D, dair, oak in the Ogham alphabet. Totem bird, the droen or wren,colour dubh, black.

June 10 to July 7. An attribute of Di-ardaoin, also known as Thursday or Thor’s Day.

DÀ, two. The true name of the elder day “lord of hosts” of the Gaels was probably Da, Do, or Don, who the Welsh called Doon, the Cornishmen, Dou, and the Anglo-Saxons, Doom. A very similar word is the Latin divus, deified one Resembling Eng. da, dad and daddy. The Gaelic form corresponds with the obsolete English word da, which is the current word for two. In the Old Irish tongue the word could be masculine dá or the feminine di. The same holds for Welsh where dau is masculine and dwy feminine. In the Cornish form these words were dou and diu. In the dead Brythonic tongue of the English Celts it was daou and diou. All of these words bear obvious relationship to the Gaelic deo, breath, i.e. spirited, and dia, a god and the Norse/Gaelic god Ve, the Wind . A very similar word is the Latin divus, m., deified one, which is the Norse tiv and the Anglo-Saxon twi. All of these forms point to the old northern European god variously named Aod, Aoid, Aoidh (pronounced somewhat like the English letter “k”). He is also called Hu, Da or Dagda in Gaelic and Hues, Hess, Deus, Dis, Twes, Tuis, Tues, Tyrr, Tyr or Ter in various Germanic tongues. This god is still remembered in the English Tuesday. This linguistic exercise reveals a duo-partite creator-god, who apparently knew how to represent himself in male and female bodies, possibly in the interest of “self-

expression.” His male form, in Gaelic, is usually given as Don, his female as Domnu, and the following which these two energized forms created, embraced the so called House of Don, within the undersea kingdom of Domhain. The Norse and the Gaels preferred to speak of the “one-god” obliquely calling him the Allfather, the Old Man, the Old Boy, the Good (God) Fellow, or something of that ilk. It was widely understood that calling upon the true name of any god was a dangerous business since they were likely to appear and were invariably annoyed by oaths or swearings that were”in vain.” In Gaelic parts Don’s Day is still Didomnuich, which we call Sunday. The month of Damhar, or October, is related, the word damh identifying an ox or stag; the word damhair means rutting time. The ending air in this last word indicates rank, thus, “The high-ox.” The whole word can also be interpreted as “battle-ox,” or “slaughtering ox.” The word Domhain is allied with this: the second part mainnir, indicating a pen, fold or booth for wild animals. An associate word is the Old Irish mendat, a residence. Two headed sculptures of Celtic origin have been described as illustrating "the reciprocal relationship between the human hero and his divine archetype", but they may simply represent the twin gods Lugh/Nuada, who spoke with one voice and were the co-creators of the world of men. Nuada's name is similar to the Gaelic "nuadh" which is exactly represented in the English word new. We have said that Lugh is represented by a character named Llew in Welsh myth, and Nuada has a similar counterpart in the deity named Nudd or Lludd. Nudd is pictured on a bronze plaque which was discovered by the Severn River in England. He is show encircled by a halo and accompanied by spirits of the air and water. We are reminded that this god was one of three elementals, the others being Ler and Myrddyn. While they belonged to th elemental triad, Lugh and Nuada were a dynamic duo, Lugh carrying the spear which fought by itself and Nuada the sword which slew its victim at first touch.

Duality is a constant theme in the old Gaelic tales, it being easily observed that many things come in pairs: day and night, male and female, wet and dry, chaos and order, and of course, good and evil. Even the all powerful Aithir or Allfather was seen as having a split personality, his destructive side being named Nathir, the one who is not the father. His name persists in Gaelic in the word "nathair", a snake or serpent, and anciently, a sea serpent. Lugh and Nuada may represent similar aspects of the creator-god, the former representing power rising and the latter power falling. Lugh and Nuada seem to have been more reflective gods than theeir “father” The Dagda, or at least they were individuals of slower passions. Gray Hugh , a senachie of the Hebrides, said that Lugh Longarm meditated for a thousand years before noticing the presence of his twin brother Nuada (pronounced Noo-dah), The Horseman of the Heavens. The two remind us of Loki and Thor, thunder and lightning, individuals so close in being that one often spoke the thoughts of the other. After an additional thousand years of mutual consideration the two used their magic to create "something not seen until then...fire." Easily bemused they fell into contemplation of this novelty for another thousand year span. At the end of that time they noticed that the fire periodically ebbed and increased in intensity. When the fire was up sparks were seen to come together burst into powerful streamers of light and then fade as their energies were lost. Speaking as one mind with two voices the gods decided to end the arbitrary length of day and night and to create time and space. It was said that, "They made the Creation round." After that they put limits on the boundaries of chaos so that it might not affect their newborn universe. Having divided light and darkness evenly, Lugh approached the primal fire with a spear in hand. Like the sword of Svrtr it was burst into a living flame filled with the spirit of creation. See this fire held aloft, Nuada struck at it with the sword "that needed only one blow to

put a finsih on a thing." Thus the stars were scattered to the far corners of the Creation. The stars driven from its point, Lugh lowered his spear with no more than a glow continuing at its point. He gave the spear a shake and that particle of light fell into space creating the sun for the planet now called earth. One little glow remained and Lugh shook this way to create the moon. As they stood admiring their work they were approached by Dag, the daughter of Lugh. Asked for her opinion of their work the girl noted that any creatures living in the new world be confined to places of perpetual darkness or constant light since only half the planet was illuminated in their static universe. Agreeing that this was so, the co-workers seized the sphere in their hands and began to rock it and jerk it until a motion was imparted to all of the stars, moons and planets. When they were done, Dag had to agree that the orbiting earth now received equal light on all its surface as it orbited the sun. The creators now decided to supply the earth with things that grow. Dag was given charge of the greening of the earth. Its first gardener, she selected green as the colour for foilage noting that it was a perfect background colour. She then assigned colours to the various crops, and classified the various animal creations as they were brought to life by the gods. It was Dag who created the cauldron of the deep, "a large pot in which there was every kind of food and provision for all existence and life." 1 DABHACH, a vat, a measure of land (one to four ploughshares differing by locality), cf. dhabh, to deepen, to dig out, Eng. tub allied with Germ. zuber, all from the root da, two as it was, originally, a “two-eared” container (for liquor). This is the mythological bragaful shaped in the form of an Old Norse longship. Also, any gigantic woman. Identified as Ossian’s wife, the protype of this kind was “big and burly” When she was a crone annd blind, she fell out with her husband (or the reverse). He threw the shin bone of a dead animal at her but missed, thus the saying: “a throw or a

blow at a-venture.” See Da. DA-CHORPACH, having two bodies, bi-corporal. The Gaels believed that all men had dual spirits, one internal the other external. Ther latter could briefly enflesh itself resulting in situations where men or women were seen in two places at the same time. DÀ-CHAILLINN, the Double Caledons, northern Scotland in the vicinity of the Grampian mountain range. Dà, two, conferring with “double-god” Lugh. The region which the Romans called Caledonia lies between the Grampians and Strathearn. Because the north and south slopes of the Grampians were within Caledonian territory, their inhabitants were the Dicaledones or “double Caledonians.” The associated forests was inhabited by every type of bogey including “Mad” Merineal , or “Merlin,” who fought in one of the last Celtic battles for Britain in 573 A.D., afterwards retiring to these woods where he lived in intractable insanity. Tacitus says that these folk were originally Brythonic rather than Gaelic-speakers. Galgacus, “The Swordsman,” the first named Scottish hero, united the Caledonians against Agricola in preparation for the battle of Mons Graupius (84 A.D.) The Caledonians fought from their traditional chariots but were unequal to the tight tactics of the Roman foot-soldiers. By the fourth century the Caledonians were assimilated into the Pictish nations of the north. They became a part of the Scottish kingdom when Pictish power declined in the ninth century. See Chaillinn. DÅ CHOC, DÄ CHOCA, DÅ COCA, coca, void, empty, hollow. cocar, perfect; another Irish father-deity. He gave his name to a hostel near the ford at Druim Airthir. When Cormac the king came here he and his followers saw a woman at the stream washing the cushions and harness from a chariot. When she lowered her hands the water was seen to fill with red blood. When she raised them again the water retreated from the stream leaving it bone dry and easy to cross. The

king asked one of his servants to approach the woman asking if this was an omen. She responded by taking a druidic pose, standing on one leg with one eye closed. She then chanted that she was washing the remains of the doomed king. This was, of course, the Badb, the banshee of royalty. DÁ DEARGA, the Red One (God) of two aspects, the “Dark One.” A Leinster chieftain who owned a hostel by the River Dodder. King Conar Mor journeyed there in spite of ill omens he saw on the way. The hostel was besieged by Ingcel, a hostile Briton, who was assisted by the foster sons of the king and the sons of the Connacht queen named Mebd. “The Destruction of Da Dearga’s Hostel” is one of the great Gaelic tales of a man-god fighting on in spite of impending doom. See Dá. In Gaelic the words ruadh and dearg both carry the meaning of the colour “red.” Additionally they suggest “Strong, swift” or “turbulent.” In northern Britain this god was Cocidius, which may have an equivalent in the Irish deity Da Choc, sometimes represented as Coca. He corresponds with the Dagda, who is also represented as Ruad Rofhessa, the “Red One of Great Wisdom.” Sometimes equated with the Roman god Mars. DACHAIDH-FOGHAR, DHACHAIDH, harvest-home, "to bring in before winter" is the general meaning. The ingathering of the harvest; the time of harvest; the feast made at the time of harvest; songs sung by reapers. This celebration is widespread in Europe and very ancient in its beginnings. Characteristic of allied rites is the preparation of a rude animal or human image made from the last sheaf of grain. Often decorated with flowers and ribbons, this relic was brought in from the fields with the last load amidst much shouting and singing. This image is variously known as the harvest queen, harvest doll, kirn baby, kirn doll, kirn maiden, old woman, old hag, etc. etc. This was regarded as the spirit of the grain incarnate, a ghost which had to be over-wintered for the preservation of the land and its people. Quite often a human counterpart of the corn-doll was appointed by lot and became superintendent of all the

rites of the season. These includes feasting dancing, general merry-making and sexual exchanges. Lachlan Shaw says that the harvest home was often absorbed into the Samhain, “a solemnity of the country (Moray, Scotland) being kept on the eve of the Feast of November, a thanksgiving for the safe in-gathering of the produce of the fields.” See Cernu. DAG, deodh, everlasting, deoghail, the “suck-giver,” or nurse-maid; the supplier of milk. A female version of the Dagda. The daughter of Lugh and Mebd, mother to Eohgan and Brideag. After Lugh and Nuada created the universe, Dag realizing that the creator-gods intended to people the planet they had created, noted that the earth was immobile in space and that any residents of it would either live on the sunlight side of the sphere in endless light, or on the dark side, in perpetual night. At this suggestion, the brothers shook their universe until its parts fell into periodic movements, the earth wheeling about the sun, the moon about the earth, and all rotating on their axes. It was Dag who decorated the world: “She was in charge, making the things to grow. On the grass she put green saying, “It is the best background colour!” She placed miscellaneous colours on the flowers, on the fruits and on the growth of the fields. She classified the things that the boys created as kind, generation, gender, social order, assimilation, all according to their contained spirit, to their reasoning power, and to the laws of nature. Male and female she placed on land and sea and air as well as within these elements. She made a large pot (the ocean), the coire mor, “the great cauldron, which was always filled with every kind of food and provision, so that no living thing would go without provisions.” She is sometimes regarded as the matriarch of the Milesian race, thus correspondent with Scota. DAGDA, daigeil, a firm or well-built man, of good aspect, a “son of the day;” cf. daingean, strong, the patriarchal god of the Gaels. da, two, having two aspects; deagh, good, worthy, excellent, an indication that he was skilled in many things.

OIr. dag, the Latin, dexter, right-handed. Confers with the Gaelic deaghad, living, a mortal. Also called Dago-devis, the “two liar gods,” confers with Eochaid Oolathair, Aod and Ruad Rofessa,the latter the patron of druidism. He rode the black horse called Acein , “Ocean,” and was the alter-ego of the creator-god known as Don. Mr. Lewis Pence characterizes the Dagda as “the deity of plenty, or fruits of the earth, the lord of the capacious cauldron, which contained all manner of delicious things.” The Dagda was a rustic, a great harpist, womanizer and eater of porridge. He corresponds with the day-god Aod, as a leader of men who came to Ireland with the invading Tuatha daoine (people of the goddess Danu). His mate was Danu but he also coupled with Boann and his daughter Mhorrigan, among others. His chief additional offspring were Brigit, the goddess of filial love and poetry; her male counterpart Lugh; Ogma, the god of rhetoric; Aonghas Og, the god of free-love and Midir, Lord of the Underworld. Dagda is always pictured as carrying a huge "club", a descriptive for his penis. It was said that Dagda could kill his enemies with the nether reach of his club and “cure” them with the inner reach. Like the god Loki, his dalliances outside the home bore unfortunate fruit, in particular the god Macha, a monster whose body carried nine heads. A noted warrior in the successful campaign against the Fomorian sea-giants, Dagda is best remembered for his culinary feats. It was thought that the mortal gods (and men) lost god-spirit at every exhalation and excretion and that this loss could be replaced, in some measure, through sexual contacts (energy flowing from the weaker toward the more powerful deity). This explains one of the Dagda's interests. It also explains his preoccupation with oatmeal, for it was observed that the earth was, itself, a spirit of great power. With the assistance of the sun-god the earth was periodically "impregnated" and bore children in the form of plants. Animals fed upon plants thus replenishing their diminishing

stock of god-spirit. Gigantic appetites were once considered a mark of god-hood or at least god-favour. Of all the gods, the Dagda was the pre-eminent epicurean. Spying on the Fomorians he was invited to eat with them, a feat they thought would cost him his life: "They filled for him his king's cauldron, five fists it was, five fists deep. And into it went four-score gallons of new milk and a like amount of meal and fat. Goats and sheep were added, and swine flesh was put in and all boiled together into a porridge. Then the Dagda took his spoon, the one big enough to lay a man and a woman, and he ate. "Good food this," he said. Afterwards, sleep came upon him and his belly bulged bigger than any house-cauldron. Not easy was it for the hero to move in this condition and unseemly was his apparel from the drippings of fat. Great was the swelling of his rump." If his eating prowess was in question his sexuality was not. Even after this enormous meal he managed to raise the strength needed to seduce the daughter of a Fomorian giant although the act was “not without difficulties.” The maiden (Mhorrigan) was satisfied for she promised to undo her father, “depriving him of the blood of his heart and the kidney of his courage.” Some claim that he took the throne of Ireland upon the death of Lugh and that he was present at the defeat of the Tuatha daoine at the hands of the invading Milesians. He afterwards divided the sidh-mounds of Ireland among the defeated people and retired from the kingship to nurse a fatal battle wound. The Dagda greatly admired the underground palace of Brugh na Boyne, but promised his foster son Aonghas Og that he could spend a day and a night there before moving to his own side-hill. The youngster refused to leave his residence, and since the Dagda had not specified which day and night was meant,he was forced to relinquish title to that property. After his death, these land-grants were redistributed by King Bodb Dearg (the Red Crow) who swore Tuathan allegiance to the elder gods of the sea. See Ruadh rosessa.

DAGDA MOR, same as above. Dagda the Great, the Large, the Expansive, the Heroic. The Dagda Mor may have been one of the Olathir's earliest attempts to organize primal matter. The first mortal god, he seems to parallel the frost giant Ymir, mor indicating anything of great size. It was said that his spoon was of sufficient size to bed a normal-sized man and woman, In the more northernly myths, after the death of Ymir, the survivors of the giant kind were either banished to Jotunnheim, the Land of the Big-Eaters, or to Nifhelheim, and it is patent that An Domhain is the equivalent of both Nifhelheim and the British Hades. The Dagda was associated with the goddess Danu, or Anu in the creation of a tribe known as the Tuatha daoine, i.e. "the northern people of the god whose mother in Danu." Their daughter was Bridd, or Brigit, and their sons: Lugh, Nuada, Ogma and Midir. Several authors have noted that the name Dagda confers with Good and Rolleston thought it might be the equivalent of Doctus, which has the meaning of wise. Katherine Scherman questions this interpretation of Dagda noting that he was entitled "the Good" not because he was morally upright but because he was "good" at performing a wide variety of physical feats including sexual marathons with a wide variety of women. It is noteworthy that "dag" is a Gaelic word is for a sharp-pointed tool, in particular a dagger (and currently a pistol). While Lugh carried an irresistable sword much is made of the fact that his father had "an invincible club so heavy that eight men had to carry it and its track made the boundary-ditch for a province." His main talent was surely procreation! DAIBHIDH, DÀIDH, David, from which Clann Déibhiosdan. Clan Davidson a branch of the Chattan confederacy. Ir. dabhach, a vat, Germ. topf, Eng. tub, a unwieldy container with two handles, a double-ended sailing vessel. Obs. dobhar, water, cf. dub, deep, as seen in domhain, a place with springs, a region deep in standing or flowing water. Similar to iadh, to encompass, shut in, surround, a “locked place.” This last word has been analyzed as rooted in Skr.

epi + dana, a lock. Macbain says that the first word is the G. iar, west, while the last means “place,” a “western place.” Thus travellers from, or to, the west. Hence references, in English, to “Davy Jones’ Locker,” usually taken to indicate the bottom of the ocean, but perhaps pointing to some ancient real world in the western ocean. “Jones” confers with the G. Iain, which ultimately identifies the sun-god Aod, who travelled regularly from east to west. “Locker” is identified with the “locked-god” Lokki, the G. Lugh. It appears that this place confers with An domhain, the “Beginning Place,” which had the “Cauldron of Abundance” (sometimes referred to as a “spring” or “fountain” at its exact centre. This was the well-spring of god-spirit stolen by the land-people led by Dagda. This land supposedly had the “dead” or “locked lands” as its underworld. In Welsh legend it is patent that North America was discovered by a Prince of Dyffyd, long before Columbus set sail. Also seen as Davy Jona, Old Jonah or Old Davy, and antiquely as Old Daw or Old Dawy. Perhaps from the Welsh, who termed themselves the folk of their patriarch Dyffyd. One of this kind was Madawag ap Owain Gwynedd, "the first to discover Tir y Gorllewin, or America." In1862 Mr. Hughes, a resident of Wales told the writer George Borrow that, "Not many years ago his tomb was discovered in America with an inscription in old Welsh, saying: Here after sailing far, I Madoc lie, of Owain Gwynedd lawful progeny; The verdant land had little charm for me; From earliest youth I loved none save the dark-blue sea." If Dyffyd map Owain was the discoverer of the New World, he was also a typical “jonah,” for he received few material rewards and is virtually unremembered in the history of explorations. Confers with the Gaelic daibhir, poor + each, horse; similar to the Anglo-Saxon adjective daeg, one who burns while working by day, from the noun daeg or daw, day + eoh, horse, one who works like a horse. The latter word confers with the masculine proper names Iain, Iona, Owen, Jonah, John, Jack, Jacob, Jock and the feminine Joan, in short “common folk.”

Davy Jones corresponds somewhat with the West Indian sea-spirit referred to as Taffy or Duffy. Words derived from daw include dew, daub, daunt, dawn, dawdle and dowdy. Obsolete forms are: daw, a lazy menial; dawfish, the dogfish; dawk, to gash with a sharp object; dawkin, a rustic, blockhead or simpleton; dawther, to dither or engage in unproductive work; daver, to stagger or wander in the mind. Also, dawk, to gash or slash. In eastern North America, Davy Jones is still remembered as the seagoing equivalent of the winter/death god Uller. "To come a Davy on it", is an expression meaning, "to apply great physical or psychological pressure to a task." This is similar to other local expressions, notably, "To come a horn on it" or "To give it the Devil!" A favoured surname in Scotland since the reign of David I (1084-1153). The Scots have an almost complete monopoly on the use of feminine forms of this name, viz. Davina, Davidina, Davida, sometimes seen diminished as Vida and Vina. Apart from these, we have the somewhat uncanny family names Daw, Dawe, Dawes and Dawson, which originate in obsolete diminutives of the Gaelic. The Gaelic form has also led to the surnames Day and Dey. See An Domhain, Tir nan Og. DAILGINN, DAILGIONN, dail+gin, delay + beget, a prediction. A means of avoiding disaster. dailgneachd, prophecy, foretelling. DAILGNEACHD, prophetic vision, cf. tairgneachd (which, see). DAIL SLEUCHDAIDH, the dale of prostration,” and we are not usually speaking of the Christian god. DÀIMH, relationship, affinity, kinship, kindness, tribe, company. The root may be dom, house, honouring the creator-god Don, (which, see). Obs. Troublesome because of closeness, the Church, assent, free will, poet, learned man, guest, stranger, man who helps himself in excess.

DÀIMASADH NAM BOC, dàimh + asaid, relationship + born; nam, of; boc, a goat. Sexual activity, The Devil. Also, a name given the Gaelic "Dance of the Goats." The Gaels were often referred to, slightingly, as “the goat-men.” See boc, boc-sithe, bochda, etc. DAIMHLEAG, obs., a place of worship DAIRE, mire. shit, Skr. dhara, a stream, seed. See entries below. A substance used in the formulation of salves. Note that the Gaelic deities were often pictured as shapechanging cow-people. DAIRE MAC FACHTNA. The owner of Donn, the Brown Bull of Cuailgne. He refused Mebd’s request that his prize animal provide stud-services for her herd of cattle, sparking the Tain wars. DAIREANN, dair+Anu, the “First Goddess of the Mire.” A daughter of Boabd Dearg she became infatuated with Fionn mac Cumhail and proposed that he should take her as his sole wife for a year, promising her half his time thereafter. When he refused she gave him a draught which created insanity and caused the members of the Feinn to desert him. The hero retired to the Glen of Madness and by nightfall had recovered his senses. Daireann’s sister Sadb was the mother of Fionn’s son Oisin. A side-form of the goddess Mhorrigan. DAIRINE. The youngest daughter of the High King Tuathal Teachtmhair. Dairine’s older sister was married to Eochaid, the king of Leinster. He represented her as being dead and remarried the younger woman. At his fortress, the two ladies stumbled upon one another and Tutahal, hearing of this bigamy, went to war with Leinster and extracted from them the infamous Boramha (which, see). DAIR NA COILLE, The “Night of the Fecundation of Trees.” The first night of the New Year in which the wind is

observed to shift and blow from the west. Dar, the one of two, the two in one, dara, second, darach, oak-tree, the body of a boat, an embodied reincarnate god; na coille, of the forest. An alternate name for the Oge manie or “Hogamany” celebration. See also Da. DAIS. DOIS, a blockhead, mow of peat or corn, a pile of wellseasoned fish, daiseachan, an unskilled rhymer. Similar to Scot. dawsie, stupid and dase, stupify. Cf. ON. dasi, a lazy fellow. From these the family name Daw or Dawe. Eng. jackdaw, a simpleton. A Quarter-Day victim. DAL, see next entry. A division or sept, a tribe or land inherited by a tribe. Examples would include Dal Fiatach. a kingdom in what is now County Down; Dal n Araidi, in the vicinity of Loch Neagh and Dal Riada, which consisted of County Antrim, Ireland and Argyllshire, Scotland. Confers with dail, meeting, congress, friendship, nearness, neighbourhood, interval. DALBH, dalla, one of two components; the spiritual matter of the universe; the substance of the sensate world, dalbh, obs., a lie, contrivance. See Da and the next. DALBHADH, DAMBHLAIDH, sorcery DALL, blind, IIr. dull, Indo-European dhvl-no, Goth. dvals, foolish, Eng. dull, Lat. fallo, dallag, a field shrew. See Dul duna. DALMAN, "The individual given charge of liquor in ancient times." A waiter, butler or steward. From dalma, bold, forward, obstinate. He had the right to withhold alcoholic beverages at wakes and feasts. See above entries. DAMHAIR, (dav-er), obs. give, grant, permit (sexual favours amongst other things) rutting-time; damh, ox, steer. One of the totem-animals of the god Lugh. This time was coincident with the Samhuinn and Beultuinn.

DAMH SIA-CHASACH, the six-legged stag , damh, stag, ox, Br. dawit, sheep, Latin dama, a deer. Allied is the English tame and domestic. A “tame ox.” Note that Odin, in the guise of a death-god, rode down the northern wind on a six-legged horse. He corresponds with the Gaelic god Lugh when he appears as the Nathair. The cult of horned-beasts was widespread in Europe, and among these we find the stag-god, Cernu, whose particular totems are the ram-headed serpent and the stag. The stag is regarded as “a solar-therapeutic” symbol dating from the Bronze Age. The distribution of this anthropomorphic figure was such that it might almost be regarded as the national beast of ancient Britain. It appeared as a manbeast and strangely mixed with a swan. Bronze Age representations of a similar god are found in Gaul (France) . There are stag images on bone and stone in both Ireland and Scotland and the stag features prominently in folklore: Deer frequently had the duty of enticing heroes to the Otherworld and the transformation of humans into this form is commonplace in Irish and Scottish traditions. A three antlered stag is referred to in Agallamh na Senurach. This was “the grey one of the three antlers.” eventually killed by Caoilte one of the Feinn. Like the sixlegged stag, there are numerous three pronged animals mentioned in British and Continental mythology: threeantlered stags, three-horned bulls and boars being the most common. Irish warriors are frequently noted as following a supernatural stag to their own death. Thus Salbuide, a son of the king of Munster chased down one of these revered animals and thirty warriors, thirty attendants and thirty deer hounds failed to return from the chase. The jealous consort of King Aodh turned a hundred Irishwomen into deer, and when their herder Donn failed to “please” her turned him into a stag. Fionn hunted this stag to death and the hinds were all subsequently killed. One of Fionn’s numerous mates was turned into a doe by the Dark Druid. She gave birth to the anthropomorphic Oisin. It was

sometimes said that Lugaid Laigde obtained his kinship while at the hunt. His father Daire had been told that the high-kingship would go to a man named Lugaid who ate the flesh of a golden fawn. To give his offspring an equal chance, Daire named all five of them Lugaid. All five ate the flesh as required but later they became lost in a snowstorm. Snowbound in a mountain-cabin with a horrific hag, only the youngest consented to bed the lady. As he was having intercourse she turned into a beautiful woman, the sovereign-goddess of Ireland and his crown was assured. The Cailleach bheurr was said to be the protectress of wild deer, not unlike the Lochaber Deep Goddess. Then too, the man named Coel was struck down while he had the misfortune to be wandering about as a deer. Finally notice that Saint Patrick and his missionaries were able to come to Tara through enemy lines by magically “disguising” themselves as a stag with herd. See next entry. DAIMH CABRACH AGUS, NA TRI, the “Three-antlered Stag.” Sometimes given as the animal that led the host of dead spirits at the Yuletide. A totem for the tri-partite god Lugh. DAIR, the pairing of cattle, rut, copulate; daireach, rutting, copulating, breeding, bulling; bo-air, a cow at the rut. DAIR-NA-COILLE. The first night of the New Year. Said to be the time when the trees copulated. DAIREANN, “Anu in Heat,”a daughter of Bobd Dearg. She fell in love with Fionn mac Cumhail and asked him to be her husband. When the hero refused she gave him a cup of liquid which made him insane so that his friends deserted him. Caoilte persuaded the Féinn to return to their leader at dusk, after which the madness passed. Daireann’s sister Sadb was the mother of Fionn’s son Oisin. DAIRIREACH, a rattling noise, Eng. drone. The background sound for moth-music, and the pipes. Equated with the sounds made by disembodied spirits, human and otherwise.

DÀN, fate, Skr. dâ, to give; a poem, the arts, wise, bold. After the goddess Danu, who governed the fates. See next entry. DANA, The Evil One, the Adversary of men and the gods, Cromm; a dol thun na Dana, “He is going to Ruin.” Obs. danair, stranger, foreigner, guest, dannadha, fatal. See next. Danach, peetical, one who speaks in verse, a fatalist, danalasdail, fated, predestined, danaich, an adventure. Danndha, obs., fatal. DANA, DANU, DANA, ANU, the goddess of fate or destiny; Dana, the Evil One in Christian mythology; the Bafinn. Cf. MIr. dan and Cy. dawn, a gift of the gods from Skr. da to give. Danadail, fated, destined. Dannasdh, a dance, hopping , skipping, dannasdah-na-clag, dantatach, fatalism, poetry. The “Morris Dance.” See Daireann. The female counterpart of the Dagda. The matriarch of the race known as the Tuatha daoine, the consort of Dagda. The ultimate mistress of hearth and home and poetry, conferring with Bridd and the Christian Saint Brigit. From her we have the Black Annis of southern England, a Celtic witch-woman who inhabited stagnant water and lured men to their death. Her Irish residence was the "Paps of Anu", two breast-shaped mountains in County Kerry, Ireland. She was considered a resident of the Underworld, a fertility goddess, mother to all the gods including the sons and daughters of the Dagda. See Domnu. Infrequently Dana, The Evil One. DANAIR, the high Dana, obs., a stranger, foreigner, guest. Danara, obstinate, impudent, opinionated, forward, bold. DAN-CLUICHE, a dramatic poem. DAN-CRUITE, a lyric poem. DAN-MOR, “great poem,” an epic poem. DAN-DIRECH. An ancient Gaelic Irish poetical system in

which there is alliteration and rhyme within every line of metre. DANNA, dance, hop, skip, dannnasadh-deise, strathspey, dannasadh-nanb-clag, a Morris Dance. Dannsair, a dancer. DANTACHD, fatalism, poetry. See above entries. DAOCH, horror, fright DAOI, wicked, foolish; daoidh, wicked, foolish, perverse, reprobate, rogue, fdoolish or vain man, wild beast; daolair, a lazy man, niggard, dao, obstinate, the Germanic thor, foolish after the actions of the god Thor. Daor, enslaved, dear, daorach, intoxicated and thus kept tame. A descriptive for Norsemen captured by the Gaels. DAOINE FADA, the tall people, the fadas, fees, or fairies of English mythology. The fates, corresponding with the Gaelic befind. It was never said that the sidh or “side-hill people,” were short, rather they were described as thin and of extraordinary stature. Thomas Keightley says the fayries, or fairies, are of Celtic origin being the Breton korrigan who the Welsh of Cornwall named the horridgwen and the Gaels the morganu (which, see). He noted that the Roman writer Pomponius Mela had said that "Sena in the British Sea (the English Channel) is remarkable for an oracle of the Gallic (FrenchBritish) god. Its priestesses, holy in perpetual virginity, are said to be nine in number. They are called the Gallicenae, and are thought to be endowed with singular powers, so as to raise by their charms the winds and seas, to turn themselves into what animals they will, to cure wounds and diseases incurable by others, to know and predict the future; but this they only do to navigators who go thither purposely to consult them." (Gnomes Fairies Elves and Other Little People, p. 420). The island in question was anciently called Sena, and is now entitled L'isle de Saints, just off the coast of Brest, France.

