTvis saerTo ena, romelsac amJamad `Zve-
li qarTuli ena~ ewodeba.
enobrivi mTlianobis gamo taos samxreTiT iberiis Temi da egris
olqi erT mTlianobas Seadgendnen ara mxolod geografiulad, aramed
eTnikuradac.
349
basianelni anu mesxni
qarTlis cxovrebis mixedviT (IX-XI ss.)
IX-XI saukuneebis saqarTvelos yovel saxelmwifoebriv warmonaqmnSi
mcxovreb qarTvelobas saxeli sakuTari kuTxis mixedviT hqonda miRe-
buli. magaliTad, afxazeTis samefos xalxs erqva - afxazebi, kaxeTi-
sas _ kaxelni, taos da qarTlis `qarTvelTa samefos~ xalxs _
`qarTvelni~, vis erqva mesxni IX-XI ss-Si?
aRsaniSnavia, rom aRniSnul saukuneTa wyaroebSi `mesxi~ gvxvdeba
mas Semdeg, rac basianis provincia Semovida qarTul politikur sam-
yaroSi. pirvelad es moxda taos mefis daviT kurapalatis dros, ro-
melmac `zemoni qveyanani~, anu Teodosiopol-basianis mxareebi Se-
moierTa. rogorc cnobilia, `mesxi~ am dros pirvelad iqna moxsenie-
buli matiane qarTlisaisaSi _ `gamovida Teodosi saberZneTiT, movida
samcxes da dadga margis meres, uxmobda mesxTa aznaurTa~ (q.c., I, gv. 270).
sityva `mesxi~ saxel `basianTan~ unda iyos dakavSirebuli eti-
mologiuradac, rogorc cnobilia `xi~ vinaoba-sadaurobis mawarmoe-
beli sufiqsia _ kolxi, kaxi da sxva. basianis, anu fasianis mcxovrebs
`basxi~ _ mesxi unda rqmeoda (rogorc, es daamtkica p. ingoroyvam
afxazeTis mxareTa ganxilvis dros).
Semdeg sityva `mesxi~ ixsenieba bagrat IV-sTan kavSirSi, roca is
saberZneTidan dabrunda, movida, jer arzrum-basianis qveyanaSi, radga-
nac trapezuntidan gza jer iq adioda. aq mas daxvdnen _ `didebulni,
erisTavni, aznaurni taoelni, mesxni da qarTvelni~ (q. c., I, gv. 284).
aq `qarTveli~ niSnavs yofili `qarTlis samefos~ xalxs, taoelni
niSnavs yofili `taos samefos~ xalxs (taos bolo mefe iyo daviT
didi kurapalati), xolo mesxni ki unda niSnavdes basianis qveynis
xalxs, anu am SemTxvevaSi basianel didebulebs.
ratom unda Sexvedrodnen bagrat IV-s basianelebi, es provincia
xom mis mamas, giorgi I-s imperiam CamoarTva?
saqme isaa, rom miuxedavad damarcxebisa, giorgi I-s imperatorma
basilim SeTanxmebis Sesabamisad dautova calkeuli adgilebi da sof-
lebi `zemo qveynebSi~.
matiane wers _ `yves mSvidoba da daizavnes da misca giorgi mefeman...
qveyana, romeli hqonda daviT kurapalatsa taosa, basians, kola-artan-
350
Ta da javaxeTs. xolo romelime ama qveyanaTagan eklesiani, sofelni da
adgilni daulocna giorgi mefesa~ (q. c., I, gv. 288).
maSasadame, bagrat IV-is mmarTvelobis dasawyisSi saqarTvelos sa-
xelmwifos ekuTvnoda taosa, basiansa da kola-artaan-javaxeTSi zo-
gierTi eklesia, sofeli da adgili. am soflebisa da adgilebis, aseve
eklesiebis ricxvi, cxadia, arc Tu mcire iqneboda, radganac isini
TviT basili imperatorma `dauloca giorgi mefes~, anu locva-ficiT
miarTva. swored am adgilebis didebulebi, erisTavebi da aznaurebi,
(TavianTi Tanmxlebi laSqriT) Sexvdnen bagrat IV-s bizantiidan dab-
runebisas.
es adgilebi yofila taoSi, basianSi, da kola-artaan-javaxeTSi,
aqaurebs ki erqvaT `taoelni, mesxni da qarTvelni~, anu taodan _ tao-
elebi, basianidan mesxebi, kola-artan-javaxeTidan _ qarTvelebi, anu
am qarTvelobas saxelebi erqvaT TavianTi mxareebis momcveli poli-
tikur administraciuli erTeulebis saxelebis mixedviT. imJamad,
Cans, es samxareo saxelwodebani jer kidev ar atarebda Camoyali-
bebul eTnografiul niSans, aramed aRniSnavda mxolod qveynis macxov-
reblebs, magram Semdgom saukuneebSi am saxelebma kuTxur-eTnikuri
niSani SeiZines.
saukuneTa politikuri sazRvrebis cvlilebebis Sesabamisad ku-
TxeTa mcxovreblebis saxelebic icvleboda. Sua saukuneebSi, mas Sem-
deg, rac daiSala erTiani saqarTvelos saxelmwifo, `qarTvelni~
daerqvaT qarTlis samefos mcxovrebT, xolo mesxni daerqvaT sam-
cxe-saaTabagos mcxovrebT, magram X s-is dasawyisSi ase ar yofila,
Cvens wyaroebSi, rogorc iTqva, `qarTveli~ iyo kola-artan-javaxe-
li, e.i. qarTvelTa samefoSi mcxovrebi, xolo `mesxi~ _ basianelni.
XI-XII ss-Si, rac gauqmda e.w. `qarTvelTa samefo~, `mesxis~ mniS-
vneloba gaizarda imiT, rom `mesxebs~ axla uwodebdnen samcxe-tao-
basianis mcxovrebT, bagrat IV-is drosve `gamoiyvana mawyverelman
mesxni Svelad mefisa... liparit Sekribna kaxni~ (q. c., I, gv. 300).
aq `mesxi~ samcxe-taoel-javaxelia, kaxi ki kaxeTis mcxovrebi.
mesxni arian kalmaxisa da artanujis, misi mimdebare qarTuli qvey-
nebis mcxovrebni. `sula erisTavman kalmaxisagan, grigol erisTavman
artanujisagan SeaerTes sityva da Seiwvivnes maT Tana sxvanica aznurni
mesxni~ (iqve, gv. 301).
351
erTian saxelmwifoSi `qarTli~ mxolod Sida qarTls ewodeboda,
amitomac samxreT saqarTvelos mcxovrebni mesxebad iwodnen. `mesxni
aznaurni da zemosa kerZisani Zlierad dges axalqalaqs~ (q. c., I, gv.
306) _ igulisxmeba sultan arfasaranis Semosevebis dro. giorgi II
`gardmovida samcxes, moirTna mesxni~ (gv. 316).
daviT aRmaSeneblis dros, roca Turqebma tao-basiani daiWires,
maT winaaRmdeg ubrZana, anu `acnoba qarTvelTa da mesxTa, raTa klar-
jeTs dauxvdnen paemansa~ (q.c., I, gv. 333). TviTon ki quTaisidan laSqriT
ganvlo zRvispiri xufaTis gziT Sevida klarjeTSi da SeebrZola
Turqebs basianSi.
maSasadame, saxeli mesxi IX-XII ss-Si jer kidev ar atarebda satomo-
eTnikur niSans, aramed ewodeboda sxvadasxva regionalur-adminis-
traciuli erTeulis SigniT mcxovrebT zogad mesxeTis sazRvrebSi.
anisi _ iberiis Temis erT-erTi dedaqalaqi,
erevani _ `saqarTvelos qalaqi~
`iberiis TemSi, anu iberiis sakatepanoSi Sedioda imier tao, Crdi-
lo basiani, olTisi, TorTomi, kola, artaani, SavSeTi, javaxeTi da
e.w. `zemoni qveyanani~ _ araqs-evfratis auzSi mdebare vrceli eTni-
kurad araerTgvarovani mosaxleobiT iyo dasaxlebuli teritoria,
romelSic mravalricxovnobis gamo dominantur eTnoss iberebi anu
qarTvelebi Seadgendnen. am Tems qarTvelTa siWarbis gamo `iveriis
fema~ anu Temi uwodes bizantielebma. am saxelis miniWebis dros bi-
zantielebi gaafTrebiT ebrZodnen iberebs daviT kurapalatis memkvi-
dreobisaTvis. es brZola ise iyo gamZafrebuli, rom TviT impera-
torebi winamZRvrobdnen iberiaSi mebrZol TavianT jarebs. mravali
marcxiTa da adgilobrivi mosaxleobis winaaRmdegobiT gamwarebul
basili II keisars isic ki ukadrebia, `qarTlis cxovrebis~ cnobiT,
rom Zelicxovlis wmida saswaulTmoqmedi jvris mimarT upativcemu-
loba gamouCenia, miwaze dausvenebia da sajarod ganucxadebia _ `arRa-
ra Tayvanis gce ukunisamde~, Tuki am omSi qarTvelebi (iverebi) gai-
352
marjvebeno~. ufro meti, basili II-is saflavis warweraSi imperiisa-
Tvis yvelaze saZulvel xalxTa Soris iberebi yofilan dasaxelebu-
li. iberTa saxeli, imJamad, arcTu kargad JRerda bizantiel xelis-
ufalTa yurSi. amis miuxedavad, isini iZulebuli gaxdnen TavianTi
imperiis erTerTi nawilisaTvis mainc `iberiis Temi~ ewodebinaT da
sabolood dapyrobil iberias bizantielebma `iberiis Temi~ uwodes.
imJamad maTTvis miuRebel saxels bizantielebi TavianT Tems ar
uwodebdnen, Tu ara iZuleba imisa, rom es miwa-wyli iberebisad anu
qarTvelebisad iwodeboda sayovelTaod. es miwa-wyali ZiriTadad
iberebiT iyo dasaxlebuli, radganac adgilobrivma mkvidrma mosax-
leobam am urTules epoqaSi moaxerxa TviTidentifikacia, daufara-
vad aRiara Tavisi vinaoba, rom is eTnikurad iyo ara somexi, aramed
qarTveli anu iberi, marTalia, kulturulad garkveulwilad armeni-
zebuli, magram ara im doniT, rom Tavisi eTnikuri vinaoba ver gaerkvia.
ufo metic, iberebTan mebrZol bizantielebs adgilobrivi mosaxle-
oba ebrZoda viTarca eTnikuri iberebi, da ara viTarca e.w. `somexi-
qalkedonitebi~. bizantielebisaTvis es omi iber xalxTan omi iyo da
ara omi marTlmadideblebTan, rogorc xataven aruTinova-fidaniani
da sxvani. am omisas bizantielTa winaSe mkvidri mosaxleoba Tuki
eTnikur somxebad waradgenda Tavis Tavs xocva-Jletasa da ojaxis
aoxrebas Tavs daaRwevda. am epoqis omebis aRmweri a. lastiverteci
kargad aRwers am iberiaSi iberebisa da maTi sofel-qalaqebis rbeva-
aoxrebas bizantielTa mier.
mogvianebiT iberiis Temis SemadgenlobaSi Sevida klarjeTis miwa-
wyali, xolo konstantine X monomaqosis dros (1042-55) _ Siraqis
samefo da qalaqi anisi, romelic iberiis Temis dedaqalaqad iqca
1045 wlisaTvis. aqac, rTuli viTarebis miuxedavad qarTvelebma anu
iberebma kargad gaarkvies, rom isini eTnikuri qarTvelebi iynen. ase-
Ti vinaobaaRorZinebuli xalxi mosaxleobis ZiriTad nawilad iqca,
amitomac maTi olqebic SeuerTes iberiis Tems, iberiis Tems Crdi-
lo-aRmosavleTiT esazRvreboda qarTvelTa da vanandis samefoebi
(qarTvelTa samefosTan sazRvari banis wyalze gadioda), dasavleTiT
bizantiis administraciuli erTeuli _ qaldiis Temi, samxreT-dasav-
leTiT da samxreT-aRmosavleTiT taronisa da vaspurakanis olqebi.
353
Temma arseboba Sewyvita seljukTa Semosevebis Sedegad 1072-1074
wlebSi (qse, 5, 1980, gv. 68).
iberiis Temis didi nawili iyo `daviT kurapalatis memkvidreoba~,
anu is miwa-wyali, romelic daviT III-m uanderZa keisars. daviT III-is
samemkvidreo samflobelos Seadgenda imier tao Crdilo basianiTurT.
979 wels ajanyebuli barda skliarosis winaaRmdeg gaweuli daxmare-
bisaTvis bizantiam daviTs gadasca `zemoni qveyanani saberZneTisani,
raTa Tavis sicocxlesa hqondin~ (g. mTawmideli).
XI s-is somexi istorikosis stefanoz taronelis (asoRiki) cno-
biT, es qveynebi iyo: cixe xaltoY-ariWi da masTan mdebare klisura
dasavleT evfratis xeobaSi, Cormairis Temi md. Woroxis saTaveebT-
an, karini anu Teodosiopoli Tavisi TemiT, cixe sevuki mardaliis
kantonSi, md. araqsis saTaveebTan, harkisa da apaunikis provinciebi
aRmosavleT evfratis xeobaSi (qse, 3, 1978, gv. 340).
moskovSi dastambuli `bizantiis istoriis~ Tanaxmad, XI s-Si tra-
pezuntidan vanis tbamde bizantiam daaarsa axali administraciuli
erTeulebi _ `vaspurakanis Temi, iberiis Temi da Teodosiopolis
Temi~. iqamde arsebobda `qaldeas Temi~. lazikis samitropolitod
wodebuli bizantiuri saeklesio erTeuli Sesabamisad moicavda aRniS-
nul mxareTa did nawils da isic XI s-Si unda gafarToebuliyo am
Temebze saeklesio iurisdiqciis ganvrcobis Sedegad. rogorc aRin-
iSna, olnutis saepiskoposo mardaliaSi, xorZena da bizana manrali-
asTan axlos, taronis mimarTulebiT, andaki _ vanandSi (yarsis olq-
Si) iyvnen ganlagebulni. es, yofili arian-qarTlis mxareebi, kidev
didxans iwodebodnen iveriad da saqarTvelod.
magaliTad, arsebobs sakmaod mravali somxuri wyaro, romlebSic
erevani saqarTvelos qalaqad iwodeba, XIV s-is somexi poeti da xel-
nawerTa gadamweri terter erevanci, imJamad yirimSi mcxovrebi, Tavis
mSobliur qalaq erevans uwodebs `saqarTvelos qalaqs~, is wers: `me,
terteri, uRirsi mwerali... movedi saqarTvelodan, xor-virapisa da eC-
miaZinis mezobeli SesaniSnavi qalaqidan _ erevanidan~ (somxur xelnaw-
erTa anderZebis cnobebi saqarTvelos Sesaxeb, 1978, gv. 23).
aqedan kargad Cans, rom erevani saqarTvelos qalaqad miiCneoda
TviT erevneli somxebis mier. aq igulisxmeba ara mxolod erevnis
mxare, aramed vrceli miwa-wyali _ araqsis regionSi.
354
mxolod erevnelebi miiCnevdnen TavianT qalaqs saqarTveloSi mde-
bared, Tu amave, samxreTis regionis sxva qalaqTa mcxobrebnic?
am kiTxvas TiTqos pasuxobs qalaq baiburdSi mcxovrebi XIV s-is
somexi mwerali, is arzumidan anisisaken mimarTul teritorias `qar-
TvelTa qveyanas~ uwodebs.
qarTvelTa am qveyanas misi sityviT aseve erqva `aRmosavleTi~.
is wers _ `Teodosiopoli dacarielda. aseve gaudaburda aRmosav-
leTi, e.i. qarTvelTa qveyana, sadac bevri amowyda~ (iqve, gv. 24). is asax-
avs im realobas, roca es mxareebi iveriad iwodeboda.
iqamde, XI s-Si am regions (Teodosiopol-arzrumisa da anisis CaTv-
liT) XI saukunisaTvis `iberiis Temi~ erqva, Semdgom ki, XII-XIV sauku-
neebSi, erevani da sxva axlo qalaqebi, saqarTvelos SemadgenlobaSi
Sedioda, avani (amJamad erevnis erTerTi ubani), XI-XV saukuneebSi,
rogorc bizantiis imperiis dros, ise Semdegac Sedioda iberiis Te-
mis anda saqarTvelos SemadgenlobaSi.
erevnis mezoblad mdebare olqi siunqi (siskani) saqarTveloSi Se-
dioda, rac imJamindeli somxuri wyarodan Cans.
somxur XIV saukunis xelnaweris minawerSia _ `daiwera siskanSi,
somexTa da qarTvelTa didi mxedarTmTavris burTelis mbrZaneblobi-
sas~ (iqve, gv. 23).
sanainis monasteri, XIV s-is somexi mwerlis cnobiT, saqarTveloSi
mdebareobda. is wers: `gvqonda SesaZlebloba aq, sanainad xmobili
salxineblis karze damkvidrebisa giorgis mefobaSi, mis dros didi mSi-
dobianoba iyo saqarTveloSi~ (iqve, gv. 26). e.i. sanaini saqarTveloSi
mdebareobda.
aseTive viTareba iyo Semdg saukuneSic.
avani didxans iyo saqarTvelos SemadgenlobaSi da saqarTvelos
qalaqad miiCneoda, mizezi amisa is iyo rom misi regioni qarTvelebiT
iyo dasaxlebuli, romelic sabolood somxuri eklesiis mrevlad
iqca. avanis eklesiis arqiteqtura, iseve rogorc qalkedonuri rif-
simes monastrisa, qarTuli stiliTaa aSenebuli, mkvidri qarTuli
mosaxleobis gemovnebisa da erovnuli midrekilebebis Sesabamisad.
355
gogarena _ `hereTi~
(p. ingoroyva, giorgi merCule, 1954)
somexTa kaTalikosi ioane X s-Si gogarenas uwodebda mTel aRmo-
savleT saqarTvelos, mtkvris marjvena da marcxena sanapiroebs, mis
mosaxleobas ki iverebs (p. ingoroyva, giorgi merCule, gv. 463).
es ramdenadme eTanadeba strabonis cnobas, rom gogarena mdebar-
eobda mtkvris `imier~, e.i. marcxena sanapiroze (straboni, XI, XIV, 5).
straboni garkveviT wers, rom `gogarena mtkvris iqiT~ mdebareob-
da da is `armenielebma waarTves iberebs~, mtkvris marcxena sana-
piroze gogarenas garda, strabonisave cnobiT aseve mdebareobda `Sua
iberia~, anu `Sua qarTli~ (Sida qarTli).
maSasadame, strabonisave cnobebiT mtkvris iqiT mdebareobda Tavis-
ufali iberiis erT-erTi nawili e.w. `Sua iberia~ da misi mezobeli
aRmosavleTiT dapyrobili iberiis gogarena, isini strabonis dros
sxvadasxva olqebi iyvnen.
maSasadame, gogarena `Sua iberiis~ mezoblad mdebareobda mtkvris
iqiT. realurad aseTi teritoria iyo kaxeTis gverdiT mdebare e.w.
hereTi. anu Semdgomi Saqi, romlis iqiTac albaneTi iyo.
`sazRvari iberiasa da somxeTs Soris, strabonis cnobaTa mixedviT,
iwyeboda taos samxreTiT, nawilobriv gasdevda araqss (basianis zonaSi),
Semdeg mihyveboda `mosxis mTebs~ (e.i. wyalgamyof mTebs, romelic gahy-
ofs mtkvris xeobebs araqsis xeobidan), xolo ufro aRmosavleTiT mtk-
vars (gogarenis seqtorSi)~ _ wers p. ingoroyva (dasax. naSr. gv. 467).
misi sityviT, am sakiTxSi strabons eTanxmebian plinius sekunde
(23-79), romlis mixedviTac iberiaSi Sedioda taSiri da TrialeTi
pariadres (anu bambakis) mTebamde, plutarqe (46-126), romlis mixed-
viT mtkvris saTave iberiis mTebSi iyo, klavdi ptoleme, romlis
mixedviTac iberiis sazRvrebSi Sedioda artaani (artanisa) da qarTuli
wyaro `moqcevaY qarTlisaY~, romlis mixedviT IV s-Si mefe mirianis
dros saeklesio mSenebloba daiwyo artaanis mxareSi _ eruSeTSi.
m. xorenaci qarTlis pitiaxSs arSuSas uwodebs `gogarenis pitiax-
Ss~. somxuri geografiis cnobiT, gogareni Seicavda taSirs, gardabans
(Zors, kolbs, wofs da kangrs), TrialeTs, javaxeTs, artaansa da klar-
356
jeTs~ (iqve, gv. 405-465). aqedan Cans, rom gogarena _ zogadi saxeli
iyo qarTuli teritoriebisa, rogorc mtkvris erT, ise meore mxa-
res. strabonis dros is mtkvris iqiTa mxares erqva, ioane kaTaliko-
sis dros ki orive mxares.
zogadad Cans, rom gogarena aris qarTli, iberia, zogjer mtkvris
orive sanapiro. marTlac, sityva `gogarenaSi~ fuZiseuli Tanxmovne-
bi `ggr~ eTnikuri qarTvelis gamomxatveli sityvebis saerTo fuZea
ara marto qarTulSi, aramed ucxourSic. magaliTad, georgien (grg),
gurj (grj), jurzan, gurzan (grz), saidanac miRebulia qarTvelTa
aRmniSvneli yvela dasaxeleba sxvadasxva enebSi _ georgia (grg), gruzia
(grz) da sxva. amave sityvaTa rigSia gugari (ggr), qarTuli TviT-
dasaxelebebi guria, egrisi, argveTi (gr, rg), saerTod, Cans, fuZiT
gr (rg) da aseve ggr(grg) gamoixateboda saxelebi eTnikuri qarTveleb-
isa da maTi qveynebis; erTi aseTi yofila gugarq. klarjeTi, Zori Tu
kolbi da sxva regionebi gugarqSi Sediodnen. SemdgomSi gugarqi somx-
ur samyaroSi mxolod mtkvris marjvena sanapiros momcvel qveyanas
erqva, misgan gansxvavebiT ki strabonis gogarena mtkvris `iqiT~, anu
marcxena sanapiroze mdebareobda.
maSasadame, sxvadasxva qveynebi iyvnen gogarena da gugarqi. eti-
mologiurad ki orive qarTvelTa qveyanas aRniSnavda.
357
Tavi XIII
iberiis Temis qarTuli samamamTavro
(lazikis eparqiis teritoriis zrda iberiis Temis daarsebis Semdeg)
`iberiis Temis~ olqebi da gzebi
arabTa Semosevebis Semdeg bizantiis imperiam miatova mcire aziis
mniSvnelovani nawili, magram saxalifos mouZlurebisas IX-X ss-Si
kvlav ganacxada pretenziebi Tavisi yofili teritoriebis mimarT.
aRsaniSnavia isic, rom zogjer bizantias ar yofnida Zalebi mus-
limebis winaaRmdeg sabrZolvelad, aseT dros, jer kidev mtris xel-
qveS myof teritoriebs, droebiTi sargeblobis saxiT aZlevda qarTul
samTavroebs.
bizantiam, magaliTad, samxreT taos mefes daviT kurapalats bar-
da skliarosis ajanyebisas daxmarebis sanacvlod gadasca vrceli
miwa-wyali, romelic ganfenili iyo olTisidan TiTqmis vanis tbam-
de, meti wili am miwa-wylisa muslimTa xelSi iyo.
am miwa-wyliT dainteresebuli iyo qarTveloba, radganac miaCn-
daT rom iq, maT Tanametomeni (eTnikuri, Tumca armenizebuli qarTve-
lebi) kompaqturad cxovrobdnen.
saubaria teritoriebze sadac qsenofontem jer kidev qristeSo-
bamde V saukuneSi aRwera mravali qarTuli tomi, maT Soris taoxebi-
sa, fasianebisa, xalibebisa da karduxebisa.
taoxebisa da fasianebis sacxovris adgilze, rogorc fiqroben,
Camoyalibebula provinciebi tao da basiani. somexi avtoris las-
tivertecis cnobiT, basiani X s-saTvis qarTvelebiT iyo dasaxlebu-
li. tao, basiani da TorTomi ZiriTadi teritoriebi iyo samxreT
taos qarTuli saxelmwifosi, romelsac X s-is 60-iani wlebidan dav-
358
iT mesame kurapalati marTavda. am saxelmwifos ucxoelebi, maT Soris
berZeni da somexi avtorebi, uwodebdnen `iberias (iverias)~, qarTvelebi
ki `taos samefos~. misi dedaqalaqi iyo olTisi.
zogadad, taos vrceli qveyana or nawilad, or samefod iyo ga-
yofili.
samxreT taos saxelwifos CrdiloeTiT arsebobda taos meore
qarTuli saxelmwifo. qarTveli mwerlebi, rogorc Cans, mas uwodebd-
nen `qarTvelTa samefos~, misi dedaqalaqi iyo bana. am samefoSi Se-
dioda Crdilo tao da mimdebare teritoriebi. X saukunis 50-ian
wlebidan mas marTavdnen bagrat meore `regveni~ da Semdeg gurgeni _
masac `iberiis mefe~erqva.
iberiis anu taos es ori samefo, ori iveria, ori `qarTvelTa
samefo~ imier tao da amier tao erTmaneTisagan iyofoda mdinare
banas wyliT.
sxva samTavro iyo klarjeTi, romelsac adarnase aSotis Zis STa-
momavlebi marTavdnen.
zogadad, am qarTuli politikuri erTeulebis sazRvrebi bizan-
tiasTan mtkiced iyo dadgenili, mag., konstantine porfirogenetis
cnobiT bizantiis sazRvari iberiasTan gadioda mdinare fazisze anu
araqsze. meore sasazRvro xazi ido Savi zRvis pirze punqt xufaT-
Tan (xofa).
sazRvarze ido xufaTi, parxali, TorTomi, basiani, tao da araqsis
miwebi.
qarTuli miwebi araqsis samxreTiTac ido, jer kidev skliarosis
ajanyebamde gacilebiT adre konstantine porfirogenetis dros. `ab-
nikis cixe fasianis anu araqsis samxreTiT iyo da, amrigad aSot IV kura-
palati araqsis samxreTiT mdebare miwa-wyals moiTxovda~ (v. kopaliani,
saqarTvelosa da bizantiis politikuri urTierToba 970-1070 wleb-
Si, 1969, gv. 18). es xdeboda X s-is dasawyisSi, radganac aSot IV 954 w.
gardaicvala.
saerTod, qarTvelebi mudam miiswrafvodnen md. araqsis da evfratis
saTaveebis momcvel teritoriebisaken, q. Teodosiopolis (arzrumis)
mimdebare mxareebisaken, radganac isini maTi istoriuli samSoblos
nawilebad miaCndaT.
