Chapter 26 Outline: The New Power Balance

I. New Technologies and the World Power A. Railroads -The steam engine and the invention of the railroad played a vital role in the world’s growing industrialization. The first railroads placed in 1850 were so successful that within the next fifty years, the number of rail lines skyrocketed all over Europe, and especially the Americas. By around 1915, the rail network in America reached about 390,00 miles. Asia also had a well-developed rail system; Japan’s rails branched to almost every city in the island nation, helping to spread industrialization and transport goods all through out the nation. -There were also some disadvantages to this entire rail though. Major construction and land development had to take place in order to carve a pathway for the rails to be laid. Major deforestation also took place, as large amounts of wood were needed to build bridges, tunnels, and stations, and wood was needed to actually lay the rails themselves. Railways also needed stations, sidings, and warehouses, so towns nearly doubled in size when rail systems were built. B. Steamships and Telegraph Cables -Steamships dated back to 1830, but it was only a mode of transportation for the rich because it was extremely expensive to fuel and operate these ships. As time went by though, new and more efficient technologies emerged. Hulls became stronger and streamlined, steam engines became more efficient, and propeller blades replaced paddles. Steamships became common and easy methods of water transportation, not only for the rich but also the poor. These new ships could also be used to effectively ship raw and manufactured goods overseas. -Around this time period, the telegraph was invented and used as a means of communication. Companies realized that by laying these thick telegraph cables along the seabed, they could use them to communicate with their ships during the transit process from port to port. They were called underwater telegraph lines. C. The Steel and Chemical Industries -The steel industry really took of in the 1850s when iron master William Kelly found a cheap method of forging iron in to steel. Steel was originally a very expensive metal, being reserved for weapons and electroplating. Steel was strong yet pliable, but before Kelly it was incredibly hard and time consuming to make. This new way of turning iron into steel sparked the metal industry, not only encouraging new ideas but also spurring a huge spike in steel production. Other metal workers found even cheaper and easier ways to turn iron into steel, and even figured out how to turn scrap iron into steel. Steel production rose from just under half a million tons a year, to over 28 million tons a year! -The chemical industry also thrived during this time period. Chemists were able to, through a process of trial and error, create things found commonly in everyday life like soda, bleach, and sulfuric acid. Synthetic dyes were also discovered, and along with bleach they played a vital role in the newly growing fashion and textile industry. -There also chemical advances in explosives. Nitroglycerin was discovered and later converted to dynamite (a solid, more stable form) by Alfred Noble. Dynamite was extremely important in construction and mining, as well as in the military for cannons and explosives. -All of these advances were very important in industrialization, but they placed a huge strain on the working class and the environment.

D. Electricity -Electricity was one of the most important discoveries of the 19th century. At first it was frowned upon because it was so costly to produce electric current, but as time went by people found more effective and cheaper ways of producing electricity. One of the best ways to do so was by using a mechanical motor and using magnetic fields, convert its energy into electrical current. Electricity was used to light streets, theaters, stores, and even homes in major cites. Thomas Edison not only created the light bulb, but also the first electrical distribution system for New York City, providing power for each individual household. Electricity was also used for streetcars, subways, and power belts in factories. It also replaced steam engines in some factories, as the electric motors were easier and more efficient to use. E. World Trade and Finance -World trade was stimulated greatly by railroads and steamships. Because of how much faster and easier trade became, the price to ship things dropped dramatically. (50-95%) Countries were able to export and import massive amounts of not only raw materials but also manufactured and luxury goods, once available only to the rich. Now middle-class and the poor could afford such luxury items because they were much cheaper to ship, lowering their overall price significantly. The world economy was capitalist, making it subject to sudden depressions and booms, which would greatly affect the working class. Britain led the world during this period economically and politically. II. Social Change A. Population and Migrations -During the 19th century the European population soared dramatically, going from 265 million to 468 million. The rest of the world’s population grew too, at a slightly faster rate because of the major influx of European immigrants to other parts of the world. This immigration was motivated by famine, persecution, need for jobs, and other reasons. The migrations were helped by cheap transportation provided by the railroads and steamships. -There was also a large influx of Asian immigrants during this time, immigrating from India, Africa, and Asia. They came mostly in the form of indentured servants, replacing slaves in the plantations and mines, and they were treated no better than slaves. Because of the growing hostility from the Americans, immigrants were stereotyped and discriminated against in many parts of America. B. Urbanization and Urban Environments -Because of industrialization, many of the population living in this area were living in an urban environment. These small cities mushroomed in size, covering in some cases up to 150 square miles. -Pre and early industrial cities were usually dirty, dark, and dangerous places. As time went by though, new technologies were created and cites became better managed and cared for. Governments gained more and more responsibility and power regarding city planning and management. Things like police, fire protection, parks, hospitals, garbage removal, and public lighting became the governments responsibility to fulfill and they usually did so, creating expansive sanitation and electricity systems to meet the ever growing needs of the city. -Better city zoning and the government’s new role in public works led to a better quality of life, but the thing that help improve life the most was the advent of electricity. Electricity was cheaper and cleaner, giving people more energy and with less pollution. It also allowed homes and streets to be lit, allowing work