DAOINE MARA, the sea people, the sea trows or trolls. OIr. gen. mora, “from the sea,” Eng. mere. Descendants of the Tuatha daoine who accepted the sea-refuge offered by Manann mac Ler when they were defeated by the Milesian invaders of Ireland. They lived in undersea kingdoms but could travel to the surface by donning “wet-suits.” In Ireland it was said that sea-travel was accomplished by using “hoods” which covered the face. The mer or sea-women were mistresses of great ocean redoubts. Their husbands, following the model set by Ailill (the husband of Mebd), were slightly henpecked. They preferred visitations at the surface to staying about the

house. They have been described as rugged in form sporting seaweed green or black hair with a beard to match. They were frequently seen on sea-shore cliffs and were regarded, at worst as indifferent to men, and at best as a benefactor. The Scottish version of the merman was otherwise unremarkable but the merrows, although jovial in character, were decidedly ugly in appearance having varicose noses and pig-like eyes. The sea-women were impeccable housewives, but the absence of their husbands and the fact that they aged rather rapidly, tended to make for poor marriages. The woman were matronly with translucent skin and supple breasts which they sometimes threw over their shoulders. They were nevertheless attractive to men, and followed ships at sea with sex on their mind. Having espied a particular sailor a mer-woman would dog the ship wheedling, cajoling, singing and calling after it for hundreds of miles. If the sailor failed to react as expected the sea-hag sometimes created a storm and washed him overboard, or arranged for a shipwreck, after which she took him down to her bed in the depths of the ocean. If satisfied with his performance, she sometimes granted his freedom, returning him to shore with an arm full of valuable presents. It she was greedy, jealous or unsated by his love she sometimes kept him as a permanent prisoner. Everywhere in the northern world, the mermaid was represented as an undependable ally. Fisherman have seen her sitting on the sea where the mist hung close to the surface. They also observed her driving herds of snowwhite cattle along the strands of small islands. At times they claimed she came to the fisherman's fires, apparently cold, shivering and shipwrecked. Those who understood her nature ignored her pleas for assistance for she was known to seduce and drown young men. Her appearance, at best, indicated a serious storm in progress and ill fishing on the banks. These beings were known to have a prophetic eye and one of their kind prophesied the birth of Christian IV of Denmark.

The mhorrigan is hardly remembered in today's world, but her people are still present: In the 1880's John Benson of Lorneville, New Brunswick, Canada, was rumoured to have a mermaid as his female parent. John was not aware of his relationship with the sea-people although he told his girlfriend Margot that he suspected mermaids were to be found near the entrance of their harbour: "...when I come in late (from fishing) , at low tide, just when it begins to set in, I have heard the strangest baby-crying sounds out there..." After the couple married, Margot was walking alone on a September beach when she heard this same sound. She too thought it must be a child and going to it across the beach she came upon "a white face and two arms" lifted up out of the foam. The sobbing half-woman in the tide cried out: "You have taken my John, but I will have him back, my child, my child." That October, the off-shore fleet fished near Cape Spenser and were caught in a northeast gale. That night six of fifty Lorneville boats failed to return and one of these was the blue-painted hull with the red streak, the boat registered to John Benson. Margot and her infant son stayed a few seasons at Lorneville until the boy followed a dead tide down the beach. Coming back he said to his mother, "Mummy, what is that noise, that singing way out there?" He pointed at the distant sea streak. After that Margot Benson found new home in an inland community. Even more recently a .... The O'Sullivans were not the only clan to cohabit with the Fomorian remnant. The Murrays (sea kings) of the Isle of Man counted themselves direct descendants of Manaun Mac Ler, and minted coinage which showed the symbolic device of this lord of the sea, three racing legs with a common axis. This is till represented in the heraldry of that independent "kingdom". It is noteworthy that John Murray, ninth Lord Strange, and fourth Lord of Man & The

Isles, lived at Port-a-sidh, or Port-a-shee music) while building Castle Mona.

(literally

sidh

Sutherland has had numerous reports of mermaid sightings, including two of the "best authenticated on record." On September 8, 1805, the Times published a letter from William Munro, which read, in part,: ...in the course of my walking on the shore at Sandside Bay...I was induced to extend my walk to Sandside Head, when my attention was arrested by the appearance of a figure resembling an unclothed human female, sitting on a rock, and apparently in the action of combing it hair." He first mistook the creature for human until it dropped suddenly and finally into the sea. The other, occured some several decades later when Alexander Gunn was walking his dog along this same beach on Sandwood Bay. About a half mile from the south end, a spur of rock runs out into the sea. The dog showed a marked nervousness on approaching this rock and Sandy motioned him on with some difficulty. Twenty yards from the water he discovered a mermaid on a ledge. The dog now gave every evidence of terror and the mermaid stared directly at the intruder who made a quick retreat. These reports, and others, caused W.H. Murray to write in The Companion Guide to the West Highlands of Scotland, (1969) : "Sandlwood Bay is a corruption oof the Norse Sandvain, meaning sand-water...The bay is rarely visited; few carowners are willing to walk eight miles there and back, least of all on a rough road through dark bog. From this unbroken solitude comes much of Sandwood's charm, and its value to mermaids as a hauling out point." Although the Maclarens of Achleskine are mostly buried inside the Christian Kirk at Balquidder, they also show a mermaid, crescent moon, and a galleon on their flag, all potent symbols of earlier associations. Their mermaid has the traditional comb and mirror in her hands. The matrilinear royal house of the Picts included this same sacred mirror and comb as well as a flowering crescent (representing a brother-sister; husband-wife relationship of the ruling monarchs)

DAOINE SIDH, (doonu shay), people of the side-hill, the sighe, or sithe, remnants of the Tuatha daoine, Cy. dynion mad, the warrior-wizards defeated by the Milesians. These were people who preferred going underground rather than retreating to the Otherworld in the west or the undersea domains. Compare with above. See Tuatha daoine. See Fir domnann. They were allied in work with the Fir bolg. DAOLGAS, MIr. daol, fright, frightening. A son of Cairill. As he lay dying his daughter gave him a parting kiss. The eternal life-force sparked from his mouth to hers, impregnating her with the child named Daolgas. Loss, or transfer, of life force took place through the mouth or some other body opening. DAOR, dear, costly, scarce, enslaved, bound, imprisoned, condemned, guilty, corrupted, slavish, deeply involved. See next. DAORACH, intoxication, drunkenness, cf. Scot. deray, mirthful noise at a banquet, MEng. derai, disorder, a word related to the Fr. desroi, in disarray. Plural daoraichean, bouts of drunkenness, dubh-dhaorach, “black drunkenness,” the highest degree of intoxication. In many of the Gaelic countries drink was a prerequisite of religious rituals, and was not much used at other times. DAORMUNN, a dwarf, a miser, crumudgeon, niggard. Daor, enslaved. Daorsa, bondage, captivity, famine, slavery. DAR NA COILLE, dar is the northern form of uair, hour; na coille, of the wood. More poetically transcribed by McNeill as “the night of the fecundation of the tree.” Another name for the Gaelic Oge manie or Scot. Hogamanadie. Having reference to the retreat to the woods to “bring back holy plants” and indulge in sexual activities. See Oge manie. The gods were thought to rest in ancient trees, thus the woods were thought to be capable of “inspiriting” men before and

during intercourse. DARA SELLADH, AN, the “two sights," dara, second, the other; selladh, sights, from seile, the placenta. So called because this "gift" was considered bestowed on the "caulbearers", those born with the placental membrane, or "sack of waters" in place over their heads. In antique times, it was suggested that such births illustrated Fomorian, or sea-giant bloodlines, making these individuals impervious to death by drowning and death through fire. Another physical remnant of these lines was thought seen in children born with eyes of different colours which soon merged into a single colour. Men and women with slightly webbed fingers or toes, or with more than five fingers or toes were implicated as were those with hairlines which formed a "devil's peak (a point between the eyes). This was also thought to be the lineage of people with scaly skin or eyes harbouring under a single "Fomorian" eyebrow. The two sights have been referred to as "prophetic vision" and there are two types. Espionage from the past is known as "foresight", while knowledge of the past is "hindsight". It was held that all individuals possessed external disembodied souls as a birthright. These "befinds" had the ability to travel into the past or the future, and "gifted" people could occasionally see through their eyes, thus "overlooking" past or future events. It was considered that the strength of the runner was reflection of the spirit of his human. Those who had low spirits were unlikely to perceive anything unusual in a lifetime shared with their invisible companion. If the runner attempted to communicate useful information concerning either the past or the future, the average citizen detected what should have been seen or heard as faint "static", which took the form of hunches or feelings of impending disaster. Highly spirited people were identified by being born with a caul, eyes of different colours, which melded into a single colour before the first year; the "devil's peak" in

their hairline, a "cow-lick" or double-parts of the hair. The devil's peak was a downward pointed triangle of hair growing between the eyes. A cow-lick was any unmanageable outgrowth of hair, which refused to lay flat when combed. All these genetic-conditions were once thought to relate the possessors to the magical sea-giants of western Europe, cannibalistic shape-changers, who were the overseers of the elfs and the sidh. These Fomors (undersea-dwellers), or Vana, have become stand-ins for Satan, the Hebrew Prince of Darkness, the antagonist of men and God, or at best are now identified as "demons". Those with powerful guardians were considered to be protected against drowning, death by fire or lightning, and had some capacity to see their runner. Creighton has noted that babies born with the caul were subject to convulsions and that these might be alleviated by giving it colt's tongue tea. Aside from this minor inconvenience, there was the fact that "caul-people" were subject to involuntary visions, often centering around cataclysmic events, such as the death of a loved one. Creighton has questioned whether the ability to see the past or future should be termed a "gift" since the giftbearer was emotionally entrapped in a vision and was always left exhausted by the process. The gift has been described as belonging to "the double sighted" since it was observed in two dimensions, the ethereal past or future being seen as an overlay on the present. Those with foresight usually saw the events of their perception acted out in every detail within a short time, but there are tales of Maritimers who observed events many decades in the future. Many individuals have had a single exposure to one of the two sights, but there have been noted seers, who have been able to summon their runners at will. While most people observed events directly related to their own lives, others saw panoramic visions of unrelated happenings from the past or the future. In either case, it has been noticed that the visions were of short duration, and could be preempted by refusing to look directly at them.

It was assumed that views of other times were managed through the "second-soul" of the runner. If there was an invisible humanoid counterpart for all living men and women it was reasoned that it must have an independent, or external soul, of its own. The internal soul, in the body of a man, was suspected to be inextricably linked with that of the runner, doppelganger, or shadowman, the death or damage done to one quickly reflecting on the other. Men slept, fell into comas and died, and these events were seen as the temporary, or permanent, absence of the internal soul. Such disengagements were thought dangerous since the wandering soul left the body the prey of hostile disembodied spirits which might enter, as the soul had left; through the nose, mouth, ears or any other body opening. On the other hand, certain pagan magicians deliberately united their internal soul with its external counterpart and hid both in a safe place assuming this would protect the body against death, which might not occur without the loss of one of the souls. Visions were thought to take place when the internal soul projected itself upon the runner in either the past or the future. If the phenomena lasted long it left the man or woman in a stage of minimal, or soulless, disfunction. Some researchers have suggested that witches were never physically present at sabatts, their souls travelling through the air to distant gathering places within disembodied spirit-guides, or runners. While this occurred, their physical bodies may have been home in bed. The object of deliberate "running" was fortunetelling, which the Anglo-Normans referred to as divination. In some cases the "clairvoyant" observed events but there were other possibilities: "There was a woman in Mira (Cape Breton) who could see a funeral ahead of time, even sometimes before the person had taken sick, and she knew whose funeral it was. When it happened she would be walking along the road and would be pushed to one side by the crowd following the hearse..." It is for this reason that Maritime Gaels avoided walking the centre of country roads. "In such cases everybody (on

the road) might feel what was passing but only one could see it. That one would tell the others to step to one side as he did" and all would bow their heads or raise their hats in respect for the dead. What the runner felt was frequently relayed to the human. Thus a Cape Bretoner might say, "I feel the itch of a kiss (or a dram of whisky) today." Another might note an itchy right palm, which was taken as an omen that he would soon shake hands with a stranger. If the left palm reacted to a future event, this meant that money would come to hand. The quivering of the left eye in sympathy with that of the shadow man indicated good news, but the left foreshadowed bad news. A heating of the left ear was another poor augury which suggested people were making excuses for the person who suffered in this way. In contrast to clairvoyance, men used to speak of clairaudience, hearing sounds which had been, or were yet to be: "On Cape Breton's north shore, tools have been heard rattling before death just before they would be required to make the coffin..." Men who had never seen their runner in life were said destined to see and hear him immediately prior to death. Occassionally, the shadow man appeared briefly either going before or following his human. There was no harm in this but when he turned, so that his face was clearly seen, this was considered a certain indication of immediate death. Further, a person due to die by violence was often seen to have a bloodied double, and banshee screams preceded his death. The "gifted" often heard a shrill sound "like a bagpipe but within the ear", and knew they might soon expect news of a death in the village. In other times, it was considered bad-mannered to shut the door hastily, for fear of parting shadow men from their humans. People who are extremely awkward are still described as capable of "tripping over their own shadows." This is now dismissed as a figure of speech, but those with the two sights insisted that this actually happened. It was

the duty of runners to travel before their counterparts into strange places to assess potential dangers: "And people might hear a sound as if somebody were on the threshold. (There was no one) hitting the door at all you understand; there was no knock on the door, but you would hear the stamping as if somebody put his foot on the threshold though no one was there. And they would say, "It won't be long before a stranger comes to the house. Did you hear that footfall?" Infrequently, the doppelganger materialized as a full-blooded double, explaining curious legends of people being seen in two places at the same time. More often, the shadow took the form of a totem animal which might cry at the door for admittance; thus, in Cape Breton, a rooster crowing at the threshold was considered to presage the arrival of a stranger. The forerunners who brought back sounds of the future often prevented disaster: "At Jordon Falls the story is told of a vessel that was supposed to sail out of Shelburne with a crew of eighteen or twenty men. One Ephraim Doane was lying in his berth when he heard the mainmast fall. He got up to investigate and found the mainmast intact, so he took this as a warning, and the vessel sailed to Boston without him. It was December of 1888 and there was a great gale. The ship was lost off New England with all hands... Playful runners sometimes opened and swung on doors, while others knocked violently on the inner or outer walls of houses. Then there were the "knocky balls" of Maritime Canada, invisible callers who came to announce a death. The name is a corruption of the English knocky bohs (the latter word corresponding with "boo", an interjection meant to startle). This variety of runner always knocked three times on the door: Harold G. Bond was fifteen years of age when he hosted a friend name Ned Dixon at their farmstead on Belleisle Bay, New Brunswick. His parents were in Saint John attending his mother's brother, Charles Odell who was hospitalized. The boys had been in bed an hour when theyu heard theree sharp knocks, "the kind if you heard them at your door, you'd say someone was in trouble." Half a minute

later this was repeated and then, a third time. "I looked from the upstairs window - even took the screen off and looked down -but there was nobody. Ned happened to glance at his watch and said it was exactly eleven o'clock. Next day, when my parents returned, we learned that Charlie Odell had died at that hour." Significantly, such happenings are still called "forerunners". The runner had one other duty, and that was to supply telescopic sight of present-day events for gifted individuals. Sir Kay, the seneschal of King Arthur was mentioned in the medieval romances as one of those who could live for many hours under water, and observe the activities of his enemies although they were many miles distant. There have been numerous cases of people in our provinces describing approaching visitors in great detail before they actually knocked at the door, and these have been taken as instances where distant scenes have been viewed through the superior eyes of the runner. When people died the internal soul was supposed to leave. Some suggested it returned to the sea, the prime source of all spirits; others said that it united with the external soul and went to Valhalla, or Hell, or some other appropriate afterworld. One departure has actually been described: "Tancook Island, where the people are largely of German descent, reported this amazing phenomenon, "When Sebastian died, when his last breath came, the whole shape of him came out his mouth like he was a young man, no longer old and wrinkled, and it went out the door. Just before he died, three little taps came to the door, just a couple of minutes before..."" The "sight" has never been considered one of the "black arts" and even in the hag-ridden seventeenth century Christian ministers routinely investigated and recorded occurrences without any suggestion that witchcraft was involved. The English antiquarian John Aubrey and the diarist Samuel Pepys were convinced that the phenomenon was genuine, and even the cynical Samuel Johnson became

convinced that "the Sight" was a reality after his celebrated journey to the Hebrides. In 1901, Dr. Keith Norman Macdonald summarized the general view: "The narratives I have collected are of a different complexion, and I can vouch for them as far as they go, having known the actors in them personally, and heard them relate them frequently, and of the truth of which they had no doubt whatever. Personally I do not hold any particular view regarding them further than that I want more light before condemning such an old belief, and so many otherwise inexplicable narratives." (Celtic Monthly, 1901, p. 145). All the seers of the past commonly said that they were afflicted rather than "gifted" assome writers have suggested. Visions of other times were normally accompanied by psychic storms which left them nearly prostate with exhaustion. The luckiest among them had single encounters, the visions usually being a forerunner of a death in their family. Often the departed made a brief appearance at the precise moment of his death in some distant place. The more practised seers, such as the Lady of Lawers and the Brahan Seer, had associations with their befinds that allowed them to peer through the curtain of time almost at will. For them, economic and social events were revealed along with matters of more personal significance. The "second sight" is not obsolete although the "gift" now seems turned on matters such as the location of murder victims. A.C. MacKerracher noted an occurrence in the 1950's when he was visiting with "an elderly relative" at Drishaig Hill overlooking Loch Aweside, Scotland: "She was gazing out the window when she exclaimed, "Look at that village there, and all those big yellow digging machines on the hill, and all those men, and those aircraft flying about." When I looked... I saw only sheep grazing on a mist-covered mountain. My relative had been dead several years when, in 1963, I looked out that same window and saw the precise scene she had described. How could she have foreseen the hurried encampment later built beside her house, and the bulldozers and helicopters and those gangs of men on Drishaig Hill when the Cruachan hydro-electric scheme had not even been planned?" A sceptic might dismiss this incident as a strange

coincidence, but there have been many prophetic visions at every point in time. Rachel Cameron of Cragganour on Loch Crannoch was an established seer by the year 1888 when a holiday-reveller drowned in nearby Loch Awe. His body could not be found and a journey was made to consult Rachel. She had never been to Lake Awe, but pointed out the place on a map where the body was eventually found. Rachel's daughter, born in 1853, took her mother's name and inherited "the gift." In 1900 she helped the English police locate the body of a young boy who she "saw" murdered and hidden beneath rocks in a quarry. Later to help locate a drowning victim she sketched an odd looking bridge at the place where a farmer lay beneath the waters, his body pinned beneath a water-logged tree. A police officer recognized the famous Wade Bridge at Abernathy and divers found the corpse beneath the arches. DARACH DUIL, the oak log which was central to the firefestivals, darach, oak, Latin larix, English larch and tree. Maximus of Tyre noted that the Celts “venerated the oak as a symbol of Zeus (Hues).” He also stated that the druids routinely used the wood in their rites. The columns which appear in Celtic iconography are usually taken to be stone representations of oak-pillars, in which the powers of the deity are displayed. Mortuary houses were formerly constructed of this material, and oak boughs were sometimes placed within burial chambers. One of the three revered trees of ancient Ireland was Omna, “The Oak.” In Welsh legend the oak as god is seen in the situation where the god Lleu went into a venerable tree after his “death.” In another tale he is pictured as appearing as an eagle perched at the top of this same tree (as Odin is shown standing upon the World-Tree). In Scandinavian mythology the oak tree is sacred to Thor, who often took shore-leave in this form. At the Yule, it was Thor rather than Odin who was evoked for a prosperous year, and the ceremonial burning of a great oak was seen as an actual sacrifice of the spirit of that god. The raising of light from the log was thought to have the additional benefit of expelling the spirits of darkness and cold, thus terminating the long northern winter. Oak

continues as the traditional Yule-log in both Scotland and England. In Scotland the oak Yule-log is identified with the Cailleach, or “Winter Hag,” who is thought to control the weather of winter and collect the souls of the dead at the height of her season. Early in the Yule season, the head of the house once went to the woods to procure fir-candles and the stump of a dead oak, which he carved into the semblance of a woman. This Cailleach was placed ceremoniously on the peat hearth-fire at mid-winter, and the whole company cracked appropriate (and inappropriate) jokes about her as they watched the Yule “log” burn down. See Danu, Mebd, Mhorrigan. DARVA. Now named Lough Deravargh, County Westmeath, Ireland. The lake in which the children of Ler were bathing when Aife turned them into swans. They spent three hundred years in this vicinity where they were visited annually by the Tuatha daoine and the Milesians. The mere of this lake eventually became a pagan festival site. DASCHD, rage, madness, OIr. dasacht, insanity, AS. dwaes, foolish, Scot. dawsie, the family name Daw or Dawe. A Quarter-Day victim. DA-SHELLADH, the two sights. See dara sealladh, above. DA THEINE BHEALLTUINN, AN, the two Beltane Fires. Probably symbolizing the duality of the sun-god Lugh. In some places cattle were driven in the smoke between the two fires to relieve them of illness in the coming year. The two fires probably symbolized the duality of the god Da. See above and below. DATH, colour, dye, tinge, stain, dathail, well coloured, propitiously coloured; dath-chlodhach, parti-coloured. In the Gaelic world, colours are paired in their magical properties: geal and ban; uaine and glas; buidhe and odhar; dreag and ruadh, suggesting a range of intensities. Dugald MacFarlane thought this might have represented colour-blindness amongst our ancestorss. He mentions, particularly a

tendancy to confuse red and green: Thus the Gaels still speak of gorm thalla a “ble hall,” i.e. “The sky,” in the same terms as an tir ghorm sheibhteach, the “green mountain land.” Gorm phreas is a “greeen bush” but gille guirmean is a weed with a decidely blue look. The ghastly, ghostly, shades of green are given as uaine, although it used to be thought unluckly to actually name this colour. Sometimes glas, or gray, is substituted, the exact meaning being understood in context. This word is from the Norse glas, from which we have the English glass, thus “green” as seen in bottle glass. Buidhe or “yellow” being a sun colour is propitious and regarded as emblamatic of beauty. This has given rise to latha-buidhe, a “yellow” or “lucky-day.” Buidheach, “yellowed in the mind,” indicates satiation after favours received; am buidheachas, the “yellowness” is requested in blessing food. Generally, dubh, or “black” is taken as indicating a mystery. Thus, an dubh fhocal, the black word-puzzle,” my late-wife’s crytograms. The expression dubh-leus, “blacklight” seems impossible but has to be considered in terms of the first light seen after a storm. A grandson’s grandson may be fionn-ogha, “a fair grandson,” if the relationship is apparennt, or dubh-ogha, if less so! We also note dubhbhron, “deep sorrow,” and dubh-leann, “black-brewing” too much concentration on the bad aspects of one’s life. Of course, old “Nicky-ben” is also known as Domhnull-dubh, “Black Donald.” Dearg is a vivid red; ruadh is decidely subdued. Thus Rob Ruadh, “Rob Roy.” Dearg may represent intensity without making reference to the colour red, thus deargruisgte, “stark naked.”

DATHI, NATHI. The last pagan king of Ireland. Dathi’s reign began in in 405 A.D. At which time the Strathclyde region of

Scotland was harried to signalize his ascent. Saint Patrick may have been among the captives taken from Britain to Ireland as a result of similar mainland raids. Patrick wrote at this time: “I went ino captivity in Ireland with thousands of persons...and we departed away fromn God and kept not his commandments, and were noit obedient to our priests...” The final outcome of this act was the overthrown of paganism in all of Britain. DE, DA, Day. God. See dedad and next. The Celts were never organized into a unified nation, but were rather a language group of great physical, social and political diversity. Their gods and goddesses had features in common, but all were localized. At the top of the hierarchy of deities there was usually a father-figure, who was sometimes considered their ancestor, but always their protector. He took responsibility for turning back enemies, averting plagues and famines, and ensuring a bountiful harvest of men, animals and crops. Since this last ritual involved sex by example, he required a nearly equal female cohort. In some parts of old Ireland the male "Father of the Day" was Dagda. His mate was usually identified as Danu, or Dana, the forbearer of the Tuatha daoine, literally the people of Danu. The Dagda wielded "an invincible club", described as "so heavy eight men had to carry it." This "club" was not only a weapon but a symbol of his sexual appetite, as was "the good striker" carried by his Gaullish counterpart, the god Sucellos. The names of the dieties hardly mattered, but their bi-annual Beltane and Samhainn performances were considered necessary to the fertility of the land and its creatures. Like the "giants" Loki and Angurboda, Morrigan and The Dagda once mated with fearful result: They coupled with bodies spanning the River Boyne and created the creature known as Mecha, a dragon with ice for a heart. DEACAIR, obs. the high god, preently: abstruse, difficult, hard, sad, mournful, surly, gloomy, sorry, wonderful, strange, rare, Powerful, Terrible, Abstracted, thorny, sore. But deachair, obs., bright, glittering; dechadair, dictator, teacher, doctor.

DEAGH, good, OIr. deg or dag, after the creator-goddess Dag, a daughter of the Dagda. Cy. da, Gaul. Dago-, the “good” one. Allied with the Lat. dexter, right-handed. Gaelic deas, south, right. The superlative of this word is maith. See Da. The old nominative case was daig, the genitive dega, thus the modern word. Daig was the word for “fire” and corresponds with the G. Aod. The former is less often used as a family or personal name than the latter. Dundee is based on Dun Deagh, the “good (well-build, enspirited) fortress. DEALAN, DEALANACH, lightning. MIr. tene-gelain, originally lightning, now the “will o’ the wisp; tene-gelan, firefly. The means by which the gods came to earth. Mistletoe found growing on the oak was particularly valued as a cure for disease and it was noted that it tended to flourish where a venerable tree had been opened up to the spores of this parasitic plant by a lightning strike. Notice that the mistletoe does not favour the oak, occurring more often on the poplar, the willow, the lime, the pear and the apple tree. Thus “oak-bane mistletoe” was particularly sought by the druids because of its powerful magical properties. Lightning is associated with the G. Tar, who is the Gaullish Taranis and the Teutonic Thor. At least one Celtic altar shows a god of this ilk bearing a wheel in one hand (the sun) and a lightning bolt in the other. Serpents are equated with this god and are considered to epitomize lightning. Thus there is, at Vaison, France, a representation of “Jupiter” bearing a wheel in one hand. An eagle stands at his feet while a serpent emerges from a nearby oak-tree. DEALAN-DÉ, the lightning stick of god. “God’s fire.” The sun-god was sometimes aroused by whirling this lighted stick in the air. By extension, a butterfly. Notice deannal, to stir, conflict from deann, haste, speed, a metathetical formation of the first word. See Da. DEALG, pin, skewer. The means of binding wandering spirits to the earth. New pins were required and usually in a mystic number. In practise a pin could be driven into a footprint to

ensure that the “wanderer” was “nailed to the ground.” Pins of iron or steel were, by their nature, anathema to the Tuatha daoine. DEAMHAN, a demon, OIR. demon, from the Latin daemon from the Greek. a spirit gifted upon men by the gods at birth. This creature had proclivities for good and evil but either force could be restrained by the will of the host soul. Thus reference is made to "the daemon of Socrates." See bafinn. DEALM, the state of endlessness; the true condition of time according to druidic tradition. It was their theory that “everything goeth in ane circle,” and that the endless repetition of similar events, involving similar personalities, was the usual state of things outside chaos. DEAMAI, obs. a demon. obs. deamh, deficiency. Obs. demharruin, a mystery. wicked. Having a

DEMHAN, demon, devil, evil spirit, human bent on mischief, demhan-eolas, demonology, deamhanaidh. devilish, designing, wicked, malicious. DEANNAL, conflict, to stir, from deann, haste, speed. See dealan, lightning. DEARC, an empty eye-hole, a cave, a lizard, an “eye-pit.” Many of the sea-giants were one-eyed or eyeless, a birth defect which has returned to plague our civilizations. Doctors now call this condition anophthalmis, “without eyes.” Those so afflicted also lack an optic nerve. The defect is now thought to occur once in 4,500 births. Although the condition was once rare there are now clusters of children born with this defect in both Britain and North America. In earlier times such children were credited with possessing the “two sights,” abilities to see into the past and future, in recompense for their lack of contact with their present environment. See famhair. DEARG, vivid red; ruadh is used for those reds which are of

low saturation and intensity. This word also used to denote intensity without reference to colour, thus dearg ruisgte, “stark naked.” Air a’ dheargadh air m’inntinn, “reddened upon my mide, similar to the English “burned in memory..” An dearg, “the red-one” meaning a fallow deer. See fear dearg. DEARHNAGAN, a hand-cake. The Quarter Day bannocks were not considered ritually correct unless fashioned in the hand rather than being mixed in containers. DEAS, right, south, clever, OIr. dess, MBr. dehou, the Lat. dexter from which dexterous. Deasbud, dispute (presumably with left-handers). The standard condition of decent Christian men. As an adjective, ready, alert, quick-witted, intelligent, trim, handsome, dheas-bhriathrach, eloquent, glib. Note tha mi deas, “I am ready” is the same as “I am right-handed.” Deas-fhoeal, a “right-handed word” or repartee. Deas chainnt, one with right-handed speech or eloquent. Deise, well tailored clothing, trim, neat wear. See next entry. DEASALT, sunward, to the right, Latin dexter, Skr. daksinas. All Christian rites from the mixing of liquids to dancing were required to turn “sunwards.” Thus: dol deiseal mu charn, the procession of men about sacrificial cairns following a sunward course, “the observance of this rule was supposed tp propitiate the deities and procure luck. Hence deiseal, lucky. There are many instances in folklore where it is taboo to follow anything short of the “righthanded way.” In Atlantic Canada fishermen still refrain from turning their ships “against the sun” fearing bad luck. DEAS-GHNATH, a rite, a religious observance, deas, right, south; gnathes, arable land under cultivation. See above entries. A proper Christian religious act. DEAS-LAMH, the right-hand (way). When the Celt took his bearings at morning rites he faced the east and the rising Sun. Consequently his right hand was at the “south” or deas.

