 Medical

:
 Medically Injury is defined as, ‘any discontinuity or
breach in the anatomy of the body’.
 Legal:
 Legally, as per section 44 the Penal Code, 1860,
‘Injury is defined as any harm caused illegally to a
person i.e. to his body, mind, reputation or property’.


 Hurt:
‘Bodily pain, disease or infirmity to any person as a result of
criminal violence.’ Hurt is of two types; e.g.
o Simple hurt:
It may be defined as one which neither serious, nor
complicated and heals up easily without leaving any
permanent disfiguration or deformities; e.g. abrasions.
o Grievous hurt:
Any hurt which endangers life or which causes the victim to
be in severe bodily pain or unable to follow his ordinary
pursuit for a period of 20 days.
 According to section 320 of the Penal Code, 1860, the
following injuries are grievous:
1. Emasculation, i.e. deprivation of muscularity of
person either by castration or by cutting off the male
organ (penis),
2. Permanent privation of either eye,
3. Permanent privation of the hearing of either ear,
4. Privation of any member of joint,
5. Destruction of permanent impairing of the power of
any member of joint,
6. Permanent disfiguration of the head or face,
7. Fracture or dislocation of a bone or tooth.

1. Medical classification:
(a) Wounds caused by hard blunt weapon or fall on the
ground (blunt injuries) –
i. Abrasion or scratches,
ii. Bruises or contusions,
iii. Lacerated wounds,
iv. Fractures and dislocations.
(b) Wounds caused by sharp cutting or sharp cutting pointed
weapons –
i. I ncised wounds,
ii. Punctured or stab wounds; it again of two types
- Penetrating &
- Perforation .


(c) Gun shot wounds caused by firearms.
(d)Wounds from heat/ X-ray/ lightning/ corrosive
chemicals/ boiling liquid, etc. e.g.
i. Burns,
ii. Scalds.
(e) Wounds of various types caused by bomb
splinters.

1. According to nature:
i. Self – inflicted or suicidal wounds
ii. Inflicted by others or homicidal wounds
iii. Accidental wounds
iv. Defense wounds
v. Fabricated wounds
2. In relation to moment of death:
i. Ante-mortem wounds
ii. Postmortem wounds

i. Simple; and
ii. Grievous which may in most of the cases be dangerous
to life.
In order of severity, injury may be designed one by
one as follows:
a. Fire arm wounds;
b. Wounds caused by bomb splinters;
c. Punctured or stab wounds;
d. I ncised wounds;
e. Burn wounds;
f. Scald wounds;
g. Fractures or dislocations;
h. Bruises or contusions;
i. Abrasions.
 Abrasion is a blunt force
injury developed on the
surface of the skin due to
rubbing of rough
substance.
 Such as stone, stick, nails,
pointed end of a thorn,
needles, etc.

 These injuries are mostly accidental, sometimes
homicidal & rarely suicidal.
 Characteristics of injury, type of weapon, age of
injury can be helpful in medico-legal cases.
 For instance, an abrasion on cornea can lead to
blindness, a grievous injury.
 Bruise is a blunt force injury
causing effusion of blood into the
tissues due to crushing or tearing
of the cellular tissues and small
blood vessels but without any
damage to the skin externally.
1. By blow with a blunt weapon, e.g. lathi, whip, iron
rod, fist, etc.
2. By fall on a hard rough surface,
3. by being knocked down or run over by moving
vehicles,
4. By crushing or compression.
 Sometimes artificial or false bruise is produced in
order to bring a false charge of assault against a
rival or enemy.
 Substances used here may be –
i. Root of chitra or lal chitra,
ii. Antiseptics or caustics.

 These are usually accidental, sometimes homicidal
& rarely suicidal.
 Bruising on thigh specially inner aspect and on
genitals indicates rape
 Even a minor bruise or contusion on brain, heart or
lung without visible injury on upper surface may
prove fatal to cause death.

o It is defined as the injury
caused by Heavy, Hard &
Blunt objects, involving
damage to some deeper layers
& deeper body parts, e.g.
subcutaneous tissues, muscles,
bones, blood vessels & internal
viscera, etc.
i. By assault with blunt weapons e.g. lathi, iron bar,
stone, brick, etc.
ii. By violent fall on somewhat sharp and hard
projecting surfaces,
iii. By street vehicle accidents, on the ground including
fall from a height.
1. Laceration is usually homicidal or accidental,
2. Suicidal are very rare because of extreme force
required & extensive pain,
3. These are usually grievous injuries,
4. Foreign bodies found in the wound may indicate
the circumstances in which crime has been
committed.
o These are the injuries caused by
Sharp edged objects, like
blade, knife, chopper etc.
when the weapon is struck or
pressed & drawn across the body
part.
o Types:
- Hesitation cuts
- Chop wounds
i. Weapon – the shape may indicate the nature of
the weapon,
ii. Relative position of the victim and the assailant
can be known,

 Stab/ punctured
wounds are deep
wounds caused by a
more or less pointed
weapon by driving in
through the skin and
the depth in the
greatest dimension.
 Weapons used: Knife,
dagger, needle,
arrow, scissors, ice
pick, etc.

 Penetrating wound: The weapon enters the body
cavity, such as thorax (chest) or abdomen.
 Perforating wound: When the weapon after
penetrating the tissues, comes out from other
side making an exit wound.
 In other words, through and through wound.


 Shape of the wound may indicate the type of
weapon used
 The depth of the wound may indicate the force
of penetration
 Position, number and direction of wounds
may indicate mode of production, e.g. suicide,
homicide, or accident
o Firearms injuries or gunshot wounds are such
injuries which are caused by high velocity
projectiles, e.g. bullets discharged from
firearms.

o These are punctured wounds; e.g. penetrating
and perforating

 Wound of entry & exit may be present.

 Handle
 Trigger
 Barrel Muzzle
 Chamber