359
konstantine porfirogeneti gaocebuli wers kidevac, rom qarTve-
lebs ar undodaT bizantiis `xelSi gadasuliyo Teodosiupoli am qala-
qis `siyvarulis gamo da imis gamo, rom Teodosipolis cixe ar ganad-
gurebuliyo~ (georgika, t. IV, naw. II, gv. 266).
arabTa mouZlurebis Semdeg, rogorc mravalgzis aRiniSna, bizan-
tielebma gadawyvites xelSi CaegdoT uZvelesi qalaqi Teodosiopo-
li (karnu-qalaqi) Tavisi mimdebare qveyniT, magram axla ukve qalaqis
mkvidrebi uwevdnen sastik winaaRmdegobas mtrebs. bizantielebi TiTq-
mis naxevari saukune ibrZodnen qalaqis xelSi Casagdebad, maT Soris
usastikesi xerxebiTac, magaliTad, alya Semoartyes qalaqs da gada-
wyvites SimSiliT amoexocaT moqalaqeebi, mizans ver miaRwies, maT
aRmoaCines, rom qarTvelebi TavianTi qajis (kejes) cixidan farulad
sursaTiT amaragebdnen qalaqs. bizantielebma xangrZlivi molapar-
akebiT scades qarTvelTa interesebis ganeleba. bolos darwmund-
nen, rom qarTvelebs `uyvardaT qalaqi~, misi moqalaqeebi da saer-
Tod karinis anu karnu-qalaqis mxaris mosaxleoba.
es saintereso momentia, imiT, rom swored am mxareebSi ivaraudeba
istoriuli arian-qarTlis arseboba, es mxareebi Cans IX-X saukuneeb-
Si jer kidev qarTvelebiT iyo dasaxlebuli, da swored amis gamo
`uyvardaT~ qarTvelTa laSqarsa da politikur moRvaweebs es mxa-
reebi da Teodosiopolis moqalaqeebi enanebodaT mtris mier dasaxo-
cad. sxvagvari `siyvaruli~ Zalze ucnaurad gamoCndeboda, imdenad
bunebrivi iyo Sua saukuneebSi xalxis xocva-Jleta da miwaTa dapy-
robani, maT Soris dapyrobac bizantielTa mier.
sxvadasxva avtorebis mier arian-qarTlis qveynad moiazreba tao,
basiani da maT samxreTiT mdebare qveyana, kerZod aqemeniduri sparse-
Tis me-18 da me-19 satrapiebis erTi nawili.
rogorc iTqva, es is qveynebia, sadac qsenofontem qarTuli tome-
bi naxa araqsis xeobis gayolebiT, evfratis saTaveebis CaTvliT, vi-
dre TiTqmis vanis tbamde.
qarTul politikur erTeulebs am qveynebis mimarT gaaCndaT in-
teresi da swored es qveynebi gadasca bizantiam daviT III kurapalats.
kerZod es qveynebi yofila:
1. dasavleT evfratis xeobaSi mdebare klisura da misi cixe xaltoY-
ariWi; 2. araqsis saTaveebTan mardaliis kantonis cixe sevuki; 3. vanis
360
tbis Crdilo-dasavleT raionebSi harkisa da apahunis provinciebi;
4. samxreT basiani; 5. Teodosiopoli (arzrumi) Tavisi TemiT, anu karini;
6. Woroxis saTaveebTan Cormairis Temi (v. kopaliani, dasax. naSr. gv. 38).
rogorc aqedan Cans, daviT III kurapalats gadaeca vrceli te-
ritoriebi Woroxis saTaveebidan vidre vanis tbamde. es iyo istori-
uli miwa-wyali qarTuli tomebisa, savaraudod istoriuli arian-
qarTli.
am qveynebs XI s-is qarTuli wyaro uwodebs `zemoni qveyanani sa-
berZneTisani~.
v. kopalianis TvalsazrisiT is daviT kurapalats gadaeca ara
erTbaSad, aramed sxvadasxva wlebSi, kerZod pirvelad 965 wels erTi
nawili gadasca `berZenTa mefem~, meored ki gadasces `berZenTa me-
feebma~ 979 w.
es mefeebi yofilan jer kidev bavSvebi basili da konstantine.
gadacema, rogorc iTqva, gulisxmobda imasac, rom am miwa-wylis
erTi nawilis musulmanTagan ganTavisuflebis Semdgom qarTvelebs
ufleba hqondaT emarTaT is droebiT, daviT kurapalatis sicocx-
lis periodSi, Semdeg ki ukan unda dabruneboda bizantias.
marTlac, xangrZlivi omebis Semdgom, bizantiam ukan daibruna
aRniSnuli miwa-wyali. mis qarTulobas sxvadasxva wyaroTa garda miu-
TiTebs isic rom qarTvelebiT Zalze ganawyenebulma bizantiam am
mxareebs mainc `iberiis Temi~ uwoda.
am droisaTvis bizantiaSi iyo mravali administraciul-politikur
erTeuli, maT Soris XI s-is 20-30 ww. Camoyalibda axali bizantiuri
administraciuli erTeuli iberiis Temi.
aRniSnuli teritoriebis garda masSi Sevida aseve samxreT tao,
Crdilo basiani da TorTomi, anu is teritoriebi, romelsac iqamde
iberiis anu samxreT taos mefe daviT kurapalati flobda.
`iberiis Tems~ imdroindeli avtorebi ubralod iberias uwodebd-
nen, masSi moiazreboda, rogorc iTqva, teritoriebi mdebareni Woroxis
saTaveebidan vidre TiTqmis vanis tbamde.
iqamde Tavisuflebis SenarCunebis mizniT iberiis Temis mosaxle-
oba medgrad ebrZoda basili II bulgarTmmusvrels, da Semdeg imper-
atorebs _ konstantinesa da romanozs.
361
aTeulobiT wlis manZilze mkvidri qarTvelobis winaaRmdegoba
imdenad didi iyo, rom lastivertecis cnobiT bizantielebi daun-
doblad xocavdnen iberiel qalebsa da bavSvebs, moxucebsa da axal-
gazrdebs, anadgurebdnen mTel soflebsa da qalaqebs ise, rom didi
nawili aRgaves pirisagan miwisa, samxreT taos dapyrobis Semdeg ax-
lad mitacebuli miwa-wylis xarjze bizantiis xelisuflebam, rogorc
iTqva, daaarsa iberiis Temi, anu iberiis sakatepano, da iq mmarTvelad
daniSna Tavisi moxele wodebiT _ katepani.
iberiis Temis mmarTveli (`katepani~) samxedro pativiT iyo aRWur-
vili. mas zogjer iberiis mTavarsac uwodebdnen. misi sammarTvelo
qveyana, rogorc iTqva vrclad iyo gadaWimuli Woroxis saTaveebidan
vidre TiTqmis vanis tbamde. misi dedaqalaqi iyo Teodosiopoli, an
olTisi.
dasavleTiT iberiis Tems esazRvreboda aseve qarTvelebiT dasax-
lebuli xaldiis Temi (anu trapezuntis olqi).
bizantiis es olqebi sasazRvrod iTvleboda da iq bizantiuri jari
iyo ganlagebuli, kerZod maT am TemebSi variagebis jari hyoliaT (v.
kopaliani, saqarTvelosa da bizantiis politikuri urTierToba 970-
1070 wlebSi, 1969, gv. 239).
iberiis Temi moicavda aseve arabobis epoqaSi yofili somxeTis
samefoSi Semaval e.w. `iverTa samTavros~ (VII s-Si, rogorc iTqva iverTa
mTavari yofila vaSdeni). aRsaniSnavia, rom dapyrobis Semdeg bizan-
tielebma anisic iberiis Tems SeuerTes, Cans, imis gamo, rom konstan-
tine porfirogenetis sityviT sazRvari bizantiasa da iberebs Soris
X s-Si md. araqze ido, bizantiuri dapyrobebis Semdeg maT araqsis dasav-
leTic, e.i iberebis mxarec moicves. am mxares mdebareobda anisi.
1047-49 wlebSi iberiis Temis mmarTveli yofila katakalon kekav-
menosi (iqve, gv. 245).
1054 wels Turq-seljukebi mesamed Seesivnen iberiis Tems. garkveu-
li mosazrebiT bizantia xels uwyobda Turq-seljukebis mier iberi-
is Temis dasustebas.
bizantia iberiis Tems imiTac asustebda, giorgi kedrenes gadmo-
cemiT, rom iq didZal gadasaxads akrefinebda `uRvTo gadasaxadis
amkreblebs, maTi meSveobiT agrovebda fuls usamarTlo wyaroebidan~
362
(iqve, gv. 262). ase vTqvaT, Tanamedrove TurqeTis Crdilo aRmosav-
leT mxare (iberiis Temi) TviT bizantielebis winaswarganzraxuli
Tu ugunuri politikis wyalobiT Turq-seljukebis xelSi moeqca.
aRmosavleTis provinciebis da kerZod, iberiis Temis Sesaxeb giorgi
kedrene werda: `ganuwyveteli Tavdasxmebisa da Zarcva-glejis gamo
yvelaferi nadgurdeboda, amitom iberiis mdidari qveyanac, romelmac
ukve winaTac ganicada rbeva da dasustebuli iyo, sabolood daeca da
ganadgurdao~ (georgika V, gv. 82).
v. kopaliani aRniSnavs, rom imdenad gawamebulebi iyvnen iberiele-
bi bizantielebis mier, rom wyaros cnobiT isini TavianT mtrebad
Tvlidnen romaelebso, anu bizantielebsao (v. kopaliani, saqarTvelosa
da bizantiis politikuri urTierToba 970-1070 wlebSi, 1969, gv. 263).
imperator konstantine dukas (1059-1067) dros bizantiis aRmosav-
leTSi `yvelaferi ingreoda da nadgurdeboda TurqTa Tavdasxmebis da
Zaladobis gamo, iberiis mdidari qveyanac ganadgurda~ (iqve, gv. 275).
e.i. mas bizantielebica da Turqebic anadgurebdnen.
maSasadame, iberiis Temi mdidari qveyana yofila, dadgenilia misi
simdidris wyaroebic, upirvelesi iyo masze gamavali saerTaSoriso
mniSvnelobis gza, romelic, basili II-s sityviT bizantias sparseT-
Tan aerTebda.
iberiis Temis Semosavlis mniSvnelovani wyaro iyo, is, rom iberi-
elebi (viTarca mxne mxedrebi) daqiravebuli jariskacebis saxiT msax-
urobdnen bizantiur armiaSi da maT qira eZleodaT. maTi ricxvi didi
iyo, magaliTad kedrenes cnobiT imperator konstantine monomaxis
dros 1053 wels bizantiis `iberiuli jari~ 50000 (ormocdaaTi aTasi)
kacisagan Sedgeboda, rogorc iTqva, isini iyvnen iberiis Temidan anu
Woroxis saTaveebidan vidre vanis tbamde gadaSlili qveynis mosax-
leobidan gamosulni. maTi ricxvi kidev ufro meti unda yofiliyo,
radganac aRniSnuli mxolod is ricxvia jariskacebisa, romelic im-
peratorma samsaxuridan daiTxova aRniSnul wels (iqve, gv. 262). iberiis
Temidan gamosul laSqars bizantia zogjer saqarTvelos winaaRmde-
gac iyenebda (iqve, gv. 262).
qsenofontes cnobiTac fasianidan da mimdgomi qarTuli qveyne-
bidan daqiravebul jariskacebs jer kidev qristeSobamde V s-Si iye-
363
nebdnen sparsul armiaSi, amitomac araa sakvirveli, rom basianidan
da mimdgomi qveynebidan (e.i. iveriis Temidan) daqiravebul jaris-
kacebs IX-X saukuneebSic iyenebdnen ucxo qveynebi.
magaliTad, imperator nikifore fokas 964 wels iberiul jarTan
erTad kilikiaSi ulaSqria _ `TiTqmis yvela did brZolaSi, romelic
ki am periodSi bizantias aRmosavleTis frontze (mesopotamiaSi, selev-
kiaSi da sxv.) uwarmoebia qarTvelTa laSqari iRebda monawileobas~
(iqve, gv. 23).
qarTvelebi ara mxolod imperatoris, aramed imperatorobis mow-
inaaRmdege ajanyebuli bizantieli mxedarTmTavrebis jarSic mniS-
vnelovan Zalas Seadgendnen. magaliTad, konstantinopolis winaaRm-
deg barda fokas ajanyebisas, `qarTvelTa qveiTi jari Seadgenda sau-
keTeso laSqars~ (iqve, gv. 76).
mkvlevari vasilevski aRniSnavs, rom am ajanyebis CaxSobis Semdeg
`bizantiis armiaSi qarTvelebis adgili rusebma daikaves~ (v. kopaliani,
saqarTvelosa da bizantiis politikuri urTierToba 970-1070 wleb-
Si, 1969, gv. 77).
saerTod, barda fokasadmi mxardaWera gaxda mTavari mizezi samxreT
taos saxelmwifos ganadgurebisa da mis adgilze iberiis Temis daar-
sebisa.
daviT kurapalatis samefo bizantiam SeierTa, Tumca amis Semde-
gac gahyavdaT iberiis Temidan jariskacebi bizantiur armiaSi, rogorc
iTqva konstantine monomaxs marto 1053 wels 50000 iberieli jarisk-
aci dauTxovia samxedro samsaxuridan.
moqiravne jariskacebis qira iberiis Temis simdidris erT-erTi
wyaro iyo, umTavresi ki iyo is Semosavali, romelsac iRebda masze
gamavali saerTaSoriso gziT mosargeble vaWrebisagan.
iqamdec, iberiis Temis daarsebamde, maSin, roca aRniSnuli teri-
toriebi samxreT taos anu daviT kurapalatis samefoSi Sedioda, iq
gaCaRebuli iyo Zalze mniSvnelovani aReb-micemoba umetesad am gzis
wyalobiT.
samxreT taos samefo iqamdec mdidari saxelmwifo iyo, magram X s-
is bolodan axali olqebis SemoerTebam misi politikuri da ekonomi-
kuri mdgomareoba kidev ufro gaaumjobesa.
364
am miwa-wyalze (Woroxidan da trabzonidan vanis tbamde) gadioda
`saxalifodan wamosuli udidesi savaWro gza, romelic mcire aziasa da
pontoSi miemarTeboda. am gzaze mravali savaWro centri iyo da maT Soris
yvelaze ufro cnobili _ arcni da karnu qalaqi, igive Teodosiopoli,
dRevandeli arzrumi. arcni Teodosiopolis axlos md. evfratis uki-
dures saTaveSi mdebareobda, sadac aristake lastivertecis cnobiT,
udidesi simdidre modioda `zRviTa da xmeleTiT~ (iqve, gv. 43).
arcni (arwe) udidesi da Zlieri savaWro centri iyo. is idga mTa-
var savaWro gzaze, romelic konstantinopolidan (da trapezuntidan)
_ yarsis, anisisa da dvinis gavliT iranSi miemarTeboda, mis Sesaxeb
kedrenec werda: arcnSi vaWrobdnen iranidan, indoeTidan da sxva-
dasxva mxridan Semosuli aziuri saqonliT.
aranaklebi savaWro qalaqi iyo arzrumi.
saxalifodan da sparseTidan konstantinopolisken mimavali gza
jer gaivlida dvins, anissa da yarss. amis Semdeg, yarsis raionSi gza
orad iyofoda. erTi, CrdiloeTis Sto Sedioda artanujSi, romelic
udidesi savaWro kvanZi iyo, xolo meore, gzis samxreTi Sto Sedioda
arzrumSi, Semdeg orive es Sto isev erTiandeboda. maTi SeerTebis
punqti iyo trapizoni.
`es aniWebda trapizons udides mniSvnelobas. aRmosavleTSi bi-
zantiis imperiis yvelaze udidesi qalaqi ekonomikuri TvalsazrisiT
iyo trapizoni. mas mxolod konstantinepoli aRemateboda ekonomikuri
TvalsazrisiT~ (iqve, gv. 44).
arzrumisaken mimavali gzis gasaRebi iyo yarsi, xolo Tavis mxriv
arzrumi iyo konstantinopolis gasaRebi, radganac warmoadgenda ana-
toliis strategiuli da savaWro gzebis centralur punqts (iqve,
gv. 44).
TiTqmis msgavsi mniSvneloba hqonda artanujs, sadac aseve yarsidan
Sedioda gza artaanis gavliT.
yarsSi ki, rogorc iTqva, gzebi Sedioda dvinidan, anisidan, ar-
tanujidan da arzrumidan.
am qalaqTa Soris, konstantinopolis strategiul gzaze arzrumi
idga, romelsac X s-Si daviT kurapalati akontrolebda.
iberiis samefos SemadgenlobaSi gadmosul olqebs bizantiis impe-
riisaTvis udidesi ekonomiuri da strategiuli mniSvneloba hqonda.
365
`politikurma gaWirvebam aiZula bizantiis mTavroba droebiT da-
viT kurapalatis mflobelobaSi ecno es olqebi, magram moZlierebis
Semdeg gaafTrebiT daiwyo brZola am miwis isev misataceblad~ (iqve,
gv. 45).
maSasadame, saerTaSoriso gzebi aseTi iyo:
1) dvini-anisi-yarsi-artaani-artanuji-arTvini-Savi zRva;
2) dvini-anisi-yarsi-arzrumi-trapezunti.
am gzebiT zRvispira portebi uerTeboda dvins, iqidan ki sparseT-
sa da saxalifos.
pirvel anu dvini-artanuj-Savi zRvis saerTaSoriso gzis erT mniS-
vnelovan monakveTs klarji xelmwifeebi akontrolebdnen, xolo me-
ore _ dvini-trapezuntis saerTaSoriso gzisas taos mefeebi, radga-
nac maT xelSi iyo arzrumis Sesasvlelebi.
am gzaTa baJiT maT didi simdidre daagroves, SeZles grandiozu-
li mSeneblobebis wamowyeba da dasruleba, maT Soris banasa da oSkis
saxelovani taZrebisa.
bizantiaSi am gzis gakontrolebas did mniSvnelobas aniWebdnen
da mas `gza sparseTisa~ erqva, radganac aerTianebda trapezunts spar-
seTTan.
es gza viTarca strategiuli obieqti yvelaze metad ainteresebda
bizantias da cdilobda mis xelSi Cagdebas, radganac am gzas basili
keisramde qarTvelebi akontrolebdnen, amitom aristakes lastiverte-
cis sityviT Txovda kidec imperatori basili II mefe giorgi I-s _
`sparseTis gzaze nu meRobebi~ anu iTxovda misgan swored am strate-
giuli gzis gadacemas, rac cxadia mimdebare qveynebis gadacemasac
iTvaliswinebda.
gaZlierebis Semdeg basili keisars surda am gzis mTlianad gakon-
troleba, amitomac basianis qveyanaSi Tavisi jarebiT Sesvlis Semdeg
saqarTvelos mefes giorgi pirvels, rogorc aRiniSna, elCad gaug-
zavna valaSkerteli qarTveli episkoposi zaqaria da `tkbili si-
tyvebiT miwera... nu gadameRobebi gzaze, romelic sparseTisaken mid-
iso~ (a. lastiverteci, istoria, 1974. gv. 51).
es gzebi moqmedi iyo XIX saukunemde. germaneli mogzaurisa mecni-
eris gustav rades aRweridan kargad Cans, rom Woroxis xeobaSi gam-
366
avali saerTaSoriso gza erTmaneTTan aerTebda yarss baTumTan da
Sav zRvasTan.
am gzam saerTaSoriso mniSvneloba dakarga rusebis batonobis dros
XIX-XX ss-Si.
gustav rade wers: `arTvinma, rogorc savaWro centrma, romelic
uwin erTTmaneTTan akavSirebda erT mxriv, konstantinopolsa da trapi-
zons, meore mxriv yarssa da ardagans, rusebis gabatonebis Semdeg, Tavisi
mniSvneloba dakarga da es procesi amJamadac grZeldeba, savaWro brun-
va adgilobrivi mcxovreblebis masobrivi gadinebis gmo mniSvnelovnad
Semcirda~ (g.saiTiZe, i.aRlaZe, germaneli mecnieri da mogzauri gustav
rade, macne, istoriis seria, 2012, 2, gv. 121).
is XIX s. 70-90 wlebSi mogzaurobda.
(Woroxis xeobis miseuli aRwera sruliad eTanadeba strabonis,
prokofi kesarielisa Tu agaTias mier aRweril lazikis aRweras. magal-
iTad erTnairad aRiwereba is faqti rom cxenebis sakvebi Zalze mcirea,
amis gamo lazikaSi sparselebs 20000 cxeni daeRupaT, gustav rade wers
_ `cxenebisaTvis sakvebis SeZena gvindoda, magram versad viSoveT~ (iqve,
gv. 117) anda is wers`Woroxis xeobaSi sakvebis Sovna uWirT~ (iqve, gv. 120).
es sityvebi gvagonebs cnobas, rom sarapanasa da akandaSi Rvino, puri da
sakvebi uWirdaT. misi aRweriT xalxiT datvirTuli navi (katarRa) art-
Tvinidan baTumSi 5 saaTSi Cadioda. rom Woroxi wyaluxvi iyo da arTvin-
Tan Zalze `yuriswamRebad~ xmaurobda (iqve, gv.122), iseve rogorc fazi-
si sarapanasTan strabonis cnobiT. xalibTa `qaldus qveyana~ arian-
qarTlis safuZveli).
saerTod, daviT kurapalatis samflobelo, anu `qarTvelTa same-
fos~ didi nawili (anu taos samefo) Zalze momgebiani da Semosav-
liani saerTaSoriso gzebiT iyo daserili. klarjeTis zRvispireTSi
im sazRvao punqts, sadac mTavrdeboda artaanuj-dvinisaken mimava-
li saerTaSoriso gza X saukuneSi SeiZleba yofiliyo xufaTi (xofa),
radgan mis axlo mdgari Zveli petras cnobili simagre ukve VI sauku-
neSive daingra.
`zemoni qveyananis~ SemoerTebam aRamaRla taos samefos ekonomikuri
mdgomareoba. rogorc iTqva, SemoerTebul qveyanaze gadioda imdroin-
deli aRmosavleTis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani savaWro gza, romelze-
367
dac mdebareobda qalaqebi arcni, karnu qalaqi (igive Teodosiopo-
li, arzrumi).
es savaWro gza saxalifodan artanujis gavliT dvinze gadadioda
da trapezuntamde miemarTeboda. am savaWro gzidan da qalaqebidan
samefos didi Semosavali Semosdioda~ (narkv. II. gv. 484, . .
, gv. 215).
wina TavebSi aRiniSna, rom artanuj-dvinis damakavSirebeli gza
SavizRvispira portebs persarmeniasTan aerTebda VI saukuneSi, ri-
Tac interesdeboda rogorc bizantiis ise sparseTis imperiebi. Sahi
xosro swored dvini-artanujis gziT unda Sesuliyo lazikaSi pe-
tras cixesTan (prokofis lazika Woroxis xeobas moicavda zRvispireT-
Tan erTad).
prokofi kesarielis dros SesaZloa artanujs sxva saxeli erqva.
artanuj-dvinis savaWro gzas gulisxmobda konstantine porfiro-
genetic, roca artanujis savaWro mniSvnelobis Sesaxeb werda.
daviT kurapalatis drosac a. manandianisa da qarTveli istori-
kosebis kvleviT artanuj-dvinis magistrali erT-erTi mTavari
monakveTi yofila, romelic saxalifos trapezuntTan akavSirebda.
368
basili II-isa da sxva imperatorebis omebi
iberiis winaaRmdeg (1001-1054 ww.)
1001 wels gardaicvala daviT kurapalati, am cnobis miRebisTanave
imperatori basili II Tavisi laSqriT swrafi marSiT gamoeSura taos
samefos dasapyrobad, radganac daviTi Tavisi anderZiT mas utoveb-
da Tavis vrcel samflobeloebs.
daviT kurapalatis samefo, romelsac ucxoelebi iberias (iver-
ias) uwodebdnen, rogorc iTqva, moicavda samxreT taos, Crdilo ba-
siansa da TorToms, amis garda ki mas droebiT sargeblobaSi hqonda
vrceli miwa-wyali TiTqmis vanis tbamde _ dasavleT evfratis xeoba-
Si mdebare klisura da misi cixe xaltoi-ariWi; araqsis saTaveebTan
mardaliis kantonis cixe sevuki; vanis tbis Crdilo-dasavleT raion-
ebSi harqisa da apahunis provinciebi; samxreT basiani; Teodosiopoli
(arzrumi) Tavisi TemiT, anu karini; Woroxis saTaveebTan Cormairis Temi.
mTlianad es mxareebi axla ukve basil II-m daikanona.
`daipyra basili mefeman mamuli daviT kurapalatisa~ _ wers sum-
bat daviTis Ze, amasTanave, aiZula qveynis aznaurebi TavianTi saku-
Tari cixeebi bizantielebisTvis gadaecaT, didgvarianTagan yvelaze
gamoCenili patriotebi ki bizantiaSi gadaasaxla.
kedrene wers: `iberiaSi rom Cavida, micemuli memkvidreoba daidg-
ina... Tan waiyvana iberiis didgvarianebi, romelTagan umTavresni iyvnen
bakuriani, Tevdrate da fersi _ RviZli Zmebi, romelnic patrikiosTa
xarisxSi aiyvana~ (georgika, V, gv. 45).
rogorc iTqva, taoSi ori saxelmwifo iyo.
Crdilo taos saxelmwifos mefe gurgens, basilma SeunarCuna damo-
ukidebloba, ufro metic Sekra masTan zavi, romlis pirobiTac gur-
gens Tavisi laSqriT ar unda ebrZola samxreT taos gasaTavisufle-
blad, mas imperatorma magistrosoba uboZa. basils Seegeba aseve gur-
genis vaJi bagrati, romelic ukve iyo afxazTa mefe, mas ufro meti
pativi _ kurapalatoba uboZa.
kedrene Crdilo taos samefos _ `Sida iberias~ uwodebs (v. kopa-
liani, saqarTvelosa da bizantiis politikuri urTierToba 970-1070
wlebSi, 1969, gv. 46).
369
`Sida iberiis~ anu Crdilo taos mefe gurgeni ver Seurigda udi-
des danakliss, rac qveyanas samxreT iveriis dakargviT miadga, amit-
omac mTeli Tavisi laSqriT SeiWra olTisSi _ samxreT taos deda-
qalaqSi, magram basili II-m mas didi jari daaxvedra da kidev erTxel
dauzavda.
qveynis dakargva gansakuTrebiT aSfoTebdaT samxreT iveriis azna-
urebsa da didebulebs, amitomac basils maleve dasWirda xelmeored
laSqroba qveynis dasaufleblad. qarTveli aznaurebi bizantiaSi ga-
daasaxles da iq mamulebi dauriges (v. kopaliani, dasax. naSr. gv. 81).
rogorc iTqva dapyrobil samxreT iveriaSi bizantiam e.w. iberiis
Temi _ sakatepano daaarsa.
samxreT iberiis mosaxleoba, mkvidri qarTveloba, ver urigdebo-
da samSoblos Tavisuflebis dakargvas, eseni iyvnen ara marto, rogorc
mematiane uwodebs mamaci taoelebi, basianelebi, aramed arzrumis
qveynis, (anu karinis) da sxva mxareebis qarTvelebi, magaliTad, ufro
adre karinSi mamulebi da monastrebi hqonia Tornike erisTavs, da
iq, karinis qarTul monastrebSi, mravali qarTuli wigni iwereboda.
karinis mimdebare mxareebidan iyvnen is qarTveli didebulebi, rom-
lebmac iberiis damoukideblobisaTvis Tavi dades.
lastivertecis Txzulebidan kargad Cans, rom ara mxolod qarTve-
li didgvarovnebi da aznaurebi ibrZodnen bizantielTa winaaRmdeg,
aramed ubralo adamianebic. amitomac, mTel maT soflebsa da qalaqebs
mteri sastikad anadgurebda.
samxreT iberiis mosaxleobis ganwyobilebam da patriotizmma erT-
gvari stimuli misca CrdiloeTiT mdebare saqarTvelos mefes gior-
gi I-s (bagrat III Zes), esargebla imiT, rom roca basili II dakavebuli
iyo bulgarelebTan omiT, gaefarTovebina Tavisi sazRvrebi da daax-
loebiT 1013-1020 wlebSi bizantielebs xelidan gamoglija yvela is
cixe-simagre, romlebic adre daviT III kurapalats ekuTvnoda.
bulgarelebis damarcxebis Semdeg basili II-m epistole gaugzavna
giorgi I-s da moiTxova aRniSnuli cixe-simagreebis dacla. uaris miRebis
Semdeg bizantiuri laSqari gaagzavna qarTvel mefesTan saomrad.