Every propitious event was thought to fly up from that quarter. If anything was awkwardly executed it was always tuathal or “northward. Mhen a Gael mis-swallows it is chaidh e tuathal, “it went northward (down the windpipe).” It was thus held that deiseil air gach ni, “the sunward course with everything” was necessary to good order and fortune. At the birth of a child burning peat was taken up and the mother went deas-lamh, in a right-handed circle, seven times about the cradle. This was performed at morning and night until a Christian baptism was formalized. To ensure a safe passage for the soul a thread coloured like blood was tied about the infant’s wrist and a Bible placed nearby. DEATACH, smoke, vapour, steam, exhalation, fumes, smoke on the point of kindling a flame, volatile gas. These phenomena were all seen as enspired by the spirits. In earlier times cattle were led through the smoke of the quarter-day fgires, and men jumped through the fumes. Thus the saying when one has extreme good luck: “He has had a good toss in the smoke!” DECHDAIR, those who “dictate,” an ancient tribe in Easter Ross. Eir., dech, good, noble, best, noblest. But dechlach, hard, difficult. Oghamic Ir. Deccaddas. Also seen as Decheti, Decceti, Deceti. L. Decantae. Said from briganti, which confers with the Brigante tribe. Oir. Dech, best, most noble. See Bridd and next. DECHTIRE or Dectera. The daughter of the druid Cathbad and Maga, a daughter of the love-god Aonghas. A half-sister to Conchobhar mac Nessa and the mother of the Ulster hero Cúchullain. Her sisters were Findchaem and Elbha. At her wedding feast to the Ulster chieftain Sualtaim mac Roth, a fly flew into her drink and she accidently consumed it. Thrust into a deep sleep she “dreamed” of the god Lugh. He commanded her to take fifty handmaidens and flee with him into the western Otherworld. Three years later a flock of birds appeared near Emain Macha and the Ulster warriors followed them to the River Boyne. At nightfall the birds

shape-changed into Dechtire and her missing maidens. They had with them a new born child, said to be the son of Dechtire and the sun-god. Sualtaim accepted the child Sétana as his legitimate heir, and he eventually became the Ulster hero known as Cúchullain (which, see). DEDAD or DEIDAD, Degad. deid, obs., care, submission. The founder of a military elite in Munster. The southern equivalent of the Red Branch. DEIGH, ice, Ir. oighear, snow, leac-oighear, ice, OIr. aig, gen. ega, Cy. ia, Cor. icy, Bry. yen, cold, N. jaki, a piece of ice, jokull, iceberg, AS. gicel, the Eng. icicle, i.e. is-gicel. Lat. izas, a lump of ice. DEIL, an axle, sharp pointed iron rod, a mare, cow’s udder, two year sow or pig, two, double; deilchead, ill, bad, sad; deiltre, druidic idols, any school for magic. DEIRDRE NIC CRUITNIGH, DEIDRI, DERDRIU, DEIRDRE, Deirdre daughter of the Britons, (deer-dree), deoradh + driug, stranger + portent, often nicknamed Deirdre of the Sorrows. The daughter of Felim mac Dall, a chieftain at Ulster she received a very unsettling birth-horoscope. King Conchobhar mac Nessa’s warriors who were visiting the Ulster king wanted to put the child to death, but the king saved the child by making her his ward. When the time came for her marriage to the aging high-king Deirdre sought out a young warrior named Naoise, who some say was her the companion of her youthful years spent in Alba. He was the son of Usna, a hero of the Red Branch. Accompanied by her two brothers the maiden eloped to Alba. There the three men took service with Cruithne, the king of that land, and for a while the newly-weds lived peacefully at Glen Etibhe. The bitter mac Nessa pretended to forgive Naoise and invited him to return to the Irish court. Homesick he did so under a promise of protection from the Ulster hero Fergus mac Roth. Fergus was diverted by a geis, or taboo, so that

Deirdre’s company arrived at Emain Macha under protection of Fergus’s two sons. Conchobar ordered warriors to attack the hostel of the Red Branch where four were housed and all were slain excepting Deirdre, was forced to marry the king.

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An unwilling wife, she tried Conchobhar’s patience so that he gave her, at last, to a lieutenant. Before she could be bedded she jumped from his chariot and killed herself. From her grave there grew a pine tree, and from Naoise’s a second tree. The branches of the two eventually intertwined and no amount of brushwork could cut them apart. This tragedy caused Ferghas to side with the south when Ulster fought against Connaught province. Deirdre “daughter of the Picts.” A first century A.D. princess who fled the Ulster king Conchobar and mated with Naosi, a member of Clann Uisna, who were named after the day-god Aod also called Uis or Huis.. These men were followed all over Pictdom by the forces of the Ulster king until they escaped to a far kingdom in the western ocean. Conchobar eventually extended these men and their followers a full and complete pardon, but when they returned to Emain Macha, he arranged their deaths and took back his bride. Unfortunately, Deridre had no smiles or small talk for him and after a year, he sought to punish her by making her the slave of one of his lieutenants. On her way to this new sorrow, the lady leaped from the chariot in which she was being driven, and killed herself upon a roadside rock. As the hero Ferdiad had given his word that the Uisna could come back to Ireland without retaliation, he joined the south when it decided to war with Conchobar and the kingdom of Ulster. As the “House of Hugh” consisted of Firbolgs, these men, who came to northern Ireland under Naoise, also slipped across the border to oppose the north when it fought against the notorious Queen Mebd. See Diarmuid and following items. DEIR, Saint Anthony’s Fire, static electricity on the rigging

of ships at sea. Considered a favourable omen. Also the the disease known as shingles. DEIRE, obs. The Deep, The Abysss, a pool. Diereadh, end, conclusion, an extremnity, deireas, injury, harm, hurt, loss, calamity, defect, etc. DEIS-DÉ, DEIS-DA, from deas, right; a sanctuary, god’s-pew. stopping place, to halt. literally, the “God’s right-hand.” A Christian church. The place in a child’s game where a person cannot be tagged. See following. DEISE, clothing, EIr. the “right-handed” coverings. suiting of a chieftain. Proper

DEISEIL, southward, sun-ward, to the right; from deas + seal, right + turning. "Another important matter is that of direction. Everything should be done deisel, i.e., sunwards (in the Christian theology). When a child is choking, say "deisel," possibly part of some old invocation." (Celtic Monthly, p. 163). The Gaelic “houses of healing” were built in the round, and care was taken to move within them in the “correct direction.” See deas and desalt. DELA. The patriarch whose five sons led the successful Firbolg invasion of Ireland. DELABÁBETH. The son of Ethinn and Aonghas Og, the father of Éire, Banba and Fohla by the goddess Éirinn. DELABÁBETH MAC CAS, the seventh druid in line from Aillill Ollamh. He and his five sons were banished from Ireland but before his departure he went to the cairn of Fiachu and kindled a druidic fire upon it. At this the stones burst and gave vent to five “streams of fire.” After him we have deilbaed, “fire-shaped,” more literally, a “split cluster.” His descendants were termed the Delvin and from them Delvin in County Westmeath takes its name. DELBCHAEM, “Fair-shaped.” The daughter of Mongan, king of

the Land of Wonder by his wife Coinchend. She was kept imprisoned by her parents in a tower set on a high pillar within the sea. Art, son of Conn, quested after her, slew her parents, rescued her and brought her to Ireland. DELCHLISS. The spear owned by Cúchullain. Earlier on, charioteer’s goad made of split wood. a

DELGA. A Fomorian chieftain, the father to Morc. He built the Irish fortress known as Dun Dealgan (Dundalk) which eventually became the fortress of Cúchullain. DEMNA. The birth name of Cúchullain. who was also called Setanta.. DEO, DEOS, breath, air, vital spark, ray of light, vision, place where a stream meets the sea, Cy. dwdy, natural, MHGer.. getwas, ghost, perhaps from Greek, deos, god. See deas. In all pagan religions it was held that life forms which moves, or grew in size, shared breath given them by the creatorgod, the spirit of life imparted to men through the Bafinn. This is the MHG. getwâs, our ghost. The word confers with god, thus deis-dé, “god’s right hand,” deo, a place of sanctuary. In all pagan religions it was held that life forms which moved, or grew, shared the breath of the creator-god, the more powerful beings having greater mobility and a better supply of the "breath of life". The partial loss of this "ghost" or "spirit" resulted in illness and the final breath ended in death. Note the relationship with De or Da. DEOIR, Dewar, also Deòireach, Dóire, from deòradh, “parading after God,” a pilgrim. A wayfarer, a man without a country. Traditional keepers of the magic staffs of the old gods and the Christian saints. The relics of gods or saints were kept by the dewars in a shrine or in a covered location. Oaths were taken over the relic, and for this purpose they were sometimes paraded about the countryside. Thus the developement of dewar to indicate a much travelled person. The relic itself was also termed deoradh and was once thought of as a portion of godhead.

DEON, from deo, or vice-versa. Also seen as Deathan. A river-goddess based on ECelt. Devona, related to EG. devos, a god. Thus Aberdeen, the aber of Deon. Eng, Don. Earlier Aberdeen is actually represented as Abberdeon. The English form is parallel linguistically. In OW Devona was Duion. The rivers Don, Done and Dee are often found in Britain and many are paired reflecting the dual nature of this divinity who resembles Domnu, the ocean-queen of the Gaels. DEÒRADH, an alien, a stranger, an exile. From this the name Dewar. deoradh De, an exile of god, one on a sacred pilgrimage seeking God, but more antiquely, the gods. See above. DERBHORGILL. Alternately Derbforgaille. A daughter of a king of Lochlann (Scotland). She was left on a beach for the Fomorians in lieu of tribute money. Cúchullain slew her Fomorian tormentors and she fell in love with him. She turned herself into a swan and followed him home to Ireland. Loghaire, his charioteer nearly killed her with a sling and stone. Cúchullain restored her top life by sucking the stone from the wound, but the mixing of blood and saliva was considered to make people of one blood, and the woman was forbidden by law to marry her hero. This being the case, Cúchullain gave her to Laoghaire as a bride. DERBRENN. The first love of Aonghas Og. Her six fosterchildren were turned into pigs by their mother. DERC CORRA MAC H’UI DAIGHRE, a descendant of the “Flashing One,” a being from the Otherworld who travelled by leaps and bounds: “One day as Fionn was in the wood he saw a man in the treetops, a blackbird on his right shoulder, carrying a bronze vessel in his left. In the vessel was water, and in the water a skittish trout. And this man was seen taking and cracking nuts, always feeding a half to the blackbird. Likewise he produced apples giving a portion to a stag that stood nearby... And his followers asked who the tree-man was for no one could see his face as he was

hooded.” Since this man-of-the-woods was the “Peaked Red One,”he is automatically associated with the Tuatha daoine and the Otherworld. He may well be Nuada, the “Cloudmaker” or Taranis, the “Thunderer,” who like the “Flashing One” was noted for the speed of his coming and going. Like Cernu he was a warder of animals. DERC FEOIRNE. The “Cheese Hoard,” a cave at Dunmore, County Kilkenny, Ireland. Here dwelt Luchtigern, a great “cat” eventually slain by the female champion of Leinster. See cat. DEOSTADH, "the mainstay of the gods," evaluation of the crafts. A judgement of worth: deo, breath; stadh, a stay, a supporting rope. See deas and deos. "Many a time I heard Mor and the other old weavers judging the quality of the bleaching and weaving of linen. The word they used for evaluation was "deostath...” when they judged the worth that would be placed against labour that would be called "deost." (The Hebridean Connection, p. 71). DÉSI. Sometimes recorded as Déisi or Décies. A clan of Begia in the province of Mide, later Meath. The name signified “vassals.” Cellach, a son of Cormac mac Art, the high king of Ireland, was riding through this territory when he paused to rape a niece of Aonghas of the Terrible Spear. Aonghas went to Tara seeking justice, and failing, killed Cellach. In the death struggle, the spear butt put out the eye of Cormac, who was then disbarred from his kingship. When Cairbre mac Cormac became king the Dési were all outlawed. Some settled in Munster and some in Wales. The Dési resettlements are of historic record. DETHEODA, henbane. A druidic plant. DEUD-FIOS, tooth of knowledge, deud, the Latin dens, from which dentist; fios. knowledge, the Latin, Video, see. Fionn mac Cumhail had the habit of touching one of his teeth to access the knowledge imparted to him through eating the Salmon of Knowledge. See Fionn.

DHE, genitive and vocative singular of dia, gos. For example taigh dhe, the “house of god.” DI, day, the Day personified, now used to prefix the names of the days of the week. OIR. dia, die, Cy. dydd, Cor. det, Bry. dez, Lat. dies, Skr. dyaus, day, sky, the Gr. Zeus, Jove,the Gaelic god Aod. Allied to their dia, a god. Eng. Tues-day. The Gauls affirmed that they were descended from Dis, who the Romans called Dispater: “For this reason the determine all periods of time by the number, not of days, but of nights, and their observance of birthdays and the beginning of months and years always follows night.” The English term “fortnight” speaks of this older measurement of time. See Da. DIA, god, God, same as DA. Cy. huw or duw, Cor. duy, Br. doe, Gaul. devo, Greek, dius, divine, one who had been deified. Any Gaelic g od, the Christian “Lord God.” Old Norse, tivar, the gods, after the elder mortal-god Tiv, or Tyrr, whose name is incorporated in Tues-day. He was formerly the northern god of war and agriculture. See deas, deo, deos, deostadh. Dia, Day, shortened to di- and used to prefix the “days of the week. Thus, di-miart, “god’s-market” or “Day of the market.”Diabhol, “full of god-power,” the Devil, diaaitheas, blasphemy. Dianach, a necromancer, one who raises the dead. The primer god-power was though to rest with the immortal oolathair, or “creator-god. But he,was supposed to have delegated power to his elementals and the various mortal gods. In Norse mythology these were: Loki or Laugar, the god of fire; Kari or Carey, the god of the air and Hler or Eagor, the god of water. The elemental gods had counterparts in the Celtic gods aod, Taranis or Myrddin, and Ler or Llyr. The three elder gods were supposed to have been animated with the creator's "breath of life" which the Anglo-Saxons called "gast" (ghost) and Anglo-Normans, "spirit". Whatever their national names, the elementals were generic rather than particular creatures; Aod being a

synonym for sun, and Ler for water, rather than real names of individuals. The elementals were equal in their spirit and abilities, but each had control over one department of nature, being unable to raise storms in, or calm, the other elements. Sir George James Fraser describes such spirits as having "no definitely marked individuality; no accepted traditions as to their origin, life, adventures, and character." Early on, the Celts discovered that it was possible to flatter, praise and propitiate mortal gods, but noticed that the elementals were no so easily swayed from doing their own thing. The few rites directed at the gods of fire, water and air were simple acts of sympathetic magic (for example,shooting a flaming arrow into the sky to inspire the sun-god; sprinkling water on the earth to encourage rain, or flapping a rag in the air to catch the attention of the elemental of the air). These were not often useful procedures and no priestly class or temples developed in attempts to influence these gods. Ler, the Gaelic god of the sea, was given charge of An Domhain, or the deep sea, which is said to have been the home of first man-like life forms. In Celtic cosmology it is less clear how creation took place, but it was undoubtedly willed by an athair, and possibly involved some accidental interaction of the three elder gods along the lines of the Norse model. The Welsh Annwn (anoon) has been described as "a sea-girded revolving fortress in the centre of which was the cauldron of poetry and inspiration despoiled by King Arthur." The people of this kingdom were known as gwragedd annwn (white sheep of annwn) from their habit of dress, and some tales of this place have relocated it to one of the many Welsh lakes. Observers in this century have claimed seeing towers and battlements beneath the water's surface in that country and have said that they have heard the peal of bells from below the surface.

The Gaelic deep has sometimes been identified as Magh Mell (Great Plain of the Sea), but has also been called Tirtairnigri, (The Land of Promise); Breasil (the Isle of Breas); and Tir nan Og (the Land of Perpetual Youth). Like Annwn, this was a land of high towers. When the Nemedians sailed out of the Caspian Sea, through the Mediterranean into the Glacial Sea, "There appeared to them a golden tower on the sea close by. Thus it was: when the sea was in ebb the tower appeared above it, and when it flowed in, it rose above the tower. Nemed seeing it went with his ships toward it from greed of gold." Unhappily for them they were outnumbered by the resident people and had to retreat to nearby Ireland. Here they cleared twelve plains, but were harassed by the sea-people who demanded two-thirds of all their produce. The Nemedians afterwards abandoned their settlements and their interest in Fomorian gold. A misinterpretation of the action of tides may have led to the legend of a great kingdom on the bottom of the sea, and the idea that breasil was a floating island which periodically surfaced for a bit of fresh air. In 1822 Dr. Hibbert wrote: "With respect to the seatrows, it is the belief of Shetlanders that they inhabit a region of their own at the bottom of the sea. They here respire a peculiar atmosphere, and live in habitations constructed of the choicest submarine productions. When they visit the upper world on occasions of business or curiosity, they are obliged to enter the skin of some animal capable of respiring in water. One of the shapes they assume is that commonly called a merman or mermaid...But their most favourite vehicle is the skin of the lager seal (Notice the resemblance to modern diving gear?) As this animal is amphibious they can land on some rock, and there cast off their sea-dress and assume their own shape and amuse themselves at will in the upper world. They must, however, take especial care of their skins, as each has but one, and if they should be lost, the owner can never redescend but must become an inhabitant of the supramarine (land) world." Dr. Hibbert made an effort to locate this

undersea kingdom but could get no satisfaction from the islanders except to say that it lay in the western ocean. The sea-trows (Scottish dialect for trolls) were constantly at odds with the offspring of the spirits of the air and fire. Researching the matter in 1665, Reginald Scott interviewed a "genius Astral" named Luridan in the Orkney Islands of Scotland. This genial god-spirit of the island of Pomonia told him of Balkin (i.e. kin the "baal" or god) a creature shaped like a satyr, who "fed upon air, having wife and children to the number of twelve thousand." This was obviously myrrddin, the elemental of the air, who had the possibility of meeting many women in his travels. Luridan explained that Balkin was responsible for creating the entire population of northern land-trows in Sutherland, Caithness and the northern islands. Further, these "fairies" (sidh is the proper Gaelic term) "were the companies of spirits that hold continual wars with the fiery spirits in the mountain Heckla, that vomits fire in Islandia (Iceland). That their speech was ancient Irish (Gaelic) and their dwelling place the caverns, rocks and mountains is recorded in the antiquities of Pomonia." The fiery spirits of Iceland would be the minions of the elemental Norse god Loki. In the Norwegian book, Vanagastus, we are told that Luridan himself was an air-spirit, who was naturally antagonistic towards the fiery spirits of Heckla. In that reference it was said that "the forces of air and fire often contest and destroy one another, killing and crushing when they meet in mighty and violent troops upon the sea. And at such times many of the fiery spirits are destroyed when the enemy hath brought them off the mountains to fight upon the water. On the contrary, when the battle is upon the mountain itself, the spirits of the air are often worsted, and then great moanings and doleful noises are heard in Iceland, Russia and Norway, for many days after." Similar battles raged between the god-spirits of the air and those of the deep sea, thus myrddin (Merlin) and King Arthur's war against the uncanny monsters of the deep. The

Fomors (sea people) of an domhain were the first creations of the sea-god, humanoid but not human. They have been described as giants, "creatures of ill and darkness", cannibalistic, sometimes possessing a single arm, leg and eye. Some of their kind had the evil-eye, which could blight and wither men at a glance. Others had the heads of animals on human bodies, while a few appeared to be a wild mixture of animal species. The Fomorians defeated the human tribes of Nemedians and the Partholons and managed an uneasy truce with the Firbolgs, but were largely eliminated by the Tuatha daoine, who had alliances with the god-spirits of the air and fire as well as that of a turn-coat Fomorian chief named Manaun MacLer (the son of the immortal Ler). According to the myths of the Tuathans, the sorcerers of their tribe cast the twelve mountains of Ireland upon their enemy and poured "three showers of fire" upon their heads. Worse still they contrived to bind urine in the bodies of the Fomorians and their horses, thereby robbing them of twothirds of their strength. Finally, one of their warriors, Lugh of the Long Arm, cast a sling-shot at the single eye of their chief leader, Balor of the Piercing Eye, carrying that fearful weapon out through the back of his head. After that, the Fomorians were routed into the sea and died in numbers "as the stars of heaven, the flakes of snow, or grass trodden under the feet of herds." This battle is more than hearsay as the plains in Sligo, on the west of Ireland, are dotted with pillars and cairns to commemorate the dead. The place still bears the Gaelic title: "Plain of the Towers of the Fomorian Giants." The patriarch of the Tuatha daoine was the mortal agricultural-sun god named Dagda (Father of the Day). The origin of the Gaelic mortal gods and the Fomorian giants is never stated but we do know that the how the first frost giant developed and that his race (male and female) evolved from the perspiration of his armpits. In Norse mythology, the first mortal-god, Buri (the producer) was inadvertently licked from an block of glacial ice by a giant cow created at the will of the Allfather. His son Borr (bear) was an asexually created child, who mated with a giantess named

Bolthorn, creating Odin, Vili and Ve, the first gods. In this version of northern myth the mortal-gods gave the two immortal gods an frost-giants, most of whom drowned in the patriarch as he was cut down by his enemies.

of the mortalnewly created edge over the blood of their

The problem in this mating of giant and god was the introduction of mortality into the bloodline of the gods. Further, it was said that the Allfather disapproved of this miscegenation and promised the Aesir (gods of the earth) a finite existence. The fate of the Celtic gods seems to have been similarly blighted by their merciless destruction of the Fomorians and the fact that they purloined the cauldron of the deep. There was excuse for this act in the fact that the Fomorians had stolen the Dagda's harp of the north from his halls at Tara. They took this spoil of war back to their ocean retreat, forcing Dagda's sons, Lugh and Ogma to go there after it. Their successful recovery of the "talking harp" is remembered in the childhood fantasy entitled "Jack In The Beanstalk". The tale of the removal of the Celtic cauldron of the deep has a counterpart in the Anglo-Saxon story of Hymir's kettle. Intending to be entertained by Eagor, god of the sea, the mortal-gods took it on themselves to find him a brewing kettle. Thor and Tyr went to the house of Hymir, the frost giant, knowing that his kitchen housed an iron pot a mile deep and proportionately wide. This, the pair stole and presented to Eagor so that gods and the Vanas(sea-giants), could brew ale for their combined harvest feast. The recipe itself was stolen, on another occasion, by the Woden, father of the Anglo-Saxon gods. The drink was the mead known as hydromel and was compounded by the black dwarfs from the blood of Kvasir, an early creation of the mortal-gods. This creature answered all questions asked of him by men and gave invaluable advice. He was treacherously slain and his blood drained away and mixed with honey, which was then fermented to create a beverage, "so inspiring that anyone who tasted it immediately became

a poet, and could sing with a charm certain to win all hearts." To save themselves from the wrath of the frost giant named Suttung, the mead and its formula were given by these same dwarfs into the hands of his daughter Gunlod, who kept watch over this valuable acquisition in a hollow mountain, whose ways were barred by magic. Hearing of this useful fluid, Woden went there and assumed the shape of a snake to reach the redoubt. Within the mountain, he assumed his regular form and seduced Gunlod. In time, she granted him a sip of the brew as well as her body. Taking advantage of her, he consumed all the liquor, fled from the cave and took eagle form, barely escaping the pursuing giants as he returned to Asgard. In his own halls, Woden disgorged the brew with such haste drops fell from heaven to earth where the formula was analyzed and copied. Thus mead became the portion of scalds and poets, at first kept to their guilds, but later more generally distributed. As men had Woden to thank for this gift he was declared, among other things, the patron of political eloquence, poetry and song. When the Tuatha daoine went for their cauldron of the deep it was located in the central part of Magh Mell or Annwn. In the myths of the Welsh it stood for centuries within the domain of Gwyn (the white one). This underworld deity was a great hunter, ultimately given charge of seeking out the souls of the dead, who were gathered in this British equivalent of the Norse Nifhelheim (home of Hel) and Valhalla (halls of the valiant). Nifhelheim was lacking in amenities, being intended for the "straw dead" (those who died in bed) as opposed to those who expired in combat. An domhain was more like Valhalla, "a land wherein there is not save truth and where neither age nor decay, sorrow nor gladness, nor envy nor jealousy, hatred nor haughtiness." Another writer said it was a place of choicest mead and wine where handsome people lay together without sin or stain.

It was here that the Dagda travelled with his harp, using its strains to drug the Fomorians while the cauldron was carried away. The mortal god took the cauldron for reasons that went beyond simple revenge, for he knew that it was an inexhaustible source of both food and drink, either being available on demand. Today we might consider his gain a pyrrhic personal victory since he afterwards became noted for his prowess with porridge and mead: "Then filled they the Dagda's cauldron, five fists deep with four score gallons of new milk and a like amount of meal and fat. Goats and sheep and swine were also put in it. All were boiled together with the porridge. Then the Dagda took his ladle, and that was big enough for a man and a woman to lie side-by-side within. "Good food," said the god and sleep came on him after eating. Bigger than an ordinary house pot was his belly and no easy matter for the hero to move about. Unseemly was his food-spotted clothing, his dun tunic fitting poorly over the swelling of his rump." Remember that this was a day when the evils of a fatty diet were unknown and large appetites were considered a mark of godhood. It was thought that ordinary men contained a measure of the holy spirit of the Allfather. This was what the Scots meant by insisting that "All men are born above their station". Spirit was seen to ebb away in the aging of a man or woman, but it was thought that this loss could be partially reversed by spirited eating. Ultimately even gods lost their battle to maintain a hale and hearty spirit, but this was thought inconsequential as the Celts knew that the god-spirit would merely pass to earth, and be incorporated into a cereal crop. The embodied spirit in the grain would ideally be eaten by, and impregnate a woman, and the spirit of the god would thus be reincarnate. The Dagda's Cauldron fed all "save cowards or deceivers", but it also had the remarkable capacity of restoring life. The Tuathan leech named Diancecht pressed

the vessel into use against the Fomorians, the Tuathans dipped in his special brew being recyclable in the war effort provided their heads had not been cut off or their spinal cords severed. When the Welsh marched against Ireland under Bendigeid Varn, a son of Llyr they found the Irish still in possession of "the cauldron of renovation." Their spies saw the Irish kindling a fire beneath the iron and casting the bodies of dead fighting men into a liquid: "The next day there came forth fighting men as good as before, except that they were not able to speak." A Welsh warrior named Evnissyen seeing this formidable weapon hid himself among the bodies of the dead and was eventually flung into the cauldron. Here the hero stretched his sinews and heart to breaking, and in the act, shattered the cauldron of the deep into four parts. The Irish were ultimately defeated but here was another pyrrhic victory as only seven Welsh warriors survived the final battle. If the descendants of the Celts were vague about the exact seat of the elemental water god, they could point to the sky to show others where the fire god resided. In Gaelic "aod" remains a synonym for the sun. The Welsh counterpart of this god was Hu Gardarn (Hugh The Mighty), who brought fire to earth, teaching men to fuse minerals into weapons and agricultural tools. The Norse elemental named Loki (Bound Fire) seems to have been adopted by the mortal gods and came down from the heavens to sit at their councils. His position as sun-god was taken by Frey the son of Woden and he was demoted to a position as lord of the hearth fire. Afterwards he proved a severe trial to Woden and his kind and was chained for eternity in Niflheim, hence the current connotation of his name, which now symbolizes subterranean vulcanism. The mortal-gods were not above assuming the names and powers of their superiors. Thus Woden preferred to have his adherents refer to him as The Allfather, although this title correctly belonged to another. The god Hu was

similarly abused and, in later history it was agreed that he came to them from Gwlad y Haf (Summer Country) travelling to Wales in his sun chariot. In his travel Guide, Wild Wales (1862), George Borrow said that Hu "taught the his own people the arts of civilized life, to build comfortable houses, to sow grain and reap, to tame the buffalo and the bison, and turn their mighty strength to profitable account; to construct boats with wicker and the skins of animals, to drain pools and morasses, to cut down forests, cultivate the vine and encourage bees, make wine and mead, frame lutes and fifes and play upon them, compose rhymes...to move in masses against their enemies and finally when the summer country was overpopulated, led an immense multitude of his countrymen across many lands to Britain, a country of forests in which bears, wolves and bisons wandered...a country inhabited by only a few wild Gauls (Celtic Britons), but which shortly after the arrival of Hu and his people became a smiling region, forest being thinned, bears and wolves hunted down, efync (crocodiles) annihilated, bulls and bisons tamed, corn planted and pleasant cottages erected. After his death he was worshipped as the God of agriculture and war by the Cumry and the Gauls. The Germans paid him divine honours under the name Heus, from which name the province of Hesse, in which there was a mighty temple devoted to him. The Scandinavians worshipped him under the name of Odin and Gautr, the latter a modification of Cardarn or mighty. The wild Finns feared him as a wizard and honoured him as a musician under the name of Wainoemoinen...Till a late period the word Hu amongst the Cumry was frequently used to express GodGwir Hu, God Knows, still being a common saying. Many Welsh poets have called the Creator by the name of this creature..." Myrddin (Noise Over Water), Balkin, Lord of the North Star, went through a similar transformation. In the most remote times it was decided that the North or Pole Star must be his home since it appeared to stand still within the sky while all stars rotated subserviently about it. In any case, this seemed a self-evident fact since the most severe

winds of winter appeared to blow out of this quarter. Later there were suggestions that Myrddin had an earth-bound residence somewhere in northern Britain, and this is confirmed by Reginald Scott's writing. In early Britain, the chief tourist attraction was not Stonehenge by Myrrdin's Caves, which were said to issue a constant unceasing wind from the bowels of the earth. According to one legend the great flood issued out of these caverns and "advanced against Stonehenge from the southwest". After that the winds from nowhere ceased to operate and the location of this wonder was lost. The elemental god of the air eventually had his name confused with a number of mortals, most notably a fifth century prophet and magician: "Merlin was the son of no mortal father, but of an Incubus (who the Gaels would have called an Alp, i.e. Elf), one of a class of beings not absolutely wicked but far from good, who inhabit the regions of the air. Merlin's mother was a virtuous young woman..." Merlin is remembered as the counsellor to King Arthur, the man who built "his havens, ships and halls" and less often as the man who "flew" the stones from western quarries to build Stonehenge. This "god" of the upper air is also remembered as the architect of his own downfall. He wooed and won Viviane, the Lady of the Lake, who was not content with his sometime devotion and sought to "detain him for evermore". Through an enchantment, learned from him, this lady imprisoned him until the dusk of time within "the bush of Broceliande". An elemental, Merlin cannot die, but can only hope for release which has been promised when England is in some great future peril. Considering the close ties of Arthur and Merlin it is no surprise that the Pole Star came to be called Arthur's Wain (i.e. Arthur's Wagon). A little further north this same star was called Odin's Wain. The two closest stars to this one were seen as representing his bodyguards, thus the triad of stars was adoptedg used to symbolize northern kingship. The Gaelic kings of Scotland afterwards showed three silver stars of a midnight blue background as their symbol

of divine right. The god-king called Arthur (High Bear) was supposedly born as the son of Uther Pendragon (King) and was a prince of the Celtic Silures, who lived in southern Wales. He became ruler of the Britons about the year 500 and successfully checked the progress of the Anglo-Saxon invasion. He reigned in peace until the revolt of his nephew Modred twenty years later. This led to the fatal battle at Camlan in 542 in which Mordred was slain and Arthur mortally wounded. After his death, his countrymen maintained that the High King had not died but was carried off to to the isle Of Avalon within Annwn, from which he would return to reinstate the sovereignty of the Britons over the Saxon usurpers. Arthur is directly reelated to the Dagda, the Celtic father of the gods. Usually the Dagda is cited as cohabiting with the goddess Danu in the creation of the race of warrior-magicians known as the Tuatha daoine. The Dagda is however remembered as having other romantic interests. As Wuotan seduced the huge but nubile Gunlod, so the Dadga joined with Mhorrigan in a notable sex act. Each of the two planted their huge feet of either side of the River Boyne In Ireland and went through motions that caused earthquakes. This miscegenation led to the creation of a multi-headed monster that had to be contained for the good of the land. This is reminiscent of Loki's union with the giantess Angurboda, which created the triad of Hel, the Fenris wolf and Iorgungander, the world worm. All three had to be imprisoned to prevent them from harming men and the gods. In the medieval romances Mhorrigan persists as Morgain, or more commonly, Morgan le Fay (the fairy, elf or sidhwoman). She is described as the half-sister of King Arthur. DIA-AICHEADH, athiest, a refusor or recantor of god, diaaitheas, blasphemy. DIABHOL, Eng., a devil, the Devil of Christian myth, full of "dia", or god-spirit. G. dia, a god, Cy. duw or hu, Cor. duy,

Gaul. devo, Latin deivos, the deified one, ON tivar, the gods, English Tues-day, the "day of Tiw" or Tyrr, their god of war. Note also the G. diadhaidh, pious and the OIr. diade, a divine, god-like. This "god" corresponds, in all respects, with the Gaelic Aod and with the Nathair. See deo, dia, diag, deostadh. DIABHOLNACH, one who raises the dead, a necromancer. DIADHACH, a religious person, a divine, a clergyman. DIA-DHUINE, a god-man, The Christ. God made incarnate. DIAG. philosophers, from dia (see separate entry), "godlike." See above. DIAMHAIR, DIAMHAIR, adj. reserved to the “gods,” secret, private, mysterious. solitary, lonely, dark. Also diomhair, diamhaireachdan. mysteries (of the druids), The secret arts and crafts. EIr. diamair, to remain; diamar, to vanish from sight, to disappear. diamhran, mystery, a hermit. DIANCECHT (jan-kett), “Eager, Keen,” the chief physician to the Tuatha daoine, sometimes credited with creating the completely articulated, silver hand for King Nuada, after his was severed in battle against the Firbolgs. Irish historian Seumas McManus says that the marvellous mechanical hand was actually fashioned by Creidne, "a very famous worker in precious metals" but Katherine Scherman thinks credit should have been given to Diancecht's son Midach. The former, however, had charge over the "Cauldron of the Deep" when it was used to revive Tuathan dead for re-use in their successful war against the Fomorian sea-giants: "The leech Diancecht would make whole the bodies of the slain provided their heads had not been cut off nor their spinal marrow severed." This was managed by dipping the corpses head-first in a brew of "living-water" warmed within the kettle. In some versions of folklore the "Dagda's Cauldron" is identified instead as "Diancecht's Well."