during the night hours and helping to rid the cities of the nasty smelling gas burning lamps. Electricity also helped by allowing for the invention of streetcars, which not only unclogged busy city streets, but also took away the horse drawn carriages used before this, which not only was slow but created a poor smelling environment and an extra job for the sanitation department every time it went to the bathroom. All of these factors helped to clean up the cities and decrease mortality rates and the occurrence of epidemics. -Not everybody benefited from the improvements though. The poor working class mostly made up of immigrants, lived in small slums and apartments, sometimes not even having running water. The conditions were extremely poor and often led to disease, especially since most of the run down slums were located close to the industrial sections of the cities. The benefits would always start with the rich and eventually trickle down to the poor. C. Middle-Class Women’s “Separate Sphere” -The time period of 1850 to about 1901 was known as the Victorian Age, not only after Queen Victoria but also for the set of behavioral rules and ideology accepted and used at the time. The Victorian time period beliefs was that of a masculine male society and feminine females, contrasted by a cut-throat capitalist world and a peaceful home society. It stated that men and women were in different “spheres” or worlds, and that successful businessmen should spend their time at work or relaxing and women should be in charge of the household, doing chores and taking care of the children. -Being in charge and taking care of the household chores was a lot of work, especially before technological advancements in home appliances. Upper-class women would often spend much of their time cleaning and setting up for parties as they often hosted them at least once a week. They often times employed several immigrants as servants to help lighten the burden of all of the day-to-day work. Unlike the previous era though, women were personally involved with their children. Even if they hired a nurse or tutor to take care of their children the mother would be very active in their child’s life, showing them love and attention, while making sure that they got a proper education. -Boys and girls were very differently educated at this time as well. Boys would learn business and industrial skills while preparing to enter the business world. Girls would often times learn social skills such as art and music. Working women were often frowned upon during this era, especially if they were married. They were allowed to work as typists and secretaries, but never in factories and many professional careers were closed off to women before 1914. The first major career open to women was teaching once school became compulsory. -Many middle-class women had no desire to be a house wife and often worked as volunteers or in low paying jobs. Women would fight to gain rights throughout Europe during the 20th century and by 1914 women in the US gained the right to vote in some states. D. Working-Class Women -The separation of the man and women at work and at home took its toll, as women tried to not only keep up with house work but also with their low-paid jobs. Families often hired servants and expected children as young as ten to take care of household jobs. The servants were especially poor treated, often having to do large amounts of labor and being victims to sexual abuse by the family. They were often times immigrants who were unable to get a better job. Although women preferred factory jobs over domestic jobs, strict social and legal laws barred them from getting jobs in factories, construction, or any sort of heavy labor. Women

were denied the higher paying jobs offered only to men and were not allowed to work as log as men were. -Even more stress was put on women, because Victorian laws did not permit married women with children to work outside the home. Instead they were forced to bear the housework and find other ways to contribute to their family’s income, whether by washing other peoples clothes or by sowing and repairing clothes. Desperate families sometime s even boarded people at the expense of their own living space. III. Socialism and Labor Movements A. Labor Movements -The roots of the labor unions began in the 19th century when laborers would band together in “friendly societies” that would help one another out in times of need. Laws all throughout Europe outlawed striking, but by the end of the 19th century these laws were abolished all throughout Europe and worker unions banded together to demand higher wages and insurance. They gained voting rights in the parliament and despite many skeptics, the workers all cooperated well with the government and did not try to overthrow it or corrupt it, unlike what some socialists believed. Women neither had time nor enough rights to be able to represent their working class politically. Some radicals try to establish a political movement but they could not gain enough political support and all of their movements failed.

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