`bizantielTa winaaRmdeg a. lastivertecis cnobiT, taoelebi mama-
curad ibrZodnen da uxtigis (olTisis axlos) brZolidan bizantielTa
laSqari gaaqcieso~ (v. kopaliani, dasax. naSr. gv. 91).
370
Tavisi laSqris am damarcxebam ganarisxa basili II, da is 1021 w.
piradad SemouZRva Tavis saimperio jars.
Tavis mxriv, saqarTvelos mefem giorgim Sekriba didi laSqari
bizantiis imperatorTan sabrZolvelad.
bizantiuri da qarTuli laSqari erTmaneTs Sexvda basianis qveya-
naSi da erTmaneTis pirispir dadgnen ramdenime dRis manZilze, brZo-
lis gareSe. am dros qarTulma sardlobam, rogorc Cans Secdoma
dauSva da ukan daxevis brZaneba gasca. aman mteri ufro gaaaqtiura,
is qarTvelTa laSqars ukan daedevna.
sasawyobo Senobebi, sursaTisa da iaraRis saTavsoebi qarTul
laSqars q. olTisSi gadauwvavs, raTa mters ar esargebla amiT.
ukan daxeuli qarTuli laSqris bolo nawilebs wamoewia bizantiis
mowinave laSqari, brZola gaimarTa palakacios tbasTan sofel Sir-
imnTan.
omis Sesaxeb xma giorgi mefes sakmaod gvian miuvida. is mivida
omis adgilas, sadac am dros basili mefec movida _ qarTlis cxov-
rebis cnobiT, `iqmna brZola didi, da mosrnes berZenni friad da
warmoiRes avari, ezom gagrZelda maT Soris brZola, romel sivlto-
lad ganemzada basili mefe~ magram, samwuxarod `sulmokle iqmnes
qarTvelni, morides da warmovides~.
mterma gaimarjva. basilim gagzavna jarebi sxva da sxva mima-
rTulebiT da ubrZana maT aravin SeebralebinaT, arc moxuci, arc
axalgazrda, arc bavSvi, arc qali. ase daangria da mospo Tormeti
qarTuli qveyana.
iahia antioqielis cnobiT basilma Tvalebi daTxara orasi aTasze
met qarTvel mamakacs (v. kopaliani saqarTvelosa da bizantiis poli-
tikuri urTierToba 970-1070 wlebSi, 1969, gv. 95).
amasobaSi kaxeTisa da hereTis laSqriT gaZlierda giorgi I, ba-
sili iZulebuli gaxda ukan dabrunebuliyo da trapizonSi gamo-
izamTra.
qarTul miwa-wyalze kvlav, xelmeored Semosul mters SeebrZola
saqarTvelos laSqari 1022 wlis 11 seqtembers arzrumTan axlos,
SerfTan _ lastivertecis cnobiT, magram qarTvelebi kvlav dama-
rcxdnen.
371
daido zavi, romlis Tanaxmadac daviT kurapalatis mTeli miwa-
wyali mterma miiTvisa.
erT dros ayvavebuli samxreT iberia ganadgurda, 1025 w. basili II
gardaicvala, magram man moaswro da mZevlad wayvanili mefe giorgis
Ze bagrati ukan daabruna.
yofili samxreT iberiis adgilas, rogorc iTqva, Camoyalibda bizan-
tiaSi Semavali iberiis Temi. miuxedavad amisa qarTvelebi am TemSi
mainc ganagrZobdnen damoukideblobisaTvis brZolas, amitomac 1025-
1028 wlebSi imperatorma konstantine VIII-mac Tavisi laSqari kvlav
aoma iq mojanyeTa winaaRmdeg. es omi grZeldeboda imperator ro-
manozis drosac, 1028-1034 wlebSi.
valaSkerti da Tormeti qarTuli gavari (XI s.)
a. lastivertecis cnobiT
1021 wels imperatori basili II didi jariT Semovida karinis qvey-
anaSi qarTvelTa qveynis asaRebad, Tavdapirvelad elCi gaugzavna
saqarTvelos mefe giorgi I-s. es elCi iyo `qarTveli episkoposi romel-
ic qalaq vaRarSakertSi ijda, Seegeba mefes (e.i. imperators) da daaime-
da igi, rom rogorc ki ekeReacSi (e.i. ekelecSi) an karinSi amoxval, gior-
gi Sen geaxlebao. mefem daijera episkoposis sityvebi da darCa giorgis
mosvlis molodinSi, xolo giorgim ver gabeda wasuliyo mefis daZaxil-
ze... roca CaiSala elCoba, mefe Zlier ganrisxda da brZana cecxliT,
maxviliTa da tyveobiT gaenadgurebinaT didi daba-qalaqi okomi da mis
garSemo mdebare soflebi, aoxrda miwis savargulebi, brZana tyveebi
waeyvanaT qaldiis gavarSi, TviTon ki basianisaken gaemarTa da miaRwia
vanandis gavars, xolo giorgim miaRwia qalaq uxtiqs (e.i. olTiss) ubr-
Zana jarebs daewvaT lamazi nagebobebi, iavareyoT maTi saqoneli, magram
xalxisaTvis vneba ar mieyenebinaT (!), es rom Seityo mefem (imperatorma)
ufro ganrisxda... qveynis oTxive mxares jari gagzavna, marbieli mohfi-
372
na, mkacri brZanebiT moiTxova ar daendoT arc moxuci da arc axalgazr-
da, arc yrma, arc srulasakovani, arc kaci, arc qali da saerTod arc
erTi asakisa. amgvarad man daangria da aaoxra Tormeti gavari... vfiqrob,
yovelive es Tavs gadaxdaT nacvlad imisa, rom maT moglijes wmida kaTo-
like eklesiis karidan samefo niSnis mqone jvris lursmnebi da Seu-
racxmyofelad gaiZaxodnen - cxenebisaTvis nali unda gavakeToTo. ase
samarTlianad maT (!) Tavs daatydaT ubedureba, rac sazarel sanaxaobas
qmnis... ZuZumwovara yrmebs, zogs dedis mkerdidan glejdnen da qvebs
urtyamdnen, nawils ki dedis mkerdze aklavdnen SubiT... cxenis Cliqeb-
Si agdebdnen... gaukacrielda keTilmowyobili qveyana~ (a. lastiverte-
ci, istoria, 1974, gv. 47).
a. lastivertecis cnobidan Zalze kargad Cans, rom basianis, kari-
nis, taosa da vanandis mosaxleoba qarTulia, radganac isini, misi
sityviT, samarTlianad daisajnen anisis eklesiis jvris Seuracxy-
ofisaTvis, anisis somxuri eklesiis jvari qarTvelebma Seuracxyves,
risTvisac mwared daisajnen. es `samarTlianad~ dasjilebi ki okomisa
da mimdebare 12 gavaris mcxovrebni iyvnen. anu okomisa da mimdebare 12
gavaris mosaxleoba qarTulia, aq upirvelesad igulisxmeba karin-tao-
basian-vanandis dasjili qarTveloba. ase aRwers istorikosi.
qalaqi valaSkerti mdebareobda saerTaSoriso mniSvnelobis gza-
ze, basianis aRmosavleT mxares.
am qalaqze gamavali gza erTmaneTTan aerTebda trapezuntsa (bi-
zantiasa) da sparseTs. X saukunis bolosaTvis aRmoCnda, rom am gzis
mniSvnelovani nawili qarTvelTa xelSi iyo, radganac isini aq sax-
lobdnen _ basianSi, taoSi, valaSkertidan Teodosiopolamde anu
arzrumamde, Cans araqssa da murad-sus Suac.
giorgi I-isaTvis aRniSnuli teritoria ar iyo Soreuli mxare, is
iyo qarTvelebiT dasaxlebuli miwa-wyali, romlisaganac iRebda kidec
did Zalas, gansakuTrebiT mkvidri didebulebis (aznaurebis) mxri-
dan. magaliTad, momijnave, kidev ufro samxreTiT mdebare turube-
ranis gavaris mmarTveloba jojik erisTavT-erisTavis sagvareulos
xelSi iyo moqceuli, isini iq mkvidrebi iyvnen, am qarTvel patriot-
Ta saxlis wevri iyo cnobili fersi jojikis Ze. is iyo memamule
vrceli miwebisa zemo araqssa da murad-sus Sua, romelsac tvar-
373
watafi erqva (e. metreveli, narkvevebi aTonis keris istoriidan, 1996,
gv. 32). iq, sadac qsenofontes qarTuli tomebi Sexvda (araqssa da
murad sus Sua). fersi jojikis Ze mudam saqarTvelos interesebis
damcveli iyo, uSiSari mebrZoli bizantielebis winaaRmdeg,
jer kidev 1001 wels iberiaSi Tavisi pirveli laSqrobis Semdeg
imperatorma basilim konstantinepolSi gadaasaxla fersi (feris)
jojokis Ze da misi Zma Tevdrati sxva didaznaurebis ojaxebTan er-
Tad, imedi hqondaT, rom isini iq daiviwyebdnen samSoblos, magram ara.
fersi 1019 wels dabrunda mSobliur miwa-wyalze da daiwyo ajanyeba
imperiis winaaRmdeg, imdenad STambeWdavi, rom imperatoris taxti
sagrZnoblad Seirya, kerZod, qarTvelTa qveynis siRrmeSi (basianSi)
basili II-is jaris dabanakebis Semdeg mis zurgSi momzadda didi ajan-
yeba imperatoris winaaRmdeg. keisris spaspetma da barda fokas Ze warve-
zim iseTi didi jari Sekribes, rom imperiis aRmosavleTi maT xelSi
moeqca `didad SeZrwunda amisTvis basili~ (sumbat daviTis Ze, cxovre-
ba bagrationTa, 1990, gv. 55). mojanyeTa erT-erTi ZiriTadi Zala qarTve-
li aznaurebi rom iyvnen, iqedanac Cans, rom gamarjvebis Semdeg ba-
sili II-m upirvelesad feris jojikis Ze daasjevina sikvdiliT.
ajanyebis Caqrobis Semdeg a. lastivertecis cnobiT basili II-s
upirveles saqmed miuCnevia fersis da misi siZis andronikes Sepyro-
ba `moiyvanes xaRtoiariWis cixe-simagremde, karinis sazRvarze, maT
miaRwies cixesimagris pirdapir mdebare mindors, iq SeCerdnen, moiyv-
anes fersi da andronike da Tavebi mohkveTes, es mefisagan iyo nabrZane-
bi, radganac fersi da andronike TavianTi ajanyebis dros afxazis mokav-
Sireni iyvnen da aRuTqves mas am adgilamde mTeli teritoriis micema,
vinaidan jer kidev winaT es adgilebi daviT kurapalats epyra~ (a. las-
tiverteci, istoria, gv. 50).
maSasadame, `qarTvelTa mTavari~ fersi anu feris jojikis Ze sxva
patriotebTan erTad miiyvanes karinis anu Teodosiopolis qveyana-
Si, radganac am qveynis gadacema surdaT maT `afxazTa~ mefisaTvis,
giorgi I-saTvis, da swored amitom basili II-m sagangebod aqve dasaja
isini.
rogorc iTqva, rom ar yofiliyo karineli qarTvelebis didi mx-
ardaWera, fersi jojikis Ze ver gadascemda am miwa-wyals saqarTve-
los (afxazTa) mefes.
374
am qveyanaSi mxolod ori Zala Canda (bizantiuri da qarTuli),
somexi patriotis a. lastivertecis naSromSi odnavi miniSnebac ki ar
aris imisa, rom iyo mesame _ somxuri Zala, romelsac Tavisi poli-
tikuri neba an zraxvebi hqonoda karinsa Tu basianSi, maSasadame,
rogorc Cans, feris `qarTvelTa mTavari~ azrumis (karinis) dasabrune-
blad ibrZoda, raTa saqarTvelos SemoerTeboda is, viTarca kidev erTi
qarTuli mxare.
rogorc iTqva, `qarTvelTa mTavris~ tituli hqonda aseve VII sauku-
neSi vaSdens (`qarTvelTa mTavars~), rac memkvidreobiT gadaecemoda
mis ojaxs. SesaZloa, am ojaxis memkvidre iyo feris jojikis Ze, Tum-
ca imJamad misi qveyana (anu tao da mimdebare mxareebi) somxuri ek-
lesiis iurisdiqciaSi iyo moqceuli. somxuri eklesiis udidesi naw-
ili VII s-Si qalkedonituri iyo, amitomac somxuri eklesiis mrev-
lisa da ierarqiis erT nawils maSin eTnikuri qarTvelebi Seadgendnen,
gansakuTrebiT taosa da mimdebare mxareebSi.
saeklesio iurisdiqciaTa cvlileba (XI s.)
ivane javaxiSvilis mier gamoTqmulia mosazreba, rom bizantiuri
administraciuli erTeuli _ iveriis anu iberiis Temi daaarsa imper-
atorma konstantinem, romelic romanozis Semdeg mefobda.
`bagrat IV-is Tanamedrove keisarma konstantinem bizantia-saqarTve-
los sazRvrebs gansakuTrebuli yuradReba miaqcia da daucxromlad
cdilobda TandaTanobiT rogorme gamoeglija saqarTvelosaTvis mona-
pire qveynebi. man daaarsa iveriis Temi - sakatepano, romelic Tavda-
pirvelad daviT kurapalatis samflobelosagan Sedgeboda, magram mere
sxva miwebic miemata~ (iv. javaxiSvili, Txzulebani, t. II, 1983, gv. 137).
am momentidan, Tu ufro adredan ara, mTlianad Seicvala saekle-
sio iurisdiqciac. kerZod, bizantiuri administraciuli erTeulis
iveriis Temiis daarseba TavisTavad gulisxmobda imas, rom am miwaze
qarTuli eklesiis adgils iWerda konstantinopolis sapatriarqo.
maSasadame, valaSkertis an banas qarTuli samamamTavro ukve eklesi-
375
urad aRar iyo uflebamosili iveriis Temis miwa-wyalze, mis adgils
axla daiWerda konstantinopolis romelime samitropolito.
iveriis Temi, rogorc aRiniSna moicavda daviT kurapalatis sam-
flobeloebs, kerZod, imier taos, basians, mis mimdebare vrcel qvey-
nebs vidre vanis tbamde, maT Soris valaSkertsac, dasavleTiT ki
albaT arzrumsac. am miwa-wyalze marTlac mravali qalkedonuri sae-
piskoposo iyo, romelnic konstantinopolma dauqvemdebara `lazikis
eparqias~.
konstantinopolis sapatriarqos lazikis eparqiis centri trape-
zunti iyo, axla misi sazRvrebi gaizarda, moicva iberiis Temic, anu
vrceli miwa-wyali vidre vanis tbamde.
imer taos teritoriebis meti wili `iberiis TemSi~ Sevida, Sesa-
bamisad gamoiyvanes qarTuli eklesiis iurisdiqciidan da dauqvem-
debares konstantinopolis patriarqs.
iberiis Temis Camoyalibebam Secvala bizantiuri iurisdiqcia, ker-
Zod es axali administraciuli erTeuli eklesiurad gadauciaT la-
zikis eparqiisaTvis, anu trapezuntis samitropolitosaTvis.
Sesabamisad, iberiis Temis daarsebis Semdeg konstantinopolis sa-
patriarqos lazikis eparqiaSi Sevida vrceli miwa-wyali mravali
saepiskoposoTi vanis tbis mimarTulebiT, iqamde isini Sedioda daviT
kurapalatis samefos tao-valaSkertis qarTul samamamTavroSi.
376
saba mtbevari, ezra anCeli, baneli ioane da
zaqaria valaSkerteli (XI s.)
(qarTulenovani samitropolito olqi bizantiis imperiaSi
(1001-1025 ww.)
qarTveli mRvdelmTavrebi, episkoposebi da TviT kaTalikos-mama-
mTavrebic aqtiurad monawileobdnen bizantia-saqarTvelos omisas
mxareTa dasazaveblad.
1021 wels trapezuntSi gamosazamTreblad dabanakebulma basilim
da saqarTvelos mTavrobam gadawyvites dazaveba, kerZod giorgi I
daTanxmda daeTmo daviT III kurapalatis sruli memkvidreoba. bizantias
dazaveba surda, giorgi I zavs daTanxmda iZulebiT.
zavis garantorebad basilim airCia saqarTvelos eklesiis meTau-
rebi.
imperatorma giorgi I-is elCebs Tan gaayola Tavisi warmomadgen-
lebi, raTa maTi TandaswrebiT qarTvelTa eklesiis meTaurebs piro-
ba CamoerTmiaT giorgi I-isaTvis, rom is aRar ibZrolebda daviT kura-
palatis memkvidreobisaTvis.
maleve basili II-is winaaRmdeg bizantiaSi moewyo didi ajanyeba
barda fokas Svilis nikiforesa da anatoliis mmarTvel qsifes me-
TaurobiT. saqarTvelos mTavroba miemxro ajanyebulebs. maSasadame,
miRweuli zavi dairRva.
radganac zavis garantori qarTuli eklesia iyo da zavis darRve-
vis gamo basili II aRar endoboda mas, miTumetes, rom ufro adre,
iberiaSi Semosvlis win aristakes lastivertecis TqmiT keisarma mefe
giorgisTan gaagzavna valaSkerteli qarTveli episkoposi zaqaria,
winadadebiT, xeli aeRo daviT III-is memkvidreobaze _ `tkbili sityve-
biT werda mas, rom rac memkvidreobiT Seni araa, xeli aiRe imaze, nu dami-
brkoleb gzas sparseTiskeno~.
valaSkertelma episkoposma zaqariam daarwmuna mefe giorgi I da-
Tanxmeboda basilis moTxovnebs, CamoarTva mefes xelwerili, rom is
uTmobda basils Tavisi winapris daviT kurapalatis memkvidreobas
da sixaruliT wavida imperatorTan, magram gzaSi mas daewia mefe
giorgis malemsrboli da moiTxova werilis ukan dabruneba.
377
xelmocaruli zaqaria valaSkerteli episkoposi arc imperatorma
Seiwynara, piriqiT, cilic daswama, TiTqos is ajanyebulebs emxrobo-
da. sabolood ki nawyenma basil meorem dasaja qarTveli episkoposi
imiT, rom Camoacila valaSkertis kaTedras, Tavis qveyanas da sacx-
ovreblad konstantinopolSi gaamgzavra.
lastivertecis cnobiT zaqarias imperatoris brZanebiT enac amo-
glijes, sxva cnobiT ki zaqarias ena mokveTes ara 1021 wels, aramed
Semdeg, daaxloebiT 1025 wels sxva ajanyebaSi monawileobis gamo.
garda basilisa, arc sxva imperatorebi swyalobdnen imJamad qarTul
eklesias.
imperator konstantines brZanebiT 1027 (1028) wels imperiis laSqar-
ma moarbia samxreT iberiis qveyana da zogadad didi safrTxe Seuqmna
saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebriobas _ mematianes sityviT `gandges kv-
alad aznaurni da warvides igini saberZneTs~ es imas niSnavs, rom qvey-
nis didebulebisa da aznaurebis erTma nawilma bizantiis saxelmwi-
fos gadasca sakuTari mamulebi da miwa-wyali da cixe-simagreebi da
romelTa sanacvlodac imperiaSi miiRes sxva miwa-wyali da sasaxlee-
bi, ase rom qveynis Sua gulSic bizantiis imperias samarTlebrivad
gauCnda sakuTari miwa-wyali, mamulebi da cixe-simagreebi. sumbat
daviTis Zis cnobiT bizantielebs wvrili eris erTi nawilic, anu
glexobac mimxrobia, xolo saqarTvelos mefem Tavisi laSqari moar-
ida mters, saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebriobisaTvis aseT umZimes dros
qveynis dacvis wminda saqme Tavis xelSi aiRo qarTulma eklesiam, ker-
Zod SavSeTis episkoposma saba mtbevarma da meore episkoposma, aseve
Zalze saxelovani kaTedris mRvdelmTavarma ezra anCelma.
episkoposebma saba mtbevarma da ezra anCelma Tavis xelSi aiRes
qveynis Tavdacvis organizaciis saqme, aaSenes Tavdacvis centri, didi
cixe-simagre e.w. `sveti~, da marTlac RvTis SewevniT SeiZleba iTq-
vas moxda namdvili saswaulebrivi movlena _ bizantiis laSqarma da
maTma meTaurma nikita parakimanosma, romelsac konstantine keisris
mier saqarTvelos winaaRmdeg brZola evaleboda, ver SeZles qarTveli
episkoposebis mier mowyobili TavdacviTi xazis garRveva.
mterma ver daimorCila `sveti~, anu rogorc aRvniSneT, ver Se-
Zles episkoposebis mier aRmarTuli cixe-simagris damorCileba.
378
sumbat daviTis Ze wers, rom svetsa mas Sina myofni `viTarca erT-
gulni da WeSmaritni martvilni saRmrToni TavTa TvisTa ganwirvides
da sisxlTa dasTxevdes sityvisaebr mociqulTasa da ganZlierdebodes~.
saba mtbevari ase amxnevebda Tavis mebrZolebs `numca Segvityue-
ben Cven liqnani ese da safaseni mswraflwarmavalni, aramed movigoT
madli erTgulebisa da gvirgvini axovanebisa~. aqedan Cans, rom ara
mxolod ubralo mebrZolebsa da `wvril ers~, aramed TviTon episko-
posebsac ki bizantieli agentebi pirdebodnen did simdidres Rala-
tis sanacvlod, iseve rogorc zemoT xsenebuli aznaurebi da dide-
bulebi moxibles bizantiaSi qonebis micemiT.
sabednierod, amjerad qarTulma eklesiam gaimarjva da bizantiele-
bi iZulebulebi gaxdnen daeTmoT.
yovelive zemoT aRniSnulma basili keisari, Semdeg ki konstantine
VIII da saerTod bizantiuri mTavroba ganawyo qarTuli eklesiis winaaRm-
deg, rac gamoixata qarTuli monastrebis berebis devniT bizantiis im-
periaSi XI s-is I naxevarSi.
qarTuli eklesia da qarTuli sasuliero pirebi gansakuTrebu-
lad idevnebodnen bizantiis mier dapyrobil daviT III kurapalatis
egreTwodebul samemkvidreo miwa-wyalze, anu arzrumidan vidre va-
nis tbamde, amis magaliTia zaqaria valaSkerteli episkoposis devna
da amis magaliTi unda iyos aseve baneli episkoposi iovanes saberZneTSi
wasvla. baneli episkopos iovanes bizantiaSi miwveva emsgavseba XIX s-Si
qarTlis kaTalikosis anton II-s ruseTSi miwvevas da gadasaxlebas.
rogorc aRiniSna, XI saukunis 20-ian wlebSi bizantielebma daviT
kurapalatis samemkvidro miwa-wyalze, misi dapyrobis Semdeg, daaarses
iberiis Temi.
iqamde, rogorc cnobili aris, taoSi, da mis xeldebul miwebze,
arsebobda qarTuli samrevloebi, qarTuli monastrebi da qarTuli
saepiskoposoebi - amier taoSi banas cnobili samRvdelmTavro kaTe-
dra, imier taos samefoSi, rogorc Cans, msgavsi Rirsebisa da dide-
bulebis mqone qarTuli samRvdelmTavro kaTedra iyo qalaq val-
aSkertSi.
qalaqi valaSkerti (Tanamedrove elaSkerti) mdebareobda basian-
is sazRvarTan axlos, erT-erT umTavres saerTaSoriso savaWro gza-
379
ze, ufro metic am qalaqTan ikvreboda savaWro gzebis kvanZi. q. val-
aSkertSi, magaliTad daibanaka daviT kurapalatma, rodesac is vanis
tbisaken gaemgzavra manaskertisa da arWeSis gasaTavisufleblad mah-
madianTa batonobisagan.
valaSketeli episkoposi zaqaria cnobili qarTveli saeklesio
moRvawe iyo. rogorc aRvniSneT, is 1021 wels basili II-m gaagzavna
giorgi I-Tan mosalaparakeblad.
wyaroebSi sakmaod xSirad valaSkertel episkoposs ewodeba aseve
mamaTmTavari. is aseve yofila baneli svingelozi.
mamaTmTavari, saeklesio samarTlis terminia da aris Targmani si-
tyvisa patriarqi.
`mamaTmTavaris~ maRali sasuliero wodeba taos damoukidebeli sa-
xelmwifos SemTxvevaSi, Cans, gulisxmobda samitropolito olqis me-
Taurobas.
rogorc viciT samitropolito olqis meTaurs, anu mitropolits
Tavis xelqveviT hyavda episkoposebi, romelTa kurTxevis uflebac
mas hqonda. aseTi iyo pirvelqristianuli eklesiis mowyobis wesi.
aseTi gagebiT saqarTvelos sapatriarqoSi, ZiriTadaT, ori samit-
ropolito olqi arsebobda: qarTlis sakaTalikoso da afxazeTis
sakaTalikoso, oRond maT meTaurebs ara mitropoliti, anda arqiepisko-
posi, aramed kaTalikosi (sayovelTao episkoposi) ewodeboda.
IX-X ss-Si, saqarTvelos eklesiis sazRvrebis zrdis kvaldakval,
axalwarmoqmnil qarTul saxelmwifoebriv erTeulebSi qarTuli samit-
ropolito olqebic yalibdeboda magaliTad erTi aseTi iyo afxaze-
Tis sakaTalikoso _ TavisTavadi qarTuli saeklesio-administraci-
uli erTeuli, rogorc Cans XIV-XV saukuneebSi Crdilo kavkasiaSi
daRestanSi Camoyalibebula meore aseTi saeklesio erTeuli xunZe-
Tis sakaTalikoso, moRweulia misi meTauris saxeli _ `xunZeli kaTa-
likosi oqropiri~. rogorc Cans mas daqvemdebarebaSi sakuTari
saepiskoposoebic hyavda, albaT waxurisa, anwuxisa da sxva, anu xun-
ZeTis sakaTalikoso, afxazeTis sakaTalikosos msgavsad warmoadgen-
da berZnuli gagebiT samitropolito olqs.
Cven gamovTqvamT Tvalsazriss, rom SesaZloa daviT III kurapala-
tis vrclad gadaSlil miwa-wyalze olTisidan arzrumamde da vanis
380
tbamde viTarca damoukidebel samefoSi Camoyalibda axali qarTuli
saeklesio erTeuli, samitropolito olqis statusis mqone, iseTive
rogorebic iqamdec iyvnen, vTqvaT qarTlis sakaTalikoso, anda afx-
azeTis sakaTalikoso, xolo am axali samitropolito olqis meTaurs
gaaCnda ara wodeba kaTalikosisa, aramed mamaTmTavrisa.