DIANAN. One of two famed baobhe among the Tuatha daoine. She and her “sister” Bechulle placed enchantments “on the trees, the stones and sods of the earth” so that they were effectively “an armed host against the Fomor.” DIARDAOIN A BROCCHAIN, dimor, excessively; diardan, anger; ardan, pride; di-ardaoin, Thursday. Brocchain, gruel, porridge, the English broth. Porridge Thursday. A rite of the Western Highlands formerly carried out on a QuarterDay. The celebration was termed Maunday Thursday in the lowlands and was performed on the high eve of the day, when a man representing those present waded into the sea to provide it with a gift of mead, ale, or porridge, sometimes all three. The purpose was made obvious in the accompanying chant: O God of the Sea (Manann mac Ler), Place weed in the drawing (incoming) wave To enrich the lands of earth Thus to provide us with food. Those who stood on shore amplified the chant so that the Old Boy would hear. The custom was continued in Lewis into the current century. On one occasion an islander noted that the harbours were full of “wrack” (seaweed) for the spring planting after the god had been liberally gifted with “porridge, butter and every good ingredient poured into the sea at every headland where wrack used to come ashore.” DIARMUID, Diarmad, Dermid, MG. Dermit, gen. Diarmada , EIr. Diarmait, OIr. Diarmuit or Diarmit, Lat. Diormitius. Sometimes given as Dia-ermit, “reverencing God.” The husband to Bec Fola who made a brief “excursion” to the Otherworld. DIARMUID UA DUIBHNE, “of the Love Spot.” ,a son of Donn, was fostered with Aonghas. and thus went to live at Brugh na Boann. While he visited Aonghas to sort out the details of this fosterage, Donn discovered his wife had bedded with Roc, the steward to Aonghas. When a child was born out of

wedlock, the jealous infant with a stone.

husband

crushed

the

skull

of

this

Using Tuathan magic, Roc touched the baby with a magic wooden wand, and turned it into a living boar (the totem of the sun-god clan). Roc placed a geis that the man-beast should kill Diarmuid if he ever encountered him, and then released the animal into the forests surrounding Ben Bulben, County Sligo, where he awaited the weavings of the fates to complete his destiny. Diarmuid must have been reincarnated several times before emerging from his sidh to join the Fiann. Being a descendant of the Fomorians, he had no trouble making the grade. Soon he was scavenging the woods for game with three new friends, Conan, Goll and Oscar. Once the four found themselves seeking shelter in a wood’s-hut inhabited by and elderly man, a young and beautiful girl, a sheep and a cat. When the four were offered food, the cat jumped onto the table and began to help itself from their plates. Each champion tried to brush it to the floor, but found that it was immoveable. The old man smiled and wryly noted that the cat was death incarnate, and thus could not be moved by any living thing. The four champions then retired to sleep in the same room with the young girl. Seeing that she was a beauty, each of the males tried to proposition her, and she turned down all but Diarmuid. Apparently he came up to her expectations, for she said: “I am Òighe, the goddess of “youth,” (and the female counterpart of Òg) and I cannot stay with you forever but I place upon you the mark which no woman can see, but which all will perceive, and seeing will love you without reservation.” Thus originated the famous love spot of Diarmuid. Fionn mac Cumhail became betrothed in his middle age to Gráinn the daughter of Cormac ard-righ, and the Fionn accompanied him to his wedding feast at Tara. Like Deirdri, this princess was uncomfortable with the thought of wedding an elderly man no matter how heroic his reputation.

Consequently, she approached Oisin and asked if he would elope with her. When he refused, she turned to Diarmuid, who had promised the Òighe that he would never refuse a damsel in distress. Reluctantly, the “spotted-one” fled with this lovely into the wilderness of Ulster. Burning with rage, Fionn pursued. At first Diarmuid treated Gráinn as a sister, but ultimately gave in to the sexual urges created by close company and a common purpose. At first that shared concern involved nothing more than eluding Fionn’s hounds, and finding the next badger hole where they could hide. In flight, he was faced with an image of Aonghas who advised him to “flee from this place and every other place known to you. Never go into a cave that has a single passageway, and never take to an island where there are no others somewhere at hand. Where you cook, eat not; where you eat, sleep not; where you sleep eat not on the morrow.” At the first light the pair took this advice and thus avoided the noted female-tracker named Deidu, the chief counsellor and spy of Fionn. Even so this tireless woman tracked the lovers at last to the Dun Da Both, which stood within an ancient cromlech. There the Clann Morna led by Fionn. The stone-ring was hard to take having many entrances, and being completely covered over with rubble in those days. Diarmuid only agreed to emerge for battle when he saw the shining figure of Aonghas remove Griánn to the safety of some place beyond time. He then used his staff to vault beyond the circle ring of earth known as the mote which stood about the cromlech, and there made his stand. It is recorded that Diarmuid moved through the ranks of the Féinn “as a wolf through a flock of uncertain sheep.” Afterwards, when Fionn searched through the huge mounds of dead, he found nothing of his long time adversary. The head of the Fiann now counted these losses: Cormac’s daughter, the warrior named Diarmuid, the dead in battle; the trust of companions in the worth of his deeds,

and his own self-confidence, but still he was unforgiving and “wanton in his pride.” As for Diarmuid, he retired into the Brugh na Boyne where he was nursed by Aonghas and Gráinn “although the life spirit almost fled from his mouth.” In spite of this Gráinn petitioned the High King that some peace might be made between these recalcitrant men. Although Fionn protested, the Fiann would no longer support his personal quarrel with the son of Donn, and thus the banishment was lifted. Thus, Diarmuid lived to build the Rath Grannia, and there he lay abed when his banshee wailed. Not long after he was invited to join the Féinn in a boar hunt, and Grainne warned him that she had uncomfortable foretellings. The boar that was hunted was the son of Roc, and Diarmuid found it impossible to do the animal any harm with his weapons. In fact, the boar charged head on against him, ripping and goring the hero,leaving him, at last, near death. When the Féinn came up to him, it was obvious that their leader was in a good mood for he said: “Here lies , the irresistible, it is a pity that all the woman of Ireland are not gathered to see how he looks at present.” For his part Diarmuid could only beg for his life, noting that Fiann had the power to restore it by bringing a injured man water in his hands. Although a well of water was not nine paces distant, Fionn’s hatred would not allow him to help his former friend and comrade, and he even made as if to bring water, allowing it to drain away between his fingers as he approached Diarmuid. Gráinn knew the meaning of the parade of men that came back from the forest, but they bore no corpse, “for that had been taken away by Aonghas Óg.” This event eroded the trust of the chieftains of the Féinn for their leader, and it was said that the keep at Alma became a cheerless place. Nevertheless, after a year, Fiann petitioned the widow, and she eventually married her late husband’s nemesis.

After the marriage, the pair were met by battalions of men shouting derision and “Gráinn bent her head in shame.” Nevertheless, it was never said that the sovereignty of earth-goddesses was fair and just and the two remained wedded until death, but it was also said that “the spirit was out of the Féinn.” Under a new leader, Cormac’s son, named Cairbre the Féinn were almost eradicated. As for Diarmuid, he went into the Otherworld by way of the Brugh na Boann, but his body remained inviolate on a golden bier near Tara. When ever Aonghas Óg sought companionship, he breathed into the mouth of the corpse, and the spirit rushed east over the waters and roused it, so that this dead man could converse with his foster-father. DIARMUID MAC FERGUS. An historical king (545-568 A.D.) sometimes confused with the above. One of his officers was killed by a foster child of St. Ronan. When the king came looking for Aodh Guaire, Ronan hid him, and so the cleric was arrested and tried in his stead. Condemned he uttered these words: “Tara be desolate forever!” Surprisingly this city was abandoned and never achieved its former status as the axial city of Ireland. DIBITH, lifeless, without fortune; di-, a negative prefix + bith, inspirited. DIGE, DIGDE, DEIGHDA, “goddess,” the feminine of Dagda, ice, snow. A descriptive name for the Cailleach bheurr or Winter Hag. See Caer Ibormeith, Mhorrigan, Bui. Danu, DILUINN, di + luan. Di, day from the Sankrist dyaus, the sky, allied to dia, god and the Early Irish domnach, lord, from which the English Donald. A related form is diabhol, which is out word devil. Luan, moon, also Monday. Thought borrowed from the Latin luna. The moon-devil, also entitled Old Donald. Also, the owl, perhaps named after its moonlike eyes.

The Celtic people claimed that the owl-spirit was the oldest and wisest in the universe. Baobhs and witches were often gifted with familiars which were owls. As J.G. Fraser has noted, "In every case the beast or bird with which the witch or wizard has contracted a mystic alliance is an individual, never a species; and when the individual animal dies the alliance is naturally at an end, since the death of the animal is supposed to entail the death of the man." Where men did not possess an owl as a familiar they sometimes ate his eyeballs. In Norse legend Ingvi, son of King Aumund was timid in his youth, but his family remedied this by making him eat the heart of the wolf. With the wolf-spirit in him he became very bold. Again, Hialto gained strength and courage by eating the heart of a bear and drinking its blood. The advantage in eating an owl's eyeballs seems obvious, the Celtic word diluinn having reference to its two oversized "moon eyes". Only one local species has any day-vision worthy of mention and that is the Snowy Owl, which is able to see very well in bright sunshine, although it does most of its hunting at dawn and twilight. This owl has a close attachment with the world of shadows because it is an infrequent visitor to the area. its presence indicating a lack of food in the northlands of Canada. The bird shows a marked preference for open costal meadows and is ghostlike in its sudden appearances and disappearances. In parts of the Maritime Provinces owls are placed among the corbies as harbingers of bad luck. Creighton has recorded the following tale: "In Ship Harbour two young men were returning home one cold icy night. After the driver let his friend out he drove on alone and must have gone off the road. At that time his mother was walking down the road when a huge bird that was more like an owl than anything else swooped out of a tree and nearly knocked her down. It was an odd time of year for a strange bird to appear, so this was supposed to have been a forerunner."

At Five Points, near Sussex, New Brunswick a tale has been told that clarifies the nature of the owl as a forerunner. In colonial times a woman who lay dying promised she would come back to haunt her husband if he decided to marry a neighbouring woman named Jennie. The man denied any matrimonial interests but remarried as soon as his wife had gone to earth. Afterwards he found himself shadowed by an owl and suspected this was the runner of his departed wife. Harassed by the bird, he shot it, and threw the corpse at Jennie's feet saying, "There's that damned owl!" To his surprise, Jennie fainted and when she recovered was found to be confused state, even suggesting that he had shot his former wife. She recovered, but he was so distraught he hanged himself from the timbers of a nearby bridge. Considering the implications and the fact that the man was a suicide, he was buried at the crossroads at midnight. DIOG, life, breath. Conferring with dea, deos, See deosalt, deos, deostadh. DIOLTACH, the “Retaliator,” from the G. diol, to pay. One of three invincible swords possessed by the ocean-god Mannan mac Ler. This weapon was given to Naoise who was slain by it. DIOT MHÓRR, great meal, great dinner, MIr. diet, EIr. dithait, the Eng. diet. The feast held at the Beltane. DINN RIGH. The dun, or fortress of kings at Leinster. Once named Duma-Slaigne, as it was the burial mound of Slaigne, a Fomorian king. Identified with Ballyknockan on the west bank of the Barrow in County Carlow, Ireland. It was here that the evil Cobhthach Coel of Bregia and thirty of his warriors were toasted alive by fires set around a hall made entirely of iron. DINNSENCHAS, dinnis, obs., an oath, an elder day document describing the orders of the druids, and making one of the

few notices of the bandrui or female druid. DIS, confers with Gaelic, dithis, two, used only of persons, the dual-god. Dwelly identifies him as a Celtic god, although he is most often placed with the Gauls. Dith, susceptible to the cold, a poor miserable wretch. Failure, destruction, die, perish, wither, squeeze, compress, suck out. EIr. diss, weak. Disleach, stormy, uncouth, straggling across the landscape, deviating from normal; dith, want, defeat. But note disgir, nimble, active, sudden, fierce, cruel. dislean, relatives. The continental Celts claimed descent from Dis. See Da which confers. See the next. DISEART, “high and cold,” a desert. The Irish saints were driven to contemplation and self-abuse. It is recorded that Comac ua Liathinn, one of this kind, made repeated attempt to find a desert in the ocean. He once sailed to the Orkneys for that purpose. Some of Saint Coumba’s crowd found their isolation beside Muirbole Mar in Jura. Referring to such settlements, Adamnan used the Greek eremos from which we have the English eremite or “hermit.” Many places in Ireland, as a consequence bear the prefix disert, typically followed by the name . A few may remember him as a Christain who carried on a well-mannered conversation with the Devil. DISLEACH, stormy, uncouth, straggling, Ir. disligheach, deviating from the safe and correct path, di-slighe, “the way,” “the path.” After the foreign god Dis. See above. DITHICH, to destroy, expiate, root out, cause to fail, die, perish, become mute. See above entries. Note next. DITHEIN BUIDHE BEALLTAINN, ditheain, daisy, darnel, blossom; buidhe, yellow, glad, thankful. The "yellow mayday flower - the marsh marygold. Thus the Beltane was anciently known as buidhe Bealltainn, lucky May Day. Note also Buidhe na Belltainn, the yellow Beltane, used to describe fields filled with this May Day flower. Like St. John's Wort, the marygold was a symbol of the sun, and a

protective against evil since it embodied the spirit of the god Lugh. DITHORBA. A part of a ruling triumvirate in Ireland. When Aedh Ruadh died his daughter Macha Mong Ruadh seized power. Dithorba and his surviving partner Dimbaeth opposed her. She slew Dithorba and married Cimbaeth. Capturing the five sons of Dithorba through he magic she forced them to work at erecting Emain Macha, her chief residence and monument in Ireland. The soveran-queen of the north, corresponding with Macha. DIURR, the life spark, the vital force in men. Diurrais, mystery, secret, the desire to bite (as when teething). But also diur, obs. Dire, difficult, hard. DO, DON, DA, The Norse and the Gaels preferred to speak of the “one-god” obliquely calling him the Allfather, the Old Man, the Old Boy, the Good (God) Fellow, or something of that ilk. It was widely understood that calling upon the true name of any god was a dangerous business since they were likely to appear and were invariably annoyed by oaths or swearings that were”in vain.” The elder day “lord of hosts” of the Gaels was probably Do, or Don, who the Welsh called Doon, the Cornishmen, Dou, and the Anglo-Saxons, Doom. The Gaelic form corresponds with the modern word da, which is the English two. In the Old Irish tongue the word could be masculine dá or the feminine di. The same holds for Welsh where dau is masculine and dwy feminine. In the Cornish form these words were dou and diu. In the dead Brythonic tongue of the English Celts it was daou and diou. All of these words bear obvious relationship to the Gaelic deo, breath, i.e. spirited, and dia, a god and the Norse/Gaelic god Ve, the Wind . A very similar word is the Latin divus, m., deified one, which is the Norse tiv and the Anglo-Saxon twi. All of these forms point to the old northern European god variously named Aod, Aoid or Aoidh (pronounced somewhat like the English letter “k”).

The personalized form of this name is Hu, Da or Dagda in Gaelic and Hues, Hess, Deus, Dis, Twes, Tuis, Tues, Tyrr, Tyr, Ter or Thor in various Germanic tongues. This god is still remembered in the English Tues-day. This linguistic exercise reveals a duo-partite creator-god, who apparently knew how to represent himself in male and female bodies, possibly in the interest of “self-expression.” His male form, in Gaelic, is usually given as Don, his female as Domnu, and the following which these two energized forms created, embraced the so called House of Don, within the undersea kingdom of Domhain. In Gaelic parts Don’s day is still Di-domnuich, which we call Sunday. The month of Damhar, or October, is related, the word damh being understood as an ox or stag; the word damhair indicating, rutting time. The ending air in this last word indicates rank, thus, “The high-ox.” The whole word can also be interpreted as “battle-ox,” or “slaughtering ox.” The word Domhain is allied with this: the second part mainnir, indicating a pen, fold or booth for wild animals. An associate word is the Old Irish mendat, a residence. It is critical to note that Don is an inextricable mix of local gods including Ler, Manan mac Ler, and Beul (the continental Dis) in the Fomorian camp, and Dagda and Lugh in the Tuathan division. Within the genealogical chart of the House of Don, the dark lord is seen “married” to Danu, the mother-goddess, but in a parallel diagram of relationships for the House of Ler, this same lady, here called Domnu, is shown as the throne-mate of the sea-god. Things which are equal to the same thing are equal to one another, Q.E.D. Danu is Domnu and Don is the Dagda. The bear-god Mathgamon, the ultimate creator-god on earth, is a single entity fractioned into these many parts in the memories of diverse peoples. He is man-god, born to die because of miscegenation, his immortal genes overcome by mating with lesser folk. This dawn-being (the English

word confers) is a dual personality, with a summer and a winter face; having alter-egos, symbolizing day and night, the sun and the moon, heat and cold, good and evil, male and female, the athair (father) and the nathair (snake, or one who is not the father). The same may be said for his mate, the goddess Danu of the House of Don, or Domnu of the House of Ler. In sum they are the Daoine sidh, the “people of peace,” the lightbearers, who strove and defeated the Fomoraigh or undersea folk, creatures of ill and darkness. The problems between the mythological land and sea-people are, at one level, reflections of the attempts of men to overcome their dark nature. DOBHACH, DABHACH, a tub or vat. Also a measure of land: one to four ploughgates depending on local tradition. The latter use is peculiar to Scotland. Eng. top and tub. Note the mythological connection with the “Cauldron of the Deep.” This measure was used to assess cain, taxes or “burdens on land,” coinmheadh, dues of maintenance, fees attached to slaughadh or “hosting.” The word occurs at dauch or doch when prefixed or suffixed to a place-name. DOBHAR, obs. water, EIr. dobur, Cy. dwfr. Bry. dour. Ir. dobhar, root dub, deep, the god Do or Don, Germ. tumpel, a deep place located in water. From this the G. dobharchu, “water-dog,” and dobhran, the otter. DOBHAR ARD-RIGH, note above. Thus the High-King of the Deep or Don, sometimes identified as Manann. To gain the “horses of the Deep” the Sons of Tureen took work as mercenary warriors at the court of the Dobhar ard righ, who “stabled” these valuable animals. For seven weeks they stood at arms without glimpsing the animals, but during this time they proved very useful, so that they came to the notice of the ard righ. In his company, they asked to be show these valuable “animals,” and the flattered king ordered that the horses be driven about the race-course of his island. The horses were demonstrated on land and

water, and when they stopped to be admired, the brothers leaped into the chariot, slaughtered the king with the poisoned spear of Pisear, dumped the regular driver, and drove off laughing at their trick. DOBHINIA. dobhar, water. The ancestress-goddess of the folk of Corco Duibhne, Kerry, Ireland. DòGAN, a mild oath, thus the Eng. dog-gone-it. Confers with dod, a tantrum or fret and dogadh, mischief; dogha, a burdock. The Sc. dogge, dog, and possibly after the EIr. Dubgall, “Dark-stranger,” a Dane. From this we have the names Dugald and Dugan. DOICHEALL, DOICHEALL, churlish, grudging, inhospitable. A word opposed to EIr. sohell, “kindness.” This latter is founded on the name of the Gaulish god Sucellos. DOIMH, gross, bulky, same as domhail. Similar to doimheadach, vexing, galling, doimheal, stormy, domhach, a savage, a Fomor, domail, damage. See An Domhain. DOINEACH, sorrowful, based on dan, fate. baneful, OIr. doinmech, “fateful,”

DOIRE. a grove, Ir. daire, Cy. deri, an oak grove, G. darach, oak. Anciently, a religious sanctuary. Thus the modern Derry, Ireland. DOL AIR FAOIDH, “Going A-Gathering,” which is called “thrigging” in the Lowlands. The custom of circumambulating a community to gather food and drink for any festival, religious or otherwise. Prospective brides often resorted to this act as did widows and older women in reduced circumstances. Faoidh cloimh, or “wool-gathering” was sometimes done on the land or door-to-door the object being to obtain the raw material for clothing. The Faoidh nollaig took place a little before Christmas and usually involved people travelling as couples. These were actually “gentle begging expeditions” and sometimes the identity of

the beggars was disguised. Somet DOL DEISEL MU CHARN, circum-ambulation of the cairns. Pagan (sometimes Christian) relgious processions about the piles of stones. Supposed to propitiate the deities and procure luck. DOMHAIN, DOMHAINN, AN, The Deep, Breton, doun, Corn. down, Cy dwfn, Bry. don. Gaul, dumnos, Indo-European, dheub, a hole in the ground filled with water, cf. dobhar, water. The first-world, the beginning place in the western Atlantic, the undersea kingdom of the Fomors, ruled in the elder days by the immortal elemental-god Ler. Obviously akin are the Gaelic domhan, the world; domhail, dumhail, thick, bulky, large; and dubh, great. An Domhain, the Celtic “Beginning Land,” always sited in the western Atlantic, is described as “a revolving circular island, a fortress in the sea.” Today the word domhain is taken to correspond with “deep,” and has particular reference to “a hole in the ground filled with water,” thus it is a comparative for the Atlantic Ocean itself. The English word “deep” confers linguistically as does the Gaelic domhan, the Universe personified. The Allfather or creator-god was often identified as Don or Donn, the English “Doom.” His co-creator was the goddess Domnu, the “mother” of all the sea-folk collectively known as the Fomor, literally the “undersea dwellers,” perhaps those who lived “below” the western horizon. The name itself signifies a “deep hole” or “abyss,” and has overt sexual connotations. Through all of the sagas and tales it is the Children of Domnu who are represented as agents of darkness and evil. They are contenders against the people of Dagda, the chief land god, and his mate Danu or Anu, who represent the interests of light and goodness. An Domhain had the circular “Cauldron of Abundance” at its geographical centre. From it there emerged the seven rivers which nourished the landscape in every direction. Since this island-kingdom of uncanny, shape-changing, one-

eyed folk was hard to find it was sometimes classified as a submergent island, existing at times on the ocean floor, where its people subsisted within a magical bubble of air. It was said that the island was forced to emerge once in seven years to replenish its air and fresh water. In later mythology it was suggested that An Domhain was a subterranean place at the roots of the island which the Gaels called Hy Breasil. Hy Breasil became the refuge of the Tuatha daoine an Irish race which defeated the Fomors, but being themselves conquered, were forced to flee to this western refuge. These “gods of light” naturally acquired the upper world while the “dark giants” were left with control of the underworld of their island. Hy Brazil was first charted on Atlantic maps in the fourteenth century and disappeared from the cartographic records in 1865. It was at first shown a little southwest of the Aran Islands but was gradually moved westward eventually coming to harbour in Newfoundland waters. Hy Brazil is often, but not invariably, shown as perfectly circular in shape. An examination of medieval maps sometimes shows islands as indented squares or rectangles, which are apparently meant to indicate fortified retreats. In the fifteenth century, cartographers who knew of an island in the Atlantic, but had no certain information about its form, indicated their lack of precise knowledge by drawing scalloped or dotted edges to represent the land. Even at that they usually included some geographic information, a trend of the coast, some offshore rocks, or a general shape, suggesting that it was a place which could be found. It was not uncommon to indicate a river or two on such representations. The world-myth is incompletely represented in Gaelic myth but Celtic philosophy is well documented in the Welsh Barddas, a compilation made from earlier material in the hands of Llewellyn Sion of Glamorgan in the sixteenth century. In the system of thought he proposes there are parallels to Donn and Dagda in Huw and Cythrawl, the first

being the powers of life and construction, the latter those of death and darkness. In the beginning it was said that Annwn was the most complete realization of what the Greeks called Chaos. In the beginning it is supposed that there was nothing beyond these forces. Organized life came into being “at a single word from Huw.” Notice that this name represents the tendancy towards order, the sun, and a reincarnate god, all wrapped into one. At his will manared, the buidling blocks of the universe came into being. The place where life sprang up in Annwn it was called Abred. Immediately the forces for construction and destruction began the contest of life and death. According to ancient Cymric thought their was never complete death for any living plant or animal, but many reorganizations of the constituent manared. It was guesssed that the beings of earth passed “every capable form of life, in water, in earth, in air...through every severity, hardship, evil before attaining gwynfyd (enlightenment). Gwynfyd cannot be obtained without seeing and knowing all, and is not attainable without suffering everything. There can be nno full love without experiencing the hate which leads to the knowledge that is gwynfyd. Every being was thought capable of attaining godhood, through a progression of lives sprinkled with both good and evil events. Those who committed evil were thought to fall out of the worlds of men and the gods into the Deep, sometimes termed “The Loveless Place,” or “The Land Invisible.” It is important not to confuse this place with the Christian place called Hell. Like An Domhain, Annwn was never seen as a place for the punishment of evil, but a gathering point for insensate matter that had fallen back toward chaos for recycling. Some have said that this ancient land, due west of Connaught province in Ireland, was "a land wherein there is not save truth, and where is neither age nor decay, sorrow nor gladness, nor envy nor jealousy, hatred nor haughtiness." Obviously, this was not a human habitation! Pre-colonial Newfoundland and Nova Scotia have been lands suggested as

harbouring the Fomors. Loke them An Domhain was an illusive place, cloaked in fog and difficult to re-discover after the initial landfall. Many of the noted heroes of the pagan past were born away to this place before or after death Oisin and his comrade-at-arms were taken there just before the Fionn were wiped out in their final battle. Conla, son of Conn was seduced to that land by a sidh-princess who transported him there in her crystal boat. Bran and his companions sought the strange lands in the western ocean. He supposedly found "the happy isles" and sailed amongst them for hundreds of years. Coming home to carry, the bow-man on his ship lepaed ashore and was instantly aged to a heap of dust. Legaire of Connaught and fifty of his men disappeared into the west as did Fiachna. Saint Brendan made a landfall and returned to recount his tale of a visit to the Land of Promise. Even with the advent of Christianity An Domhain, the First Land, continued as a goal of mariners. In 1664 a boat out of Olwes on the coast of Ireland was blown west by night and the next day at noon spied land so close that men saw sheep grazing on shore. The captain dared not land remembering tales that O'Brazil was unstable and at to vanish into the netherland or sink suddenly below the sea. They turned about and in spite of a favourable wind required two days of sailing for the return voyage. Twenty years later a scholar named O'Flatherty reported that "There is now living Morragh O'Ley, who imagines he was himsaelf personally in O'Brazil - he went there from Aran - and came back to Galway 6 or 8 years later and began to practise both chirurgery and phisick, and so continues ever since, tho' he never studied or practised either before in all his life time before. Hardiman says the story is thatthe Book of O'Brazil was given him there - but he was not to open it (upon his homecoming) for seven years."2 About this same time the Leslie family of Glasslough,

County Monhagan, actually secured a grant to the entire island known as I-Breasil, pending its recovery or disenchatment from the spells of the Fomors and the Daoine sidh. In his book Irish Minstreley, Hardiman reprints a letter from Mr. W. Hamilton of Derry, dated 1674, and addressed to a friend in London. He advised that the western isles had been discovered, and reclaimed, a few weeks earlier by the captain of a Killybegs schooner. Hamilton advised his friend to inform "young Leslie" of the good news, suggesting he might now make some use of his father's patent on these properties. Unfortunmately this curious tale has no resolution and as far as we are aware Tir nan Og still remains at a distance: receding from searchers into a fogbank, or backing below the horizon's rim, or sinking beneath the sea when men approach too closely. It has made substantial appearcnces on clear summer nights upon the Atlantic but vain and adventurous men have usually sought it with dire results. Although An Domhain was the creation of the Olaithir acting through the the fire elemental named Lugh, this land was given to the descendants of the immortal sea god named Ler or Llyr. At the time of the first human occupation of Britain, the sunken lands nearest Europe were controlled by the Fomorian giant named Conan and later by Manan Mac Lir (the Son of Lir). DOMHAN, the Universe, the Allfather, profound,, hollow, “of two minds,” the creator-god personified, also known as Do or Don or Domh. The source for many Celtic proper names, e.g. Dubnotalus and Dumnorix. Note also the widely-used Gaelic Domhnall and the Welsh Dyfnual, which translate as Donald. A relationship is suggested with the sea-folk and these names have the sense of "ruler of the deep" or "highking." Note domhach, a savage, doimh, bulky, gross, vexing, galling, doimheal, stormy and doimeag, a slattern. DOMNACH CURRAN, Carrot Sunday. Curran, any plant having a tap-root, e.g. the European mandrake. A time for rites originally devoted to the sun god Lugh. A pagan holiday

preserved on the western seaboard and the Hebrides of Scotland with rites celebrated on the first Sunday coming before Samhuinn, at “Summer’s End.” Attached in late tradition to the Feast of St. Michael (September 29). On this afternoon, before winter women, women dug carrots from a specially marked triangular area with a three pronged fork (like that favoured by the sea-gods). It was claimed that the triangle symbolized the Holy Trinity, but it may have represented the pubic area of the earth-goddess called Bafinn or Bridd. The diggers intoned this chant: Cleft fruitful, fruitful, fruitful, Joy of carrots surpassing come upon me, Michael the brave endowing me. Bride the fair be aiding me. Progeny pre-eminent over every progeny, Progeny be on my womb. Progeny pre-eminent over progeny, Progeny be on my progeny. This is not a usual Christian credo. Further, women finding forked carrots became the centres of great admiration for the “luck” they had unearthed. In all cases the rivalry among women involved who might bring back the biggest and the best carrots. At home, the women washed and tied the carrots with appropriate red threads, and placed them in sand filled earth pits for winter use. DOMHNALL, gen. Donil; O.G. Domnall; Lat. Domnallis; Cy. Dyfnwal, literally “world-ruler.” Hence M’Dhòmhnuill or Mac-donald. There were two of this name: 1. Donald the Warlike, a champion of Alba to whom Cúchullain applied to complete his military training. Donald later referred him to the warrior-woman Sgáthach. 2. Donald Breac, an historical king of Dal Riada in Alba. He invaded Ireland in 637 A.D. and,fought against Domhall mac Aedh, who presided over the assembly of Druim Ceata, He is remembered for having an impenetrable shield which was shattered by Conall. 3. The Athair or Oolathair.

DOMHNUICH, DI-, DOMHNUCH. The day of world-ruler, the "Lord's" day, Sunday. The days of the Gaelic week vary from English counterparts, Sunday being, not the day of the sun, but that of "domhnaich", Auld or Old Donald. While this godspirit may be equated with the earth-goddess Danu, supposedly the ancestress of the entire Celtic race, he has more definite affinities with Donar, the Teutonic god of thunder, war, agriculture and marriage, the counterpart of the Scandinavian Thor. This is supported by the second half of the name, "naich", which is sometimes written as "null", as in Domhnull (Donald). This corresponds exactly with the French "noel" and the Scandinavian "yule". The Julmand (Yule man) is currently regarded as the northern counterpart of Pere Noel or the English Father Christmas, but in an earlier day was clearly Thor or the god Frey, who were both celebrated during the Yuletide. The people of Domh of the Yule may represent a blending of Norse and Gaelic elements, but the Macdonalds, or sons of domhnaich (pronounced dawnech) came to the Highland and the Western Isles from Norse lands. DOMNU, the matriarchal goddess of the Fomorii. The sea queen, possibly the alter-ego of Danu, the matriarch of the Tuatha daoine. The Western Isles of Scotland were known haunts of the Fomorian sea-giants, who are represented as pirates who ravages the coasts of Ireland and subjected the people. One of their kings was Indech mac de domnand, “Indech so of the Deep-one, i.e. The goddess Domnu.” This man was described as “the son of the goddess, possessed or arts and accomplishments (magical abilities). The goddess was the tutelary divinity of the Isles and the ancestress of the ancient kings who liuved there. This Domu is sometimes considered distinct from the ruler of the Fir domnann. See next. DOMON, The Irish records say that the the people of Nemed hoping to flee the Fomors went to Domon and Erdomon which was “in the north of Alba (Scotland). This place is the Dumna of Pliny and Ptolmey. This seems to be the Outer

Hebrides as there is mention in Gaelic literature of that place housing Magh Domhna, “the Plain of Domon.” Erdomon indicates “near to Domon.” Usually this prefix indicates “to the east of.” Thus the Inner Hebrides! DON, evil, defective; as dona, bad, wretched. Dona, The Devil, mischief, harm, hurt. Opposite of sona, happy. Donn, brown in colour. Thus the low Scot. Old Donald, a pagan god, the Devil. The creator-god and mate of Domnu, the ruler of An Domhain, the “Beginning Place” in times long past. Some say he was an immortal god who retired from time to take up more interesting pursuits. Other myths suggest he may have been murdered at the time of the invasion of the Otherworld by the Dagda and his sons. He is definitely associated with Bile his island abode having been given as Tech Duinn, the “Assembly Place of the Dead.” In Gaelic parts Don’s day is still Di-domnuich, which we call Sunday. The month of Damhar, or October, is related, the word damh being understood as an ox or stag; the word damhair indicating, rutting time. The ending air in this last word indicates rank, thus, “The high-ox.” The word can also be interpreted as “battle-ox,” or “slaughtering ox.” The word Domhain is allied with this: the second part mainnir, indicating a pen, fold or booth for wild animals. An associate word is the Old Irish mendat, a residence, which confers with the ocean-god Manan mac Ler. The Gaelic House of Don had two branches, the oldest derived from Ler, the god of the sea, who is sometimes represented as immortal and the equivalent of the Allfather. His people are remembered as the Learys, O’Learys and Macclures and his name is retained in the Gaelic lear, a poetic name for the sea. The root here may be li, to flow, as in lighe, flood. He was said to have pursued and impregnated Aoibh, the Pleasant-Faced, a metaphor for the sun. By Aoibh he had three sons and a daughter, all changed into swans and banished by her sister, his second wife, Aife. Manann mac Ler and his step-brothers and sisters were the first mortal sea-deities, a fact made patent by his

mother’s name (Aoife indicates “One Doomed To Die”). Notwithstanding his mortality, Manann was the most prominent god of the past, ruling the sea-world on the arm of Fand, the “Pearl of the Ocean.” His home was in the western Atlantic, a place known as Tir Tairnigri,. the “Land of the Daughter of Thunder.” The continental Celtic god of thunder was Taranus, who is the equivalent of Thor, thus we see that Norse and Celtic myth are not mutually exclusive. Manann’s private keep in the west was Emain Albach, the “Rock Bound Residence,” and from here he drove the waves in a chariot behind the sea “horse” named Anobarr (his shape-changed wife) or took sea-serpent or fish form to travel to the shores of men. While most of his followers in the undersea kingdom were bestial, Manann had the looks of a handsome land-hero, which explains how he was able to sire many illegitimate children among the “goddesses” of Britain. Manann mac Ler’s chief land-holdings in the eastern realm were found upon the Isle of Man, although he also possessed Castle Manan in northeastern Ireland. Queen Mebd is a side-form of the goddess Mhorrigan, the “Great Queen, born of the sea.” The major Celtic goddess of war, death and slaughter, she double-crossed her “father” Don and assisted the land-gods in overthrowing and eliminating him, his defeat being symbolized in the taking the Cauldron of Abundance to Ireland. In the latter days she was rewarded for her duplicity with the sexual favours of Dagda and with care-and-control of his “Kettle,” which is clearly the “womb” of the land. She was the sovereign-bride of all the high-kings of Tara, and no man could rule without her complicity, which was represented in an annual ritual pairing with her in the form of the human brides from the side-hill of Boann. See next. DONA, The Devil, donn. Surly, bad-tempered, bad, sometimes, pregnant; brown in hue, bronzed, singed. Eng. Dennis. A name for the Devil, confluent with the Welsh "dwn", brown, relates to the Norwegian "dundra", to thunder, rattle, or

rumble, and to "din", an urgent request for debt settlement. These suggest that the pagan fire-festival involved racketmaking and the settling of old scores. The missionaries to the continental Celts, who were called Gauls, substituted Saint Dennis as the god-spirit to superintend activities which took place on October 9th. Dennis was the first bishop of Paris and is still the patron saint of France. He was martyred by decapitation in the third century and was supposed to have raised himself and walked away carrying his severed head. Dunning, Scotland, which is central to the Little Dunning or Saint Dennis’s Fair, is typical of towns having small cattlemarkets, which developed outside the sphere of the great "anoachs" or fairs held in major centres. The feast day is coincident with St. Dennis Day in France, where the tasting of the first wines of harvest is the order of the day. The fair was in place at least as early as 1670 and by the end of the eighteenth century, highlanders were bringing large flocks of goats to sale, while farmers transported flax. In the 1830's, the fair was disassociated from Saint Dennis Day, perhaps because of pressure from the Presbyterians, who resented this Roman Catholic "saint". At Glen Margaret, Nova Scotia, some residents continue to equate Mr. Dennis with the Devil and with pigs. Abroad, country-folk thronged the marked with butter and cheese carts in this later time, while cattle-men offered the "mart" (a cow or ox) in exchange. In smaller centres fairs similar to the Dunning, which came closer to the end of harvest, began to displace the Lugnasad as the chief "feeing" market. Farmers and farm servants gathered at the foot of High Street to make verbal agreements, or dins, for winter work. Contracts were sealed by handsel, or handshake, and the exchange of a penny. Some Scots were not above feeing themselves to several masters and ended the day besotted on dishonestly obtained monies. In 1846, farm-workers cannily hired the town crier to proclaim that the railways were seeking stout young men to

come to them at 16/ a week. The farmers reacted by promising wages well above the usual local scale. The actual opening of a railway several years after helped to enlarge attendance at this fair and in 1895 tram cars offered many ploughmen the novel experience of a trip to nearby Scone. Little Dunning continued as the main feeingplace for the region until the Second World War when the farm workers were legally tied to their current jobs and wages were fixed by the government. The system of bargaining for wages ceased at that time. With the demise of Little Dunning, and similar fairs, went the annual town trip for farm youngsters, who used to have the promise of a gingerbread horse, a pink sugar pig, or a striped-candy walking stick of generous size. In many respects, Little Dunning was next to Hogamanay as the most important date on a child's calendar. DONN, brown, surly, bad-tempered, indifferent, bad, pregnant, Cy. dwn, Gaul. Donnus, Donno-, Lat. fuscus, Eng. dusk, dust. DONN NA’ CUAILNGE, The “Brown of Cooley,” a great bull of divine origin resident in Ulster. His form was the culmination of many transmigrations of soul and he was a divine swineherd according to late antiquarian invention. Although a bull he had human reason and understanding. “One of the great virtues of the Donn were the fifty youths who engaged in games upon his back every evening, where they played draughts and contested at leaping. A magic virtue of the animal is that no man ever fell from his back nor did he totter under them. He could screen a hundred warriors from heat or cold under his shadow. No sprite or goblin dared come near him. At dust his magical lowing quieted men in the north and the south, the east and the west...” Elsewhere it is noted that his voice alone brought cows into calf, emphasizing his importance as a symbol of fecundity.” It was natural that Mebd, the raven-queen of Connaught coveted him. DONN OG, Young Don, represented as the son of Midir, god of

the Underworld. Often confused with the eldest of the eight sons of Mil. It was this latter who was hospitably greeted by the three sovereign goddesses of Ireland, and reacted by “paying scant respect.” In this case, “scant respect” meant a little more that ignoring them, for elsewhere it is reported that “Eiru was overrun at Inver Sceni in Bantry Bay.” The trio survived long enough to predict the doom of prince Donn. The Milesians put to sea after this and Manann mac Ler caused a great storm to blow up against the invaders and in that storm he was lost. In one version of events Donn was killed while checking out the nature of this magical blast from the mainmast. Others state that he was killed trying to land, or fighting on the land. Whatever the case, his brothers agreed to his request that he be buried on an offshore island. Here the traditions of Donn og and Donn sean, become intermmixed, for the Irish death god alsogoverned an offshore island entitled Tech Duin at the southwest of Ireland. DONN SEAN, Old Don, As we have noted elsewhere the House of Donn was named after the death god, who was sometimes associated with the Dagda and Bilé. In current folklore Donn has the same weight as Ler, or the Norse god Hler, being commonly associated with shipwrecks and sea storms. In some folklore he is represented as governing Tech Duin an island assembly point for spirits of the dead. DORCH, DORCHA. dark. Ir. dorcha, OIr. dorche, as opposed to sorcha, bright, from the root reg, I see. Gr. Erebus, the “coloured-one.” ON. rokr, darkness, from which Ragna-rokr, the “Twilight of the Gods.” Sometimes referred to G. richis, coal and Bret. reges, glowing embers, Skr. ric or re, to shine through darkness. Norse, dvgr, a dark-skinned one, a dwarf. Many of the pagan rites took place in darkness. The Christian church at Kilkivan, in Kintyre, Scotland preserved one of these “mixing customs”: When husbands and wives were seen to have irreconcilable differences all of their kind were assembled by the clergyman once each year. There being an equal number of males and females, they were placed in a large room and all the lights extinguished. “This

being done they were to grope for partners until they were all paired, and when the church was lit again they were to live together till the next annual meeting, when a similar “grab in the dark,” was resorted to.” Often this resorting of personalities resulted in reconsiliation of the original couples at the end of the year. This church in Gaelic was cill-chaomhain, “the church of the meek,” and was one of the last “native” churches to succumb to the Reformation. This process was also seen at the pagan quarter-days. DORNBHUIDHE, the “Yellow Fist,” corresponding with Bui. The sidh, or “side-hill” of Uainebhuidhe, the “Green-fisted one.” This was said located “south of Cliodna’s wave and was thus within the western Otherworld. This woman was regarded as the minstrel of the Land of Promise, and her musical instruments were the birds which followed wherever she went. See Uainebhuidhe. DORNOLL. “of the Big-fist.” A somewhat misshapen female, the daughter of Domhnull “the War-like.” She fell in love with Cuchullian. When he failed to be compliant she sought vengeance by causing his companions to desert him as he journeyed in the distant Land of Shadows. DOSGADH, DOSGAINN, misfortune, Ir. dosgathhach, improvident, dosguidhtheach, morose, extravagant, from dos + sgath, a “haded thicket.” After the goddess Sgathach, the “Shaded One,” who confers with Mhorrigan. DRAIGHLICHD, a trollop, a whore, from the Eng. draggletail? Perhaps related to the next. DRAGON, a dragon, Ir. dragun, EIr. drac from the Latin draco, the source of the English dragon. The name given Norse war-ships as well as that applied to the fire-breathing winged reptile of mythology. Note the G. dragh, trouble, roughness, vexation. The dragon-ships were sometimes pulled overland on rollers, thus the Eng. drag and draw. The figurehead of the viking ship was often formed

after the head of a sea-serpent and was arranged to serve as a chimney for ship-board fires. In spite of Saint Patrick’s work with snakes, mythological Ireland was hardly free of serpents. Conall Cernach had one as his totem and the charioteer Laoeg saw a two-headed specimen on his visit to the Otherworld. These were both off-island but Mecha, the serpent-son of Mhorrigan was born in Ireland. He was slain by the healer called Diancecht and his three hearts, bearing the shape of serpent’s heads, were burned and committed to water. It is said that the currents there seethed with poison and “boiled to rags” all living things within the river. Fionn alone was credited with expunging the monster of Loch Neagh, the great reptile of Loch Cuilleann, the creature within Benn Edair, the reptile of Glen Dorcha, the blue serpent of Erne, that of Loch Righ, another Glenarm. “he slew the serpent within Loch Sileann that brought with it treacherous deluge, and the two serpents of Loch Foyle that made fierce attacks on us. A shining serpent in the Shannon scattered our men, and that of Loch Ramhuir surpassed all other monsters of the world but mac Cumhail killed them. He took also the fierce phantom of Sliab Collan and the two serpents within Glen Inne, these fell by his sword. He slew that in Loch Meilge as well as the monster at Loch Cera and the spectre at Turim. The serpent of Loch Mask gave many defeats to the men of Fal but it was slain. On Loch Leaghire, in truth, there was a serpent that made flames. In payment for his ravages he was beheaded. The furious serpent of Loch Lurgan was done down by Fionn as was that at Bann and another at Assaroe.” See Clach na Nathraichean. DRAMAIG, from Sc. drammock, crowdie. “There are two immemorial dishes, one or another of which was indispensable at the Kirn (Harvest Home). One is the meaan-ale (dramaig), or Ale-Crowdie, and the other is Cranachan or Crea-Crowdie. Both are made with the first of the new grain.”(obtained at the Lugnasad, August 2). Crowdie was a mix of grain and water into which was poured a little home-brewed ale. The crowdie was of

drinking consistency but could not be overly thin as this was the omen for “thin” crops. It was sweetened with molasses and made “handsome” with liberal amounts of whisky. It was usually left to mellow through the day in a wooden bowl or earthenware tub. At the arrival of guests, a matrimonial ring and other charms were placed in the communal tub and each person was given a spoon and invited to partake in “a ceremony that is probably of very great antiquity.” DRAOI, DRAOIDH, DRUIDH, a magician, a practitioner of witch-craft, the Irish form is draoi, pl. druadh, EIr. drai, drui. In Gaul, druides, Eng. druid. Associations have been made with the English word true and with the Gaelic dru, high or strong. Pliny suggested that the root word might be dru, oak, considering their reverence for that tree. The AS. dry, a magus or magician, is considered derived from the Celtic models. Note also these "magicians": draoineach, any artisan; draoneach, a practising artist particularly an agriculturist; Ir. druine, needlework art. Draoch, a fretful or ghastly look with the hair standing on end. Drùchd, dew; drùdh, penetrate, pierce; druid, close, firm, trustworthy; druid, a starling, a thrush; drùis, lecherous, adultery; drùth, lewd, a harlot or prostitute; MEng. druerie, illicit love. The druids were members of a Celtic religious order, the sect, proper, having the offices of priest, physician, wonder-worker, entertainer, judge, teacher and historian in some measure. Numbered among the druids were the bards who specialized in oral poetic history and composed eulogies, curses and blessings on demand. The vates or prophets were concerned with foretellings, hind-tellings, and predictions. They are all represented in myth as dangerous wizards and/or diviners. The secret "Order of Druids" was supposedly re-organized in London In 1871, but bears little relationship with the ancient druids and their work.

DRAOCHD, druidic practise, magic. Same as druidheachd, the latter being the later form of the word. DRAOIGHTEAR. The Evil One, an enchanter. draoada, obscene, smutty, lewd, ugly looking. draosdair, whoremaster. DREAG, DRIUG, a meteor and/or portent,a forerunner seen as a travelling light; a omen of death or disaster, related to AS. dreag, an apparition and the ON, draugr, a ghost. Also seen as driug and fear dreag, the man trailing a light. also dragon (which, see), Cf the English word drag. See Ruadh rosessa. It was commonly said that the second soul of men sometimes became a fear dreag after the death and departure of the primary soul. As such it travelled from the place of death to the home of the dead individual, and went from their to the internment site. In instances of traumatic death, the fear dreag might be unable to "go to earth", in which case it remained topside as a recurrent travelling ball of light. The dreag, or "dead-light" of a female was said to have a halo about it and shed sparks. The "corpse-candle" of a man was a steady blaze of light, the trailing tail varying in length in direct proportion to the importance of the individual. Community leaders had lights that carried a long tail, but that of neighbourhood ne'er-do-well’s was markedly smaller. At the home of their host, the dreag sometimes knocked three times at the door, in other instances the light fell to the hearthstone and spread from there to bath the entire dwelling in cold light. Where the sithe, who carried these lights, outlived their human cowalker they often appeared about the countryside as wee-folk, seeking refuge in remote hovels. Admitted in the midst of storm, they were proof against lightning, flood, and the dangers of unchecked fire, but if they were ignored or badly treated, disaster always followed.

DREAM, tribe, people, EIr. dremm, bundle, handful, Skr. darh, that which can be bundled or made fast, cf. G. dreamsgal, a heterogeneous mass DREATHAN-DONN, wren, Ir. drean, Cy. dryw, root der, to jump. See dreolan. The Celts believed that our world was haunted by sweet-singing, pain-dispelling Otherworld birds. There were also hostile flocks which emerged from the west in the service of the death-gods. Like the sea-folk, these air-travellers had travelling gear, and could put aside their “bird-cloaks” and emerge in the form of people. The wren is seen in a small gold filagree figurine from Garryduff, Ireland. Although post-Roman in date is considered “associated with the Druidic practise of augury.” In most accounts, the wren has an ominous reputation, its call suggesting death, the coming of robbers, whores, poets, the clergy or other unwelcome folk. See dreolin. DREIMIRE BREG, DRIMNE, the “Ladder of Breg,” similar to ON. drangr, an “upstanding rock, cf. cliff, climb, tramp. “The Back of the Great Sow,” for that is the shape that appeared to the sons of Miled on every hill and on every height in Ireland, when they came over the sea (from Spain), and wanted to land by force. These phantoms were there because a spell had been cast on them by the Tuathan wizards.” DREOLIN, the wren, from dreas, bramble-bush, donnal, a howl of complaint. Also a silly person, Cy. drel, a clown, Eng. droll or thrall? Cf. dreallaire, drollaire, a “loiterer,” similar to ON. drolla. Note that Don was the Gaelic creatorgod. The custom of hunting, and killing the wren, “the Ladye of Heaven’s hen,” explains this descriptive. On the twentyfourth of December, towards evening, the Celtic peoples used to “ramble about” until midnight when they sought this representative of royalty. After killing him, they fastened his body to a pole and paraded him door-to-door. On the Isle of Man they buried him with the solemnity reserved for monarchs and afterwards danced about his mound. In

Ireland, the hunt went on into the eighteenth century and formerly was widespread throughout Europe. The one who killed the wren was once known as the King and was treated in royal fashion during the twelve days of the Yule. On Twelfth Night the wren “went to earth” in literal fashion, while his human counterpart was either killed or ostracized until replaced by a new victim a year later. Note DREUGAN. dialectic of dragon. DRIUBHLACH, South Ir. cowl. The wearing apparel of the mythic Tuatha daoine. DRIUG, a meteor, a portent, see dreag. DROICH, a dwarf, based on ancient drogi which is allied with Teut. dwergo, a dwarf. Germ. zwerg, ON. dvrgr, all after the Norse god-giant Svrtr, the elemental spirit of first fire. Confers somewhat with dragon. See next. DROCH-CHOMHALAICHEAN, DROICH-, "rent-payers to hell," droch, a dwarf, allied with ON dvergr, the English dwarf; Coimhdhe. God + aicheadh, one who denies the Creator. "(Some people) are unlucky to meet, and you would be sure to have disappointments in your errand (if you encountered them)." These are the opposites of the cochuleen driuth, who wore the "cap of luck." (see earlier entry). Men who were born with a second-rate protective spirit, or befind, or who had their birthday-caul stolen away were left open to the control of substitute evil-spirits and thus became enemies of the true gods, or God. As such, they lost the guarantee that their person and projects would turn out well. Unfortunately, their little black clouds spread over all they contacted. "If you went only to fetch a spade and met this kind, you would come back without it. A man from North Uist says he often makes a detour (1901) of about a mile when he is going to the hunts, because he says, "If I should meet the people from that house, thought I would use two pounds of shot, I would kill

nothing." Women were, by default, considered "drochchomhalaichean. " Thus, men were advised to avoid encountering them especially on the road. At one time it was said that no male could survive while travelling on the island of Eriskay. “Women were less intolerable to the evil-spirits of that place... when by some accident a man got into the island he could not get away. Once it was suggested that he should dress up like a woman and sit and spin like the rest. Though he showed some skill with the distaff he was soon found out and the adventure proved fatal." (Celtic Monthly, p. 164). The soul-mannikin is a part of European legend, thus the Icelandic Eddas mention the "flygiar", the attendantspirit of every child that is born. In the prose Eddas we are told that the "guardians" who come to earth "to shape the life of the men and the gods" are of the race of the (elemental) gods, who they called the Nornir. Norn (the Gaelic Befind) was originally a single goddess, corresponding with Urth and Wyrd, but in late mythology her duties were divided bewtween Urth, Verdhandi and Skulld, symbolizing the past, present and future. The destiny of men was admitted to be "shaped very unequally." "Some have a good life and rich, but some have little wealth and praise, some long life, some short...The good Nornir, and well-descended shape a good life; but as for those who meet with misfortune, it is caused by the malignant Nornir." In England this same invisble little man was known as a shadow-man, follower, runner, cowalker or fetch, and these designations are still used in Atlantic Canada. On both sides of the Atlantic, a person born with a caul, or "fylgie" (the amniotic sac present over the head at birth) was considered blesssed by a powerful attendant spirit. The sac was considered to have magical properties in its own right and in medieval times midwives sometimes removed it and sold it magicians. In the latter case, the shadow-man no longer protected his human double, who became an easy subject for diabolical possession.

Such individuals were called the jonahs, or joners, in the sea-ports of our provinces, while land-dwellers were referred to as jinxes, or jinkers, or as "rent-payers to hell". In a few Gaelic-speaking regions they were "drochchromhalaichean" (adherents of the badly-twisted one; i.e. the Devil). The Scots and the Irish also knew of the "currac-rath" (cap of luck) and all Atlantic Canadians were wary of "the unlucky kind" particularly when they appeared while men were working: "If they were working with tools of any kind, whether it was a mill or whatever...when things would begin to go wrong - as often happened - they would order a certain man in the neighbourhood to journey over (vacate the premises). They believed strongly that everything would (soon) be in order again...they took it as a very bad sign altogether if the same man met them on the road...The first person to meet anyone starting out on a particular journey, they thought would bring them bad luck or not..." In sea-port villages, Christian priests, ministers and women were excluded from ships as bringing bad luck but these were not full-fledged jonahs. The former were disliked as likely to attract the unwanted enmity of the elder gods of the sea, while women were suspected as potential witches. One of Helen Creighton's interviewees explained it as follows: "There is often one man who is known as "a bad luck man", he never seems to be able to get on to the fish. Boats are also sometimes known as bad luck boats (since they might possess bad-spirits in their own right)": "Some vessels don't make money though they've been tried by the best skippers known. There seems to be no reason for it, but I've seen it many times. (Port Medway, N.S.)" On the other had bad luck ships were often attached to a jonahed master-mariner. Local folklorist, Helen Creighton, has also recounted the misfortunes of an admitted jinx, who was trailed by the runner of her great-great grandmother, a woman who had a reputation for witchcraft: "If I went on the road sixty times a day I'd meet her. She'd always turn around and

follow me with her eyes." Alma J, interviewed at Eagle Head, Queen's County, Nova Scotia in 1947, claimed that she had had a spell placed on her as a child. When she married and lived at Lake Centre in 1927, she was no longer pursued by the shadow woman of her grandparent, but met a neighbour who bragged that he was a witch. It is a tenant of the craft that those who have been a prey to bewitchment remain open to its force, just as those who have been hypnotized are less able to resist later attempts at hypnosis. While her husband was busy with work in the winter-woods, Alma became the victim of this male hagge, witch or lutin: "There was a knothole in our front door and every night after I'd go to bed I'd hear a "cat" slide down through the hole and it would jump on my breast. When I'd leave the lamp burning it wouldn't bother me." This made it difficult to sleep and in time, "I began to get sick and couldn't work." Frightened by the experience , Alma went to the woods to get help from her husband. Fortunately, he had some knowledge of witchcraft, and knew that that there were rites of prevention and expulsion which could be used against night-riders. In the middle ages various plants were hung about the room, or the sleeper wore amulets made of coral, diamonds, jets, jasper, dried menstrual blood or a wolf's hide. More recently, knifes have been driven into door and window frames, a horseshoe or cross placed at entrances, a red cloth sew to clothing covering the chest, or the arms and legs held crossed throughout the night. In their case it seemed more practical to entrap the witch. Once a "night-elf" had made an entry there were numerous ways to divert him, but the experts agree that "the most effective method is to catch him." Because of his shape-changing abilities, this can be difficult unless his escape routes are cut off. "If all the holes in the room are blocked, the Night-Elf will be forced to remain, since he must always enter and leave through the same hole...A curious method of catching him is to stopper a bottle very

loudly. Partly out of curiosity and partly out of an overwhelming desire to urinate, (he) must open the bottle, making it very easy to close him inside." 1 Thinking to exclude the witch, the husband patched and filled minor openings in the home ending with the knothole in the door. As he was pounding a "cork" into this opening, their neighbour suddenly materialized in the bedroom. "What are you doing in there the wife called out? Come out in the kitchen!" The witch did he was told, but pushed past the woman in a manner that suggested annoyance. When they had him seated on the flop-couch in the kitchen they could see that he had bruises on his arm, representing every hammer blow the husband had taken against the bung. They suspected that he had been an invisible presence within the house, but had reacted too slowly to escape through his entry hole. When they asked him how he had managed the injuries, he said that they had resulted from injuries suffered while he was working in the woods. Captured, the witch could have been bled, or pricked, for it was part of the lore that he would be powerless to return if he lost nine drops of blood. Some families passed down "handling gloves" which were supposed to keep the witch at bay once he was ejected with them. It also used to be thought that the power of a witch was resident in his, or her, hair, so they might have given this witch a shearing, or simply grasped him by the hair, naming it "horsehair", thus cutting their relationship with the night-rider. The witch could also have been banished by locating one of his footprints in the earth, and nailing his spirit to the ground with an iron spike driven into the print. The couple opted for a warning, and Alma was left untroubled for two weeks. One evening while she and her husband were in bed, a piece of scrap iron fell out of the air and rolled three times on the floor. They had just put it to
1Ibid,

p. 124.