Cven vfiqrobT, aseTi xanmokle rom ar yofiliyo daviT kurapa-
latis samxreT taos samefos arseboba, aRniSnuli qarTuli samitro-
polito olqi arzrumidan vanis tbamde albaT realur saxes miiReb-
da, magram rogorc Cans misi arseboba gagrZelda sul ramdenime aTeu-
li weli da zaqaria valaSkertelTan erTad gaqra asparezidan.
aRniSnul teritoriaze, rogorc vTqviT, Semdeg bizantiuri `iberi-
is Temi~ Camoyalibda, romlis miwawyalze, daviT kurapalatis yofil
samefoSi iqamde arsebuli qarTuli marTlmadidebluri saepiskopo-
soebi bizantiam SeuerTa lazikis, anu trapezuntis samitropolito
olqs.
albaT, iberiis Temis daarsebamde atarebda zaqaria valaSkerteli
mamaTmTavris tituls e.i XI s-is 20-25-ian wlebamde.
eqvTime mTawmindelis mier Targmnil da zaqaria valaSkertelisa-
Tvis gadaweril sjuliskanonis minawerebSi ikiTxeba `ufalo ieso
qriste adide wmida mamaTmTavari zaqaria valaSkerteli~, da `RmerTo
adide zaqaria mamaTmTavari aqa da saukunesa~ (T. Jordania. qronikebi,
t. I, gv. 155).
T. Jordanias cnobiT yofila aseve sxva wignis minaweri `qriste
adide orTave Sina cxovrebaTa zaqaria mamaTmTavari, banaeli svin-
gelozi~ da aRniSnavs, rom zaqaria valaSkerteli unda gamdxariyos
banel svingelozado. SesaZloa zaqaria valaSkerteli da baneli svin-
gelozi sxvadsaxva piri iyo.
v. kopaliani wers `Tu zaqaria valaSkerteli iyo maSin roca mas
ena mohkveTes, amis Semdeg is baneli svingelozi ver gaxdeboda.
rogorc Cans zaqarias ena mohkveTes ara 1021 wels, aramed 1025 wels,
radganac skilice zaqarias 1025 wlis SeTqmulebis monawiled, da
amis gamo dasjilad Tvlis (v. kopaliani, dasax. naSr. gv. 115). Sesa-
Zloa 1021 wlamde valaSkerteli zaqaria 1025 wlamde baneli svinge-
lozi gaxda, albaT konstantinepolSi misces mas es sapatio wodeba mas
Semdeg rac iovane banelma episkoposma banas kaTedra datova.
381
amasTan dakavSirebiT mniSvnelovania v. kopalianis mosazreba _
`SeiZleba danamdvilebiT iTqvas, rom zaqaria ara saqarTvelos samefo-
Si Semavali saeklesio obieqtis mamaTmTavari aramed, qarTuli pro-
vinciis, magram bizantiis imperiis mier dapyrobili romeliRac saek-
lesio centrisa da misi mrevlis mamaTmTavaria~ (v. kopaliani, sa-
qarTvelosa da bizantiis politikuri urTierToba 970-1070 wlebSi,
1969, gv. 116).
Cven veTanxmebiT am mosazrebas da migvaCnia, rom zaqaria iyo mamaT-
mTavari daviT kurapalatis samefos marTlmadidebeli mrevlisa,
xolo mas Semdeg rac 1001 wels es samefo daipyro bizantiam, bizan-
tia erT xans kidev iTmenda am dapyrobil qveyanaSi am qarTuli saekle-
sio olqis arsebobas, Tumca ki misi mamaTmTavari konstantinepolSi iyo
gadasaxlebuli, xolo 1025 wlidan zaqarias dasjis Semdeg qarTuli
samitropolito olqi gauqmda da iberiis Temis marTlmadidebeli mrev-
li gadaeca trapezuntis, anu lazikis mitropolits.
am gadacemamde, anu 1001 wlidan 1025 wlamde TiTqmis meoTxedi
saukunis ganmavlobaSi bizantiaSi moRvawe qarTveli sasuliero pire-
bi yoveli RonisZiebiT Tavdadebuli SromiT cdilobdnen rogorme
SeenarCunebinaT taos yofil teritoriaze eklesiis qarTulenovneba,
raTa aRniSnuli miwa-wylis eklesiebsa da saepiskoposo kaTedrebSi
wirva-locva yofiliyo kvlav qarTulenovani. rogorc Cans berZenTa
mxridan es wamowyeba did winaaRmdegobas awydeboda, berZnebs ar See-
ZloT pirdapiri uariT qarTveli mrevlisaTvis qarTulenovani wir-
va-locvis akrZalva, amitomac eZebdnen sababs. gamoCenilan `mayve-
dreblebi~, romlebic amtkicebdnen, rom qarTuli wminda werili ar
iyo sworad Targmnili, rom mas raRac monofizituri biwi gaaCnda,
radganac somxuri redaqciebidan iyo Targmnili.
giorgi mcire, Tavis `giorgi mTawmidelis cxovrebaSi~ aRniSnavs
kidec, rom qarTuli saeklesio literaturis nawili namdvilad iyo
Targmnili somxuridan. unda vifiqroT, rom aTonis mTis wmida mama-
Ta mTeli SemarTeba, raTa berZnulidan eTargmnaT saeklesio liter-
atura mizanmimarTulad emsaxureboda iberiis TemSi qarTulenovani
RvTismsaxurebis SenarCunebis saqmes, raTa qarTulenovani wirva-lo-
cva ar aekrZalaT, raime momizezebiT, da mis nacvlad ar daenergaT
berZnulenovani wirva-locva.
382
giorgi mcires sityviT, braldebaTa gamo, iverTa monasterSi, aTo-
nis wminda mTaze, eqvTime mTawmindelma wamoiwyo didi Sroma, raTa
qarTuli wminda wignebi SeejerebinaT da gaesworebinaT imJamad miRe-
buli berZnuli redaqciebis mixedviT. am Sromas eweoda radenime
Taoba, magram, pirveli, eqvTime mTawmidelisa da zaqaria valaSkerte-
lis Taobis SemarTeba am mxriv gasaocari iyo.
sabolood mainc, samxreT taos qarTuli samefo iqca berZnul
`iberiis Temad~, saidanac gaZevebuli iqmna qarTuli saeklesio ier-
arqia da is eklesiurad konstantinopolis sapatriarqos lazikis
eparqiis nawilad iqca.
zaqaria mamaTmTavari aqtiurad TanamSromlobda aTonis mTis mTarg-
mnel mamebTan, raTa Tavis eparqiis mrevlisaTvis `ubiwo~ qarTul-
enovani liturgikuli literatura SeeTavazebina, rom amiT berZen
`mabralobelTa~ guli moego, magram politikuri mizezebis gamo misi
Sroma amao aRmoCnda, mis mrevls qarTulis nacvlad berZnulenovani
wirva-locva dauweses.
Cans, Crdilo taos umTavresi saeklesio centri banac iberiis Temma
SeierTa.
am didi saeklesio marcxis Semdegac, roca qarTvelma mamebma ver
SeZles `iberiis TemSi~ qarTulenovani eparqiis SenarCuneba (Tundac
konstantinopolis sapatriarqos iurisdiqciaSi), isini ukve iRvwod-
nen raTa danarCeni saqarTvelos mrevls mainc SeenarCunebina erovnul-
eklesiuri TavisTavadoba.
unda iTqvas, rom XI s-is 20-50-iani wlebSi qarTuli eklesiis Tav-
dadebuli brZola saqarTvelos TavisuflebisaTvis mtrulad ganaw-
yobda bizantiis saxelmwifo da saeklesio centrebs qarTuli ek-
lesiis mimarT.
mTel bizantiis imperiaSi dawyebuli devna qarTuli sasuliero
pirebisa da monastrebisa gagrZelda 1054-1057 wlebamde da ZiriTadad
Sewyda bagrat IV-s konstantinepolSi Casvlis da molaparakebaTa dam-
Tavrebis Semdeg.
383
`iberiis TemSi~ qarTulenovani
eparqiis gauqmeba (XI s.)
saeklesio iurisdiqcia, rogorc wesi, asaxavs politikur cvlile-
bas. Sesabamisad, taos samefos gauqmebam da misi teritoriebis bizan-
tiis imperiaSi Seyvanam saeklesio iurisdiqciac Secvala.
iqamde taos qarTuli eparqia Tavisi qarTulenovani saepiskoposo
kaTedrebiTa da monastrebiT brwyinavda mTel qarTul eklesiaSi,
magram, mas Semdeg, rac taos `qarTvelTa samefo~ gaauqma bizantiis
imperiam da mis teritoriaze Tavisi administraciuli erTeuli `iberi-
is Temi~ daaarsa, Seicvala saeklesio iurisdiqciac.
axla ukve taos yofil samefoSi, romelic vrcel `iberiis Temad~
gadaiqca, qarTuli eklesiis adgili konstantinopolis sapatriarqom
daiWira.
`iberiis Temis~ qarTuli eklesia-monastrebi konstantinopolis
iurisdiqcias, kerZod lazikis samitropolitos daeqvemdebara.
konstantinopolis iurisdiqciaSi yofna cxadia iTvaliswinebda
berZnulenovan wirva-locvas, magram es mkacrad savaldebulo ar iyo
pirvel etapze mainc.
rogorc masala miuTiTebs, qarTveli mamebi XI saukunis 20-30-ian
wlebSi (da Semdegac) ibrZodnen imisaTvis, raTa bizantiaSi Semavali
`iberiis Temis~ eparqia yofiliyo qarTulenovani, rom konstanti-
nopolis sapatriarqoSi Sesul am miwa-wyalze eklesia-monastrebSi
qarTulenovani wirva-locva SenarCunebuliyo, Seabamisi qarTulen-
ovani wignebiT, galobiTa da sxva wesebiT.
erTi sityviT, qarTvel mamebs surdaT, konstantinopolis sapatri-
arqos `iberiis Temis~ eparqia qarTulenovani yofiliyo. am ideis mTa-
vari sulisCamdgmeli da ganmaxorcielebeli iyo valaSkerteli qarTve-
li episkoposi zaqaria. marTalia igi konstantinopolSi iyo gadasax-
lebuli imperator basili II-is mier, magram Cans inarCunebda saekle-
sio Tanamdebobebsa da xarisxebs, Cans, is svingelozadac iwodeboda.
konstantinopolis patriarqis mekare beri _ svingelozi maRali
wodeba iyo da rogorc wesi eniWeboda sxvebTan erTad iberiel didg-
varovnebs (patrikiosma Tornike erisTavma barda skliarosTan gama-
384
rjvebis Semdeg svingelozis wodeba miiRo), Cans zaqaria valaSkerte-
li iberieli didgvarovani iyo da daimsaxura es wodeba.
zaqaria valaSkerteli konstantinopolSi didad iRvwoda, raTa
iberiis Temis eparqia qarTulenovani yofiliyo da man did warmate-
basac miaRwia, magram XI s-is 30-ian wlebSi imperatoris winaaRmdeg
SeTqmuleba dabralda, risTvisac daisaja.
unda vifiqroT, rom zaqaria valaSkertelis dasjis Semdeg, e. i.
XI s-is 30-50-iani wlebidan `iberiis Temis~ eparqia ukve uSualod
daeqvemdebara trapezuntis samitropolitos da gaerTianebuli iqna
lazikis berZnulenovan eparqiaSi. amiT `iberiis Temis~, ase vTqvaT,
kulturuli avtonomiuroba gauqmda.
magram, amas Znelad eguebodnen qarTveli mamebi da XI saukunis pir-
vel naxevarSi, gardamaval etapze, bizantia-saqarTvelos zavis dade-
bamde (1054-1057 wlebamde), Tavdauzogavad iRwodnen `iberiis Temis~
saeklesio qarTulenovnebisaTvis.
maT winaaRmdeg `iberiis Temis~ berZnulenovnebis mosurne bizan-
tiel sasuliero pirebs namdvili omi hqondaT gaCaRebuli kulturis
sferoSi. kerZod, bizantieli mamebi moiTxovdnen qarTulenovani wig-
nebis, wmida werilis amoRebas iberiis Temis saeklesio praqtikidan,
radganac, maTi mtkicebiT qarTuli wignebi arasworad iyo Targmnili,
miuTiTebdnen, rom isini Targmnilni iyvnen somxuri redaqciebis e. i.
biwieri, araswori, Seryvnili teqstebidan, amis Sesaxeb vrclad weren
aTonis mTis mamaTa Rvawlis aRmweri mwerlebi.
amis gamo, XI saukunis mTeli pirveli naxevari mieZRvna qarTuli
redaqciebis berZnulis mixedviT Casworebas. mTargmnelobiTi muSaobis
saTaveebTan idgnen taoeli, zogadad `iberiis Temidan~ gamosuli
qarTveli mamebi. berZnulis mixedviT Targmna-redaqtirebis es pro-
cesi daiwyo gansakuTrebiT keisar basilis tao-basianSi 1001 wels
laSqrobis Semdeg, radganac maSin ukve Seerya taos qarTul eparqias
safuZveli.
samwuxarod, didi, grandiozuli SemoqmedebiTi samuSaos Sesruleb-
is miuxedavad ver moxerxda SenarCuneba `iberiis Temis~ eparqiis
qarTulenovnebisa. marTalia, misi zogierTi eklesia-monasteri kv-
lav qarTulenovani tipikoniT moqmedebda, magram sabolood mTli-
anad `iberiis Temis~ eparqia berZnulenovani gaxda.
385
`iberiis Temis~ miwa-wyali, rogorc iTqva, miuerTes lazikis ber-
Znul eparqias, romlis samitropolito centri trapezuntSi mdeba-
reobda. e.i. 1001 wlidan 1030-ian wlebamde es eparqia qarTulenovani
iyo, xolo 30-70-ian wlebSi TandaTan berZnulenovnad iqca.
iqamde, basili II-is SemoWramde, 1001 wlamde, imier taos `qarTvelTa
samefoSi~ Semavali miwa-wylis sasuliero centrad gamocxadda q.
valaSkerti (p. ingoroyva. giorgi merCule, 1954, gv. 67-68) da val-
aSkerteli episkoposi faqtiur mitropolits warmoadgenda, romel-
ic meTaurobda taos mier axladSemoerTebuli qveynebis qarTul ek-
lesia-monastrebs, Tavis mxriv, es qarTuli eparqia mcxeTas eqvemde-
bareboda ukve X s-is 70-iani wlebidan. valaSkertis eparqiis iuris-
diqciaSi Cans Sedioda qarTvelTa mier gaTavisuflebuli miwa-wyali
_ `zemoni qveyanani~ Sesulni taos samefoSi.
am vrceli mxareebis mkvidrma qarTvelma mosaxleobam gaTavisuf-
lebisTanave gadaigdo somxuri saeklesio uReli da daubrunda de-
daqarTul eklesias, romelsac mowyvetili iyo saukuneTa manZilze.
maTi sulieri mamebi, eTnikurad aseve qarTvelebi, Cans iqamdec,
gaTavisuflebamdec, zrunavdnen, raTa maT mrevls ar daekarga erov-
nul-qarTuli identoba, TviTSemecneba da qalkedonuri sarwmunoe-
ba. ase ukve Semzadebulma qarTulma mrevlma Seadgina mTeli sisavse
valaSkertis eparqiis mravalricxvovani samwysosi.
es SeuZlebeli iqneboda Tu ara mrevlis saojaxo qarTulenovne-
ba da maTi didi survili dabrunebodnen dedaeklesias. daviT kura-
palatma maTi didi xnis ocneba aRasrula. daviT kurapalatis dros,
isini qarTuli saxelmwifos moqalaqeebad iqcnen, iq moRvawe suli-
erma qarTvelma mamebma ki ganagrZes iqamde, didi xniT adre dawyebu-
li saqme.
saubedurod, es didi erovnul-eklesiuri aRtkineba umowyalod Cak-
la bizantiis jarma da imperatorma basil II-m, romelic 1001 wels Sevi-
da taoSi, daviT kurapalatis memkvidreobis misaRebad.
1018 wels basil II meored SemoiWra saqarTveloSi kidev ufro
didi jariT, qarTuli jari ukuiqca, mterma kola-artaani da javax-
eTi gaanadgura basianTan da taosTan erTad. 1022 wels daido qar-
TvelTaTvis mZime zavi. imperiaSi daiwyo qarTveli berebis, saerTod
386
qarTvelebis devna. e. xinTibaZis sityviT, saimperatoro karze iberTa
saxeli imperiis orgul mterTa saZulvel saxelebs Soris ixsenieboda.
basili II-s am dapyrobil iveriis miwebze Seuqmnia samxedro-admin-
istraciuli erTeuli `iberiis sakatepano~, igive `iberiis Temi~, mis
erT-erT mmarTvels `matiane qarTlisa~ uwodebs `aRmosavleTis ka-
tabans~, romelsac iqamde mZevlad wayvanili yrma bagrat IV konstan-
tinopolidan amier taoSi daubrunebia.
`iberiis TemSi~, anu e.w. `aRmosavleTSi~ zogierTi istorikosis
TvalsazrisiT, Sedioda _ imier tao, Crdilo basiani, olTisi, Tor-
Tomi, da aseve kola, artaani, SavSeTi, javaxeTi da aseve is vrceli
miwa-wyali, romelic Sedioda araqs-evfratis xeobebSi.
v. goilaZis azriT am qveynebis mierTebisTanave imperiis eklesiam
Tavisi iurisdiqcia gaavrcela maTze, amis gamo misi azriT oSkis
cnobili taZaric ki am periodSi imperiis eklesiaSi Sedioda, (v. goil-
aZe, bizantiis aRmosavluri politikis asaxva qarTul epografikaSi,
2008, gv. 122).
bizantiis imperiis eklesiaSi Sesula daviT kurapalatis samefos
mTeli teritoria (iqve, gv. 125).
imperiis SemadgenlobaSi es qarTuli teritoriebi darCenila 1001
wlidan 1072-74 wlebamde _ Turq-selCukebis mier maT dapyrobamde.
valaSkerti, romelic iqamde imier taos samefos sasuliero cen-
tri iyo _ konstantinopolis sapatriarqos iurisdiqcias daeqvemde-
bara oSkis taZarTan da sxva qarTul eklesia-monastrebTan erTad
(ix. iqve, gv. 137). Tumca isic unda iTqvas, rom 1018 wlamde bizantiis
batonoba am miwaze ar iyo myari, aq isev igrZnoboda qarTuli sax-
elmwifos xeli.
XI saukunis 30-ian wlebamde, rogorc iTqva, qarTveli sasuliero
pirebi cdilobdnen SeenarCunebinaT bizantiis imperiaSi Sesuli am
miwa-wylis eklesiebis qarTulenovneba. qarTuli wmida werilis xe-
laxalma redaqtirebam, berZnul redaqciebTan Sedarebam, TiTqmis
naxevari saukune moicva.
sabolood ki mainc iberiis Temis eparqia berZnulenovani gaxda
zogadi TvalsazrisiT, Tumca eklesia-monastrebis arcTu mcire naw-
ilma SeinarCuna qarTulenovneba.
387
daviT kurapalatis yofili samefos qarTuli saepiskoposoebis mrev-
li Semdgom saukuneebSic qarTuli eklesiis wevrad darCa Turq-sel-
Cukebisa da osmalebis batonobis drosac ki, aseTebi iyvnen ara mxolod
oSkisa, banasa Tu xaxulis, aramed valaSkertisa da arzrumis da sxva
qarTveli saepiskopsoebis mrevlic.
valaSkertis samamamTavro da lazikis
samitropolito (XI s.)
ZiriTadi saeklesio administraciuli erTeulis _ samitropoli-
tos meTaurs anu mitropolits, rogorc cnobilia, Tavis uSualo
daqvemdebarebaSi hyavs sakuTari episkoposebi. aseTi saeklesio erTeu-
lebi saqarTveloSi, rogorc iTqva, iyo qarTlisa da afxazeTis sakaTa-
likosoebi (kaTalikosi iseTive saeklesio xelisufali iyo, rogoric
berZnul eklesiaSi aris mitropoliti).
sazogadod, msoflio pirvelqristianul eklesiaSi samitropoli-
to olqTa iurisdiqcia vrceldeboda mis momcvel adgilobriv poli-
tikur-administraciul erTeulebze, eseni iyvnen Tavis droze ro-
mauli provinciebi, Semdeg bizantiuri teritoriuli politikuri
erTeulebi.
saqarTveloSic afxazeTis sakaTalikosos iurisdiqcia vrcelde-
boda afxazTa samefos farglebSi, mcxeTisa _ danarCeni saqarTve-
los farglebSi.
valaSkertis samamamTavros, anu valaSkertis `samitropolito
olqis~ iurisdiqcia, Cans, vrceldeboda taos samefos (imier taos)
farglebSi. taos samefo Tavdapirvelad moicavda imier taos, Semdgom,
daviT kurapalatis dros mas miuerTda vrceli miwebi e.w. `zemoni
qveyanani~, gadaWimuli TiTqmis vanis tbamde. maSasadame, am miwa-wylis
momcveli `taos samefo~ iyo valaSkertis `mamamTavris~ iurisdiqciis
qveS. sxva sityviT rom vTqvaT, saqarTvelos eklesiaSi iyo imdeni
sakaTalikoso erTeuli, ramdeni politikuri erTeuli anu `samefoc~
arsebobda qveyanaSi, Tumca kaxeTis samefos SigniT arsebobda Tu
388
ara aseTi `samitropolito~ CvenTvis ucnobia, aq SeiZleba iyos
gamonaklisi, radganac kaxeTs Tavdapirvelad qorepiskoposebi mar-
Tavdnen viTarca saero-saeklesio xelisufalni, qorepiskoposebi ki
mcxeTeli kaTalikosis xelqveiTebi iyvnen. Cans, kaxeTis saqorepisko-
poso Zveli qarTlis samefos saeklesio iurisdiqciaSi iyo. afxazeT-
Si viTarca TavisTavad samefoSi _ saeklesio iurisdiqcias adgilo-
brivi mitropoliti, anu kaTalikosi axorcielebda, afxazeTis ga-
reT msgavsi politikuri erTeulebi, rogorc iTqva, iyo qarTlisa
da taos samefoebi. maSasadame, Cveni azriT, taos sazRvrebSi Camoy-
alibda taos qarTuli saeklesio-administraciuli erTeuli _ taos
samamaTmTavro, romlis iurisdiqcia TiTqmis vanis tbamde ganivrco.
`naTesaviT qarTvelni~ (grigol bakurianis Ze)
iberiaSi mosvlisas basili keisarma zavi Sekra Sida iberiis mmarT-
velTan da bizantiaSi mZevlebad `waiyvana iberiis didgvarianebi,
romelTagan umTavresni iyvnen bakuriani, Tevdrate da fersi, RviZli
Zmebi~ _ wers kedrene (georgika, V, gv. 45).
SemdegSi cnobili didebuli, iberieli didgvarovani _ grigoli -
iyo erT-erTi am gadasaxlebulis _ bakurianis Ze.
grigoli TviTonve aRniSnavs Tu vin iyo is _ `var RviZli Svili
netari bakurianisa, brwyinvale erisTav-erisTavisa, warmoSobiT var
aRmosavleTis mxareebidan iberTa ubrwyinvalesi gvaridan~ (georgika,
V, gv. 99).
Tavis erovnuli warmomavlobis, Tavisi qarTvelobis Sesaxeb grigo-
li petriwonis monastris tipikonSi aRniSnavs _ Cven varT mamaci
qarTvelebi da gamovlili gvaqvs yovelgvari samxedro cxovrebao _
`romelni ese mkvidr varT monastersa amas Sina... qarTvelni varT naTe-
saviT mxneni da mxedrobaTa Sina aRzrdilni~.
grigol bakurianis Ze amayobda Tavisi qarTuli warmoSobiT, qarTve-
lebs mxne anu mamac ers uwodebda, samxedro saqmeSi daxelovnebuls
(SeiZleba isic vifiqroT, rom grigolma, mxedarTmTavarma, Tavis
389
monasterSi Sekriba ukve moxucebuli (demobilizebuli) qarTveli
jariskacebi, romelTac beroba gadawyvites).
Tanamedrove somexi mecnierebi grigols eTnikur somxad miiCn-
even, romelsac TiTqosda `naTesaviT qarTveli~ marTlmadideblo-
bis gamo erqva.
petriwonis tipikonSi, iseve, rogorc yvelgan, sityva `naTesavi~
erovnul vinaobas, eTnikur warmomavlobas aRniSnavs da ara sarwmu-
noebriv orientacias. grigoli wers `varT qarTvelni naTesaviT mxne-
ni~. is mxne anu gmiruli, heroikuli suliskveTebis mqone eris, `qar-
TvelTa naTesavis~ wevria da ara heroikuli konfesiisa. konfesias
`mxnes~ aravin uwodebs, rac Seexeba erebs, zogi heroikuli, meomru-
li suliskveTebisaa, zogi ki ara.
v. kopaliani aRniSnavs, rom grigols (maSasadame, aseve Tevdrates,
ferss, bakurians, zaqaria valaSkertelsa da sxvebs) qarTvelad miiC-
nevdnen TviT maTi Tanamedrove somexi avtorebi _ stefanoz tarne-
li, maTe edeseli, aristakes lastiverteci (is grigolis naTesav
zaqaria valaSkertels `qarTvels~ uwodebs), sxva avtorebidan iahia
antioqieli, skilice, kedrene da sxvebi (v. kopaliani, saqarTvelosa
da bizantiis politikuri urTierToba 970-1070 wlebSi, 1969, gv. 307).
ana komnene grigols somexs uwodebs, Cans imis gamo, rom grigolis
mamuls _ taos, basians, vanands Tu karins zogadad `armeniis~ olqe-
bad miiCnevdnen ukve mis Semdeg, rac pariadre, xorZena da gogarena
armeniis mefeebma iberebisagan miitaces jer kidev qristeSobamde.
grigoli im iberTa Rirseuli STamomavali iyo, romelnic ukve arme-
niad wodebul regionSi cxovrobdnen.
grigolis ojaxis yvela wevri saqarTvelosaTvis Tavdadebuli iyo.
erT-erTi iyo bizantiaSi gadasaxlebuli feris jojikis Ze, is
cdilobda rogorme CamoeSorebina saimperatoro taxtidan basili,
romelmac daipyro samxreT tao da mospo iq qarTuli saxelmwifoe-
brioba. feriss unari Seswevda da SeZlo kidec basilis sawinaaRm-
dego did ajanyebaSi aqtiuri monawileobis miReba. is marTlac ajan-
yda. grigolis biZas feris jojikis Zes samSoblosaTvis Tavganwirvis
gamo `Tavi warekveTa~ bizantiis imperatoris brZanebiT.
390
ajanyebis damarcxebis Semdeg, daaxloebiT 1022 wels, feris jojikis
Ze basilma daasjevina Tavis sakuTar mamulTan axlos karinis qveya-
naSi. ajanyeba iseTi didi masStabis iyo, rom basilis samxedro banaki
`SiSma da Zrwolam moicva~.
1025 wels samSoblos gasaTavisufleblad mowyobil sxva ajanyeba-
Si monawileobisaTvis dasajes grigolis ojaxis wevri zaqaria val-
aSkerteli episkoposi. Tavis mxriv is iyo aseve iberiis Tavisufleb-
isaTvis dasjili _ `Tevdrate patrikiosis naTesavi~. amave ojaxidan
iyvnen Tevdrates ZmisSvilebi, samSoblos damoukideblobisaTvis
SemdgomSi ajanyebuli cnobili pirebi giorgi da varazvaCe. Tevdrates,
rogorc viciT ori Zma hyavda bakuriani da ferisi, bakurianis Svilebis
saxelebi cnobilia, amitomac fiqrobs v. kopaliani `iqneb fersis
Svilebi arian giorgi da varazvaCe~ (v. kopaliani, saqarTvelosa da
bizantiis politikuri urTierToba 970-1070 wlebSi, 1969, gv. 174).
imperatori romanoz argvirosis sawinaaRmdego SeTqmulebaSi monaw-
ileobisaTvis kedrenes sityviT 1028 w. `Teodosi patrikis ZmisSvilebi
giorgi da varazvaCe garozges da saxalxod gamoyvanilni gadaasax-
les~ (iqve, gv. 172).
kopaliani eTanxmeba n. skabalanoviCs da miiCnevs, rom konstantine
VIII-s mier dasjili zaqaria valaSkerteli naTesavi unda yofiliyo
giorgisa da varazvaCesi.
aRsaniSnavia, rom romanozis winaaRmdeg ajanyebaSi monawileobi-
saTvis dasajes agreTve mesame winamZRvari iverTa monastrisa gior-
gi maSenebeli (giorgi ukeTuri). k. kekeliZe fiqrobda, rom zemoT
aRniSnul giorgi da varazvaCe ara ori, aramed erTi piri iyvnen,
igive giorgi maSenebeli, rasac ar eTanxmebian sxva mkvlevarebi, rad-
ganac maT miiCneven ara sasuliero, aramed saero pirebad.
iberiis Tavisuflebis ZiebisaTvis ase daisajnen mravalgzis ajan-
yebuli saxelovani qarTveli didebulebi, grigolis naTesavebi.
dapyrobis Semdgom bizantiam ver upatrona da mtrisagan ver da-
icva samxreT iberia.
piriqiT `mxne iberielTa~ damarcxebam Turq-seljukebs gza gauxs-
na konstantinopolisaken.
391
samxreT taos samefos yofili miwa-wyalis aoxrebiT mters gza
gaexsna trapezuntisa da bizantiis siRrmeebisaken.
aseT dros, Cans, bizantiaSi maRali Tanamdebobis qarTvelebi cdi-
lobdnen daeTanxmebinaT saimperatoro kari, raTa kvlav saqarTve-
los SemadgenlobaSi dabrunebuliyo samxreT iberiis nawili mainc.
erTi aseTi moRvawe yofila grigol bakurianis Ze, romelic pi-
radad eaxla banaSi saqarTvelos mefe giorgi II-s da mas bizantiis
saxeliT gadaeca qalaq kari (yarsi).
mematianis cnobiT, grigol bakurianis Zis xelSi yofila imJamad
olTisi (samxreT taos yofili dedaqalaqi) da aseve arzrumi (karnu
qalaqi).
giorgi II-s kari (yarsi) gadaeca misi mimdgomi qveyniT anu vanandiT.
ufro adre, daviT kurapalatis epoqaSi qarTvelTa samefo sao-
cari siswrafiT gaizarda, misi sazRvrebi TiTqmis vanis tbamde gada-
iwia, rogorc iTqva, es SeuZlebeli iqneboda evfratis saTaveebisa
da vanis tbis dasavleTiT mcxovrebi mosaxleoba rom ar yofiliyo
eTnikuri qarTveloba, romelTac surdaT da natrobdnen qarTul
saxelmwifoSi cxovrebas.
qarTvelebis ricxvi aRniSnul regionebSi Zalze didi rom iyo,
iqedanac Cans, rom am movlenis axsnas Cveni Tanamedrove somexi is-
torikosebi imiT uZebnian, rom isini e.w. `qalkedoniti somxebi~ iyvnen,
romelnic TiTqosda `gaqarTveldnen~. sinamdvileSi ki, isini iyvnen
pirdapiri STamomavalni fasianebis, qaldebisa da taoxebis im qarTu-
li tomebisa, romelnic qsenofontem am adgilebSi ixila qristeSo-
bamde 400 wliT adre da romelTa erovnul-eTnikuri qarTuli iden-
toba mkveTrad gamoikveTa daviT kurapalatis epoqaSi, rac grigol
bakurianis drosac grZeldeboda.
392
qarTuli saepiskoposoebi
yofili mesxeTis miwebze
(XII-XVI s. `qronikebis~ mixedviT)
samxreT iberiis didma nawilma XI-XII ss-Si SeZlo im didi Wrilobeb-
is moSuSeba, romelic mas miadga bizantiis imperatorebisa da Turq-
seljukebis SemosevaTa Semdeg. qarTveloba kvlav gamravlda da mrava-
li saepiskoposo Camoayaliba. saeklesio Canawerebis mixedviT esenia:
1. `iSxnelis samwyso gurjiboRazis aqeT sula TorTomi, taos qve-
moTi, artanujis Tavi (sakrulavi hqvian, imas aqeTi), daRmiT orjox-
is mTis aqeTi, sula sakavkasiZeo-sakavkasi(Z)o, ispiri, trapizonis
mTas gadmoRma.
2. anCelis samwyso, samwyals aqeTi xancxas. (xancTas) da opizas Sua
daxatula, amis qvemoTi niglis-xevi, gadaRma da gamoRmarTi, goniis
samZRuramdin.
3. mtbevaris samwyso, daxatulas zedaTi, ankerTs aqeTi, sula SavSe-
Ti, miWixianT batonis kaTalikosis yofila, im qveynis episkoposis
iasaulic is yofila. aWara dandalos zeviTi mas hqonebia da dandal-
os qvemoTi aWara quTaTelis samwyso yofila.
4. wurwyabelis samwyso, xursiZis saxli, sula bocoT-xevi, xerTvisis
qveiTi, _ misia.
5. wyarosTvelis samwyso, zevTi, da imas zeiT palakacio kolis
samZRvramdin, mtkuars aqeTi artani.
6. eruSnelis samwyso, talaSos zeiTi, sula artana, kolis
samZRvramdin.
7. valaSkertelis samwyso, yazevans zeiTi, valaSkeTis aqaT, xinusi
da devabonis aqeTi (T. Jordanias SeniSvna _ xinusi _ baiburTis ax-
los).
8. anelis samwyso sula zariStiani da Sirvoini da baRasbereTi
9. karelis smwyso sula kari da kolisa da olTisis samzRuris
gardmoRma ggeCviani da kaRzevani.
10. banelis samwyso sula bani, taoskari, fanaskerti, parizis xeo-
ba, sula olTisi da namurakani.
393
11. dadaSnelis samwyso sula kola da xortevani, yarasalzed mid-
gomamdin.
am episkoposTa mwyemsi da upiratesi saqarTvelos kaTalikosi amis
xelaT yofilan~ (qronikebi, II, 1897, gv. 53-54).
yofili iberiis Temis mimdebare qarTuli
saepiskoposoebi (XIV-XVII ss.)
yofili `iberiis Temis~ qarTveloba airaratSi, SirakSi, vanandSi,
taosa, kolasa da artaanSi XIV-XV saukuneebSi kvlav aRorZinda da
eklesiurad mravali qarTuli saepiskoposo daaarsa am mxareebSi, ker-
Zod XIV-XV saukuneebis xelnaweris mixedviT eseni iyvnen _ vanis tbis
Crdilo-dasavleTiT _ yofil iberiis TemSi, istoriuli arian-qarT-
lis miwaze:
1. airaratSi valaSkertis qarTuli saepiskoposo. misi sazRvrebi
iyo _ `yaRzevans zeviT, valaSkeTs aqeT xinuri, devaboinis aqeTi;
2. SirakSi _ aneli _ anisis qarTuli saepiskoposos sazRvrebi iyo:
`sula ziriStiani da Siravoni da maRasbereTi~;
3. vanandSi kareli (yarsis) qarTuli saepiskoposos samwyso iyo:
`sula kari da kolisa da olTisis sazRvris gardmoRma gagCevani da
kaRzevani~;
4. taoSi baneli episkoposis samwyso iyo fanaskerti, parizis xeo-
ba, olTisis qveyana da narumakani;
5. kolaSi dadaSneli episkoposis _ `kola, xortevani yarasalzed
midgmamdi~;
6. artaanSi eruSneli episkoposisa _ artaani taloSidan kolas
sazRvramde;
7. palakacioSi wyarosTavelisa _ palakacios tbidan artaani kolamde.
qarTvelTa mkvidrobas da Zireulobas yofil `iberiis TemSi~ miu-
TiTebs is, rom miuxedavad mtrebis gamanadgurubeli Semosevebisa
karinis (arzumis), TorTomis, taos, vanandis (karis), basianis da mimde-
bare mxareebis kuTxeebSi trapizonidan _ vanis tbamde (valaSkerti)
394
qarTuli saepiskoposoebi uwyvetad arsebobdnen XV- XVII saukuneSic ki.
aRniSnulTa garda m. TamaraSvilis cnobiT sxvebic arsebobdnen:
a) a. lambertis cnobiT qarTuli saepiskoposo XVII saukuneSi md.
evfratTan iyo, misi sakaTedro taZari yovladwmida RvTismSoblis
saxelobisa yofila, `arqanjelo lamberti 1633-1653 wlebSi werda:
`arzrumis qalaqis maxloblad axlac qarTuli soflebia. TviT am
qalaqSi ijda qarTveli episkoposi _ arzrumelad wodebuli~ (`moam-
be~, 1900, 4).
b) arTvinSic iyo qarTuli saepiskoposo, misi sakaTedro taZari
mociqul barTlomes saxelze yofila nakurTxi, saerTod aRsaniSna-
via, rom tao-klarjeTSi samxreT saqarTvelos ganmanaTleblad mo-
ciquli barTlome miaCndaT.
g) sperSic ijda qarTveli episkoposi, misi mTavari taZari mo-
ciqul andrias saxelobis iyo.
d) gansakuTrebiTaa aRsaniSnavi, rom XVII saukuneSi arzrumSi da
mis regionSi, Cans, meore qarTveli episkoposic ijda, misi taZari mo-
ciqul Tomas saxelobis iyo.
e) olTisSi, romelsac somxebi uxtiks uwodebdnen amave saukuneSi
kvlav ijda qarTveli episkoposi, misi taZari mociqul petres sax-
els atarebda.
v) a. lambertis cnobiT mis dros saepiskoposoebi iyo eruSeTSi,
kumurdoSi, iSxanSi, dadaSenSi, karSi (yarsSi), anisSi (anSi), tbeTSi, is
CamoTvlis aseve amave regionis sxva saepiskoposoebs, romelTa sax-
elebi damaxinjebulia, eseni iyvnen sxalteli, azikieli, anJeli, sxal-
tbeli, wurwyabeli, isemeli da sxva (m. TamaraSvili, qarTuli eklesia
dasabamidan dRemde, 1995, gv. 469). cxadia, yvela isini samcxe-saaTa-
bagos samTavroSi Sediodnen, zogi ki mis gareT iyo, erTi sityviT, im
miwa-wyalze, romelic XI s-Si `iberiis Temad~ iwodeboda. Cans sxalT-
eli, aZikveli, sxaltbeli, wurwyabeli.
a. lambertis cnobiT guriaSi ninowmideli episkoposi mjdara,
Tumca aq albaT xonowmidels gulisxmobda.
a. lamberti saqarTveloSi imyofeboda 1630-1649 wlebSi. mis gar-
da gelasi kesarielic wers, rom wmida ninos mier da mis dros iberi-
elebma da lazebma erTdroulad miiRes qristianoba, mas eTanxmeba
395
movses xoreneli, romelic wers, rom wmida ninom iqadaga `klarjeTidan
_ masquTebamde~. XVII s-Si devnili lazikis ierarqebi werdnen, rom
lazeTSi iverTa ganmanaTleblis saxelobis eklesiac iyo. lazTa mit-
ropoliti iverTa ganmanaTlebels lazeTis ganmanaTlebladac miiC-
nevda, Tumca iq mociqulebis barTlomesa da andrias avtoriteti
Zalze maRali iyo, radganac maT mouvliaT es mxareebi. lazikis mit-
ropolitis cnobiT, wmida ninos of-rizes kaTedra dauarsebia.
unda iTqvas isic, rom Cans iveriis Temis daarsebamdec, konstan-
tinepoli akontrolebda nawilobriv taosac, es iqedan Cans, rom gior-
gi I-is sikvdilisTanave, roca Zalze mcirewlovani bagrat IV taxtze
avida, amiT isargebles taoelma orgulma didebulebma `warvides
aznaurni taoelni saberZneTs, vaCe kariWis Ze da baneli episkoposi
ioane da maT Tana simravle aznaurTa taoelTa~ (matiane qarTlisa,
gv. 254).
es wasvla gulisxmobda imas, rom cixe-simagreTa mqone aznaurebi
am TavianT qonebas da miwa-wyals aZlevdnen imperators, sanacvlod
ki misgan iRebdnen mamulebs imperiis Sida provinciebSi.
maT Soris yofila baneli episkoposi ioanec.
misi wasvla gulisxmobda Tu ara banas taZris da misi eparqiis
gadacemas imperiisaTvis es gaurkvevelia, es momxdara 1027-1028 wlebSi.
banas taZarSi, TiTqmis maleve jvari TviT mefes bagrat IV-s dauw-
eria. bagrats iq samefo gvirgvini daudgams.
Tu bana marTlac `waRebuli~ iyo anu Tu is bizantiis saeklesio
iurisdiqciaSi gadaiyvanes, is maleve ukan daubrunebiaT qarTveleb-
isaTvis, ukanve daubrunebiaT saqarTvelos saeklesio iurisdiqcia-
Si. imperatoris naTesavi elene dedofali bagrat IV-s miaTxoves,
qorwili da gvirgvinis kurTxeva aRsrulda banas didebul taZarSi
1029-1030 wlebSi.
banas da valaSkertis kaTedrebi swored am epoqaSi, bizantia-
saqarTvelos omianobis dros gaerTianebuli yofila da mas erTi
mRvdelmTavari zaqaria valaSkerteli igive baneli marTavda Tu ki
zaqaria namdvilad iyo baneli svingelozi.
valaSkerti, rogorc iTqva, did saerTaSoriso gzaze idga. safiqre-
belia, rom basianSi giorgi I-sa da basili II-s jarebs Soris SebrZoleba
396
aRniSnuli gzis kontrolis mosapovebladac moxda (arSaruniqis ga-
varis punqt SRfaSi, matiane qarTlisais SirimnSi). savaWro gza didi
Semosavlis wyaro iyo qarTvelTaTvis, bizantielebisaTvis ki strate-
giuli mniSvneloba hqonda, radganac basili II sparseTis mimarTulebiT
afarTovebda Tavis imperias.
397
Tavi XIV
`Zveli qarTuli ena~`Zveli qarTuli ena~
Zveli qarTuli ena _
salaparako norma regionebSi
Zveli qarTuli mwerlobis ZeglebSi ar igrZnoba kuTxuroba, mxa-
reebisTvis niSandoblivi metyvelebis (enakavebisa Tu dialeqtebis)
gavlena. rogorc iTqva, romel regionSic unda iyvnen isini dawer-
ilni (afxazeTSi, egrisSi, svaneTSi, argveTSi, guriasa Tu tao-klar-
jeT-kaxeT-hereTSi) _ yvelgan enobriv-gramatikuli norma erTnair-
ia, erTi da igivea.
kuTxur-regionalur warmomavlobas enobriv-stilisturad ar asax-
avs qarTuli werilobiTi Zeglebi.
regionaluri warmomavlobis miuxedavad Cvenamde moRweul Zveli
qarTuli mwerlobis yvela ZeglSi daculia erTi da igive enobrivi
norma.
ra iyo amis mizezi?
mizezi, Cans, iyo is, rom IV-X ss-Si (da Semdeg) qarTuli ena jer kidev
ar iyo daSlili dialeqtur doneze, amitomac saliteraturo normis
dacva (da misi Seswavla) ar iyo saZnelo saqme kuTxeebSi moRvawe mwer-
lebisaTvis (isini xom ZiriTadad berebi iyvnen, umetesad safiqrebelia,
arcTu mainc da mainc ganswavluli).
Zveli qarTuli ena dialeqtur doneze daSlili rom yofiliyo
I aTaswleulSi (an mis maxlobel xanaSi), es uTuod aisaxeboda mwer-
lobaSi.
magaliTad, XX saukuneSi Cven gvyavda sagangebod, umaRles saswav-
leblebSi ganswavluli mwerlebi, miuxedavad amisa, isini TavianT naS-
romebSi mainc amJRavnebdnen TavianTi kuTxeebis metyvelebaTaTvis dam-
398
axasiTebel niSnebs, magaliTad, galaktion tabiZes aqvs _ `gadiwera
Cemi leqsi~ (unda iyos gadaiwera), vaJa-fSavela da TviT akakic, romel-
ic gmobda literaturaSi kuTxuri metyvelebis danergvas, TavianT
SemoqmedebaSi avlendnen TavianTi kuTxeebis salaparako normebs, Tu
aras vityviT otia ioselianze, o. CxeiZesa, e. TaTaraiZesa da sxvaTa
Sesaxeb. ratom?
mizezi amisa aris is, rom XX saukuneSi dialeqtur doneze qarTu-
li ena mkveTrad iyo dayofili, ramac saliteraturo mwerlobaSic
gaJona. es magaliTi gviCvenebs Semdegs:
Zvelad dayofili rom yofiliyo qarTuli ena (e.i. Zveli dialeqtebi
Zalze ganviTarebulni rom yofiliyvnen), es uTuod aisaxeboda Zvel
qarTul literaturaSi, sadac amis niSan-wyalic ki ar Cans.
marTalia, k. kekeliZem daamkvidra Tvalsazrisi, rom haemetoba
anda xanmetoba TiTqosda dialeqturi normis asaxva iyo, magram,
safiqrebelia, rom xanmetoba da haemetobac iyo saerTo sazogado
saliteraturo movlena. e.i. xanmetobis dros xanmeti iyo mTeli
literatura, anu xanmetoba mTeli xalxis salaparako enis norma iyo,
roca xani Seicvala haeTi, haemetoba iqca saliteraturo normad,
anu is ar iyo romelime kuTxis movlena, aramed mTel qveyanaSi sal-
aparako enis norma iyo, enis ganviTarebis Sedegi.
meore magaliTi, rasac patriarqi ilia II miuTiTebs xolme, aris is,
rom Zveli qarTulis normebi da leqsika amJamadac daculia kuTx-
eebSi, magaliTad, imereTSi gavrcelebuli sityva `tylipi~- Zveli
qarTulia (elenTa _ axali qarTuli sityvaa), Zveli qarTulis si-
tyvebi `kveri, kveJo~ _ imereTSi axlacaa gavrcelebuli (axal qarTul-
Sia- CaquCi), aseve sityva `kuro~ (axali qarTulis buRa) da sxva.
amJamadac, rogorc mTis, ise baris kiloebis uamravi gramatikuli
warmoTqma da leqsikuri erTeuli _ Zveli qarTulidanaa darCenili,
rac miuTiTebs, rom Zveli qarTuli odesRac am kuTxeebis salapara-
ko norma iyo.
399
zanur-qarTuli enobrivi erToba
zanur-qarTuli enobrivi erTobis Sesaxeb ZiriTadad arsebobs sami
Tvalsazrisi.
1. akad. g. meliqiSvilis naSromebis mixedviT (romelic mkafiod
aisaxa `saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebSi~) kolxeTis ena iyo qarTul-
zanuri. zanur-qarTuli enobrivi erTobisaTvis Zveli welTaRricx-
vis XII-VI saukuneebi iyo Sualeduri xana, es periodi emTxveva kolx-
uri kulturis ayvavebis xanas, amitomac qarTul-zanur erTobas aseve
kolxuri periodi ewodeba, igulisxmeba XII-VI ss.
am periodis dasasruls Seexeba g. maWavarianis da T. gamyreliZis
mier `sinantTa sistemebSi~ (1984) gadmocemuli Teoria, rom qarTul-
zanuri enobrivi erTobis daSla daiwyo ara qristeSobamde VI sauku-
neSi, aramed ufro gvian `Zveli da axali welTaRricxvebis mijnaze~.
Zveli da axali welTaRricxvebis mijnis qveS cxadia unda vigulisx-
moT I-II saukuneebi qristeSobis epoqa.
am dros qristianuli sarwmunoebis gavrcelebisas, wm. saxareba
zepirad iTargmneboda. saxarebis zepiri Targmanis ena mTel istori-
ul saqarTvelos miwa-wyalze zanur-qarTuli ena yofila, amis mizezi
iyo zanur-qarTuli jer kidev dauSleli enobrivi erToba. anu
rogorc aRmosavleT, ise dasavleT saqarTveloSi I-III saukuneebSi
imJamad moRvawe uamravi mqadagebeli saqarTvelos xalxs erT enaze
acnobdnen wmida werils, es ena ki jer kidev dauSleli zanur-qarTuli
iyo, rac Semdeg maleve safuZvlad dadebia Zvel qarTul saeklesio-
saliteraturo enas, romelzec iTargmna wmida werili.
2. meore Tvalsazrisi gamoTqva arqeologma o. jafariZem, romlis
mixedviTac qarTul-zanuri erToba arsebobda ufro adre Triale-
Turi da ara kolxuri kulturis xanaSi, qarTul-zanuri erToba misi
azriT TrialeTuri kulturis dasasruliT unda daTariRdes (o.
jafariZe, arqeologiuri gaTxrebi TrialeTSi, 1969, gv. 232-235).
3. mesame Tvalsazrisi ekuTvnis T. miqelaZes. is kolxur kultur-
as megrul-Wanur (zanur) eTnikur samyaros ukavSirebs. misi azriT,
qarTul-zanur erTobis daSla ara ugvianes Zv. w. II aTaswleulis dam-
degs unda momxdariyo (ix. miqelaZe, Ziebani kolxeTisa da samxreT-
dasavleT SavizRvispireTis uZvelesi mosaxleobis istoriidan, 1974).
400
misgan gansxvavebiT, Cveni Tvalsazrisi mTlianad eTanxmeba akad. g.
meliqiSvilisa da g. maWavarianis Teorias, romelTa mixedviTac zanur-
qarTuli enobrivi erToba arsebobda farnavazis mier Zveli qarTuli
erTiani saxelmwifos Camoyalibebis epoqaSi da is mxolod maSin iwyeb-
da dialeqtur doneze daSlas. ufro metic, im enobrivi reformebis
Semdeg, romelic Zveli qarTuli saistorio wyaroebis cnobiT gaatara
mefe farnavazma, moxda enobrivi mTlianobis saxelmwifoebrivi dafiq-
sireba, zanur-qarTuli gadaiqca saxelmwifo da kulturis enad da mas
ewodeba `Zveli qarTuli ena~.
anu Zveli qarTuli ena iyo e.w. zanur-qarTuli jer kidev dauSle-
li ena.
wyaroTa mixedviT farnavazis samefos formirebaSi aqtiurad monaw-
ileobda egrisis mosaxleoba. zan-qarTuli ena, anu Cveni TvalsazrisiT
igive Zveli qarTuli ena, gadaiqca saxelmwifo savaldebulo enad da
amasTanave is dafiqsirda viTarca erTaderTi RvTismsaxurebis da
kulturis ena.
Zveli qarTulis pirvandeli formebi xanmeturi da hemeturi _
ufro axlos idga zanur-qarTul enasTan, vidre Cveni Tanamedrove
qarTveluri dialeqtebi.
megrul-lazuri dialeqti rom saliteraturo zogadqarTuli enis
saTaveebTan idga, amas TiTqosda arqeologiuri Ziebac miuTiTebs.
arqeolog virjilio korbos mier md. iordanis napirze, beTlemis
CrdiloeTiT 1952 wels aRmoCenili monasteri wyaroebSi iwodeba
`lazTa monastrad~ (e. mamisTvaliSvili, qarTvelebi da bibliuri
samyaro, gv. 85).
`lazTa monasteri~ V saukunis 40-ian wlebSi augia petre iberis
moZRvars ioane lazs.
VI s-Si, prokofi kesarielis cnobiT, iustinianes ganuaxlebia `lazTa
monasteri ierusalimis udabnoSi~ (georgika, II, 1965, gv. 223).
e. mamisTvaliSvilis mosazrebiT wmida miwis am monasterSi ioane
lazTan lazeTidan Casuli ber-monazvnebi iyridnen Tavs (e. mamisTval-
iSvili, qarTvelebi da bibliuri samyaro, 1998, gv. 85).
lazTa monasteri imiTaa saintereso, rom aq aRmoCnda qarTuli damw-
erlobis yvelaze adrindeli Zeglebi, lazTa monastris qarTuli war-
401
werebi arian dRemde aRmoCenil qarTul warweraTa Soris yvelaze uZ-
velesni, isini naxevari saukuniT win uswreben dRemde yvelaze Zvelad
miCneul bolnisis warwerebs (g. wereTeli, uZvelesi qarTuli warw-
erebi palestinidan, 1960, gv. 29).
ierusalimis udabnos lazTa monasterSi aRmoCnda oTxi qarTuli
warwera.
ismis kiTxva, ratom aRmoCnda lazTa monasterSi qarTuli warw-
erebi?
saerTod, qarTuli ena istoriuli saqarTvelos yvela kuTxeSi (da
lazeTSic) erTaderTi saliteraturo, saxelmwifo, kulturis, saek-
lesio da administraciis enas warmoadgenda, magram, radganac Cvens
epoqaSi, XX s-Si, gaCnda tendencia imisa, rom sxva kulturis nawilad
warmoadginon egris-lazeTi, saWiroa am kiTxvis dasma.
am kiTxvis pasuxis Ziebisas Cven SeiZleba gavixsenoT ori kesarie-
lis, kerZod prokopi kesarielisa da gelasi kesarielis cnobebi laze-
Tis enisa da eklesiis Sesaxeb.
magaliTad, prokofi kesarielis cnobiT lazeTis qveynis cnobil
qalaqs, romelsac berZnulad erqva `kutaia~, lazur enaze ewodeboda
`quTaTisi~. maSasadame, prokofi kesarielis cnobiT `quTaTisi~ lazuri
sityvaa, lazebis enis Sesabamisad nawarmoebi, magram es sityva Tavisi
sufiqsebiT aris Zveli qarTuli enis mixedviT nawarmoebi, es miu-
TiTebs rom qarTuli saliteraturo ena da lazuri dialeqti prokofi
kesarielis dros uaRresad Zalze axlos idgnen erTmaneTTan. prokofis
cnoba mniSvnelovania, sazogadod, Zveli qarTuli saliteraturo ena
ki igive saeklesio enaa, romelzec iTargmna wmida werili da daiwyo
wirva-locva saqarTveloSi.
lazebis saeklesio enac Zveli qarTuli unda iyos, radganac gela-
si kesarielis cnobiT iberebma da lazebma `tyve qalis~, anu wmida ni-
nos mier miiRes qristianoba.
e.i. gelasi kesarielis am cnobiT wmida nino lazebis ganmanaTle-
beli iyo, amasTanave, is iyo erTiani qarTuli eklesiis damaarsebe-
li, erTi eniTa da saeklesio tradiciebiT.