one side, and begun to sleep, when the same object fell with more accuracy on the bed. The next night Alma was alone and this happened twice more. When it fell a third time, she was braced for action, and took a swing at the falling object which materialized on the floor as a dog-like animal. It scurried away, and the next night the malevolence of the witch centred on the family pig, which finally died under the constant torment. Completely annoyed by these happenings, the woman paid another neighbour to butcher the pig. She then took the heart and stuck it full of new pins. She placed the organ on a pan in the oven and stoked the wood-stove, baking it slowly over a three day period. On this day, she was pleased to haer that her enemy had succumbed to a mysterious fever and was barely alive. She kept the heart in the heat for three additional days and by week-end, the witch was a corpse. "I had just enough heat on to make him suffer good and well; after he died I burned the heart in the stove." This last act followed the general suspicion that some of the witch-spirit remained resident in the counter-charm, which had to be completely destroyed for fear the magic-maker might use it as a focal point for regeneration and rebirth. Because Alma had been jinxed as a child, her troubles were not put to flight by this action. Two years later she found herself visited by another night-rider, who began to torment their heifer. That Christmas she was given a crocheted pot-holder by a young female neighbour, and for two months after found that she could not eat, sleep or work in any reasonable manner. When the witch came to gloat over her handcraft, she said: "Why, Alma, you look just like a witch. Somebody must have put a spell on you." At this she replied, "There was a spell put on me when I was a little girl. It was never taken off, so anyone can witch me." Made suspicious of the nature of her illness, Alma slept with a Bible beneath her pillow for three nights with little helpful effect. After that she burned the pot-holder over the fire while making a "wish". A week after this, she

found herself forced to go "to the kettle" (thunder-jug, chamber pot; these days the bathroom) three times. "I thought everything in me was coming out. That was the spell coming out..." Nevertheless she was again assaulted by a night mare three days later. This time she opened the Bible to appropriate verse treating witchcraft and placed it squarely before her bedroom door. She heard an invisible creature attempt to pass bult it made an aborted sound, which she said sounded like "waalk". Alma cried out: "You son of a bitch, you can't come any further because you see what stands before the door." The next night the witch, and her cohorts, were heard beyond the door, and they made further attempts, but each night the sounds of visitation were more distant and finally vanished. After that Alma found that an opened Bible served to protect her from the dark world. Jinxes and jonahs were not held personally responsible for the damage which sometimes fell on mates, family or neighbours, the problem being credited to the lack of a guardian. Infrequently, they were happy to have this infliction: "This is what happened to a man whose wife died and who married again and had one daughter from the first marriage. The daughter and stepmother did not get along very well at all. They were not very friendly. And one day as her stepmother was going to the store or somewhere, the daughter met her at the door. She said to the daughter, "Won't it be too bad for you unless I have good luck, since you are the first one met on my journey." But said the girl, "I am known to be droch-chomhalichen. They don't consider me lucky for anyone to meet!" "Indeed," replied the stepmother (in an unbelieving voice). "Oh yes indeed," said the daughter, "I was (after all) the first one to meet my father the day that he was going to fetch you, and he was indeed, unlucky!" DRIUNK SOIRCHE, ridge of light, a place of enlightenment, driug, a portent in meteoric form; soir, the east. Those closely approached by the deities took on some of the aura

which surrounded them. See fear dreag. DROCH, DROICH (drawch), evil, a dwarf. Bad, wicked, mischevious, sad, calamitous. Ir. drogi. allied to the Teutonic dwergo, the ON. dverge, the miners and metalcraftsmen of the ancient world. They are distinct from the svartalfar, or black elfs, who are regularly proportioned and were banished from the upper world by Odin. The dverge (the word means spider) were weavers of very fine cloth and were sometimes entitled “trolls” They were of very imperfect form and it was said that their feet were like those of a horse, or duck, except that they were reversed. It has been said: "Of personal beauty they have but little. They are hump-backed, dressed in old grey jackets and with pointed red caps." In Scotland they were known as trows and it was said that they lived within the hills that they worked: "...they are extremely rich. The interiors of their hills are surfaced in gold and silver and crystal. They are obliging and friendly; freely lending and borrowing, and elsewise keeping up a friendly commerce with mankind. But sadly they are thieves stealing provisions, and even human women and children. They marry, have offspring, bake and brew, just as our peasants do. But they have a great dislike of noise and particularly that of the clanging of Christian bells. Thus our country (Scandinavia) has been largely unburdened of the trolls." These folk resembled the Tuatha daoine. Frequenbtly used before a now as a curse: droch bhas, “Have a bad death!” droch chadal ort! “Bad sleep to you!” droch fhacal! “Bad words upon you!” DROCH BHAS, bad death, an impreciation. “Bad death to you!” DROCH CHADAL ORT, “bad sleep to you!” DROCH FHACAL, a general impreciation, a bad word, curse, oath. DROCH GHUIDHE, an evil wish, malediction, curse. DROCH MHIACHD, lust, the bodily passions, droch, dwarf,

evil; miadh, respect, allied to English meed, pay and the Latin miles. a soldier. Ireland was anciently conquered by the Milesians, or sons of Mil. Confers with entry immediately above. DROCH SHUIL, the evil-eye, the “blasting-eye.” DROCH SPIORAD, the “Evil Spirit,” the Devil. DROCHAID AN DA ROINEAG, the “two-hair bridge.” Another means of passage from the world of men to and from the Otherworld. Possibly symbolic of the Great Ocean as it was typically sited across a great eas or cataract. In one of the old tales we are told of three raven-haired girls who wishing to escape their Fomorian father came to this bridge, but only one had the co-ordination to pass over. She therefore carried her sisters to the far side. Later these three, who are the Mhorrigan helped the humans despoil their old homeland in the west. J.F. Campbell equates the two-hair bridge with the double rainbow often seen arched over highland cataracts. The Norse gods rode here-andthere over their bridge Bifraust which was understood to be a rainbow. DROEN, a wren. An occult bird of bad reputation. See dreolin. DROMAN, TROMAN, the alder tree, a dwarf. a trow or Sc. troll. One of the nine sacred woods used to kindle new fire at the Quarter Days. The mountain ash or rowan, “beloved of magicians,” the penultimate shield against evil. An old rhyme suggests: Choose the willow of the streams, Choose the hazel of the rocks, Choose the alder of the marshes, Choose the birch of the waterfalls, Choose the ash (i.e. rowan) of the shade, Choose the yew of resilience, Choose the elm of the brae, And the oak of the sun.

DRONG, DROING, people, tribe, OBry. drogn, Gaul. drungus, from which Lat. drungus, a troop, AS. dryht, people, the ON. drott, household. DRONN, the bard’s portion of mutton, the rump roast, ridge, back, summit. At weddings the man who receives the dronn is compelled to compose a verse or an dubh chapull would fall upon him. DRU, TRU, obsolete. the oak tree. Currently darach conferring with Eng. “larch.” Related to draoi and to the present-day droman or troman, a dwarf an elder, trom, heavy, trud, distress, truag, wretched. Confers with druaip, debauchery, drinking in bad company, druath, obs., fornication, druchd, heaving up, vomiting, drugair, a swiller, a slave. The oak was a tree sacred to the continental Celts. “Not only this the druids choose their groves of oaks and insist that a branch of the sacred tree should be present at all the ceremonies they performed, but they identified the tree as a god.” T.D. Kendrick has also said that “It is probable that this was also true of the druids outside of Gaul.” Ellis thinks so and insists that “Veneration of the oak was widespread among the British and continental Celts but not so much so among the Irish.” he says that it in this last country the yew, hazel and rowan were more frequently cited as residences for nature-spirits. Dr. Goldman has noted that oaks are mentioned in Christian myths which derived from pagan tales. It may be significant that many Christian churches in Ireland were sited amidst druidic oaks. The most famous of these are St. Brigid’s oaks and those within the monastic foundation at Cille Daire, or “Kildare,” the “Church of the Oak.” Another is Daire Maugh, or “Durrow,” on the “Plain of the Oak,” which

is in Wexford. St. Columcille’s favourite church was Daire Calgaich, or the “Awning of Oaks,” now termed “Derry.”Ellis says that the cutting of mistletoe from sacred oaks did not occur in Ireland since the latter plant was not native there and was only introduced in the eighteenth century. DRUID, verb, to shut away, cover, enclose, surround, advance, come upon, hasten, approach, draw near. join, hasten, step toward. DRUIDH, soak to the skin, bore through, impress upon, drain to the final dredge. Operate upon, affect, influence, distil, ooze, penetrate, a magician, conjurer, philosopher, morose person; see draoi above . Drùdhadh, oozing, soaking, melting, running, a shape-changer. Druid, close, firm, trustworthy. Druman, an elder or alder, see droman. See, also, next entry.

DRUIDHEACHD, DRUIDEACHD, the art of shutting away or covering objects; druid adventures, druidic magic. A combination of druidh (see separate entry) with eachdraidh, a history, from EIr. echtra, adventures, doings, deeds. Druidism was a system of religion, philosophy and practical arts said to have had its origin with pre-Celtic tribesmen living in Greater Britain (England & Scotland). The use of mistletoe as a sacred plant led to the belief that it was originally a magical-religion based on the worship of tree-spirits. Adherents believed in the transmigration of souls, fertility rites and human and animal sacrifice to periodically "renew the land." In his Gallic Wars, Julius

Caesar classified the Celtic population as enslaved by. or composed of,. druids and warriors: "The former are concerned with divine worship, the performances of sacrifices...the interpretation of ritual questions (mostly related to peace or war). A great number of young men congregate about them for learning, and they hold the druids in great honour... It is they who decide all disputes, whether murder done or boundaries in question. Of all the druids one is chief... Report says that in the druidic schools they learn by heart a great number of verses and that some remain twenty years in training. Most work is oral but they understand the Greek letters... It is their doctrine that souls do not die, but that they may, after death, pass from one body to another. They have also much lore touching on the stars and the size of the universe and the earth...The Gauls affirm that they are descended from the father, Dis (Bas, or Bil, the Nathair, the night god and collector of dead souls). For this reason they determine all time as starting at the nights." Amplifying this, Pliny later added that the druids of Britain were involved with "sundrie kinds of magic, some execrable acts... worked by means of Water. Globes of Balls (juggling), Aire, Stars, Fire-lights, Basons and Axes. Theirs is the follie and vanitie of Art Magicke entermingled with medicinal receits and religious ceremonies, the skill of Astrologie, and arts Mathematicall...as seen in the realm of Persia." Pliny noted that the Greek philosophers Orpheus, Pythagoras, Empedocles and Plato were smitten with the druidic arts and "took many voyages abroad to learn of it." This writer guessed that their praise of druidic knowledge had spread druidism beyond the western isles "so that it is now over the face of the whole earth." For his part, Pliny thought that his fellow Romans had rendered a service to mankind "in helping put down these monstrous and abominable Arts, which under the shew of magic have murdered men to sacrifice supposedly to please the gods." Dio Chrysostum, a contemporary of Pliny adds: "It is the druids who command the kings on their thrones of gold.

These dwellers in splendid palaces are little more than their mouth-pieces, the servants of their wish and thought." There is no question that the druids sanctioned killing men, but, in the last days, these were almost invariably "Roman devils" or common criminals. Those who supported the druids tended to stress their interest in the humanities, and their usefulness at protecting the general population by creating earthquakes that swallowed enemies, by bringing mountains down on their heads, or creating druidic mists which made warfare almost impossible. The best estimates have it that the Celts came to Britain between 1,000 B.C. and 500 B.C. and adopted the local religion; the druids becoming the most influential force in the lands known as Britannicus. They co-existed with the first Christian theologians and more than six hundred years after that coming, King Alfred the Great issued a warning against the "baneful followers" of "all this druidcraft." A peoccupation of the mythic peoples was that body of arts or crafts generally called magic. Men were poor magicians, the giants better practitioners, the little people still more advanced, and the gods most adept. Magic is any act that produces effects through the assistance of a supernatural being, the ultimate power resting with the creator-god. The difference between the Christian God and His pagan equivalents was the fact that He defined Himself as "A Jealous God". The pagan creatorgods are represented as disinterested entities, who willingly subdivided their powers over nature among the inhabitants of earth. While their first representatives were the immortal elemental or nature-gods, The God allowed no dilution of his powers. C.S. Lewis names Him: "the God of Nature - her inventor, maker, owner and controller." Magic was word originating word from the Persian priests, an integral part of the pagan religions, the with the Latin "magi". The Romans got this Greeks who used it to identify ancient men who ultimately became infamous in

the western world for their practise of necromancy and sorcery. The singular form of magi is magus, the female counterpart being a maga. From the last we have the Old French word "magicien" from which our word, magician. The overthrow of magic in the west was largely due to Christianity, which was opposed to calling upon either spirits of the dead or demons as sources of information. Surprisingly, the early Christians did not deny the utility of magic as science has done in this century. Magic was proclaimed not false, but evil, especially where it aimed at injury. Thus the "black arts" were divided from the "white arts" or "miracles". The latter were attributed to the helpfulness of God, who was sometimes said to act through his angels or saints. There was a good deal more to magic than conjuration: the simplest form was "sympathetic magic". Beyond that we had "divination" and "wonder works". Divination had many sub-divisions, the most prominent being astrolgy, clairvoyence, augury, sortilege and necromancy. Wonderworking was sometimes referred to as thaumaturgy, its divisions being alchemy, jugglery, legerdemain and trickery. All of the forms of magic depended on the principle that the life force is mutable. It is also a basic belief of magic that spirit cannot be dimished or destroyed but only transformed from one form to another. As Robert Kirk said of the fay people: "It is ane of their tenets that everything goeth in circles." Within this circle individual men and women sought temporary advantage, seeking an extra large share of life force through magical means. Raw power has always been an aim of the ancient or "magic" religions. The priests of earlier times were very interested in gaining control over the physical world: power over the flood, vulcanism, and the wind, control over the sun and man's corporeal limitations. Speaking of the Abenakis, Ruth Whitehead has noted: "Power is the essence which underlies the perceived universe... (men) survive by accumulating Power...This is such an important tenet that almost every story of the People has Power as its central

theme: how to acquire it, how to use it, how to lose it, and the consequences attendant on all of the above." These aims hardly vary from those of modern science and this is understandable since, "Magic takes the place of science with primitive and barbaric people, usually incorporating what scientific knowledge they possess along with a mass of superstitions..." In earlier times men felt that they could accumulate god-like power and become gods if their will was sufficient. Successive man-god-kings imagined that a great deal depended on them; from the staying of the path of the sun and the moon to maintaing the natural course of the seasons. These leaders of the magic religions had always attempted to control the world, while Christianity viewed this as an unworthy practise: "It is only at an advanced stage of civilization that man relinquishes his attempt to manipulate the physical world in favour of the idea that there is another world beyond... (Christian) religion seeks to transcend this world, magic to control it. A moralist might take the view that religious concentration on something beyond this world leads man toa greater freedom, whereas those who are intent on dominating this world become enslaved by their own practises...In simpler terms, magic is performed because the individual wants something specifically for his own self, and is therefore a mean and earthbound pursuit compared with religious communion with God." (Tindall, p. 13) This view of God was very different from that of earlier men who thought that the creator god was approachable in the current world. This entity was observed to be incapable of subversion, unreponsive to worship, flattery and threats; generally, a poor listener. His mortal minions were a different breed; subject to periodic reincarnation, the mortal gods were perceived to have all the failings of men, thus allowing for the development of formal religious worship, polytheism and magic.

There were two brands of sympathetic magic: contact magic and associative magic. Both depended on the idea that the spirit-force will move between things which are, or have been, in contact. In consuming food, men ate plants and animals, incorporating the spirits of these organisms into their being. Extending this rationale to the extreme, some men cannibalized their bravest enemies, hoping to acquire some portion of their ghost or spirit. The Dagda, chief of the Celtic gods is best remembered as a harpist, womanizer and eater of porridge, the last being regarded as the most important ritual manifestation of his godliness. While Christianity supported austere eating and drinking habits Dagda is remembered as "obscenely magnificent." “They filled for him the king's cauldron, five fists deep, into which went four score gallons of new milk and a like quantity of meat and fat. Goats and sheep and swine were put into it, and they were all boiled together with the porridge...Then the Dagda took his ladle, and it was big enough for a man and a woman to lie in the middle of it... Sleep came upon him after eating...” In those pre-cholesterol days, when a surfeit of food tallied with a bigger spirit, the Dagda kept his larder suppled from his magically supplied cauldron of the deep. What the Dagda gained in spirit also bloated his body: "Not easy was it for the hero to move along owing to the bigness of his belly..." A tendancy to favour wine, woman and song came to be thought of as weaknesses in the Christian theology, but the Dagda cosummed all three. He was sire to an entire generation of Celtic gods. His chief mates were Boann, the earth goddess and Morrigan, the raven-haired Celtic goddess of summer. The latter is represented as one of a triarchy that included the queens Medb and Macha. All of these ladies were as sexually voracious as the father-god who was described as carrying a "club" that routed "a deep ditch"

about the bounds of his kingdom. For her part the goddess Queen Medb said: "...it would be a reproach for my husband should his wife be more full of life than himself, and no reproach our being equally bold. Should he be jealous, that too would not suit me, for there was never a time that I had not one man with another standing in his shadow..." The need for a balanced sexuality between the earth deities lay in the belief that a more powerful spirit would tend to assimilate the soul of a weaker mate. The mortal-gods were so empowered they could release life-energies at a touch. Thus, the ancient myth that the touch of a king could cure the ravages of disease. This continued until the reign of Queen Anne of England, who was one of the last monarchs called upon to lay on hands to cure "the king's evil". This disease was technically known as scrofula, a tuberculous swelling of the lymph glands in the neck. Formerly a malady of children it sometimes ended in an intractable skin infection which ultimately involved the mucous membranes, bones, joints nad other parts of the body. The spirit of men was always prone to wander, and excepting that required to maintain body functions, exited each night through one of the body openings. In ill health the spirit frequently wandered from the body for considerable periods and departed finally and completely at death. In the Celtic myth concerning Demott and Grania, the former was nearly killed. He survived and was rescued by the god Angus who reunited him with his lady. It is recorded, however that, "The life of Grania almost fled through her mouth when she saw him with all the marks of combat." Assuming that the spirit of man can be naturally diminished or expanded it is easy to propose a rationale for sympathetic magic. Death was very common in the magical worlds, but death was not oblivion as is now supposed. The first law of the older universe was that of transformation: "Everything is eternal, but nothing is constant." All spirits,

they thought, were in flux, constantly changing in weight and form with time. "The entire landscape of the...worlds is a nexus of Power moving beneath the outward appearance of things...Persons shifting in and out of form, patterns recombining. Life is a kaleidoscope of Power, and death is just a shifting of the glass." In this world, spiritual reincarnation depended on observing the "natural laws", the second of which is: " Any part of an object encapsulates the whole." This explains why local fishermen returned the remains of their catch to the sea and why Micmac hunters were taught that aninmal bones must be respected and returned to the earth. It was reasoned that all creatures of the world had the capacity to regenerate even after their flesh had been eaten by humans. It was also assumed that the dispersed spirit of a dead creature could use bones as a focal point for regathering, a channel for once again becoming matter. To eliminate an enemy it was therefore necessary to obliterate every part of his body. This was not an easy task as Collin de Plancey noted: "It was held during the seventeenth century that corpses, the ashes of animals and even the ashes of burned plants contained reproductive seeds; that a frog, for example, could engender other frogs even as it decayed, and that the ashes of roses had produced new roses..." Sympathetic magic worked because the part was the whole and any damage to one was known to effect the fortune of the other. Our ancestors were, for this reason, especially careful with the disposal of hair, faeces, urine, nose drippings, ear exudations, and nail clippings, which containing their spirit, could be used against them. An example of contact magic is seen in an old Maritime love potion made by placing a drop of blood in an alcoholic drink or candy which was offered to a potential lover. If the person accepted the spirit of the blood-letter was thought inextricable combined with that of the cosumer

thus creating a love match. Again, local witches sought body by-products to incorporate in a ball of wax. If this psychic representation of an enmy was destroyed in a candle flame it was supposed that the larger person would die following a high fever. Similar reasoning was against stirring a cow's milk with a sharp object since this might cause the animal to give bloody milk. It was even held that the essence of a man remained in his footsteps, and in the ancient Scottish Kingdom the only kings selected were those whose feet matched an image in stone at Dunadd. The Norse pirates sealed all bargains by spitting into a common jar and upon one another's footprints, acts akin to exchanging blood from cuts in the arm. Closer at hand, it used to be common practise to hold witches at bay by plunging a steel knife into their footprints. It was actually believed that this would pin the evil-doers in place and lead to their death. Alternately, a small portion of witch blood placed in a vial and frozen in ice was though to produce chills, while allowing it to evaporate, following proper spell-casting, led to a wasting disease. Associative magic has also been called homeopathic magic and differs from contact magic or magic of contagion in supposing that things that look alike actually are alike. The voodoo doll is the best known example of homeopathic magic, being one step more complex than the simple ball of wax filled with hair or nail clippings. Quite often the doll would contain these materials but a good representation of the victim was thought to be all that was really required. In point of fact the representation was not always terribly accurate, but appeared to work well among true believers whether they were witches or amateur practitioners: "...there lived at Tatamagouche (Nova Scotia) an old sea captain who sailed his little shallop between here and "the Island". One day he was sailing there under a steady and favourable breeze when suddenly in the Strait, far from land and in deep water, his vessel, without any reason

whatever suddenly stopped. An ordinary mariner would have been at a loss to understand so strange a phenomenon but this old salt was not only a master of the waters of Harbour and Gulf, he was a master of witchcraft as well. He knew that his plight had been wished on him by an enemy... His fingers ran through his long, white, grizzly beard, and across his weather beaten features came a cunning confidant smile. He lashed the wheel and disappeared in the cabin. In a moment he re-appeared carrying in one hand an old musket which many times had broken the quietness of Gouzar and brought death to the wildfowl that ever frequent there; in the other a rough slab on which he sketched the likeness of his enemy... Placing the slab by the mast he shot at it "five fingers" out of his old "muzzle-loader". Scarcely had the report died away when the vessel began to move and soon the spray was flying beneath her clumsy bow and at the stern a happy sea captain wore upon his face that would not wear off. That night the little shallop with its cargo of lumber lay at the wharf at Charlottetown, and in the impregnablke fortress of his cabin, the captain, safe from all witchery, slept and snored." (Patterson, p. 57). We have already mentioned that men were temporarily reincarnated as birds, but they more frequently reappeared as trees. Even the Norse god Thor took leave of absence in the giant pines of the northern forests, and the interconnection of men and trees is also represented in the myth that men and women of the north were originally activated from an ash and and an elm log respectively. A very similar story exists among the Abenaki, who used to believe that the Great Spirit, or his representative Glooscap, released the spirits of men from trees by shooting magic arrows into them. The tree elfs of Europe led lives tightly bound with the fate of their indivvidual trees and were therefore very protective of whatever species they favoured. In Germany, it was considered dangerous to break a branch from the wood without an appropriate charm, viz.: "Frau Ellhorn, give me of your wood, and when mine falls in the forest it will

be returned to three." The magic-maker would then spit three times on the tree as notice of a firm contract. Again in the sailing ports of the low countries it was the custom to plant a guardian tree at the birth of human children. If the child died it was believed that his spirit took residence in that tree until it was reborn in another form. Even the wood from such trees was considered to harbour spirits which were sometimes cut down and carved into figureheads. When these image-spirits were mounted on ships they took over duties of warning the crew against disasters, repelling sickness, and helping the sailors at their work. Great care was taken to protect the sensibilities of these spirit-children because it was observed that when they left a ship it was certain to sink. While the Christian missionaries attempted to stamp out the veneration of trees, their own beliefs often interfered with this: The Trappist priest named Father Vincent ministered to the Micmac Indians of Escasoni, Cape Breton. Perceiving that he was not in his usual robust condition, his Indian patrons questioned "What will be the sign of your death?" Sighing audible the old monk pointed across the Bras d'Or lakes to a large tree and said, "You'll know that I'm dead when that tree falls." Father Vincent was absent from them for several weeks but when the tree fell word spread through local settlements that he was dead and when enquiries were made at the monastery the new was confirmed. Even with a guardian-spirit in place, ships could be damaged by simple sympathetic magic: The folklorist Neil MacNeil tells of a Nova Scotian witch who claimed to be able to sink ships. She was dared to show her power, at which she asked for an egg. THis she placed in a shoe which she rocked back and forth. At a distance, a ship in the harbour commenced rocking in exact sympathy with the egg, and its loss was only prevented when onlookers made he cease her magic. In this case an egg was made the stand-in for the combined life forces on board. My relatives used to say that the simplest way to effect a shipwreck was to turn

bread or a wooden bucket upside down on the ship, or on land while visualizing the demise. In all our waterfront communities women as well as priests and ministers were excluded from ships because of their reputation for witchcraft, which might be accidental or intentional. Some men had a reputation for the craft that allowed them a "mug up", or shot of rum, aboard any ship on which they made a request for drink. The remaining forms of magic are based on sympathetic magic rather than being parallel crafts. Divination is more commonly called fortune-telling and less commonly soothsaying. Among local Indian tribesman, the craft was executed by the "nikani-kjijitekwewinu", the practitioners being the "kinapaq", or power-brokers. The Gaelic clans of Maritime Canada were also involved in exercising the "an dara sealladh", generally translated as "the second sight" but properly termed "the two sights". Since the Celts occupied Britain before the coming of the Anglo Saxons, they may have originated this magic, which now has mythic status. The English word "soothsay" is from the Anglo-Saxon "soth seggen", which meant "to tell an exact truth". Their Norman conquerors disparaged that craft, substituting their own art of divination. Divination is Latin in origin, and is a word meaning to foresee or foretell or otherwise gain hidden knowledge. The word "divine" is incorporated, and it is obvious that the art assumes the help of supernatural forces in getting results. Soothsaying was often attempted using a stick or a piece of bone known as a "spelianer", or speller. The Norman equivalent was called a diving rod. These were typically a forked branch from a tree, but a shephard's crook, a walking staff, a cane, or a simple wand were other forms. Since trees were supposed to house spirits having a close relationship with men, the use of wood is understandable. There were two kinds of divination, the first dependant on the psychic condition of the diviner and the second independent of his condition. The first could be

called "altered state divination" where men or women reported on events observed in dreams or trances or made use of the two sights. Mediumship might also involve crystal gazing or the taking of hallucinatory drugs. "Mantic divination" required no special mental state, but was divination through the observation of external events. The ending "mancy" is a form of the Greek word "mantic" or "prophetic" and appears in mantic arts such as chiromancy, where the behaviour of flocks of birds is consulted; necromancy, which depends on information gained from the dead; and aleuromancy, where one looks at wheat or flour. Aside from this are: augury, which is now a synonym for divination in general, but originally depended upon close observation of the flight of flocks of birds; portending, which looked at natural structures, sub categories being astrology, and palmistry; sortilege which is involved with man-made "sorts" (i.e. groups of objects of similar character such as playing cards, runes or talismen. Finally there used to ordeals, which might also presage the future or reveal hidden information. Ordeals included those by combat, water, fire and immolation, by choice or otherwise. From very early times men distinguished between estatic or "insane" divination and rational or "sane" divination, the difference arising from whether, or not, the result seemed "sothful", or "truthful". Diviners whose interest was in seeking the future were sometimes called fortune-tellers, but the arts also involved seeking the past and perceiving happenings at a distance. Fortune telling was commonplace among the Abenaki races. Whitehead noted: "Quite a few Persons (animate and inanimate) can forsee coming events, warn of dangers yet to be. Precognition plays a part in many tales, and various methods of divination are depicted. When Plawej falls on his face by the bowl of water he enters a trance, empowering the water to speak to him. And it does. It becomes blood, The appearance of the blood...is a frequent device in Micmac stories. It is always an announcement of death." (Whitehead p. 9) Again, the Abbe Maillard (1758) said that the Micmacs claimed they could

see into the future and "the hearts of men" by gazing into a great birchbark dish filled with water "from any river in which it was known there were beaver huts." (Whitehead, p. 227). Among Maritimers of the last century precognitive work was similarly widespread and Neil MacNeil suspects that the "augury" of times past was a matter of refined observation. "...people of today will claim that experiences of that sort never existed...but those who believed did so because they were observant..."giseagan"..."superstitions" they work for these people...I have had some of that experience myself. And on account of that I must believe. I don't particularly want to believe but there is no way to avoid it." (MacNeil p. 208) Cleve Townsend, an elderly resident of Louisbourg, Nova Scotia recounted a number of examples of mediumship for the Cape Breton Magazine in the 1970's; among them: "I remember when I was a boy, any (three) knocks at the door, I wouldn't let anyone go to the door but me. I knew there was nobody there that they could see. I knew the knocks were coming from that world (i.e. the unseen world). And I'd always go to the door. And as far as this world is concerned I could say ther was no one there. But there was always someone there. From the other world. It would be like to bring a notice about a death or something like that. I don't think they'd say anything. I'd receive thoughts from their mind. But I would see them. Yes. I could see a form, see their face. Oh, yes."(Capplan, pp.161-162). A similar case has been reported by Annie Foote, a one time resident of Outer Wood Island. The island is located immediately southeast of the larger land mass known as Grand Manan Island in the Passamaquoddy Bay region of the Bay of Fundy. Her sister Miriam once spent a Sunday morning at home with their grandmother. Three knocks came at the door and her grandmother answered but no one stood on the threshold. On a repetition the same result followed. Later when the older woman went to the pantry

the door opened of its own accord and a cold wind blew into the room. At this Miriam went to see who had arrived but her grandmother was there first. From another room she heard: Penelope, I've told you to leave us alone. There's nothing to be done; besides, you'll scare the youngster." By the time Miriam had reached her grandmother's side there was no sign of any other person in the room. The girl asked who Penelope was, but it was not until years later that she learned that Penelope had been a resident of the place murdered by her married lover. Penelope's death had never been avenged which explained her repeated attempts to gain the attention and support of people in the land of the living. Another case of altered state divination was reported by Dan MacNeil who spoke of a young girl named Mackenzie, who lived on Christmas Island, Nova Scotia: "In the night thered be knocks at the door and a little hand would show on the wall...and she'd go in what you'd call a trance. She'd faint. And she'd go across to the other side...when she'd wake up...she'd tell everything...she says, "My neighbour died just a few minutes ago...And by the gosh the next morning they enquired...and the neighbour died at that certain time... she used to be like that every night." In her final performance the Mackenzie girl met a newly dead woman on the far side and was instructed: "You tell your father to go to my son, and look in the old trunk in the attic and you'll find a ring there...And get that ring and put that on your finger and this'll never happen to you again." MacNeil commented: "By gosh, she told her father...and he went down and told the man of the house the story about his mother, that the little girl was talking to his mother in heaven. Well he says, :There is such a trunk upstairs all right. The old woman...she said, "That ring is wrapped up in a rag..." And by gosh they found the rag in the bottom of the trunk with the ring wrapped up inside...a woman's ring...and they had to tie that ring with string on to her (the medium). And she never saw anything after that. And she got married and only died about three years ago." (Crandall, p. 204, 1980). Local witches or baobhs actually cultivated the

two sights, allowing them to see the past and the future. One of these was Willam Lawlor, "The Wizard of the Miramichi". Earlier in this century, while working with a lumbering crew near Newcastle, New Brunswick, he engaged in chiromancy. Coming into camp at the end of a day of cutting, he told the gang that he had talked with a black bird that was niteher a crow nor a raven. The bird had wearned: "beware of the night of the thirteenth." The men treated the warning as a joke and were convinced that "Bill Lawless" was deranged. When the day of the thirteenth passed without event they began to tease Bill, but that evening almost all of them fell ill and one that did not die became death, while another lay in a coma for two years. The "disease" was never diagnosed but the camp was burned to retard the spread of the causative agent. When the camp was reassembled Lawlor was the only man who was not rehired. If these incidents were nothing more than hallucinations they were surprisingly widespread and often involved groups of people. The folklorist Mary L. Fraser noted: "Years before the Gypsum works were installed at Iona, Victoria Cou. (Cape Breton), the wooded heights overhanging the calm waters...were the haunt of the spirits of the present day workers; their machinery and railway trains were also seen and heard there by many. So frequent were these occurrences that people in nearing the present location of the plant, used to get into the water and wade past it; for there is a belief that spirits cannot touch you if you are in the water. (Fraser, p. 49). Even less explicable are the branches of magic which fit under the general Anglo-Saxon heading of wonderworks, and which the Normans preferred to call thaumaturgy. There are equivalent Indian crafts collectively termed "kinap". The "kinapaq" or possessors of this power were men who were able to expand their physical strength as well as their perceptions. The power-brokers who exercised "mentu" were diviners, largely disinterested in phyical display, who only occassionally took human form;