Cans, wmida ninos dros lazuri jer kidev ar iyo bolomde gamoyo-
fili fuZe qarTuli enisagan.
402
marTalia, amJamad miRebulia Tvalsazrisi, rom zanur-qarTuli
enobrivi erToba daiSala qristeSobamde ramdenime saukuniT adre,
magram, rogorc iTqva, ar unda iqnas daviwyebuli g. maWavarianis is
Tvalsazrisi, romelic gamoTqva wignSi `sonantTa sistema~, rom za-
nur-qarTuli enobrivi mTlianoba welTaRricxvis mijnaze jer kidev
arsebobda, anu axali welTaRricxvis dawyebisas, I-II saukuneebSi qris-
tianobis qadagebisas zanur-qarTuli enobrivi mTlianoba jer kidev
arsebobda.
III-IV saukuneebSi wmida werilis adgilobriv enaze zepirad qadage-
bis epoqaSi, Cans yvela qarTuli tomisaTvis gamoyenebuli iqna imJa-
mad yvelasaTvis gasagebi jer kidev erTiani ena - es unda yofiliyo
zanur-qarTuli saerTo ena, romelsac SemdgomSi ewoda `Zveli qarTu-
li ena~ da gadaiqca saliteraturod.
zanur-qarTuli saerTo ena, romelsac SemdgomSi ewoda `Zveli qar-
Tuli ena~ Cans, saeklesio oficialur enad gadaiqca IV saukuneSi, roca
zepiri saliteraturo ena iqca damwerlobis enad.
mosazrebas, rom wmida werilis qarTuli Targmanebis Caweris dros
gamoyenebuli iqna mTel imJamindel qarTul samyaroSi gavrcelebu-
li e.w. zanur-qarTuli anu Zveli qarTuli saerTo ena, ganamtkicebs
is faqtebi, rom V saukunis ierusalimis lazur monasterSi aRmoCnda
ara lazuri dialeqtiT Sesrulebuli warwerebi, aramed saliter-
aturo qarTuliT, aseve faqti imisa, rom ioane lazi V saukunis
dasawyisSi, Cvil petre ibers wmida werils aswavlida qarTuli eniT.
wmida petre iberiis cxovrebis mixedviT 411 wels dabadebuli pe-
tre iberi mZevlis saxiT waiyvanes konstantinopolis saimperatoro
karze 423 wels sul 12 wlis asakisa.
am droisaTvis mas ioane lazis daxmarebiT ukve zepirad hqonda
Seswavlili wmida werili qarTul enaze, swored am enas SeiZleba
vuwodoT `qarTul-zanuri~, radganac es ena mTel qarTul samyaroSi
gamoiyeneboda.
misi cxovrebis aRmweris cnobiT berZnuli ena da mwerloba petre
ibers Seuswavlia konstantinopolSi, xolo Semdeg ierusalimSi Seus-
wavlia asuruli ena da mwerloba. aqedan Cans, rom petre ibers sam-
SobloSi wmida werili Seswavlili hqonda ara berZnul da asurul
403
enebze, aramed qarTulad. saerTod, qarTuli enis meoxi da qomagi
iyo petre iberis samefo ojaxi. movses xorenacis cnobiTac, petres
papa bakuri idga saeklesio qarTuli damwerlobis ganvrcobis saTa-
veebTan. lazTa monasterSi aRmoCenili qarTuli warwerebi ganamtki-
cebs am mosazrebas.
maSasadame, ioane lazi, rogorc mematiane wers, `3 wlis asakidan~
petre ibers aswavlida qarTuli eniT, is sagangebod unda moewviaT
lazeTidan ufliswulis aRsazrdelad.
aq, Cven SeiZleba davsvaT kidev erTi kiTxva, ufliswulis aR-
sazrdelad iberiis samefo karze lazeTidan miiwvevdnen Tu ara iseT
moZRvars, romelmac saukeTesod ar icoda qarTuli ena? cxadia, io-
ane lazi qarTulis SesaniSnavi mcodne iyo, imdenad, rom ufliswuls
zepirad Seaswavla wmida werili qarTul enaze, Semdeg ki mis monas-
terSi qarTulad SesaniSnavi warwerebi aRbeWdes.
ioane lazis qarTulenovnebis mizezi, rogorc iTqva, unda yo-
filiyo is, rom zanur-qarTuli enobrivi erToba I-V saukuneebSi jer
kidev SenarCunebuli iyo. imJamad lazuri da vTqvaT, qarTl-kaxuri,
Zalze axlo dialeqtebs warmoadgendnen erTmaneTis mimarT. maSasa-
dame, megrul-lazuri iseve idga zogadqarTuli saeklesio-salite-
raturo enis saTaveebTan, rogorc sxva kuTxeTa dialeqtebi.
qarTuli saliteraturo-saeklesio ena ar warmoadgenda qarTl-
kaxeTis mosaxleobis dialeqtze aRmocenebul enas, rogorc axla we-
ren, aramed zogadqarTul saerTo-saeklesio enas, romelic lazeTSic
iseve gasagebi iyo, rogorc vTqvaT kaxeTSi.
rogorc iTqva, am mosazrebis gamoTqmis uflebas iZleva Semdegi
faqtebi:
1) ierusalimis lazTa monasterSi aRmoCenili uZvelesi IV-V sauku-
neebis qarTuli warwerebi, yvelaze pirvelni qarTul warweraTa Soris.
e.i. qarTuli warwerebi lazTa monasterSi, cxadia lazi berebisa da
mlocvelebisTvis keTdeboda da maT qarTuli icodnen.
2) gelasi kesarielis cnoba, rom `tyve qalma~ anu wmida ninom moaq-
cia `lazebi da iberebi~, e.i. lazebis gamaqristianebeli iyo wmida
nino, zogadqarTuli eklesiis damaarsebeli, amis asaxva iyo is, rom
Zveli saqarTvelos yvela kuTxeSi, maT Soris svaneTsa, afxazeTsa
404
Tu samegreloSi, iseve rogorc aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi arsebob-
da erTaderTi saeklesio, anu wirva-locvis ena, romelzec iTargmna
wmida werili.
3) erTaderTi lazuri sityva, romelic Semonaxulia berZnul wya-
roebSi `quTaTisi~, prokofi kesarielis cnobiT lazuri enis Sesa-
bamisad iyo nawarmoebi, sinamdvileSi is zogadqarTuli sityvaa. rac
safuZvels iZleva mosazrebisa, rom zanur-qarTuli enobrivi erTo-
ba jer kidev ar iyo daSlili VI saukuneSi. zanur-qarTuli enobrivi
erTobis gamo iyvnen qarTulenovanni egris-lazeTidan gamosuli saek-
lesio moRvaweebi da didi mamebi _ ioane lazi da ioane minCxi, Wyon-
didelebi da sxvani, aTeulobiT da aTasobiT mama, Semoqmedni zogad
qarTuli kulturisa.
qarTuli kulturis mkvlevarTa mier faqtiurad dRemde miviwye-
bulia udidesi Rvawli wmida werilis pirveli qarTveli mTargmneleb-
isa, gasaocari mTargmnelobiTi Sroma IV-V ss-is wmida moRvaweebisa,
romelnic idgnen qarTuli sasuliero mwerlobis saTaveebTan.
maTi Rvawli erTgvarad gadaCrdila X-XI saukuneebis mTargmnel-
Ta didma muSaobam.
unda iTqvas, rom TviTon X-XI saukuneebis didi mTargmnelebi _
giorgi mTawmindeli, efrem mcire da sxvebi Zalze afasebdnen IV-V ss-
is pirvelmTargmnelTa namuSakevs.
1500 welia dRemde, rac qarTul eklesiaSi kvlav gamoiyeneba te-
qstebi Targmnili `pirveliTganve~ anu IV-V saukuneebSi, isini TiTq-
mis ucvlelad movidnen Cvenamde da dResac gamoyenebulni arian saek-
lesio saWiroebisaTvis. eklesiaSi medaviTnis mier wakiTxuli teqstebi
(Jamnis wigni Tu sxva) ZiriTadad IV-V ss-dan modian TiTqmis ucvleli
saxiT.
eqvTime da giorgi mTawmindelebma xelaxla ki ar Targmnes wmida
werili, aramed pirvelmTargmnelTa teqstebi Seadares da dauaxloves
X-XI ss-Si bizantiis eklesiaSi gamoyenebul berZnul redaqciebs.
IV-V ss-is pirvelmTargmnelTa didi pleadis wevrebi unda yofil-
iyvnen ioane lazi, moZRvari petre iberisa, TviTon petre iberi, TiTq-
mis maTi Tanamedrove, iberiis samefo karze moRvawe pirebi da Cans
ierusalimSi, petres garemos wevrebi.
405
somexTa mier wmida werilis Targmna imave epoqaSi, IV s-is bolosa
da V s-is dasawyisSi, daiwyo.
miiCneva, rom mesrop maStocma somxuri anbani 405 wels Seqmna.
daaxloebiT amave dros albaT ukve intensiurad muSaobdnen wmida
werilis qarTulad gadmosaRebad.
qarTvel pirvelmTargmnelTa didi pleadis wevri anda SeiZleba,
meTauric iyo ioane lazi, unda vifiqroT, rom mis monasterSi ieru-
salimSi aRmoCenili warwerebi amas adasturebs _ isini SeiZleba mar-
Tlac pirveli iyvnen qarTul saeklesio warweraTa Soris. 414 wli-
dan is ukve qarTul wmida werils aswavlida petre ibers.
lazTa monastris satrapezos iatakis mozaikur warweraSi naxsene-
bi pirebi _ antoni, aba da iosia, safiqrebelia, wmida werilis qarTveli
mTargmnelebi iyvnen.
ierusalimis lazTa monasterSi aRmoCenili teqsti aseTia: `Sew-
evniTa qristesiTa da meoxebiTa wmidisa TevdoresiTa Seiwyalen anto-
ni, abai da iosia, momsxmeli amis sefisai da ded-mamai iosiaisi, amen~.
miiCneva, rom monasteri aSenebuli yofila wmida Tevdores sa-
xelze, winamZRvari yofila antoni, mozaika ki daumzadebia (mousxams)
iosias (e. mamisTvaliSvili, qarTvelebi da bibliuri samyaro, 1998,
gv. 86).
Cveni azriT, romelic adreve gamovTqviT, aq moxsenebuli pirebi
antoni, abaY da iosia unda yofiliyvnen wmida werilis qarTveli
pirvelmTargmnelebi, petre iberis mama-papebis samefo karis sxva
moRvaweebTan erTad (ix. mitropoliti anania `ioane lazi~ da `petre
iberi marTlmadidebeli episkoposi~).
aseTi varaudis gamoTqmis uflebas iZleva is, rom jer kidev XIX s-
Si am warweris aRmoCenamde pirvelmTargmnelebis saxelebs TiTqmis
amave TanmimdevrobiT gadmocemdnen, oRond maT umatebdnen `davi-
Tis~ saxels. xolo petres papis bakur mefis karze qarTuli anbanis
SeqmnisaTvis da saliteraturo-saeklesio enis SemuSavebisaTvis ga-
weul Rvawls aRwerdnen movses xorenaci da sxva somexi avtorebi IV-
V saukuneebisa.
antoni da abaY sxvadasxva pirebi unda yofiliyvnen.
ara anton abati, aramed antoni da abaY.
406
ZvelqarTuli saxeli abai saqarTveloSi cnobili iyo, misganaa gvari
abaiSvili. iosia ki unda yofiliyo ara mozaikis momsxmeli xelosani,
aramed qtitori, romlis safasiTac (TanxiTac) moisxa iataki.
saerTod, xelosnebis saxelebs Zvel teqstebSi adgils ar uTmobd-
nen, miT ufro aseT gamoCenil adgilas, xolo qtitorebis moxsenieba,
miT umetes Tu isini cnobili adamianebi iyvnen, miRebuli wesi iyo.
maSasadame, Cven unda vifiqroT, rom petres papis bakur mefis karze
IV s-is bolodanve gaCaRebuli iyo mTargmnelobiTi muSaoba. am saqmi-
saTvis samefo karze unda miewviaT ioane lazi, xolo roca ufliswuli
daibada _ ufliswulis aRmzrdelad anu gansaswavlad dainiSna is
(ioane lazi), rogorc am saqmis _ axladfexadgmuli qarTuli litera-
turis _ specialisti.
marTlac, 411 wlisaTvis, qarTuli saeklesio literatura sul
axali Camoyalibebuli unda yofiliyo (411 wels, rogorc iTqva dai-
bada petre iberi). Zvel somxur wyaroebSi, rogorc iTqva, Semonax-
ulia cnobebi, rom qarTuli saeklesio anbanis da qarTuli saekle-
sio enis CamoyalibebisaTvis muSaoba mimdinareobda IV s-is bolosa
da V s-is dasawyisSi qarTlis samefo karze.
bakuri _ petres papa dedis mxridan, aseve buzmariosi buz-mihri
mamis mxridan iveriis mefeebi iyvnen swored am dros, maT uTuod
Rvawli miuZRviT qarTuli wmida werilis Targmnis saqmeSi, Cveni azriT
amitomac arian isini moxsenebulni lazTa monasterSi sxva pirvel-
mTargmnelTa msgavsad.
petres mama _ buzmariosi cxadia, am saqmis xelisSemwyobi iqnebo-
da, deda _ bakurduxtTan erTad (buzmariosi _ Cans, Zvel saqarTveloSi
cnobili saxeli iyo, adigenis raionis sofel udeSi dafiqsirebulia
toponimi `buzmareTi~, petres saxeli ki maruani yofila siymawvile-
Si, saxel maruanisgan SeiZleba iyo nawarmoebi gvari _ maruaSvili,
saerTod ki, saxeli maruani igive miriani unda iyos _ iberiis samefo
karze miRebuli saxeli).
ase, rom `lazTa monasterSi~ Cven unda gvqondes pirvelqarTvel
mTargmnelTa saxelebis CamonaTvali. maTi moxseneba am monasterSi
saWirod miuCneviaT, radganac maTi pleadis wevri unda yofiliyo mo-
nastris damaarsebeli ioane lazi. maTi RvawliT giorgi mTawmindel-
407
isa da giorgi mcires sityviT _ `pirveliTaganve gvqondes werilnica
da sarwmunoebai WeSmariti da marTali~.
wmida werilis qarTuli pirvelTargmanebi WeSmariti da marTali
yofila, amitomac X-XI ss-is `mTargmnel-redaqtorebs~ isini ar Seucv-
liaT. am teqstebma dRemde ucvlelad moaRwies da saeklesio msax-
urebaSi amJamadac gamoiyenebian.
k. daneliam, gamoCenilma enaTmecnierma, gamowvlilviT Seiswavla
XI s-is dasawyisSi `Targmnili~ teqstebi da mivida daskvnamde, rom
sinamdvileSi XI s-Si xelaxla ki ar iTargmna berZnulidan qarTul
enaze wmida werili da sxva saeklesio teqstebi, aramed moxda Zveli,
ukve arsebuli qarTuli Targmanebis (teqstebis) Sedareba-redaqtire-
ba imJamindel berZnul redaqciebTan da amis Sedegad miRebul iqna
eklesiisaTvis `kanonikuri~ teqstebi. maSasadame, eqvTime da giorgi
mTawmidelebi, maTi epoqis wmida mamebi iyvnen ara mTargmnelebi am
sityvis pirdapiri gagebiT, aramed mxolod redaqtorebi. `am faqts
mxolod danaxva unda~ - werda am faqtSi absoluturad darwmunebu-
li k. danelia, radganac man es teqstebi, rogorc iTqva enaTmecnier-
ulad gamowvlilviT Seiswavla.
aRsaniSnavia, rom giorgi mTawmideli Tavis anderZSi swored am
faqts aRniSnavs, rom is iyo ara `axlad mTargmneli~ wmida werilisa,
aramed mxolod `Semmowmebeli~ anu redaqtori romelic `awamebda~,
adarebda erTmaneTs ukve arsebul Zvel qarTul teqstebsa da im-
droindel berZnul redaqciebs.
erTmaneTTan `Sewameba~ anu Sedareba cxadia udides codnasa da
Sromas iTxovda mSromel-redaqtorisagan. giorgi mTawmidelis
anderZis ori redaqcia arsebobs, erTi redaqcia (Seuryvneli teqsti
anderZisa) daucavs samegreloSi, moqvSi dacul saxarebas, aseve bre-
Tis, axalcixisa, eCmiaZinisa da ubisis saxarebebs. am Seuryvnel anderZ-
Si naTqvamia _ `ese wmidai oTxTavi ara Tu axlad gviTargmnia, aramed
friadiTa iZulebiTa ZmaTa vieTme, berZnulTa saxarebaTa Segviwamebia
friadiTa gamowvlilviTa~. am anderZidan sruliad aSkarad Cans, rom
giorgi mTawmidelma ki ar Targmna _ am sityvis Semdegdroindeli
gagebiT wmida oTxTavi, aramed mxolod `Seawama~ anu Seadara berZnul
redaqciebs da Caaswora maT mixedviT.
408
Semdgom saukuneebSi aRniSnul wmida mamebs siyvaruliT uwodebd-
nen `mTargmnelebs~.
maTi xelidan gamosuli wmida werilis redaqciebi iqca oficial-
ur saeklesio teqstebad, amitom pativiscemisa da siyvarulis niSnad
maT `mTargmnelebis~ aRniSnuli wodeba daimkvidres.
Cans, am damokidebulis gamo, SemdegSi romeliRac gadamwers am
Tvalsazrisis Sesabamisad `Seusworebia~ giorgi mTawmidelis anderZi,
kerZod misgan amouRia zogierTi sityva, ramac warmoSva anderZis
axali teqsti iseTi saxisa, romelic dResdReobiT ufro gavrcelda.
amJamad, ratomRac imaleba anderZis pirvelsaxe, romelic Seryv-
nilad miiCneva.
sinamdvileSi giorgi mTawmideli TviTon uxsnis mkiTxvels Tu
ratom ar esaWiroeboda Zvel qarTul teqstebs xelaxla Targmna.
misi Zalze dabejiTebuli mtkicebiT daaxloebiT IV-V ss-Si Ses-
rulebuli Zveli qarTuli Targmanebi `wmidadaa Targmnili~ Tavisi
drois mTargmnelebis mier. amis gamo pirvelmTargmnelTa xelidan
gamosuli teqstebi iyvnen `keTilni~ anu misaRebi eklesiisaTvis, maS
ratom dasWirda am `wmidad da keTilad~ Targmnil teqstebs Sedare-
ba berZnul redaqciebTan XI s-is daswyisisaTvis? am kiTxvas TviTon
scems pasuxs giorgi mTawmideli.
giorgi mcires sityviT, `friadi iZulebiT~ giorgi mTawmidels
gauwevia udidesi Sroma, romelic ase saWiro iyo imJamindeli qarTuli
eklesiisaTvis, raTa cilismwameblebs (`mabraloblebsa da mayve-
dreblebs~) avtoriteti ar SeebRalaT qarTuli wmida werilisaTvis.
giorgi mTawmidelis sityviTac, mis gverdiT yofilan sasuliero pire-
bi `Zmanni~, romelTac dabejiTebiT uTxovniaT gaewia es Sroma.
erTi sityviT, giorgi mTawmidelma iRvawa qarTuli wmida werilis
avtoritetis amaRlebisaTvis, daumtkica yvelas, rom is iseTive Rirse-
bisa iyo, rogorebic iyvnen yvelaze kargi berZnuli redaqciebi misi
droisa. Tumca ki miaCnia rom ufro Zveli, pirvelqarTuli Targ-
manebi Zalze kargi Targmanebi iyvnen _ is wers anderZSi _ `Cvenni
yovelni saxarebani pirveliTgan wmidad Targmnilia da keTilad _ xan-
metnica da sabawmidurnica~ (n. papuaSvili, axali aRTqmis qarTuli
Targmani, 2007, gv. 92).
409
maSasadame, giorgi mTawmideli didad afasebda qarTvel pirvel
mTargmnelTa skolis muSaobas. es skola, rogorc iTqva, Camoyalib-
da IV s-is bolosa da V s-is dasawyisSi, somxuri wyaroebis cnobiT
bakur mefis karze. anu petre iberis papis ojaxi iyo mecenati, spon-
sori da damkveTi im didi muSaobisa, romelic esaWiroeboda axalfexa-
dgmul qarTul saeklesio mwerlobas, romelic am ojaxis Tvalwin ya-
libdeboda.
movses xorenacis sityviT, qarTvelTa samefo karze SemoukrebiaT
qveynis sxvadasxva kuTxidan qarTuli enis mcodneebi.
sxva wyarodan Cans, rom maT Soris erTerTi rCeuli yofila ioane
lazi _ radganac swored is airCies axalgazrda ufliswulis aR-
mzrdelad, anu sityvierebis maswavleblad.
marTlac, man patara petres zepirad Seaswavla axalTargmnili wmida
werili.
es iyo, ase vTqvaT _ pirveli aprobacia pirvelmTargmnelTa moR-
vaweobis Sedegis dasadgenad.
misi cxovrebidan Cans, rom petres marTlac keTilad Seuswavlia
wmida werili, imdenad, rom SemdgomSi yvelas aocebda wmida werilis
codniT konstantinopolis saimperatoro karze.
qarTuli saeklesio damwerlobac pirvel nabijebs dgamda petres
siymawvilis wlebSi.
saqme is iyo, rom Tu ki mesrop maStocs mravali Zieba dasWirda
somxuri anbanis aso-niSnebis moxazulobis mosaZebnad, qarTvel ma-
mebs ar esaWiroebaT amdeni Zieba _ qarTlis samefo karze iqamde sauku-
neTa manZilze iyenebdnen e.w. armazul damwerlobas.
armazuli damwerlobiT Sesrulebuli warwerebi aRmoCenilia van-
Si, borSi (dasavleT saqarTveloSi), mcxeTaSi da sxvagan. es iyo fini-
kiuri damwerlobidan warmoSobili arameuli damwerlobis erT-erTi
saxe.
rogorc Cveni Tanamedrove mkvlevarebis (r. patariZe) naSrome-
bidan Cans, Cvens pirvel wmida mamebs mouZebniaT arameuli damwer-
lobis pirveli saxe, anu am anbanis saukeTeso varianti. da Cveni fiqriT,
is daudviaT safuZvlad qarTuli saeklesio damwerlobisaTvis.
magaliTad, asomTavruli `a~, aris arameuli anbanis pirveli aso-
niSani, romelic igive saxisaa, maT Soris gansxvaveba isaa, rom arameuli
410
`a~ swori xazebis urTierTgadakveTiTaa miRebuli, xolo asomTavru-
lis `a~, igive xazebia, oRond damrgvalebuli saxisa.
arameuli anbanis samkuTxedebi _ asomTavrulSi wreebiTaa gad-
mocemuli. magaliTad, aso-niSani `bani~ arameulsa da qarTulSi erTid-
aigivea, oRond arameulSi `bani~-s muceli samkuTxedis formis mqo-
nea, xolo qarTulSi is mrgvalia.
cxadia, qarTul saeklesio anbanSi saWiro iqneboda ramdenime aso-
niSnis damateba, Tumca, SesaZloa iqamdec, armazulSi es aso-niSnebi
arsebobda kidec.
yovel SemTxvevaSi, armazulis Tavdapirveli deda-saxe (Zveli
arameuli) unda yofiliyo safuZveli qarTuli saeklesio anbanisa.
maSasadame, qarTvelma pirvelTargmanebma ioane lazisa da petre
iberis yrmobis epoqaSi SeZles armazul-arameulis damwerlobis
safuZvelze asomTavrulis Seqmna, amasTanave qarTulad Targmna wmi-
da werilisa da aseve misi Cawera qarTulive, ukve qarTuli saekle-
sio asoebiT.
aqedan Cans, rom ioane lazi idga zogadqarTuli saliteraturo enisa
da qarTuli saeklesio damwerlobis saTaveebTan.
rogorc aRiniSna, amis mizezi unda yofiliyo is, rom ioane lazis
dros aRmosavleT saqarTvelos xalxis metyveleba Zalze axlos idga
imJamindel megrul-lazurTan, iseve, rogorc saqarTvelos sxvadasxva
kuTxeebis metyvelebebTan. saerTo saliteraturo ena is-is iyo isaxe-
boda da ibadeboda ioane lazis SromiT.
enaTmecnierulad aseve iyo evropisa da aziis sxva regionebSic.
magaliTad, IX-X ss-Si rodesac kirilem da meTodem slavurad gadm-
oiRes wmida werili, slavuri saerTo enas warmoadgenda zogadad
slavebisaTvis, mxolod Semdeg XIV-XV ss-saTvis TandaTan Caisaxa sla-
vur enaSi ukrainuli, belarusuli, da e.w. `velikorusuli~ (mosko-
vuri) ena-metyvelebani, dasavleT slavebSi Semdgom Camoyalibda ser-
buli, bulgaruli da sxva enebi. ase, rom slavuri wmida werili eno-
brivad saerTo iyo Semdeg Camoyalibebuli ukrainelebis, belaruse-
bis, da sxva slavuri xalxebisaTvis. msgavsadve laTinuri ena, ro-
melzec iTargmna pirvel saukuneebSi wmida werili, iqca safuZvlad
Semdeg Camoyalibebuli franguli, espanuri, italiuri Tu ruminuli
411
enebisaTvis. maSasadame, jer iTargmna laTinurad wmida werili, xolo
Semdgom Camoyalibda laTinuri enis safuZvelze sxvadasxva xalxebis
enebi, amitomac am xalxebisaTvis laTinur enaze wirva-locva pirvel
xanebSi, sanam am xalxebis enebi Tanamedrove saxes miiRebda, sruliad
gasagebi iyo. cxadia, am erTgvari zogadi wesisagan ar unda yofil-
iyo gamonaklisi qarTulic.
IV-V ss-Si zogadqarTul enaze iTargmna wmida werili, romelic
gasagebi iyo yvela kuTxis qarTvelTaTvis, radganac es ena imJamad mSob-
liuri da gasagebi iyo yvela kuTxis mcxovrebisaTvis, mxolod Semdeg
saukuneebSi am kuTxeebis metyvelebani gadaiqca erTmaneTisagan daSore-
bul dialeqtebad. e.i. ioane lazis dros lazeTisa Tu kaxeTis
qarTveloba metyvelebda erTmaneTisaTvis gasageb saerTo enaze,
romelzec iTargmna wmida werili da romelsac SemdgomSi ewoda Zve-
li qarTuli saliteraturo ena. mxolod Semdeg saukuneebSi, rogorc
iTqva daSordnen erTmaneTs es metyvelebani.
enebi swrafad viTardebian, amitomac gvaqvs Zveli berZnuli, Zve-
li somxuri, Zveli qarTuli da a.S. Cven erTmaneTs vadarebT Tan-
amedrove megrulsa da Zvel saeklesio-saliteraturo enas. rogorc
viciT Tu arsebobs Tanamedrove megrul-lazuri, unda yofiliyo
Zveli megrul-lazuric.
ra saxisa iyo is (megrul-lazuri) 1600-1500 wlis win, ioane lazis
dros? Cveni TvalsazrisiT, rogorc mravaljer aRvniSneT, IV-V sauku-
neebSi megrul-lazuri Zalze axlos idga saliteraturo Zvel qarTul-
Tan. amitomac ioane lazi, albaT mSobliur dialeqtze dayrdnobiT
sxvadasxva kuTxeebis mamebTan erTad ayalibebda saliteraturo-saek-
lesio enobriv normas, raTa gasagebi yofiliyo rogorc mTis, ise
baris morwmuneebisaTvis, qveynis rogorc erT, ise meore kuTxeSi.