nevertheless it was said, "the world shimmers with their presence". Finally, there were curers who were sometimes loosely identified as "shamans". They were the "puoinaq" and their crafts were "puoin", a power which seems the reverse of "kinap". The kinapaq were men who could outrun the wind, shape-change, tear up trees by the roots, carry a ton of moose meat on their back, or dance with their feet knee deep in a plastic earth. The puoinaq were similarly gifted beyond ordinary folk, and because medicine has the potential to kill as well as cure, they were often feared and in many tales of the People were driven from their village or killed out of fear, jealousy, for revenge or as a precautionary measure. The myths of the wonderworkers hardly vary from tribe to clan to tribe. The English categorized their work as jugglery, legerdemain, trickery, conjuration and enchantment. What jugglers do is now downgraded as stage "magic", but the manipulation of objects in space was once regarded as more than simple eye-hand co-ordination. Legerdemain, also called sleight-of-hand is defined as a dextrous (left-handed) craft and was simply an intimate form of juggling. It is represented in a multitude of disappearing coin tricks and "magical" acts in which prechosen playing cards are identified by the "craeftiman" or craftsman. It is interesting to note that many of the elder day gods (in particular Tyr, the Norse god of war) were said to be left-handed. In each of these crafts it was implicit that some supernatural had a part in gifting men with these abilities to defraud. We have spoken briefly of the mantic crafts of necromancy and sortilege, or sorcery. The necromancer was capable of calling up the dead while the sorcerer cast lots. Both were essentially interested in gaining information rather than making a show of naked power. There were however conjurers, who had sinister purpose. The word conjuration comes from a Latin word meaning to bond together under oath to a supernatural for the purpose of committing damage to others. The British witches were

rarely put down for divination but the law was severe with those who hurt, or were supposed to have injured, their neighbours. It was this difference in effect that caused de Plancey to define magic as either "natural" or "diabolical": "Natural magic is the art of predicting the future and producing extraordinary effects (e.g. the curing of diseases) by natural means. Black or diabolical magic, taught by the devil and practised under his influence, is the art of invoking demons...and performing supernatural things." (dePlancey, p. 86). Interestingly, black magic is a misnomer: Necromancy evolved from the Latin "necros" indicating "the dead". Among medieval copyists this was confused with the Latin "nigros", meaning "black". Over time black magic became erronously confused with acts of conjuration. The range of activities thought possible through conjuration are suggested in a survey of trial records from the days of witchcraft: Isaac de Auriran was said carried through the air by an apparition. The sons of Aymon rode a demon horse, who travelled at incredible speed and grew in length when he had to accomodate more than one of the four brothers. Thomas Boulle sat on live coals without being burned and was given the ability to seduce women of his choice. With the help of supernaturals five Spaniards were "borne through the clouds by devils", made crops rot at their pleasure, brought about the death of people and animals and were burned alive for their efforts. Another pair of Spanish witches were said to possess two eyeballs in each eye with which they "mortally enchanted those at whom they looked, and killed people at whom they gazed for a long time." This was supposedly possible as the second pair of eyes were those of their demonic doubles. De Plancey declared that magicians were capable of "unleashing tempests, winds and thunder" of walkingh on water, and having "infernal cohorts" had "little difficulty in appropriating for themselves, without arousing suspicion, the goods of others." The arts of enchantment, or fascination, were never

as spectacular as conjuration but could be dangerous for the individuals on the receiving end. The use of the voice as a tool of witchery has a long history among the fay. Of the Gaelic sidh it was said: "Their voices are sweet and seductive and their bagpiping unrivalled." Again it was advised that men avoid the dances of the French Fees because, "their wild whirlwinds of song and movement are so tiring that men who take part in them die of exhaustion." The same character was imputed to speech, it being noted that the Norse god Loki got out of tight scrapes through his use of humour. The penultimate master of speech magic was the Celtic god Ogma, "the honey-mouthed". The Greek satirist, Samosata, described him as having "slender golden chains" connecting his tongue with the individuals in his audience. While the voice was first tool of enchantment musical instruments became an extension of this art. The Anglo-Saxons also bewitched their friends and enemies with spells and charms. To be spellbound was to be held by the power of words, while a speller was a rod used to point out letter supposedly releasing them from their bound state on wooden tablets. The word charm, on the other hand rises from their word "cirm", which identified a confused blending of voices, for example birds in a flock. While the spell was the release of words thought to have occult power, the charm put these words into song. The Norman equivalent of spoken word-magic was the incantation or enchantment. The effect produced was called fascination, but if the the incantation was in verse, the victim was said to be enraptured. DRUIDHEACHAN, druidism, enchantment, witchcraft, a charm. The religion known as druidism is now considered a Gaelic invention, but they said it was of earlier origin, the rites having been learned from an aboriginal British race which they displaced. There are suspicions that it was originally a worship of tree-spirits and some linguists have linked "draoi" with the Greek "drus" and the Latin "dryas", words which specify the oak-tree. "Amongst the Celts the oak-worship of the Druids is

familiar to every one, and their old word for sanctuary seems to be identical in origin and meaning with the Latin "nemus", a grove or woodland glade."3 Druidism, which was practised at least one thousand years before the birth of Christ, was ultimately assimilated by Christianity so that the name "druid" survives in Gaelic as a description for the English thrush or starling, a black bird known for its talents as a nest robber and bully. This noun is feminine, tallying with the Christian outlook on the nature of evil. A collection of these black birds is referred to as "duidean". "Druidh" continues as a verb meaning: to penetrate, ooze in, or to impress beliefs through constant reinforcement. Finally, "druis" is the Gaelic word for lust, which the Christians viewed as one of the worst mortal sins. These unflattering characterizations of the druids started in pagan times. When a Roman detatchment was turned against Anglesey, on the main island of Britannia in 61 AD, Tacitus described a crosssing of the Menai Straits in this manner: "In the early morning light, the legionnaires were met on the far shore by a dense array of armed warriors, the women in black dashing among the ranks, hair dishevelled, waving brands, while the druids among them lifted their hands and called down dreadful curses from heaven. It was a sight before which the bravest might quail, but this day like many before, belonged to the Romans."4 In this case, the druids were given to the sacrificial fires they had prepared for the Romans and the ensuing days were spent axing the oaks in the sacred groves. Sir James George Fraser says there is "unquestionable evidence" that the Celtic druids torched human beings in a serious and systematic manner. The Greek geographer Strabo noted that these magic-men, "used to shoot people down with arrows, and impale them...or making a large statue of straw and wood, threw into it cattle and all sorts of wild animals along with human beings, and thus made their burnt-offering..." The Greek historian Diordorus made

similar accusations, but there is little proof that either travelled beyond the boundaries of their country. These men seem to have had a common source in the writings of a countryman named Posidonius, a stoic philosopher, who actually had travelled throughout Gaul (France) about fifty years before these men began to write. He also preceeded Julius Caesar's conquest of Gaul by about the same interval of time. Caesar was in an excellent position to observe the rituals of the Celtic religion first hand, but he also borrowed from Posidonius. Caesar said that the druids officiated at all general rites of worship, and regulated both private and public approaches to the Celtic gods. In addition, they acted as judges between tribes or individuals, whether the matter was murder, a question of inheritance, a boundary dispute or a simple disagreement concerning money. As ajudicators, they prescribed the compensation which had to be paid by the guilty party; the heaviest penalty being banishment from the realm. Men who were rejected by the druids were also ostracized by their fellow citizens. Unlike other citizens, the druids were exempted from military duty, did not pay taxes and had the right of firstspeech, being allowed their views before that of the much admired warrior-knights. These advantages were sufficient to draw large numbers to this priesthood, but an even larger number were sent to these studies by parents or relatives. On the other side of the ledger, Caesar noted that druidinitiates were required to memorize epic verses, "so many that some spend twenty years at their studies." Druid religious teachings were oral although they commonly used the Greek alphabet for ordinary communications or accounting purposes. The Roman commander guessed that this not only protected secret rites but offered memorytraining."...it is usually found that when people have the help of texts, they are less diligent in learning by heart, and let their memories rust." Caesar had heard that the chief "secret" of druidism hinged on the thory of the transmigration of spirits: "A

lesson they take particular pains to relay is that the human spirit never perishes but after death passes from one

DRUIDHEIL, penetrating, impressive, bewitching, druidical, having magical underpinnings.

magical,

DRUIN, needlework, embroidery. Same as duin, shut, closed, lace or buttons on boots or shoes, closures, darken, obscure. Relates to all the above words. DRUINEACH, based on the above and equated with druidh. Confers equally with Oir. Druin, to be glossed; glice, clever, wise. Druineach in Irish, a embroiderer. A person who is contemplative. DRUINNEACH, as above but extended to artists in general, mantua-makers, milliners, embroiderers, needleworkers and other crafts-people. DRUIS, lust, lechery, lasciviousness, prespiration, as a verb, to play the wanton, to prostitute, druth, lecherous, Ir. druis, adultery, druth, lewd, a whore, cf. MEng. druth, a darling, MEng. druerie, Scot. drouery, illicit love, OHG. drut, a dear, Germ. traut, beloved. Confers with druidh, a magician; as a verb, to penetrate. Note the EIr. dru, also spelled tru, wretched. From the latter truaill, to pollute or violate, truilleach, a dirty or base person, and truis, to tear, snatch or truss, Eng. trash. DRUTHAIB, a juggler. One of the druidic tribe. DUAL, birthright. a lock of hair. Personal possessions from the time of birth, objects sought to enact black magic against an individual. DRUMCAIN, beautiful hill. The ancient name for Temhair (Tara). The first meeting place of the Tuatha daoine and the Milesians.

DRUMAN, elder, see troman. DU-, DO-, a prefix denoting negative qualities, of bad quality, Goth. tuz, ON. tor, Skr. dus. Obs. land, country, habitation, place of abode. Now equated with strangers. See following words. DUACH, another name for Manan ma Ler, god of the Open Ocean. The name given him as the foster-father of the god/hero Lugh. As a youth Lugh spent his time learning the arts and crafts of the undersea world.The boy was often referred to as his offspring, but it has been noted that he was actually of mixed Tuathan-Fomorian ancestory, the blood-son of Cian mac Contje. DUAICHNIDH, gloomy, ugly, Ir. duaichniughadh, to disfigure, cf. duaidh, a horrid scene, a fight, duaidh, evil, duaire, uncivil. DUAN, lays, literally "a poem, a song, a cry." The recitation of the Fenian Lays and similar long narratives required several hours. As an aid to memory many of them were poetically set so that they could be sung. The singing of the duan, which disappeared in Ireland during the last century can still be heard among the older people of the Western Isles of Scotland. "Until quite recently it survived in the memory of Joe Allen MacLean (1892-1984), a native of Rear Christmas Island, Cape Breton County..." (Tales Until Dawn, p. XXIV). As elsewhere, the singing of Fenian Lays in Cape Breton was considered a male specialty. DUBH, black, dark, sad, mournful, disastrous, dark-haired, wicked, from OIr. dub, Bry. du. blind. the English words deaf and dumb, a druidess who was the wife of Enna. The lady discovered that her husband had a second wife and brought about her death by magic. She was herself slain by the sling of Enna and fell into a pond which gained the name Dubhlinn, “Black’s pond,” from which Dublin, Ireland. The French river Dubis now Doubs is named for this goddess. An dubh aigein, the black ocean or abysss, from which life emerges and into

which it will descend. An dubh fhocal, “black words,” a puzzle. Dubh-leus, a “black-light,” a thunder-cloud. Dubhogha, a “black-youngster, a great grandson’s grandson, a child of “obscure” relationship. Dubh-bhron, the “blues.” Domhnull dubh, “Nicky-ben,” the Devil. DUBHAG, a female prostitute, a little black cow. DUBH LACHA, the wife of Mongán coveted by Brandubh who tricked the latter into parting with her. Mongán, a son of Manann mac Ler used his supernatural powers to manage her release. DUBHLOCH, Scot. Dowloch, Black Lake, located at Penpoint, Dumfrieshire, Scotland. Held in high esteem for the healing powers of its waters. “An old man from a nearby village remembers having seen parcels (i.e. offerings to the deities) floating on the surface as late as this century. Note that the Samhuinn was frequently held at lake-side, here and elsewhere. DUBH HIRTEACH, the “Black Deadly One.” Oir. Irt, the death god Bas. Hiort (Lewis & mainland Scotland), Hirt (Lewis), the island of St. Kilda. Any scavenger-island or rock. These were considered physical manifestations of Death. Thus also earrann hirt, the “portion of death,” an unlucky lay of land. Thus, Ironhirst Moss near Lochar Moss in Dumfrieshire, an exceedingly dangerous bog.” DUBH LUIDNEACH, "the Black Clumsy one." The Devil, or his counterpart. Note: dubhach, sad; dubhaile, wickedness; dubhan, a hook; dubhdan, smoke, straw cinders, soot; dubhlaidh, wintry, gloomy, a dark day, a day of trial and tribulation; dubhogha, the great grandson’s grandson, a person with “black” prospects, duid, luideag,. a rag, a slut, from lu, to cut, to lose, the god Lugh. “Black Luke.” Lokki. DUBHTHACH DOÉLTENGA, “The Black Accident and Backbiter.” A son of Lugaid mac Casrubae and warrior of the Red

Branch, the man “who never earned the thanks of anyone.” Loaned the valuable spear known as Lúin, he discarded it with malice aforethought after the second Battle of Moytura. Fergus once said: “Away then with Dubhthach doelténga, drag him off behind the host. Never has he done any good and is a slayer of young women. Those people he cannot kill he incites against each other.” This in spite of the fact that he assisted Fergus mac Roth in his troubles with Conchobar mac Nessa. Note that while the vicious Mebd carried birds on her shoulders this villain is said to have preferred otters as his totems. See Aog. This creature was an otter-like animal. DÙD, a tingling in the ear, the ear itself, dùdach, a trumpet, Ir. dúdóg, cf. Eng. toot. Considered a certain sign that talk was circulating about the individual thus afflicted. DUDAIR, du + door, a prefix denoting an evil character + mire, a vacuum. More anciently, semen, seed, "evil seed". Dùd, a tingling in the air, the ear itself, forewarning of disaster. Dub, black, blind, the old form of dubh, therefore Dubh Ludneach (see above). See. Dùdlachd, the dead of winter. The Eng. dud, a total failure. "One of the ancient names for a certain spirit which rules a woe-begone domain where he (she) has power over what is known to Christians as black magic...something like the power that Satan wields among Christians. It is likely that his oiriadh was not unlike the Hell of Christians and the Hades of the Greeks, though perhaps Oiriadh is not as hot as Hell...or cold for that matter. The loch of the Dudair is in the moorland pastures of Knockline, in North Uist." (The Hebridean Connection, p. 545). This personification of the Nathair is still associated with Loch an Dudair, North Uist. "Like the Christian God, Dudair is held to be of masculine gender.” The old sun-god Lugh. DUIBHE, “Blackness,” The black goddess. A river deity whose name is preserved in Divie, a tribuatary of the Findhorn in Scotland. Glen Devon is similar. This stream in the Ochils is latinized as Glendofona. “Devon” is the earlier British

Dubona or Dobona, the “Black One.” Comapres with G. dubh, black. DUIBHEILNAEACH, necromancer, one capable of raising the dead, chiefly for their advice. Duibhe, blackness, darkness, inkiness. DUINE, sing. DAOINE,after the goddess Danu of the Tuatha daoine. a man, men, Skr. that which falls into pieces, mortal. DUINEACH, “Horse-person.” An alternate name for the Cailleach bheurr, who often took the form of a gigantic dappled-grey mare. DUINE GIRCANASH, the “Man of the Caverns.” Although the Daoine sidh, or “side-hill folk,” were legally proscribed from having any part in the legal or state affairs of Ireland they were assimilated into the Milesian gene-pool for an old poem entitled Duan Gircanash makes reference to the three hundred Milesian women who were carried off by the Cruithne (the Picts, who then resided in Southern Ireland). Cruithne, son of Cuig, took their women from them It is directly stated Excepting Tea, wife of Eremon, Son of Miled. Finding themselves deprived of their women, the Gaels captured wives from the aboriginals, as the following quatrain says: They were charming, noble wives For their young men; Their (own) women had been stolen, thus they made alliance With the Tuatha daoine. DUINE MARA, daoine is the plural (pronounced donnu), people;

duin, singular, a person + mara (mare) of the ocean. Confers with mor, of great expanse, size or importance; moran, many; Morag, a proper name, born of the sea. Descendants of the Fomors or undersea people. These were the people known in Brittany as the groac'h vor, morrigans, korrigans or korrids, the korid-gwen of Cornwall, and the morgans of Scotland and Wales. These were called the ben-varrey on the Isle of Man, and merrows or mara-warra in Ireland. Some of them worked as banshees (see bean sidh). The females were more generally known in the Gaelic world as the maighdean mara, a word that interprets as sea-maiden or mermaid. The males of the species were hairy, bearded, had large fish-like mouths, flat noses, long arms and a yellowtinted skin. Their Irish counterparts were more obviously fish-like, having green teeth , hair and skin and short finned arms. The latter had pig-like eyes and noses made red by an addiction to whisky. Their presence on land was usually taken as an omen of good luck but the opposite was true for females. The women-kind were attractive and sexually active. They have been known to kidnap young men, later returning them to the land bearing fine giftts. Feeble performers were held in perpetual bondage. The woman were particularly responsible for the moodiness of the ocean and controlled sea-storms and the process of weather-making. In all cases the sea-travelling form was recognized as transitory, being that of a fish or a half-fish. On land this sea-suit was laid aside for a human form, but the merpeople could also shape-change into horses, dogs, hares or any other land animal. A portion of the Nova Scotian shore immediately east of Antigonish township is still called Merland. Not far from this location, a "mermaid was reported to have remained three days off the Cape Breton coast, a short distance from

the shore. 2 Roland Sherwood said it was generally held that, "mysterious sprites of the sea came up at night to tap on the window panes or whisper at the doors." When curtains moved without "a wind to stir them" seamen knew that the sea spirits were reporting that a relative had died at sea. Neil MacNeil recounted an experience his greatgrandfather had with a maghdean mara while he was ferrying products between the Island of Barra and the port of Glasgow, Scotland: "One night he was sailing along alone through the seas of the North Atlantic on his way back to Barra, for he had no passengers. he got so tired in the long dreary night that he fell asleep with the tiller in his hands. He was awakened by the sweet voice of a woman, only to find his boat headed straight for the rocks of Staffa. He quickly turned his boat, headed it in the right direction, and then looked about him for the source of the voice. He saw a mermaid, swimming along easily and gracefully in the wake of the boat. She was beautiful beyond the beauty of earthly women, with long golden hair, limpid sparkling blue eyes, and full rounded white breasts. Grandfather's grandfather thanked her for her kindness and thereupon they had a long talk together over the water. It was in Gaelic, to be sure, for that is the language of nature and the one that its unspoiled creatures understand. Grandfather's grandfather plied the creature with questions all of which were answered with open frankness. as dawn neared, she suddenly said: "you have asked me everything except about egg-water." With that she dived into the depths of the sea, and he never saw her again." Neil MacNeil had no understanding of "egg-water" supposing it had some obscure relation with cooking eggs. He concluded: "As the mermaid did not explain the riddle, it probably remains just that to this day." This is not an insoluble enigma, but a reference to a recipe used to banish the sidh: A
2Fraser,

Welsh

woman

troubled

by

little

people

whose

Mary L., Folklore Of Nova Scotia, np, nd, p. 92.

dancing sifted dust between floorboards into her evening meal consulted a witch-woman and was advised "to ask six reapers to dinner in the hearing of the fay, and only to make as much pudding as could be boiled in an egg-shell. She did as directed and when the fairies saw that a dinner for six men was put down in an egg-shell, there was great stir and commotion in the cow-house, and at length one angry voice was heard to say, "We have lived long in this world; we were born just after the earth was made, and before the acorn was planted, and yet we have never seen a whole harvest-dinner dressed in an egg-shell. There must be something wrong in this house and we will stop here no longer." They went away and never returned." It is apparent that the mermaid expected MacNeil to ask why this ruse was always effective against the twylwyth teg and the sidhean. The following was a Cape Breton sighting: "An elderly man was one day walking on the beach near his home when he saw a mermaid arise from the water, holding in her hand a very beautiful shell. He kept beckoning her to come nearer, until she came right up on the shore. He asked her for the shell she was carrying, but she refused, saying she could not go back in the water without it. With that he seized the shell and set out for his house. She followed pleading piteously for her treasure, but he would not give it to her. When they reached the house she had to stay there, for he took the precaution of burying the shell in a secret place. Some time afterward she married the old man's son. Although she tried to be happy, she always longed for her home under the sea. To her children she told all about its beauties and its wonders. One day the children were playing in the hay mow. They dug their way down to the bottom, and there they discovered something very beautiful. They went to the house and fairly dragged their mother to the barn to see their find. She recognized her shell and told them she could stay with them no longer, for she was going to her beautiful home under the sea... She covered her face with her hair so as not to see their tears, told them to tell their father and grandfather, who were away fishing that she had gone home and they would never see her again, and then

plunged into the sea and joined her companions..."3 Also under Daoine mara. DUINE SIGH, duin, person; sidh, side-hill; plural daoine sidh (pronounced donnu shay or shaw in the Scottish dialect; dannan shee in Irish vernacular); people of the mounds, little people, corresponding with the elfs and fairies of England. The remnants of the Tuatha daoine, who took refuge in the natural caverns and souterrains of Britain following their defeat by the Milesians. Sidh confers with sigh, the wee folk; sith, weather, and sid, peace. As an adjective sidh is currently used to describe things that are fairy-like or supernatural, thus eun-sidh, a fairy bird, a mysterious or enchanted creature and the neologism labhran-sidh, a radio receiver. In the last battle between men and the gods, The Dagda, patriarch and king of the Tuatha daoine, was killed and the remains of the Tuathan forces met at the mouth of the River Boyne. There, they elected Bodb Derg high-king and swore allegiance to the Fomorian gods, in exchange for the right to move to Tir-nan-Og, the Fomorian island of perpetual youth. Those that decided to remain in Ireland were given red caps of invisibility to shield them from the oppressors, and were gifted with the arts of healing, which made them virtual immortals. Prevented from taking any part in the new order, they became legally bound to their hills except for a few days following the quarter, or rentpaying days; the first of these being November 1. The sidh were suspected of travelling at night and became nearly invisible in their attempts to avoid the tax men. Although they did not resist the Milesians they were mildly hostile and created "ceo sidh", or magic mists, to lead their enemies astray. Their "ceol sidh", or sidh music, and the "seidean sidh", or fairy wind served the same purpose. One expert has supposed that the English fairies were banished from that land by "the reign of Elizabeth (the
3Fraser,

Mary L., Folklore Of Nova Scotia, np, nd, pp 92-93.

first) "or her father at the furthest." By 1827 the people of Wales spoke of their Tylwyth Teg (who are also wee folk) in the past tense: "An old lady assured (us) that she at one time, many years before, saw the fairies to the number of some hundreds...Another old woman said that her father had often seen the fairies riding the air on their little white horses..." Fifty tears after a resident noted wistfully, "we hear not of brownies or kobolds in the Welsh houses now..." The Scottish fairies seem to have been harried out of their countryside in the same interval, a time corresponding with the Highland Clearances (ca 1770-1830). Hugh Miller reported the departure of the sidh from one hamlet, "a long cavalcade ascending out of a ravine through a wooded hollow." It was observed, on a Sunday morning, by a herdboy and his sister, who had somehow escaped attendance at Church: "The horses were shaggy and diminutive things, speckled dun and grey; the riders stunted, misgrown ugly creatures, attired in antique jerkins of plaid, long grey clokes, and little red caps..." The boy questioned the last of this kind: "What are ye little manie?" and was told "I am not of the race of Adam but one of the people of peace, who shall never more be seen in Scotland. The novelist Ellen Ross said that Peterstown, one hundred miles from Glasgow, on the German (North) Sea, was the location of the Elfin Kirk, "which tradition had pointed to as the last place in Scotland where the fairies (i.e the sidh) held their yearly meetings on All Souls's Eve." This "church" was actually "two immense rocks several hundred feet in height, joined together at the back, the hollow inside of which presents the appearance of a gigantic chancel." Traditionally the Sidhallion Mor, or Great Hall of the Sidh, was located on the seaward side of the Island of Handa in Sutherlandshire, northwestern Scotland. There were numerous underground palaces in Ireland, that of King Boabd Derg (Red Witch) being under Sliab-na-mban (the white clay mountain) His chief lieutenant lived under Cruachan in Roscommon while the reincarnate Lugh ruled over Brugh-na-Boyne, located north of Tara. In comparing

the sidh with the English elfs and fairies Keightley noticed that they were, like them divided into rural and domestic types, but not distinguished as popular and poetic varieties since "The Scottish fairies have never been taken by the poets for their heroes or machinery..." It would appear they were a more organized race, "more attached than their neighbours to the monarchial form of government." The fairy kings of England were a poetic fiction but the sidh monarchs were "recognized by law in Caledonia." The folklorist said, "They would appear also to be more mischievously inclined than the Southrons but less addicted to the practise of dancing." 4 They were never said to be dwarfs or of reduced stature: "The Sidhe are thin, up to six feet in height, handsome and young-looking despite their great age. Their skin is soft, their hair long and flowing, their clothes blindingly white; their voices sweet and seductive and their bagpiping unrivalled."5 While they still moved among men, the sidhe were seen in parade between Sliab-na-mban and Cruachan: "There was no person among them who was not the son of a king and a queen. They all wore green cloaks with four crimson pendants to each; and silver cloakbrooches held them in place; and they wore kilts with red interweavings, and borders or fringes of gold thread was upon them, and pendants of white bronze thread upon their leggings. Their shoes had clasps of red bronze in them. Their helmets were ornamented with crystal and with white bronze. Each of them had a collar of twisted gold with a gem the worth of a newly calved cow set in it. They wore gold rings that assayed at thirty ounces each. All of them had white-faced shields ornamented with gold and silver. They carried flesh-seeking spears ribbed with gold and silver and bronze. They had gold-hilted swords with the
4Keightley,

Thomas, World Mythology, London (1880), p. 350. Nancy, A Field Guide To The Little People, New York

5Arrowsmith,

(1977), p. 21.

forms of serpents of gold embossed on them and set with carbuncles. They astonished all who saw them by the lavishnesss of their wealth."6 Their underground retreats were no less wonderful. That of the goddess Morrigan, who was also called Queen Mebd, was at Rath-Cruchan in western Ireland: "There were seven compartments from the fire to the outer wall, each having a front of bronze. The whole was composed of beautifully carved red yew...Ailill and Mebd's compartment was made altogether of bronze and was situated in the middle of the house with a front of silver and gold all around it. A silver band on one side of it rose to the top of the place and reach all about it from one door to the other." The historian Seumas MacManus says that this rath was circular, constructed essentially of stones set as dry masonry, "with walls thirteen feet thick at the base. This particular western palace had an oak shingled roof and five concentric ramparts "three of which are still to be seen", but most of the sidh-residences were entirely hidden under artificial hills or within natural caverns. 7 Cape Breton historian A.A. Mackenzie was convinced that the "superstitions" of Ireland were spoiled in the passage of people to eastern Canada: "Nevertheless," he admitted, "a few fairies apparently made the voyage with the Irish. At Low Point in the Irish Grant, the "little people" were blamed for turning stooks of grain upside down. And on an island, near the south end of the Strait of Canso. lived McNamaras who firmly believed in the "little people." These McNamaras had come to their island home after sojourns in Massachusetts and on the eastern shore of Nova Scotia; the last of them to live on their island left about 1930, driven to move by the isolation and -so some people say - because Seumas, The Story Of The Irish Race, Old Grennwich, Conn. (1983) p. 11. Seumas, The Story Of The Irish Race, Greenwich, Conn. (1988), p. 57. Quotation is slightly paraphrased.
7MacManus, 6MacManus,

of the ghosts and fairies which they saw so often in the woods."8 Mary L. Fraser thought otherwise noting that, "The early settlers of Nova Scotia brought with them from the old lands a belief in the existence of fairies. The whole district which the town of Inverness now covers was formerly called the Shean. (properly Schiehallion or Sidhchallinn, the Sidh Hall of the Caledonians, like one found in Perthshire, Scotland) In this district there was a small hill, shaped something like a large haystack, where the old people used to see the "little people" in thousands."9 Another well known Nova Scotian sidh hill was located at Upper South River in Antigonish County. This place is mentioned in the literature by both Mary L. Fraser and Helen Creighton. Fraser says the underground cavern was at Beech Hill, "the scene of many preternatural manifestations". Among them, she mentions the encounter of Mr. and Mrs. Cameron and another unnamed pair of Scots: The four were travelling by horseback through these woods during the Yule. At dusk they were at Beech Hill proper: "All at once a most extraordinary company came in sight. A huge pair of oxen yoked, with heaps of nondescript (trade goods) piled on their backs. (They) were headed by a shrivelled old man of very small stature (the sidh were said to shrink as they shape-changed and aged), with a rope over his shoulder tied to the middle of the yoke. More extraordinary still, four ordinary-sized women were following behind wearing a peculiar headgear, very high and unusual. Their dresses made a strange rustling noise that frightened the horses. Cameron had a quiet animal, so he succeeded, although with difficulty, in getting by; but the other horse bolted into the woods. Only the strength of MacDonald, the brother-in-law, prevented
8Mackenzie, 9Fraser,

A.A., The Irish In Cape Breton, Antigonish (1979), p. 59.