Cvens Tvalsazriss, rom ioane lazis epoqaSi megrul-lazuri salite-
raturo qarTulis erT-erT safuZvels warmoadgenda ganamtkicebs Zvel
matianeTa da wyaroTa cnobebi. magaliTad, `moqcevaY qarTlisaY~-s
cnobiT, aleqsande makedonelis epoqaSi arian-qarTlis mefis Ze azo-
ni samxreTidan wamouZRva samxedro elitis mravalsulian ojaxebs,
romelTac Camoayalibes saxelmwifo _ `qarTlis samefo~. amave wyaros
cnobiT mis SemadgenlobaSi Sedioda egrisi _ dasavleT saqarTvelo,
412
radganac am saxelmwifos Crdilo-dasavleTi sazRvari gadioda md.
egriswyalze.
sad mdebareobda arian-qarTlis samefo, saidanac CrdiloeTiT, maT
Soris egrisSi, Casaxlda axali qarTuli saxelmwifos Semqmneli azo-
nis samxedro elita? vaxuSti batoniSvilis cnobiT klarjeTi azo-
nis mamuli qveyana iyo, misi mimdebare mxareebiT. e.i. arian qarTli
moicavda klarjeTs, qaldeas, tao-basiansa da im mezobel kuTxeebs.
lazebis qveynis _ `qaldeas~ da `qarTlis~ etimologia erTi da
igive unda iyos, radgan orive sityvis fuZeSi Tanmxovnebia `qld~ da
`qrT~, cxadia, es erTi fuZea, radganac kanonzomieria gadasvlebi l-
r, d-T. lazTa (WanTa) qaldeas Semounaxavs arian-qarTlis qveynis
saxelis fuZe `qarT~.
Zvel wyaroebSi `samegrelo~ da `sofeli megrelTa~ erqva trape-
zun-qaldeas regions, sadac pirvelad iqadaga andria pirvelwode-
bulma. am qveynis anu qaldeas xalxis ena Semoinaxa saliteraturo
Zvelma qarTulma enam.
XX saukuneSi, sabWoTa okupaciis dros, saqarTveloSi Sesabamisma
samecniero wreebma gaabatones Tvalsazrisi, TiTqosda Zvel qarTul
saliteraturo enas IV-V saukuneebSi safuZvlad daedo qarTl-kax-
uri dialeqti.
es Tvalsazrisi Zireulad gansxvavdeboda saqarTveloSi iqamde
aTaswleulTa manZilze arsebulisagan, rom Zveli qarTuli saerTo
ena iyo qarTuli eklesiis mrevlisaTvis, romlis iurisdiqciaSic
yoveli qarTuli Temi Sedioda afxazeT-svaneTidan araqsamde da Se-
maxiamde. qarTvelTa garda am faqts ucxoelebic aRniSnaven, arqan-
jelo lamberti wers samegreloSi gamoiyeneba qarTuli wignebi,
`romelic dawerilia maTis namdvilis, Zveleburisa da wmida eniT. am
enisagan maTi mdabiuri ena ise ganirCeva, rogorc Cveni mdabiuri
laTinuridan ganirCeva~ (arqanjelo lamberti, samegrelos aRwera,
2011, gv.185). is wers: `saqarTvelos samefo gavrcelebuli iyo Tav-
rizamde, arzrumamde da kafamde, romelic xersonesSia. am mxriT
saqarTvelo Seicavda Tavis samflobeloSi afxazebs, anu abasqebs,
Cerqezebs da jiqebs anu Ziqebs. saqarTvelos samefos rom aseTi sivrce
eWira, amis cxadi kval dReac ipoveba iq. arzrumis qalaqis maxlo-
413
blad axlac moipoveba qarTuli soflebi. uwindel droSi TviT am qalaq-
Si ijda qarTveli episkoposi, arzrumelad wodebuli. kolxidis ga-
reT, afxazebisa da jiqebis qveyvebSi mSvenieri taZrebi dganan qarTu-
lad aSenebulebi da qarTulis zedwarwerebiT. iranis mxriTac, TviT
Tavrizamde, rogorc qarTuli eklesiebis, ise qarTuli soflebis
cxadi kvali dResac sCans~ (iqve, gv. 30).
lazikis samitropolitos
Zveli mosaxleobis ena
xelnawerTa erovnuli centris fondebSi daculia XV-XVI sauku-
neebiT daTariRebuli qarTuli xelnaweri (# 3475), romelsac aqvs
berZnulenovani minawerebi, romelnic Sesrulebulia ara berZnuli,
aramed qarTuli asoebiT.
xelnaweri, rogorc n. maxaraZem gamoikvlia, Sesrulebulia samxreT
saqarTvelos im nawilSi, romelic osmalebma miitaces da Sesabamis-
ad, misi marTlmadidebeli mosaxleoba konstantinopolis sapatri-
arqos iurisdiqciaSi aRmoCnda (n. maxaraZe, liturgikuli praqtika
da pontouri dialeqtis gavlenis sfero, bizantia, qarTuli wyaroe-
bi, 2010, gv. 303).
iqamde bizantiis qaldeasa da iberiis Temebis miwawyalze mcxovrebi
es mrevli, daaxloebiT XIII-XVI saukuneebSi kvlav dedaqarTuli eklesiis
wiaRs daubrunda, magram Semdeg, osmalTa batonobis epoqaSi, isini xe-
lmeored, kvlav, berZnuli eklesiis iurisdiqciaSi aRmoCndnen.
xelnaweridan da misi minawerebidan Cans, rom osmalTa epoqaSi,
qaldea-WaneTsa da, aseve, samcxe-saaTabagos samxreT nawilSi qarTule-
novan mrevls da mis samRvdeloebas daukanones valdebuleba, raTa maT
wirva-locva da RvTismsaxureba aRar hqo nodaT qarTulad, aramed
berZnulad.
am valdebulebis gamo zemoT aRniSnuli xelnaweris mepatrone
qarTulenovani mRvdeli, romelsac berZnuli ar codnia, iZulebuli
gamxdara xmamaRla, mrevlis gasagonad warmosaTqmeli locva _ e.w.
414
`asamaRleblebi~ warmoeTqva berZnul enaze, am dros ki mas xelSi
eWira kondaki, sadac es berZnuli asamaRleblebi Cawerili iyo qarTu-
li asoebiT. e.i. am mRvdelma berZnuli wera-kiTxva ar icoda, amitom
berZnulenovani asamaRlebeli qarTuli asoebiT dawera da wirvis
dros xmamaRla waikiTxa.
xelnaweridan, Cans, rom wirvis dros is, e.w. `saidumlo locvebs~
kvlav qarTulad kiTxulobda, xolo asamaRleblebs ki berZnulad
warmoTqvamda, aseve kvereqsebs. berZnuli asamaRlebeli ki, rogorc
iTqva, qarTuli asoebiT hqonda dawerili.
mkvlevarma, xelnaweris SeswavliT, daadgina, rom am regionis mrev-
lica da samRvdeloebac qarTulenovani iyo, oRond maT sacxovrebel
garemoSi ukve axali ena, e.w. pontouri berZnuli ena ikvalavda gzas.
mkvlevaris mier moZiebuli monaceTa erToblioba mowmobs faqts,
rom am garemoSi axali ena-metyveleba isaxeba, romlisTvisac ukve
`pontoika~ anu pontos dialeqti mSobliuri xdeboda.
es regioni istoriuli qadea-WaneTia, gumuSxanes regioni, saidan-
ac ayrili mosaxleoba XIX saukuneSi saqarTveloSi Camosaxlda. maT
imJamad ukve `berZnebs~ uwodebdnen, magram maT yofil saeklesio
qarTulenovnebas is faqtic miuTiTebs, rom maT WaneTis sofel ime-
radan Tan Camoitanes qarTulenovani Zvirfasi saxareba, sxva qarTul
saeklesio wignebTan erTad. yofili Wanebi berZnebad iqcnen, qarTu-
lenovani wirva-locva, niSani mTeli maTi istoriuli regionis qarTu-
lobisa _ daviwyebul iqna. isini memkvidreni iyvnen pariadres mTiane-
Tis iberebisa.
strabonis mier naxsenebi pariadres, xorZenasa, gogarenasa da mi-
mdgomi olqebis mosaxleobis anu Zveli iberebis ena unda yofiliyo
sustad diferencirebuli fuZe-qarTuli (e.w. fuZe-qarTveluri) ena,
anu is ena, romelic safuZvlad daedo Zvel qarTul saliteraturi
mwerlobas _ amis gamo Zveli qarTuli enis codna amave regionSi
mdebare taos, basianisa da mezobeli mxareebis mcxovrebTaTvis, am
mxareebidan gamosuli qarTvelebisTvis, bunebrivi iyo.
amis anareklia is, rom am da mimdgomi mxareebidanac gamosuli
moRvaweebis somxurenovan TxzulebebSi qarTulenovnebis naSTebia
SemorCenili.
415
magaliTad, grigol parTelis arabulenovan cxovrebaSi qarTuli
sityvebi gvxvdeba, iseve, rogorc daviT uZlevelis naSromebSi. aR-
saniSnavia, rom qarTuli sityvebi aRmoCnda aseve, somxur xalxur
sagmiro epos `daviT sasuncSi~, misi ZiriTadi plastebi VIII-X ss-s
ganekuTvneba (Caiweres 1874 w.) da asaxavs 4 Taobis sagmiro saqmeebs.
rogorc aRiniSna, XI saukuneSi bizantiam aRniSnuli miwa-wyali Camo-
aSora saqarTvelos. iqauri qristiani marTlmadideblebi ganaSora
mcxeTis deda eklesias da Seiyvana konstantinopolis sapatriarqos
lazikis samitropolitoSi, magram am qmedebiT bizantiis imperiam,
iseve, rogorc VI-VII ss-Si, ZirTadad TavisdauneblieT, xeli kvlav
Seuwyo qarTvelTa Soris somxuri identobis ganvrcobas, radganac
iqauri qarTveloba faqtiurad somxur-qalkedonituri eklesiis
iurisdiqciaSi moeqca.
armenizaciis procesis Tavidan asacileblad iqaurma qarTvelo-
bam mxolod is moaxerxa, rom eklesiurad ganSorda somxur centrebs
da lazikis samitropolitos somxur-qalkedonitur saepiskoposoeb-
Si gaerTianda.
iqaur qarTul samrevloTa bazaze Camoyalibda lazikis, anu tra-
pezuntis samitropolitoSi qalkedonuri saepiskoposoebi _ olnut-
isa, xorZenasi, bizanasi, andakisa da sxva, xolo vanis tbis irgvliv
iyo somxuri mrevlis qalkedonuri saepiskoposoebi wm. nikolozisa,
arWeSisa, berkrisa, vanisa da sxva.
416
qarTulenovnebis naSTebi armeniaSi
somxeTi erTenovani qveyana ar yofila, aq gavrcelebuli yofila
sxvadasxva enebi, kerZod, korduelTa ena, albanelTa ena, sivnielTa
ena, xoiTelTa (artinis) ena, orTielTa ena, dasavleT WaneTisken ki
`ar ismoda somxuri ena~ (p. ingoroyva, giorgi merCule, gv. 499).
VIII s-is somexi mwerali stefanos sivnieli werda, rom somxeTis 7
mxare somxeTis sanapiroebze, enobrivad ganirCeoda Sida somxebisa-
gan, radganac am mxareebSi adgilobrivi enebi (`mosazRvre dialeqte-
bi~) yofila gavrcelebuli. es mxareebi yofila tao (imier tao), speri
(zemo speri), xoiTi _ sasunis mxare, arcaxi, sivnieTi, korduena (kor-
Wea) da sxvebi. korduenaSi am droisTvis, p. ingoroyvas sityviT, qurTu-
li yofila gavrcelebuli, Tumca ki korduena Zveli qarTuli qvey-
ana iyo n. adoncis sityviT. taosa da sperSi qarTuli ena yofila
gavrcelebuli. xoiTel-sasunelTa ena orTaelTa enad iwodeboda da
`artani~-s saxeliTac iwodeboda (Sdr. artaanelTa, anu qarTuelTa
ena). zemoTaRniSnuli es mxareebi lazikis samitropolitos farglebSi
aRmoCnda, misi mrevli ZiriTadad identoba da vinaoba Seryeuli
qarTveloba iyo, romelic xan somxur, xan ki berZnul enobriv gare-
moSi moeqca.
Crdilo, Sua da dasavleT armenia karduxebisa da xalibebis epoqa-
Si (Zv. w. V-IV ss.) qarTuli tomebiT iyo dasaxlebuli, amitomac aq
mdebare vrceli miwa-wyali pariadres mTianeTidan, xorZenasa da gog-
arenas CaTvliT iberebis sacxovrisi iyo.
rogorc aRiniSna, strabonis cnobiT, mxolod qristeSobamde II
saukuneSi SeZlo imJamad gaZlierebulma armeniam iberebisagan mieta-
cebina maTi samSoblos mniSvnelovani nawili _ pariadres mTiswine-
Ti, xorZena da gogarena.
es teritoria armeniis nawilad gadaiqca.
miuxedavad amisa, qarTulenovnebis naSTebi mainc Jonavs am mxa-
reebidan gamosuli zogierTi somexi moRvawis Txzulebidan da TviT
xalxuri Semoqmedebidanac ki. magaliTad, qarTulenovnebis naSTebi
gvxvdeba:
417
a. daviT sasuncis cxovrebaSi, sadac gvxvdeba Semdegi qarTuli
sityvebi: nena, amirani, biWi, kakaba, iqvea lazizmebi (v. goilaZe, asurel
mamaTa samSoblo, 2002, gv. 39);
b. qarTulenovnebis naSTia agaTangelozis wm. grigolis cxovreb-
is arabul TargmanSi;
g. vanis tbispira mxaris qarTulenovnebas mianiSnebs asureli ma-
mebis qarTulenovneba. v. goilaZis azriT, isini am mxareebidan iyvnen;
d. daviT anRaTis wignSi gvxvdeba qarTuli sityva.
armeniaSi am qarTulenovan naSTebs Cveni mecnierebi `qarTizaciad~
Tvlian.
Tu ase Zlieri iyo qarTizacia da man SeZlo mesxeTis (tao-klar-
jeTis) sruli `gaqarTveleba~ imdenad, rom dResac, XXI s-is dasawyisSi,
taoeli glexebi qarTulad laparakoben, maSin, roca tao erTian
saqarTveloSi sul 2-3 saukune iyo, ratom ver gaxda es SesaZlebeli
zogierT mxareSi, sadac qarTuli ena, eklesia da kultura uwyvetia
dRemde?
amitom iseTi sityvebi, rogoricaa biWi (buSis mniSvnelobiT, es
sityva gvxvdeba daviT sasuncis cxovrebaSi) goWi (es sityva gvxvdeba
grigol parTelis cxovrebis arabul TargmanSi) da sxva, aris xalxis
Sida enobrivi samyarodan gamosuli da ara kulturuli zemoqmedeb-
is, anu qarTizaciis Sedegi.
418
enis SenarCunebis mizezebi
trapezunt-arzrum-valaSkertis arealSi mcxovrebma mkvidrma
qarTulma mosaxleobam SeZlo qarTulenovnebis SenarCuneba, rac gan-
sakuTrebiT gamovlinda arabobis dasrulebis Semdgom IX-X ss-Si.
arabebis Semosevamde aRniSnuli miwa-wyali erTmaneTs Soris gain-
awiles bizantiisa da sparseTis imperiebma da mas armeniis nawilad
miiCnevdnen, radganac IV-V ss-Si somxeTis saxelmwifoSi Sedioda.
radganac qristeSobamde II saukuneSi es miwa-wyali armeniam ibe-
rias Camoacala, Sesabamisad bizantielebmac da sparselebmac Tavi-
anT mier dapyrobili qarTuli miwebis nawili Seiyvanes e.w. `dasav-
leT armeniaSi~, sxva nawili `maRal armeniaSi~, nawili ki `persarme-
niaSi~ da a.S.
miuxedavad dampyrobelTa xSiri cvlisa, arzrum-tao-valaSkertis
regionis mkvidrma qarTvelebma mainc SeZles qarTulenovnebis Senar-
Cuneba, amis erT-erT mizezs asaxelebs v. goilaZe, Tumca sxva re-
gionTan dakavSirebiT is wers: `SuamdinareTi da vanis tbis irgvliv
mdebare raioni, marTalia araerTi dampyroblis da saxelmwifos xe-
lSi iyo, magram, rogorc Cans, ama Tu im teritoriaze Sesuli da
gabatonebuli ucxo eTnikuri elementi, yovelTvis ver axerxebda damx-
vduri mosaxleobis asimilacias. maTi moTaveobiT Seqmnili saxelm-
wifos dacemis Semdeg Zveli mosaxleoba arsebobas ganagrZobda, da
ara Tu eTnikur Segnebas, zogjer enasac mSobliurs inarCunebda
rogorc cnobilia, ase moxda aRmosavleT mcire aziaSi Zv. w. XIII s-is
damlevs xeTebis saxelmwifos daRupvis Semdeg muSqebma Tavisi eTni-
kuri saxe da ena SeinarCunes, albaT ase moxda SuamdinareTSic. asure-
Tis imperiis dacemis Semdeg, rogorc `Zveli msoflios istoriaSia~
miTiTebuli, `ar momxdara raime mniSvnelovani eTnikuri cvlileba!
daiRupa mxolod asiriuli sazogadoebis zeda fena, nawilobriv
qalaqelebi. soflis mosaxleoba darCa Tavis adgilas da maTi STamo-
mavlebi cxovroben Crdilo eraySi dRemde, Tumca aqaduri ena didi
xnis win dakarges~ (Zveli msoflios istoria, t. II, moskovi, 1982, rus.
enaze. gv. 42. v. goilaZe, asurel mamaTa samSoblo, 2002, gv. 49).
419
msgavsadve, arabTa batonobis dasasrulisTanave, yofili dasav-
leT armeniisa da agreTve persarmeniis mkvidrma mosaxleobam (taos,
basiansa da mimdebare regionebSi) warmoaCina, rom isini SesaniSnavad
flobdnen qarTul enas, ufro metic, maT gaaCndaT qarTuli identoba,
Tumca ki ganaTlebuli qarTveloba flobda somxur enasa da wera-
kiTxvas. amJamad maT, usafuZvlod, `somexi-qalkedonitebis erT gaqar-
Tvelebul nawilad~ miiCneven.
somexi qalkedonitebis ena
bizantiis imperiaSi somex-qalkedonitTa monastebsa da eklesieb-
Si wirva-locva da saerTod RvTismsaxureba mimdinareobda somxur
enaze. amis Sesaxeb arsebobs wyaroebi. magaliTad, wmida saba ganwmedi-
lis monasterSi, romelic somxeTidan Sors, antioqiaSi mdebareobda,
RvTismsaxurebis enad somxebisaTvis somxuri iyo nebadarTuli.
somexi-qalkedonitebi somxeTis patriotebi iyvnen da maTTvis Zalze
Zvirfasi iyo erovnuli kultura da somxuri eklesiis tradiciebi.
amitomac mtkiceba maTi e.w. `gaqarTvelebisa~ maTi patriotizmis Se-
ufaseblobaa.
`gaqarTvelebis~ Teoria mxolod politikuri mizniT Camoyalib-
da XX saukunis dasawyisSi somxuri nacionaluri interesebis dasak-
mayofileblad. aRniSnulis Sesaxeb TviT somexi avtorebi weren `pra-
voslavnaia enciklopediaSi~:
`somexi qalkedonitebi TviTon TavianT Tavs Tvlidnen saak parTe-
vis, mesrop maStocis da nerse didis memkvidreebad (da ara farnavazisa,
kirionisa da grigol xanZTelisa, mitr. anania). somxuri ena somex-
qalkedonitTa saRvTismsaxuro ena iyo im SemTxvevaSic ki, roca isini
Sekedlebulni iyvnen berZnul monastrebs (maS rogorRa xdeboda maTi
`gaqarTveleba~? mitr. anania), magaliTad, `somexTa saqmeebis moTxrobe-
bis~ Tanaxmad, VI saukuneSi saba ganwmedilis monasterSi somxebs nebas
rTavdnen RvTismsaxureba mSobliur enaze hqonodaT, imis Semdegac ki,
rac somxeTSi gaimarjva antiqalkedonurma mimarTulebam, somexi-
420
qalkedonitebi mainc inarCunebdnen mSobliur enas da mas iyenebdnen
samisionero miznebisaTvis (amis Sedegad SeZles maT VI-VII ss-Si taosa
da sxva qarTul Tavisuflebadakargul olqebSi gabatoneba da iSxnis
kaTedris daarseba qarTvel-qalkedonitTa Soris. mitr. anania), ma-
galiTad, iosebi, konstantinopolis marTlmadidebluri somxuri Te-
mis wevri, romelmac konstantinopolSive Seiswavla somxuri ena da mwi-
gnobroba, 991w. Targmna berZnulidan mokle wliuri svinaqsari konstan-
tinopolis eklesiisa, romelic man Seavso somxuri wyaroebis cnobe-
biT da gagzavna somxeTSi. somex-qalkedonitTa wreebidan gamovida aseve
berZnulidan gamomavali Tveni XI s-sa, somexi-qalkedonitebi monawi-
leobdnen somxuri literaturis Seswavlasa da ganviTarebaSi~, _ wers
pravoslavnaia enciklopedias statiaSi v. aruTinova-fidaniani (pra-
voslavnaia enc. t. III, 2001, gv. 328).
aRsaniSnavia, rom qarTuladac iTargmneboda somex-qalkedonitTa
mdidari somxurenovani literatura, aseve somex-qalkedonitTa dogma-
tur-saRvTismetyvelo polemikuri traqtatebis Semcveli wignebic
(iTargmneboda qarTul enaze) (iqve, gv. 328). somxur-qalkedonuri agi-
ografiuli, egzegetikuri da filosofiuri literaturis qarTulad
Targmna mimdinareobda rogorc V-VIII, ise IX-X ss-Sic (iqve, gv. 328).
qarTulTan SedarebiT, somxur-qalkedonituri literatura siR-
rmiTa da sisavsiT gamoirCeoda. amis mizezi iyo is, rom berZnuli da
siriuli qalkedonuri teqstebi somxur enaze ZvelTaganve funda-
menturad iyo gadmoRebuli.
aTonis mTis berebi aRniSnavdnen kidec, Tu ra mwirad miaCndaT
TavianTi epoqis mSobliuri literatura da iRwvodnen eTargmnaT
sxvadasxva enebidan.
armeniis iberiuli zolis mosaxleobis erTi nawili somxur-qalke-
donuri eklesiis mrevli iyo, maTi armenizacia mimdinareobda da ara
qarTizacia.
aqedanac Cans, rom somexi qalkedonitebi somxebadve darCnen da
SeuerTdnen maTTvis mSobliur somxur eklesias, xolo imJamindel
somxeTSi mcxovrebi eTnikuri qarTvelebi yovel gzas eZebdnen, raTa
mSobliur qarTul eklesiis wiaRs dabrunebodnen.
421
Zv. lazuris da Zv. qarTulis erTianobis
mtkicebulebani
bizantiur epoqaSi qaldea erqva bizantiis administraciul olqs
anu Tems WaneT-lazikaSi.
trapezuntis mimdebare mxareebs iqamdec erqva qaldea. is Ziri-
Tadad dasaxlebuli iyo WanebiT.
es qveyana sainteresoa Tavisi saxelwodebiT.
rogorc cnobilia, qaldea jer kidev qristeSobamde aTaswleulebiT
adre erqva SuamdinareTis erTerT olqs, SemdgomSi `qaldu~ urar-
tuelebma TavianT mTavar `RmerTs~ uwodes, magram maTgan, anu semi-
turi qaldisagan gansxvavdeboda qarTuli `qaldu~, romelic, rogorc
Cans, ufro luviur-frigiul samyarosTan iyo dakavSirebuli.
gordu, qordu, qaldu _ frigiel samyaroSi sakmaod gavrcelebu-
li saxelebi iyo.
saxeli `kardu-karduxi~, vanis tbasTan mcxovreb qarTvelur toms
erqva.
karduxebis qveyanaSia saZebni is Zveli iberia, saidanac qristeSo-
bamde VI saukuneSi nabuqodonosors (babilon-mesopotamiis mefes)
gadmousaxlebia iberebi pontos zRvis pireTSi, trapezuntis regionSi,
romelsac daerqva kidec saxeli _ qaldea.
`iberiel-megreli Stos tomebis sakuTar saxelebSi erTi da igive
qveynis saxeli gvxvdeba. igi aris qarTu anu kardu. raki am qveynis saxe-
li orive Stos tomebis saxelwodebaSi moipoveba, ueWvelia igi qarTve-
lebis Tavdapirveli samSoblo unda yofiliyo.
samSoblos xsovna mesame Stos warmomadgenels, svanebsac aqvT Ser-
Cenili - es karTu, anu qarTu ganTqmuli qveyana qaldea aris~ (iv. javax-
iSvili `qarTveli eris istoria, I, 1981, gv. 403-404).
WaneTs _ qaldeas, mis xalxs ki qaldevelebs uwodebdnen.
iv. javaxiSvilis azriT sityva `qaldeveli~ miRebulia qarTvelTa
fuZe qveynis `qarTu~-s saxelidan (aqedanvea `qarT~-ueli da svanebis
sasoflo Temebis `xalde~ da sxva msgavsi saxelebic). saxelebi `galat~,
`galatu~ saxelebi aseve mcire aziaSi gadmosaxlebul kelt-galateb-
sac gaaCndaT.
422
aRsaniSnavia, rom prokofi da sxva Zveli berZen-romaeli avtore-
bi ar axseneben sityva `egriss~, radganac saxelebi `egrisi, guria,
argveTi~ da sx. momdinareoben erTi saerTo fuZidan `gur~, `gor~,
rac etimologiurad Zalze axloa fuZe `kol~-Tan, am fuZidanaa nawar-
moebi `kolxi~ da `kolxida~, md. enguris Zveli saxelwodeba `eguri~,
aseve egrisis Zveli saxelwodeba `eguri~. Cans saxelebi eguri da
kolxida erTmaneTis mimarT identurni iyvnen.
fuZe `gur~ saerTo mniSvnelobisa unda yofiliyo.
fuZe `gur~, rogorc iTqva, albaT igive `kol~ (kolxida) fuZea.
amave fuZidanaa Cans argueTi, guria, egurisi (egrisi).
amave `gr~ fuZidanaa `gardmani~, `gardabani~, `agaraki~, `garisi~
(amJamad TeTriwyaro), algeTi, liganisxevi (lig-rig) da sxva.
amave fuZidan (`rg~, `gr~) unda iyos nawarmoebi qarTvelTa aRmniS-
vneli eTno saxelebi _ `georgia~, ~georgien~, `gurj~ `gurZ~.
ase, rom `kolx~ dakavSirebulia `qarT~ da qarTvelTa qveynis sax-
elebTan (gurgaq, georgien, georgia, gurZistan). gadasvlebiT g-k-q;
l-r; o-a (magaliTad, kol _ qar);
Zveli avtorebi dabejiTebiT miuTiTeben, rom SavizRvispirze (Sem-
degdroindel afxazeTSi) cxovrobda `kerketebis~ tomi, xolo Crdi-
lo kavkasiaSi tomi `georgebi~, Cemi azriT `kerketebi~ igive `gerg~,
`georg~ tomia. Zalze cdebodnen qarTveli sabWoTa mecnierebi, roca
amtkicebdnen, TiTqosda `kerketebi~ igive `Cerqezebi~ arian etimo-
logiuri TvalsazrisiT. aq ucnauri isaa, rom Turquli sityva `Cer-
qez-Carqaz~ araa Zveli warmoSobisa da Sua saukuneebSia dafiqsire-
buli. maSin roca etimologiurad `kerketi~ yvelaze ufro axloa
`gerget~ - `gerg~ `georg~ `gogar~ fuZeebTan (Sed. `gergetis mTa~
yazbegis r-Si).
sabWoTa istoriografia XX s-Si amtkicebda, rom TiTqosda `kolxi
xalxi~ sxva eTnosi iyo, xolo `qarTvelebi~ sxva, etimologiuri Zie-
ba sxvas aCvenebs.
enobrivadac lazebis anu `kolxebis~ ena da danarCeni qarTveleb-
is ena erTidaigive unda yofiliyo, axlos mdgomi Zvel qarTulTan.
rogorc zemoT iyo gamokvleuli, am gancxadebis Tqmis uflebas
iZleva prokofi kesarielis cnoba, rom lazebis eniT cixe-simagre
kotaions erqva `quTaTisi~.
423
prokofi wers: `am mxares Camoudis erTi mdinare, saxelad reoni, mis
sanapiroebTan Zveladve kolxebs augiaT cixe, ... maSin am cixes kotiaions
uwodebdnen elinuri eniT, amJamad ki mas lazebi quTaTiss eZaxian,
berZnuli enis ucodinarobiT mosdiT, rom am saxelwodebis namdvili
saxe Seryvnes. ase aqvs es moTxrobili arianes.
sxvebi ki amboben, Zvel droSi am adgilas qalaqi iyo da kvitaioni
ewodebodao, aqauri iyo aieti, ris gamoc poetebi mas kvitaiels eZaxd-
nen, kolxidis qveyanas ki kvitatidso ... quTaTisis maxloblad ki aris
erTi metad magari cixe, saxelad uqimerioni~ (georgika, II. gv. 196).
maSasadame, lazebma, TavianTi enis bunebis Sesabamisad, awarmoes
im cixis saxeli, romelsac berZnebi kvitaions uwodebdnen. lazebma
TavianT enaze mas uwodes `quTaTisi~. Cven viciT, rom es sityva nawar-
moebia Zveli qarTuli enis Sesabamisad _ quTaTisi (sufiqsi `aT~,
rogorc, magaliTad _ baRdaTi, gelaTi, mamaTi, da sufiqsi `isi~,
rogorc magaliTad Tbilisi, dmanisi, Zmuisi da a.S.), aqedan safiqre-
belia, rom lazuri ena igive iyo rac Zveli qarTuli ena, yovelSem-
TxvevaSi es ase yofila I saukuneSi arianes dros, im drosac Turme am
cixes lazuri enis Sesabamisad `quTaTisi~ erqva da VI s-Sic prokofis
drosac. es faqti amtkicebs imas, rom Zveli lazuri da Zveli qarTu-
li erTi ena iyo anda erTi enis axlo dialeqtebi.
fuZe qarTuli ena naklebad iyo diferencirebuli arianesa da pro-
kofis dros, diferenciacia Semdgom gaRrmavda, Sesabamisad qarTuli
qristianuli kulturisa da wmida werilis Targmnis epoqaSi (IV-V ss-
Si) fuZe qarTuli ena aerTianebda iberebsa da lazebs. isini erT eno-
briv da kulturul sivrces qmnidnen IV-V ss-Si. Zveli qarTuli ena maTi
(lazebisa da iberebis) saerTo kulturis ena iyo, amitomac `quTaTisi~
erTdroulad lazuri da Zveli qarTuli sityva iyo.
Zv. lazuri da Zv. qarTuli enis erTianobis, erTi bunebis gamo,
rogorc iTqva, moRvaweobdnen erTad ioane lazi da petre iberi ieru-
salimSi. swored qarTul enas aswavlida petre ibers misi aRmzrdeli
ioane lazi saqarTveloSive 6 wlis asakidan (mTavarepiskoposi anania,
`petre iberi marTlmadidebeli episkoposi~, 2002, gv.8).
radganac `quTaTisi~ Zveli qarTulis enobrivi normebiTaa nawar-
moebi, magram prokofi mas `lazur enad~ aRiqvams, unda vifiqroT,
424
rom VI saukunisTvis jer kidev ar iyo dasrulebuli lazur-qarTu-
lis diferenciacia da arsebobda saerTo fuZe ena, romelic erT-
droulad iyo lazurica da qarTulic. rogorc aRvniSneT, am mo-
sazrebis gamoTqmis uflebas albaT isic iZleva, rom g. maWavarianis
mixedviT zanur-qarTulis diferenciacia I aTaswleulSi daiwyo (so-
nantTa sistema), Cans aRniSnul regionSi am diferenciaciis procesi
VI s-Si jer kidev ar iyo dasrulebuli. amiT unda aixsnas albaT is
movlena, rom Cven uamravi zanuri toponimi da hidronimi gvaqvs guri-
asa da samxreT saqarTveloSi. sinamdvileSi SesaZloa isini jer kidev
gaudiferencirebeli zanur-qarTulis enobrivi naSTebia. dasavleT
saqarTvelos saeklesio qarTulenovneba I aTaswleulSive (mag. ioane
minCxis qarTulenovneba) gamowveuli unda yofiliyo imiT, rom es ena
aq yvelas esmoda, radganac aqauri adgilobrivi metyvelebani war-
moadgendnen saerTo kulturis enis erT-erT safuZvels.
kolxi da glexi n. maris mixedviT
`lazi~ eTnonimia, romliTac berZeni avtorebi moixsenebdnen sa-
mxreT-aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTis mosaxleobas. es sityva cnobilia
ukve I-II saukuneebidan.
aRniSnuli regioni, rogorc cnobilia dasaxlebuli iyo qarTve-
luri tomebiT.
rogorc cnobilia, qarTul istoriul wyaroebSi sityva `lazika~
ar gvxvdeba. is yovelTvis iTargmneboda (`sofeli megrelTa~ an
`samegrelo~) da igulisxmeboda trapezuntis sanaxebi, sadac, somx-
uri wyaroebiT, `egris~ olqi iyo ganlagebuli.
maSasadame, sityva `lazika~ qarTuli samyarosaTvis ucxo iyo misi
sufiqsis -`ik~ gamo. marTlac, Cveni azriT, sityva `lazika~ nawarmoe-
bia somxuri enisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli sufiqsiT `ik~, iseve, rogorc
`utik~, `alznik~, `parsaik~, `korsaik~ da sxva. Tumca misi fuZe `laz~-
qarTulia. strabonis cnobiT am fuZe `laz~-iTaa nawarmoebi xali-
425
bebis aRmniSvneli eTnonimi `alazonebi~ da maTi qveynis saxeli _
`alazonia~.
xalibebi anu alazonebi mravalricxovani xalxi iyo.
maTi zogierTi sacxovrisi SemdegSi somxebma daimkvidres. maT Soris
unda yofiliyo somxuri provincia saxelwodebiT _ `alznik~. sityva
`lazik~ SesaZloa iyos `alznikis~ variacia. aRsaniSnavia, rom XI s-Si
`alznik~-Si ganlagebuli iyo lazikis saepiskoposoebis erTi jgufi.
kidev erTxel SeiZleba aRiniSnos, rom trapezuntis mxareebisaken
mcxovrebi qarTuli tomebis eTnonimebSi gvxvdeba qarTvelTa aRm-
niSvneli eTnofuZe `gr~ sxvadasxva variaciebiT, magaliTad, beqireb-
is tomi cxovrobda trapezuntidan afsarosamde da maT qveyanas `be-
qirias~ uwodeben.
trapezunti mdebareobda regionSi, romelic `makroniad~ iwode-
boda.
trapezuntis dasavleTiT farnakia `tibareniad~ iwodeboda.
yvela tomis saxelSi gamoiyofa zemoT aRniSnuli fuZe _ `gr~,
`qr~, `kr~, `bgr~.
beqirebi - beqir = bqr =bgr
makronebi - makron = kr = gr
tibarebi - tibar = ibar = br
beqirebi cxovrobdnen iq, sadac Semdeg Zidritebi, romelsac Sem-
deg ewoda `lazika~.
amave eTnofuZiT unda iyos nawarmoebi cnobili eTnosaxelebi
`kolxi~ da `kolxida~.
`n. mari qarTuli sityva `glexis~ Sesaxeb dasZens _ socialuri
termini glexi Sesatyvisi somxuri `greh-ik-isa~, mdabiuri wodebrivi
saxeli. glexisagan warmoiqmna `glaxaki~, `glaxa~. `glaxa~ igive `kolx-
ia~, aRniSnavs glexs an monas~ (i. abulaZe, Sromebi, t. II, 1976, gv. 168).
n. mari wers `ZiriTadi socialuri terminebi kavkasiaSi aris eTni-
kuri warmoSobisa, udablesi fena qarTvelebsa da somxebSi iwodeba
kolxebis saxelis mixedviT qarTulad `glexi~, somxurad `grexiki~ (n.
mari, baTumi, ardagani, yarsi, petrogradi, 1922, gv. 31 (rusul enaze).
`glexi~ Seicavs fuZe-Zir `gl~ anu `gr~-s am fuZiT ki iwodebodnen
qarTvelebi (georgien, gugarqi, egrisi, guria da a.S.) `qarTlis cxov-
426
rebis~ mixedviT maT zeda fenad iqcnen e.w. `makedonelebi~ anu `ari-
an-qarTvelebi~. `moqcevaYs~ mixedviT, Sesabamisad, mkvidri qarTve-
lebi ki iqca qveda fenad _ glexad. ase, rom glexs kavSiri aqvs ara
mxolod sityva `kolxTan~, aramed zogad qarTul eTno fuZesTan `gr~,
`gl~-sTan. es eTno-fuZe TiTqmis yvela qarTuli tomis saxelSi Cans,
magaliTad, georgien, gurZ, margveli, guruli, egreli, provinciebi
_ gogarena, gugarq, garisi, gardabani da sxva.
427
kari meoTxe
arian-qarTlis warsuli
Tavi XV
argonavtebi da amiraniani
aia-kolxida da pelasgur-kavkasiuri identoba
XX s-is dasawyisSi lingvistma berjix groznim gaSifra xeTuri
lursmuli damwerloba da waikiTxa xeTebis dedaqalaqis mdidari same-
fo arqivi. am dokumentebSi Canda, rom xeTebis mezoblad arsebobda
saxelmwifo haiasa, zogierTi mkvlevaris azriT haiasas adgilmde-
bareoba urartusas emTxveoda. is arzrumis platozec Canda.
radganac somxeTs haiastans uwodeben, saxelma `haiasam~ aRafrTo-
vana somexi mecnierebi, axla maT saSualeba eZleodaT, rom ukve Zv. w.
XIV s-dan emtkicebinaT mcire aziaSi somxuri saxelmwifoebriobis
arseboba. radganac iqamde miiCneoda, rom somxuri kvali mcire azia-
Si mxolod Zv. w. VI s-dan Canda.
iqamde, haiasas qveS igulisxmeboda Zv. w. VI s-dan urartus mezo-
blad mdebare patara somxuri saxelmwifo, romelmac isargebla urar-
tus dasustebiT, daiwyo mis winaaRmdeg brZola, sabolood mospo da
misi adgili daiWira.
428
xeTur warwerebSi sityva `haiasas~ amokiTxvis Semdeg, somexi mec-
nierebi amJamad amtkiceben, rom TiTqosda, haiasas memkvidre iyo ura-
rtu da haiasa aris urartus Tavdapirveli, namdvili saxeli, rom
urartu-haisasa haikebis anu somxebis qveyana iyo, rom Sesabamisad
urartuelTa ena iyo somxuri. aseTi mosazreba sxva wyaroebiT ar
dasturdeba, is usafuZvloa.
Cveni fiqriT, qristeSobamde II aTaswleulis haiasas qveynis qveS
unda igulisxmebodes ara haikebis qveyana, aramed berZnul wyaroebSi
cnobili qveyana `aia~ anu aia-kolxida. is (aia-kolxida) amave regions
Woroxisa da evfratis saTaveebs moicavda zRvispirTan erTad.
aia-kolxida saxelovani da cnobili qveynis saxiTaa mocemuli Sem-
degi drois gadmocemebsa da miTebSi, romelTac Tavisi safuZveli
unda hqonoda.
miCneulia, rom homerosis (Zv.w. IX-VIII ss.) `odisea~ pirvelad ixse-
niebs qveyanas saxeliT _ `aia~, es kolxeTis pirvandeli saxelwode-
baa. homerosma ar icoda saxeli `kolxida~, Cans imis gamo, rom mis
epoqaSi kolxeTis adgilas mdebare qveyanas saxeli `aia~ erqva. `odis-
eaSi~ homerosi geografiul saxel `aias~ sam adgilas axsenebs (simR-
era X, XI, da XII). `odiseas~ mixedviT `aiaie~ mdebareobda mzis amosv-
lis mxares, `okeanis~ (ase uwodebda zogierTi antikuri wyaro Sav
zRvas) aRmosavleTiT. `aia~ berZen mwerlebs, Cveulebriv, kolxeTSi
mdebare qveynad miaCndaT, zogierTis komentirebiT homerosi `kolx-
ikes~ nacvlad xmarobda `aias~, rogorc adgilis aRmniSvnel saxel-
wodebas, rac imas miuTiTebs, rom `haiasas ~ samefos gaqrobis Semdeg
misi saxeli `aia~ darCa, rogorc adgilobrivi geografiuli saxeli.
herodotec `aias~ kolxeTTan aigivebs. is wers `xomaldiT miscures
aia-kolxidaSi, mdinare fazisTan~.
miiCneva, rom `aia-kolxidaSi~ `aia~ niSnavs `kolxidis~ uZveles saxels.
herodotes mixedviT mis droindel `kolxidas~ winaT, argonavte-
bis epoqaSi, saxelad `aia~ erqva. asevea apolonios rodoselTanac.
misTvis aia kolxeTis sinonimia. zogi mwerlisaTvis aia kolxeTis
nawili, misi erT-erTi qalaqia, maSasadame, isinic aias kolxeTTan
akavSireben. Tavis mxriv albaT, SesaZlebelia termin kolxeTis dakav-
Sireba sityva qaldeasTan.
429
Cven qvemoT vikvlevT, rom amiranis (da zogierTi sxva) qarTuli miTi
TiTqmis zustad emTxveva im berZnul miTebs, romelnic kolxur sam-
yarosTanaa dakavSirebuli (miTi argonavtebisa da miTebi promoTes
Sesaxeb). amiranis miTis naSTebi SemorCenili iyo vrcel terioriaze _
vanis tbasTan mdebare sasunis mTebidan vidre afxazeTis CaTvliT Crdi-
lo kavkasiamde. aia-kolxidis kulturis vrceli areali ekontaqtde-
boda berZnul-balkanur samyaros. maT erTnairi miTebic ki hqondaT.
erT-erTi luviuri miTis Tanaxmad, rogorc aRiniSna, mokvdav-
aRorZinebadi RvTaeba telefinus simbolo (niSani) _ eias xeze unda
CamoekidaT misdami msxverplSewiruli cxvris tyavi (sawmisi), anu,
oqros sawmisis miTi ara mxolod kolxeTSi, aramed ufro adre lu-
via-muSqebis qveyanaSi iyo cnobili.
saerTod, yamaris xasiaTi miagavs argonavtebis miTis kolxeTis
mefis asulis medeas xasiaTs, kerZod, yamari medeas msgavsad Rala-
tobs Tavis ojaxs, Tavis mamas da mihyveba saqmros. argonavtebis mi-
Tis siuJetis mixedviT iasons daedevneba medeas mama, am dros medea
exmareba iasons da akvlevinebs Tavisianebs, aseve, msgavsad _ yamari
exmareba amirans, raTa man mamamisi (e.i. yamaris mama) moklas _ `maRla
nu ki scem spilosa, dabla Semohkar rbilosa, daeWrebian ZarRvebi
daecemian Zirosa~ _ urCevs yamari amirans, Tu rogor moklas mamami-
si. yamaris mama ambobs amis gamo: `uyure bozsa qalasa qmari irCia
mamasa~ da swored aseTivea medeas xasiaTi. SesaZloa, is berZnuli
miTebi, romelnic kolxeTis Sesaxeb SeiTxza _ mosxebis (muSqebis)
qveyanasTan iyos dakavSirebuli.
marTlac, `mosxebi _ kolxuri tomia~ _ werda am epoqasTan yvelaze
axlos mdgomi qristeSobamde VI saukunis avtori hekatos mileteli.
Cveni kvleviT, `mosxebi~ igive kolxebi, igive qaldebi iyo, is eTno-
substrati, romeliTac Camoyalibda qarTveli xalxi da romlidanac
warmoiSva qarTvelTa tomebi e.w. `qarTebi~, `zanebi~ da `svanebi~. misi
miTebi aia-kolxidas miTebia, mcire aziisa da kavkasiis qarTul sam-
yaroSi gavrcelebuli.
f. haasis mier dadgenilia, rom mcireaziaSi gavrcelebuli rwmena-
Sexedulebebi da miTebi identuria antikur samyaroSi cnobili zo-
gierTi miTisa.
430
Cveni TvalsazrisiT iasonisa da medeas miTi garkveulwilad iden-
turia amiranisa da yamaris Tqmulebisa, romelic Cans mcireaziis
mkvidr qarTvelTa winaprebSi iyo gavrcelebuli, anu aia-kolxidis
vrcel samyaroSi, romlis erTi nawili Semdgom urartum moicva.
iazoni da amirani
amirani yvela qarTul qveyanaSi iyo cnobili, vanistbispireTidan
kavkasiis mTebs iqiT, Cans, is gavrcelebuli iyo arian-qarTlSic, aq
unda hqonoda urTierToba qarTul da balkanur samyaros.
aqamde yuradReba aravis miuqcevia im saocari faqtisaTvis, rom
qarTuli eposis gmiris amiranisa da argonavtebis meTaur iazonis
ambebi ara Tu saocrad emsgavseba erTmaneTs, aramed identuricaa,
kerZod amirani da iazoni erTi sqemiT moqmedeben:
1. iazoni midis medeas mamis samefoSi;
amirani midis yamaris mamis koSkSi;
2. medeas mama adamian-RmerTia, zevsis STamomavalia, magiuri Za-
lis mqonea - Tesavs kbilebs da amodian veSapebi,
aseTive bunebisaa amiranis sacolis mamac _ `yamars mama caSi hyavs~
_ wvimis da amindis momcemia;
3. medea uRalatebs sakuTar mamas da midis Tavisi ojaxidan,
aseve yamaric lanZRavs Tavis mSoblebs da midis mamis saxlidan _
nawyeni mSoblebs eubneba _ `misusurebdiT danasa~.
4. medeas Tavisi mamis saxlidan malulad miaqvs saganZuri _ oqros
sawmisi,
yamarsac malulad miaqvs Tavisi ojaxidan simdidre _ jadosnuri
jam-WurWeli.
5. iazons daedevneba medeas mama;
aseve amirans daedevneba yamaris mama.
6. orive qali (yamari da medea) aswavlan TavianT qmrebs rogor
daamarcxon misive (qalis) axlonaTesavebi;
431
yamari amirans aswavlis rogor daamarcxos mamamisi _ `maRla nuki
scem spilosa, dabla Semohkar rbilosa, daecemian ZarRvebi, daecemi-
an Zirosa~;
msgavsadve, iazoni medeas daxmarebiT amarcxebs mis Zmas arfsirtes
da hklavs.
6. iazoni Tavis megobar TanamolaSqreebTan erTad midis medeas
qveyanaSi,
aseve amiranic Tavis megobar-TanamolaSqreebTan badrisTan da
usupTan erTad midis yamaris qveyanaSi.
8. iazoni klavs gveleSaps, amirani hklavs veSaps.
9. iazonic da amiranic oqros mflobelebi arian, iazons aqvs oqros
sawmisi, amirans aqvs oqros kbili.
10. iazonic da amiranic TanamolaSqreebTan erTad ieriSiT iReben
koSks an maRali simagris kedels (iazonis molaSqreni). (ukarebo br-
olis koSks, romlis kari iq Cndeba, sadac amirani wixls dakravs).
unda arsebobdes argonavtebisa da amiranis eposebis gmirebis mo-
qmedebaTa msgavsebis sxva niSnebic.
maSasadame, amirani da azoni erTi sqemiT moqmedeben:
1) amirani midis yamaris mamis koSkSi,
azoni midis medeas mamis (aietis) samefoSi;
2) yamars mama caSi hyavs _ wvimis da amindis momcemia,
medeas mamac msgavsi gmiria, Tesavs kbilebs da amodian veSapebi;
3) yamari lanZRavs Tavis mSoblebs da midis mamis saxlidan. ambobs
_ `misusurebdiT danasa~, Tan miaqvs ganZi _ WurWeli,
medeac midis mamis saxlidan, miaqvs ganZi _ sawmisi;
4) amirans daedevneba yamaris mama,
iazons daedevneba medeas mama;
5) rac yvelaze mTavaria, orive es qali aswavlian TavianT qmrebs
Tu rogor daamarcxon misi axloblebi anu colis axlo naTesavebi.
yamari Tavisi sakuTari mamis mokvlis xerxs aswavlis amirans, am-
bobs: `maRla nu ki scem spilosa dabla Semohkar rbilosa daeWrebian
ZarRvebi, daecemian Zirosa~.
am xerxiT, yamaris RalatiT, amirani klavs yamaris mamas.
medeac aswavlis iazons rogor moklas misi Zma arfsiste. am xerx-
iT medeas RalatiT, iazoni amarcxebs medeas Zmas;
432
6) amirans hyavs TanamolaSqre megobrebi (argonavtebi) da maTTan
erTad midis yamarTan,
iazons hyavs TanamolaSqre megobrebi (badri da usupi) da maTTan
erTad midis medeasTan;
7) iazonic amarcxebs gveleSaps da amiranic;
8) iazonic da amiranic oriveni oqros mflobelebi arian, erTs _
oqros sawmisi aqvs, meores _ oqros kbili;
straboni, aseve sxva berZen-romaeli istorikosebi midebs, Crdi-
lo somxebs, albanelebsa da iberelebs, aseve kavkasiis zRvispira
tomebs miiCnevdnen argonavtebisa da medeas STamomavlebad.
amiranisa da iazonis gmirobis ambebis msgavseba ar unda iyos Sem-
TxveviTi.
rogorc Cans, balkaneTidan kavkasiisaken gadmosaxlebaTa dros fri-
gielebs, pelsagebs da sxva tomebs da ufro adre piriqiT, kavkasielT
balkaneTSi, Tan gadahqondaT gmirebis ambebic.
luviaSi - vanisa da urmiis tbasTan mcxovrebi karduxi _ gordienebi
Cans gadasaxldnen trapezuntisken daaxloebiT qristeSobamde VIII-VI
saukuneebSi. amas unda erqvas iberebis gadasaxleba da es unda iyos asax-
uli Zvel avtorTa cnobaSi, rom nabuqodonosorma libielebis (lu-
vielebis) mezobeli iberebi gadaasaxla [Cans, karduxebis (gordieneb-
is) qveynidan] pontos zRvispireTSi, trapezuntisaken.
iberebi da pelazgebis gmirebi albaT amitom emsgavsebian erTma-
neTs.
e.i. karduxebis qveynidan anu luviidan nabuqodonosorma mosax-
leoba gadaasaxla trapezuntisken SavizRvispireTSi.
433
amirani iasonia, xolo medea _ yamari
f. haasis TvalsazrisiT Zveli mcireaziuri rwmenebi Semdgom sico-
cxles berZnul antikurobaSi poulobdnen (n. abakelia, medeas mi-
Tologiuri saxis interpretaciisaTvis, krebuli _ eTnografiuli
Ziebani, 1988, gv. 5).
iazons Tavisi gmirobisaTvis `qalRvTaeba~ medeas daxmareba dasWirda.
f. haasis mier dadgenilia rom aseTi miTebi mcireaziaSi iyo gavrce-
lebuli, saidanac SeaRwia antikur samyaroSi, Sesabamisad gamoyofs
da erTmaneTis gverdiT ayenebs wyvilebs inarasa da xufasias, medeasa
da iazons, n. abakeliam maT rigSi Caayena dali (nadirTpatroni) da
monadire _ qarTuli miTebis personaJebi.
Cveni TvalsazrisiT iasonisa da medeas miTi garkveulwilad iden-
turia amiranisa da yamaris Tqmulebisa, romelic Cans mcireaziis
mkvdr qarTvelTa winaprebs Soris iyo gavrcelebuli.
f. haasis cnobiT centralur anatoliaSi gavrcelebuli yofila
miTi gvel iluanqaze, romelic ebrZvis amindis RvTaebas.
amindis RvTaebas ki, Tavis mxriv exmareba qalRmerTi inara.
mas (inaras) surs daamarcxos iluanqa, risTvisac Tavis mxriv masac
esaWiroeba mokvdavi xufasias daxmareba.
xufasia da inara amyareben satrfialo kavSirs, inara aZinebs gv-
els. miiCneva, rom es mcireaziul (xaTur-protoxeTuri) miTi safuZ-
velia iason-medeas ambisa.
Tqmulebis erTi versiiT iasons ylapavs gveleSapi `am epizods, f.
haasis aRniSvniT, aseve vxvdebiT qarTuli `promeTeosis~ erT Tqmule-
baSi, romelSic gveleSapi amirans ylapavs~ (iqve, gv. 8).
Cveni azriT, amiranis TqmulebaSi yamaris mama, amindis RvTaeba
unda iyos, radganac mas SeuZlia `tarosis Secvla~ - misi cxenebis
Cliqebis mier aCqafebuli wylis nami wvimad iqceva.
f. haasis azriT, paralelebi aSkaraa _ inara da medea aZineben
urCxuls, orive uaxlovdeba mas uSiSrad, orives kavSiri aqvT oqros
sawmisTan,
Cveni azriT, saxelebi inara da yamari emsgavsebian erTmaneTs (yi-
nara _ yamari), aseve saxelebi `xufasia~ da `aram-xutu~ (xufasia _
xutu) (amirans megrel-lazur samyaroSi aramxutu erqva).
434
haasi erTmaneTs akavSirebs xufasias da iazons.
f. haasis azriT, amirani qarTuli promeTeosis gmiria.
Cven, Cveni mxriv, amiranis Tqmulebas argonavtikasTan vakavSirebT.
mogvyavs mravali magaliTi iasonisa da amiranis, medeasa _ yamaris
msgavsebisa.
amiranis Tqmuleba (misi pirvelsaxe) erT-erTi wyaro unda yofil-
iyo argonavtebis miTisa. amiraniani da argonavtika erTi saerTo
Tqmuleba-warmodgenis nayofia.
gamoiTqva mosazreba, rom miTebi oqros sawmisis