Mary L., Folklore Of Nova Scotia, np, nd, p. 69.

himself and his sister from being thrown." 10 After this happening Cameron made inquiries up and down the road concerning the identity of these travellers, but they had not been seen in any other place. As for the headdresses of the women, it is well known that the source of the sidhean powers of invisibility was the "faet fiada", a charm invested in the red sugar-loaf shaped hats that they wore. Frequent reference is made to the fine cloth woven by the sidh which was sometimes described as issuing a sound like that of dried grasses or leaves rubbing together. At this same location, a famous local strong-man, named Donald, came upon "the man in gray." Seeking company, he hastened his pace so that he might join him, but this attempt failed as the man in homespun walked more rapidly. Noticing a loop in the road Donald decided to cut him off and had nearly succeeded when the stranger took to the woods. Made curious by this action, the Scot pursued and ran the sidh to ground. Approaching him through an opening in the forest he found the "man" panting and moaning under a tree. Approaching, he saw "a face so horrible he took to his heels and never stopped running till the woods were far behind. Again, two woodsmen, also named MacDonald, went into these woods to cut. Fraser says they were not overly imaginative or credulous people: "They had not been working too long when they heard a noise like that of chains rattling, and perceived a dreadful odour. Then something they likened to a coffin -bigger at one end than the otherrose before them and sailed through the air. At this time these hardy men got so frightened that they left their work and made for home."11

Mary L., Folklore Of Nova Scotia, np, nd, p. 85. As recounted by Cameron's grandson. Mary L., Folklore Of Nova Scotia, np, nd, pp. 85-86. Recounted to Fraser by a niece of the two MacDonald men.
11Fraser,

10Fraser,

Father John Grant's troubles with the sidh are mentioned in passing by Creighton and Joe Neil McNeil, but are most completely recounted by Fraser. "Father John" was holding Saint Andrew's Day masses in a number of small parish churches near Antigonish and on a Saturday evening found himself in residence with Bishop Fraser at Antigonish village. As it was near dusk, and the Bishop knew that Grant would have to pass near Beech Hill to get to his next charge, the older cleric suggested he might stay the night considering that the road was considered "haunted". The priest felt that his courage was being questioned and refused. Some hours later he returned to the parish-house at the full gallop, his head hatless and his horse mudspattered and looking hag-ridden. Fraser said it was "presumed that Father Grant had had an interview with the Bochdan (sidh)." Curious villagers followed this road in the light of morning and found a spot where the earth was torn up and criss-crossed with the marks of a startled and frightened horse. When Creighton interviewed a Scot from this region she was told: "There was a hill near my mother's (house) and there was supposed to be fairies there. It was a round hill in the middle of a broad plain at Upper South River. It was called Fairy Hill. There were certain stories concerned with it. If you'd go inside you'd be entertained by the fairies for seven years (without a proportionate passage of real time) and then you'd be returned in good condition. The round hills is still there." 12 The rounded hills of Gaelic lands were known as "cnocs" (pronounced knocks). Those that stood in the sea were called "stacs" while those that were slightly flattened at the summit were named "laws". The latter were used as assembly points for conducting clan business and carrying out judicial functions. The English descriptive for a "law" is "sugar loaf", this being the form into which sugar was
12Creighton,

Helen, Bluenose Magic, Toronto (1978), p. 104.

pressed for the retail trade. Traditionally the sidh wore red sugar-loaf hats, mainly cylindrical, slightly tapering and terminating in a flattened top. These had their counterpart in the "cohuleen druith" of the daoine mara, the red caps, without which these sea people could not respire the waters of the open ocean. There are numerous hills in Atlantic Canada that bear the name Sugar Loaf and all are suspect as housing a population of elfs, faries or sidhean. The Sugar Loaf that stands due south of St. Margaret village on Cape Breton Island is a known sidh habitation. This landform is off the Cape Breton Trail, west of the road to Meat Cove, which stands at land's end. It is thirteen hundred and fifty feet in height and overlooks North Pond and Aspy Bay. It was here that two woodsmen found "hills among the woods". These seem to have been "souterrains" rather than the sugar loaf proper, for they were described as being "built of clay." The cutters were not certain whether these rises were artificial or not, but they suspected their was some artifice involved since smoke was seen issuing from them. They could not believe these were the homes of the sidhean so they commenced to fell trees, one of which crunched into the top of one of the clay mounds. Instantly, they heard voices from beneath the ground complaining, :My hedge is hurt...my hedge is hurt!" (Hedge is an obsolete descriptive for a home in the woods) After this, the men moved out of the immediate area apologizing to the earth for the damage they had done. Later that afternoon they were cutting in an adjacent woodlot, and one thirsty woodsman said aloud, "I wish I had a drink of buttermilk." A sidh approached bearing a wooden bowl filled with this very liquid noting, "Here's the buttermilk!" The individual who had voiced the wish was too frightened to take the drink but his partner downed it with profuse thanks. In years after, the man who accepted the hospitality of the people at the Sugar Loaf thrived and had "luck so long's he lived". but the second man became one of the "droch-chromhalaichean", or rent-payers to hell,

those dogged by bad-luck and ill-fortune. 13 Creighton was told a similar story by Mr. MacKinnon, who lived in the shadow of Sugar Loaf. When she asked him if anyone in the district had seen the sidh he responded: "They say they used to see them here maybe a hundred years ago (circa 1850). You don't see them now. My father said he seen them on Black Point (within two miles of Meat Cove). Some of them had green clothes on them, right short little people. They'll give you luck you know...That's what they said long ago, they'd give you luck."14 Marble Mountain is another active region. The community and the seven hundred foot hill (which actually consists of limestone) is located on Little Bras D'or Lake on the island of Cape Breton. Specifically it is on the western bank on the branch of the lake called West Bay. Approximately four miles south of this location is the small land mark called Morrison: "There is a beach on the lower part of Morrison's land covered with beach grass (circa 1950). The first settler here was an Irishman and he made a clearing. He had a boy who was planting potatoes in May and one of the little people came out of the beach grass on the beach and offered him a pitcher of buttermilk and offered him a drink and he didn't take it. He was supposed to have offended the fairy and he took sick in a couple of days and he died."15 Across the Lake in a northeasterly direction is Piper's Cove, named after the pipers of Clan MacNeil. Neil Campbell married into this group and moved with his wife to Hay Cove, "out in the rear". He said that the Campbells Helen, Bluenose Magic, Toronto (1978), pp. 102-103. A slightly different version is recounted above.
14Creighton, 15Creighton, 13Creighton,

Helen, Bluenose Magic, Toronto (1978), p. 104. Helen, Bluenose Magic, Toronto (1978) p. 103.

had no native talent for music but "got their gift from the fairy hill". According to his account, an unnamed Campbell of colonial times had been hired to play the pipes at a wedding and was returning home when he was stopped near the sidh-hill by the sight of a tiny woman milking a cow. He approached and spoke with her and they exchanged notions about music. When she heard that he was unable to play the "devil's reed", or "fiddle" she offered to give him the gift for fiddling if he would respect her by keeping secret the place where she milked her cow. Accordingly, he received an ancient bow from the side-hill and afterwards played with skill and aclarity. The bow was passed to his son and grandson, "and it would never be taken from them no matter where they played."16 Another human who profited from an association with the sidhean was a widow-woman who lived near the Sevogle River in northern New Brunswick. She had had a full complement of children, and so was fortunate to have the rent of a house belonging to a rich man who lived in the "Boston States." He had given it to her at a modest rate so that there would be a care-taker until it could be sold. She very much wanted the place as a permanent residence but the price placed it outside her means. There was a fairy hill nearby, and a dancing ring just beyond her kitchen door, although she had no knowledge of either. She was in the habit of throwing her dirty dish and laundry water directly on the ring, frequently drenching invisible dancers. Finally the sidhean revolted and one came to the door complaining, "Look-it. You go and cut a door at the other end of the house and throw your slops and dirty water there. We want no more dumping on us." Surprised at this, and seeing the justice of the demand, the woman tentatively agreed but noted she had no way of paying for renovations to the house. The sidh dismissed this saying she should go to the basement and lift the flat stone found there. "There's gold there. Lift it and take what you need. Then put the stone back but don't say where you got the money." The woman did
16MacNeil,

Joe Neil, Tales Until Dawn, Toronto (1987), p. 220.

as instructed, made the change, and used some of the gold to purchase the house.17 Ray Estey told folklorist Carole Spray that he had seen fairy-rings at Belldune, New Brunswick, and that his family used to have a summer-verandah within range of a fairy colony: "There used to be a fairy plot right out here and my grandparents would sit out on the verandah listening to them. Talk about nice music! They would sit there for hours and hours listening to the dancing and fiddling and it was the loveliest music you ever heard!"18 Pursuing the subject Spray was told of an Irishman who lived at New Mills in Restigouche County. According to local lore he lived alone, but always set his table for six individuals. When he opened the door to the cellar five of the sidhean trooped up to eat with him. It is a matter of record that the sidhean were of the same species as men, and in ancient times the two "races" often cohabited and co-operated in producing children. The name sidh has almost endless dialectic variations, for example shia, shifra, shicare, she, sheee and sheeidh, some of which are reflected in human family names; for example, Sheehan, Shay, Shaw, Ay (an aspirated form of Shaw), Fayden, Fee and MacFee. The Gaels have sometimes benefited from their relations with the sidh, and Helen Creighton met an elderly Irishman who told her, unabashedly, that he had been imprisoned in Ireland and might have remained there except that, "the fairies took him out of gaol and carried him over here..." 19 Thomas Shaw must certainly have had the blood of the sidh. An immigrant from Ireland, he came to Charlotte County, New Brunswick in 1934 and settled in a pine grove
17Spray, 18Spray,

Carole, Will O' The Wisp, Fredericton (1985), pp. 53-54. Carole, Will O' The Wisp, Fredericton (1985), p. 54. Folklore Of Lunenburg County, Toronto (1958), p. 155.

19Creighton,

near Back Beach. He soon became enamoured of the local wild flowers and urged them to more spectacular bloom in his cultivated gardens. Soon much of the nearby woods became a spectacular park and gardens. Thomas died at the age of forty-eight and his wife laid him to rest amongst his pine trees, fashioning a memorial from clay and cement. She died and joined him shortly after, and it was soon noticed that all plant life within two hundred feet of the graves had lost the will to live. The tall trees were soon reduced to gray rotted stumps and nothing but raw clay remained where there had once been flourishing wild flowers and fauna. 20 This tale should be compared with "Pixy Gratitude", recounted in Keightley's World Mythology: "An old woman who lived near Tavistock had in her garden a splendid bed of tulips. To these the Pixies loved to resort...But at length the old woman died; the tulips were taken up and the place converted into a parsley bed. Over this, the Pixies showed their power; the parsley withered and nothing would grow even in the other beds of the garden. On the other hand they tended diligently the grave of the old woman around which they were heard lamenting and singing dirges. They suffered not a weed to grow on it; they kept it always green, and evermore in spring-time spangled with 21 flowers." As Joe Neil MacNeil has said, "There are two doors to every hill", and relations between men and the sidhean were not always smooth. In Pictou Pioneers, Roland Sherwood has noted that the first Presbyterian minister to Pictou township, the Reverend James, was "beset on all sides with the superstitious beliefs of the settlers...Mothers of small children were in constant dread that the fairies in the surrounding woods were ever on the watch to carry off
20Charlotte

County Community Future, Fog's Inn, St. Andrews (1990),

p. 70.
21Keightley,

Thomas, World Mythology, London (1880), p. 306.

children. Even the hoot of an owl...was believed to be the call of one fairy to another as they prepared for some mischief to bedevil the settlers." 22 Writing about the Little Bras D'Or region of Cape Breton, Neil MacNeil noted that, "Good spirits were also about, but one heard so little about them that I got the distinct impression they were in the minority." Sheila's storm remembers the sidh as storm-brewers, this midMarch snowstorm being expected sometime after Sheila's Day, or Saint Patrick's Day (March 17). Also known as the line-storm, this equinoxial gale is still expected to be one of the worst of the winter. Sheila, or Shelagh, is a dialectic feminine form of sidh. She was anciently identified with the goddess Brigit and with Mhorrigan and was thought to be the equivalent of the Scottish Cailleach bheurr (which, see). It is still a closely held "fairy", or local belief, that where cailleache (old women) gather, foul weather or disaster is at hand. The seidean side, or “sidh-storms,” might bring out the sluag side, or “fairy host,” which rode the north wind, seeking the souls of those newly dead. The aes side, or “earth people,” were particularly feared on the quarterdays and during the Nollaig, or Yule as well as at the time of the line-storm. Those captured by the sidh became perpetual slaves, tending their underworld herds and gardens and riding with them as members of the dark host. Because the sidhean were a small genetic pool they had a need for new blood, which explains why they abducted living women and children. To lure people into the underground, they produced "ceol side", or sidh-music, which had the power to lull people into the "suan side", or fairy sleep. In this hypnotized state they could be carried off to the nether world. Where they were not susceptible to hypnotism, people were sometimes subjected to the "ceo side" or sidhmist, which confused and tricked them into following ghost-lights or illusions of people known to them.
22Sherwood,

Roland, Pictou Pioneers, Windsor (1973) p. 72.

Occasionally, the sidh-men propositioned human females in a direct manner. Michael MacLean, of Cape Breton, said he was present in a home where the Scottish engagement rite known as "reitach" was being followed. This espousal was held before the bans of marriage were proclaimed, and Joe Neil MacNeil explained that the "retach" was a settling of claims, " something like the clearing out of obstacles, trees and stumps, making the ground tillable." The last reitach supposedly took place at Wreck Cove, Cape Breton, in 1923. The procedure never took place on Friday (the sidh holiday), and the bargaining for the bride typically took place through an intermediate, the questions of dowry being settled with oblique talk and double entendre. The family was unhappy with this particular attempt at espousal as the man in question represented himself, rather than sending a village elder or a close friend. Further, he was a stranger to the parents as well as the girl. Feeling the need for advice the parents approached a bodach, a tinker travelling through the area, who directed them to a boabh, or witch-woman. She suspected the suitor was a man from "the mounds" and advised them that he would attempt to gain magical control over their daughter by asking for a lock of her hair. Using this artifact, the sidh could direct his ceol side, or callingmagic, through it, leading her to his hill. They were told to make a substitute for the hair, so they went home and removed part of the black tail from a cowhide that hung on the kitchen wall. When the suitor next called, he asked for some memento and was given a small curl of black hair tied up in a white ribbon. That night the family was seated together in the kitchen when they became aware of mysterious flute-music. They saw the hide waver on the wall, unhook itself and float off through the air in the direction of the sound. It penetrated the wall, and moved away from the house never to be seen again. Michael MacLean supposed that if the young girl had surrendered a lock of her own hair, she rather than the cowhide, would

have been irrevocably drawn to the hill of the sidhe . 23 Joe MacNeil tells another story that reveals the reactive nature of the sidhean. He claims that two men once lived on opposite faces of a local glen. One was a delightful person full of fun and games and good cheer, while the other was a ill-disposed curmudgeon. The first man chanced to climb a sidh-hill and while he was there a door opened into the inside of the mountain. Inside he could detect the sidhean playing a tune on their pipes. They were singing: "Monday, Tuesday...," over and over to the music, but seemed unable to complete the run. Laughing at their trouble he stuck his head in through the opening and sang the word "wednesday", to complete the triad. They were very pleased and decided to reward him, but he wanted no gold or silver, but said it might be nice if they could take away his hunched back. this they did, and he went home where he happily explained the source of his good fortune. The grumpy neighbour, who was also a hunch-back, decided to approach the sidh to remedy his handicap. When he arrived at the hill, he found the little people trying to name the other days of the week, but being an unhappy fellow he stood wordless and tuneless before them. This angered them and they "gifted" him with the hump which they had removed from the first individual.24 This tale belongs to Celtic peoples in general, and has been told in Brittany, one version differing in the fact that the first hunchback provided the words "Thursday, Friday and Saturday," to help the korreds complete their triad of "Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday..." At "Saturday...", the little people were still without a complete litany of the days of the week, and in this version, the first farmer returned to the hill with the words, "With Sunday, all is meet, and now the week's complete." Having this in their repertoire, "the korred were able to stop dancing. They presented the farmer with one of their purses filled with horse hairs, leaves and sand, which
23MacNeil, 24MacNeil,

Joe Neil, Tales Told Until Dawn, Toronto (1987), p. 87. Joe Neil, Tales Until Dawn, Toronto (1987) pp. 113-115.

changed to gold and precious jewels when sprinkled with (Christian) holy water."25 The Irish version of this tale may be read in Keightley's World Mythology.26 Whether the sidhe remain among us is in question. Their familiars were the crows and ravens, the birds of the goddess Mhorrigan, but their animal familiar was the wolf, a creature destroyed by our European ancestors. In an aside concerning Clan Shaw (the original side-hill people), Iain Moncrieffe says that, "Shaw is derived from the Old Gaelic (i.e Irish Gaelic) "sithech," meaning wolf..."27 Again, the wolf was the familiar hunting form of both the Cailleach bheurr (Winter Hag) and Mhorrigan, one-time leaders of the Daoine sidh. In 1844, local newspapers described a winter in which wolves were "very destructive in Sussex and Musquah (New Brunswick)." By 1902, when a pair were reported seen at the Public Landing in Fredericton, they were headed for certain extinction, and the individual sidh may have passed with them. On the other hand, an account dated 1992 tells of the little people seen by the grandmother of Rosella Sampson of Grand Anse, and this sighting would be within the current century: She was on the road home one night when she became aware of a horse being fiercely ridden by "a minuscule little man...his fingers tangled fast in the horse's mane. The horse was lathered and straining to breathe, as if he had been ridden that way for a long time." Rosella's grandmother remembered that the sidh were like the Acadian "lutins" in their interest in horses. In former times she said that men braided the manes and tails of their
25Arrowsmith,

Nancy, Field Guide To The Little People, New York

(1977), pp. 68-69.
26See

his World Mythology, pp. 264-265. Iain, The Highland Clans, Nerw York (1967), p. 128.

27Moncrieffe,

horses to prevent them from being "hag-ridden." To trap the tiny men, farmers sometimes balanced a bucket of oats on a half-opened door. If the intruder happened to spill the oats he would remain to pick them up one-by-one as the sidh made a fetish of neatnesss. Rosella was told that the "fairies" were regarded as demons of the Devil. "Since they were lost souls, not to be saved on the day of judgement, they made everyone's life miserable, since they had nothing to lose." The description of the sidh as "demons" is common in local folklore and suggests some earlier knowledge of the constitution of this spirit. The Grecian "daemons" corresponded best with the creature which the Gaels knew as the "befind" and which the English called the "cowalker", the spirit finally converted into the Christian "guardian angel." It is known that the befind were conscripted to serve men from the ranks of the Daoine sidh. As for demons, they were defined as "guardian divinities of men, holding a place between men and the gods." It was once held (although not universally) that men were born with two daemons, one evil and one good. Others believed that the daemon was at once good and evil, the two forces emerging variously according to the will of the human. Thus ancient literature speaks of the "daemon of Socrates" as being a directing force in his life. Short entry under Daoine sidh. DUISLEANNAN, freaks, ill-natured pretentious folk, dreamers (and prognosticators), from duiseal, to slumber, the Eng. doze. Also duiseal, a whip, resembling MEng. duschen, to strike, of Sc. origin, now seen preserved in the word dowse. Dowsers, men who entered a trance state and used their forked stick to seek water, treasure or lost goods. “The talent for making the divining rod is given to only a few privileged beings. One can easily determine if one has received it naturally by cutting a forked branch from a hazel-tree and holding the two tips in each hand. When his foot is placed on the top of the object that is being sought, the rod will turn independently in the searcher’s hands and will be an infallible guide. Thus when a

stream of (underground) water is to be identified, the rod will turn when the diviner passes over it, or hidden treasurer or clues to a murder.” Duis, jewel, crow, gloom, mist, chief, dust, dross, entrails of an animal. See cochuleen druithg. DÙLDACHD, a misty gloom, see domhail. The state often ascribed to the Atlantic islands in the western Otherworld. DUL, DÙIL, DOL, DULA, a noose, a loop, a snare, anything having the form of a circle, Lat. dolus, fraud guile, decit, trickery. Things taken in snares, thus dúil, a creature, root du. to strive against adversities. Obs. Eng. dule or dole, grief. ME. dul akin to AS. dol, foolish, Dan. dol, mad, Germ. toll, mad, Skr. dhvr, to cause anything to fall over, cf. Eng. dolt, dwale, dwell, i.e. held in one place. In modern parlance dall, blind, Lat. fallo, a fool. Notice the ON. dul, something hidden, having conference with Eng. hole and the goddess Hel. This word is seen in ON. dultrú, “truths of the unseen world,” i.e. mysticism. In Iceland “mystical experience” is still entitled dulraen reynsla and this study involves elemental beings and clairvoyance. See toll-duin, an individual of the Tuatha daoine. DULACHAN, sometimes given as Dullahan, a headless horseman who rode a headless horse. In later folklore a malicious spirit who used his whip to take out the eyes of any he encountered. Dull + och, a dark creature+ sighing, as storm winds. The latter word similar to aghach, warlike.Same as Dudair, the Devil. the pagan gods. DUL DUNA, DULLAHAN, DUL DUNA, dul, guileful; agheach, warlike, similar to och, an interjection, alas! a cry, the sound made by storm winds.. The English owl. The nickname of the god Lugh while he was fostered to Manann mac Ler. Duna, man. the nickname which Manann mac Ler gave his foster-son Lugh of the Long Arm. dul, a snare or noose; duine, man; a natural hunter. Not dur, “blind” or “stubborn”. See dul, above. Also seen as Dul-Dana.

DUMA, a mound or burial ground. For example, Duima na nGall, the “Mound of the Strangers (or Hostages)” at Tara. The word is similar to dun from dùcan, a mound or heap. See next two entries. DUMA SELGA, “Mound of the Hunting” Aonghas Og had many loves including Enghi and the woman named Derbreen. The latter had the care of six fosterlings including two boys. Their mother Dalb Garb the “Rough” being jealous ofDerbreen put a “nut-spell” on her children transforming them into swine. Seeing this, Aonghas put the animals in the care of Buichet of Leinster. While they were there the hospitaller’s wife developed an uncanny urge to taste their cooked flesh and thus she gathered hounds and hunters to kill them. The pigs escaped to Brugh na Boinn where they were protected by Aonghas. They asked him for help in regaining their shape but he said he could not assist them until they, themselves, had shaken the Tree of Tarbga and eaten the salmon of Inver Umaill. They went to Glascarn to attempt this preliminary magic, and might have succeeded but Mebd of Connacht gathered her forces and hunted them to death upon the Mound of the Hunting. DÙN, (doon) a heap, a fortress; AS. tún from which town. Root Gaelic dû, to be strong, hence also dùr, dull, stubborn, resisting force. After the tumuli, the structures of greatest antiquity are the great duns of western Ireland. They were erected during the first three centuries of the Christian era and have enormously thick stone walls, which must have been firm and impregnable in spite of the lack of binding mortar. Traditions insists that they were erected by the Firbolgs who managed to hold on in remote places after the Milesians took possession of the more valuable lands. In the second century of the Christian era a colony of Firbolgs, led by King Angus, fled from the western islands of Scotland to Aran. They settled first in Meath, but having troubles with the king, finally settled that island and portions of the adjacent mainland, creating the great Dun Aonghas. The Celtic dunum can often be detected

beneath the surface of present-day place-names such as Dundalk, Dunrobin, Dunkirk etc. It is very frequently seen in France, often seen combined with the name of Nuada’s twinbrother, the sun-god Lugh (the more northern Laugar or Lokki). Lug-dunum, “the fortress or dun of Lugh,” is seen buried in Leyden, Lyons and the English city of London. In Switzerland lesser hero-gods are remembered in Minno-dunum, or Moudon and Eburo-dunum, now called Yverdon. In Spain and Portugal there are eight names terminating with dunum which are mentioned by classical writers. Most interesting of all was Mori-dunon, the Gaelic name for the famed Celtic magician named Merlin. This word may be translated as the “great-fortress,” or “seafortress,” and this was also the ancient name for the collection of islands now known as Great Britain. In the Brythonic tongue ancient Britain was Clais Meirneal, or “Merlin’s Enclosure.” Merlin had the ability to travel on the wind and is thus linked with the elemental god Ve the “god of the upper air.” In many places the Celtic god, or goddess, was remembered but the dunum ending replaced through translation. Thus in England the old name was sometimes supplanted by the Latin castra, a camp, giving names such as Brancaster and Colchester, which had been Brano-dunum and Camulo-dunum. In Germany Cambodunum was rewritten as Kemp-ton while Carro-dunum became Karn-berg. A Germanic interpretation of Lugidunum was Leig-nitz. Deeper in Europe one could once find Singi-dunum now renamed Belgrade and Novi-dunum, located in what is now Romania. There was even a Carrodunum in southern Russia, and another place of the same name in Croatia. Sego-dunum, now renamed Rodez used to be represented in France, in England and Bavaria. The root word sego “marsh-lands” does not identify a deity but it is intimately tied to Briga or Bridd, the sister of Nuada and Lugh; in the Spanish Segorbe, which was formerly Segobriga. This Celtic household goddess is also seen as the origin of the German word burgh, which is often seen substituted for dunum.

DUNACH, woe, from dona. DÙN ADD, “Fortress of Kilmartin, Scotland. A from the Great Moss. Kingdom of Dalriada. since stone age times. Awesome Power,” on the road to tall rocky knoll projecting 176 feet The former capital of the Scottish It had been inhabited successively

The valley approaches on all sides exposed any enemy to full view, Kilmartin Glen to the north gave a good pass to Loch Awe and the central and north-eastern parts of Scotland. Seventy other forts used to stand within a tenmile radius of this place. The Irish annalists say that Fergus, Lorn and Angus, the Riada brothers sailed up the river to this site and landed at the old fort of Dunadd, which was finally settled and occupied by Fergus. According to legend he brought with him the Lia Fail (Stone of Destiny), which had once belonged to the Tuatha daoine, and was used in the coronation of all Irish kings. Henceforth it was confiscated to the use of the Scottish kings of Scotia minor and remained here until 1296 when it was seized by the English. In the seventh and eighth centuries Dunadd was besieged by the Britons and the Picts, and twice recovered, remaining the seat of royalty until the reign of Kenneth MacAlpine. On the conquest of the Picts in 843, he removed the capital to Forteviot and Scone in Perthshire. For 345 years Dunadd was a separate kingdom, but detached from the “Seats of the Mighty,” it became a rural enclave, whose very name fell out of use, to be displaced by Argyll. The most interesting artifact in the region is a summit rock carrying the carvings of a Pictish boar and ogham writing. Nearby is a basin and a footprint in stone, elements probably used in the inauguration of the Scottish kings. “The new king would place his foot in the footprint and show that he would follow in the footsteps of his predecessors.” This print was originally known as the “Fairy Print,” suggesting that the Scots thought their power was derived from

Tuathan gods. Similar “carved” footprints may be seen at Clickham broch in the Shetlands. DÙN BHEAGAIN, Dunvegan, Scotland. The seat of Clan Macleod from the thirteenth century, said protected by their “fairy-flag,” which was given to a fourteenth-century chief by his fairy-lover. She left him at the Fairy-Bridge warning him that the flag could only be unfurled three times. According to some the magic of this flag has expired. DÙN BOLG, the site of one of the numerous battles in which the men of Leinster sought to remove the imposition of the Boramha by the high-king. In this case the warriors were smuggled into this fortification in wicker baskets loads on wagons pulled by oxen. Within the enemy camp the warriors of Leinster leapt out and routed the king’s men. DÙN BREATANN, Dumbarton, Scotland. Noted for a isolated volcanic plug, said placed there by the baobhe when they were bent on chasing St. Patrick from that country. He sailed off in a boat and the “witches” could not follow him across the water. so they tore a lump of rock from a nearby hill and “threw” it after him. In early times this place was a fortress and the capital of the independent kingdom of Strathclyde from the fifth to the eleventh centuries. The name comes from the Gaelic name “Fort of the Britons,” a reference to former inhabitants of England. DÙN FIR BOLG, the Fortress of the Firbolge. The only trace of these people in Scotland is at St. Kilda. Some say they were the early inhabitants of Ireland but it is alternately suggested that the Tuatha daoine brought them along from the Continent for their abilities as magicians and metalworkers. They fought against the governing folk at the Battle of Magh Tuireadh. “Now the Fir Bolg fell in battle all save a few, and these went out from Ireland fleeing the Tuatha De Danann, and they settled in Aru (Arran) and in Ile (Islay) and in Rachrus (Rathlin) and in Britain and in the other isles. Thus it was they who brought the Fomorians to the second battle of Magh Tuireadh. They were in the islands

until the times of the provincial kings. The Cruithnigh drove them back to Leinster and the folk there gave them land.” They afterwards fled from there into Connaught and stayed in that land until they were uprooted by Cuchullain the “hero” of Ulster. In some circles it is said that Balar or Balor, was a Firbolg chieftain conscripted to the cause of the Fomorians. Some say that the piractical remnants of this people, located in the Orkneys, created the legend of the Fomorians or sea-giants and that these two people were a single race. DÙN GHARASAINN, a prehistoric fortress on the Isle of Skye. The sighe were reputed to have lived here but moved on after a farmer removed rocks from their place to erect a cattle-shelter. DÙN NA N GÉID, GÉIDH, “Fortress of the Goose.” After Tara had to be abandoned because of the curse placed upon it. Domhnall mac Aedh ard righ (Donald mac Kay high-king) of Ireland (627-621 AD) decided that this should be the new seat of power. As a preliminary to the founding feast, two black spectres appeared, one male and one female, and while the assembly watched devoured all the food. This created a baleful influence which led to quarrels about the significance of this happening, and was later seen as a prelude to the battle of Magh Ráth at Moira in 637. DÙN SCIATH, SGIATH, the “Fortress of Shadows.” Often used as a synonym for the Otherworld somewhere in the western Atlantic. Sometimes said possessed by Manan mac Ler. Cúchulainn and his friends travelled there and at the centre found a pit filled with loathsome serpents. Fending them off they were attacked by toads with sharp beaks which shape-changed into dragons. Cúchullain and his men prevailed and carried off three magic crows along with a cauldron filled with silver and gold which could, on command, feed armies. The gods who governed the isle seeking to retrieve this booty conjured up a storm which sank the voyager’s craft. Undaunted they swam to shore but lost all of the valuables taken in the west.

DÙRADAN, an atom, a mote, indivisible particle from the root dùr, stubborn, i.e. hard to divide. This ultimate particle was known to the druids in ancient times. DÙRD, a syllable, sound, roaring, Eng. drone. humming sound, Norse, drynr,

DURFULLA or DURBHOLA. A daughter of the king of the merfolk. She married a human and when she died was buried on an island afterwards overrun by the sea. See Daoine mara, Cochluean druith. DURI, DIGDI, the Old Woman of the Dingle. durga, surly, sour. Said to have resided on the Island of Beare in Bantry Bay, near Dingle, West Kerry, Ireland. An earth-goddess, she fostered fifty human children. A shape-changer, she had many lovers and it was claimed that she regained her youth "seven times over." Every lover she took also lived to a great age. She was the Cailleach Beara, the Cailleach Bheurr of Gaelic mythology. DUSGATH, spiritual awakening. A “dart while slumbering.” In the dream state the Gaels believed that the human soul was most open to revival and change.

1.Ferguson, D.A. & Macdonald, A.J., The Hebridean Connection, (Halifax), 1984. See pp. 460 for the creation story. 2.MacManus, Seumas, The Story Of THe Irish Race, Old Greenwich, Conn., 1983, quoting from Iar Connacht, footnote, pp. 100-101. 3.Fraser, Sir James George, The Golden Bough, p. 127 4.Tacitus, quoted by Rutherford, Ward, Celtic 31. Mythology, p.