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10.

TRIGONOMETRY
Similarity
Ratios
Sketches
Basic Reductions
Special Triangles
Equations
2-D Problems
] 90 ; 0 [

e x
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SIMILARITY
If two triangles are similar, their corresponding
angles are equal and their corresponding sides
are in proportion.
If then: ; ;
and

D A Z = Z
DEF ABC A A ///
E B Z = Z
F C Z = Z
DF
AC
EF
BC
DE
AB
= =
2
Example: In the following triangles show that if
then

DEF ABC A A ///
DF
AC
EF
BC
DE
AB
= =
2
3
10
15
= =
cm
cm
DE
AB
2
3
16
24
= =
cm
cm
EF
BC
2
3
12
18
= =
cm
cm
DF
AC
Similar Triangles
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Summary: Similar Triangles
For any constant angle, the ratios for each
similar triangle remain the same.

As the length of the hypotenuse increases, the
length of the adjacent and opposite sides
increase in the same proportion.
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TRIG RATIOS
Labelling Trigonometric Triangles
5
The ratio is called the sine of the angle .
This can be written as sin =

The ratio is called the cosine of the angle
This can be written as cos =

The ratio is called the tangent of the angle
This can be written as tan =

Hyp
Opp
Hyp
Opp
Hyp
Adj
Hyp
Adj
Adj
Opp
Adj
Opp
Definition of sinx
Trigonometric Ratios around the Origin
Definition of cosx
Definition of tanx
Introduction to Trig Functions
6
Example
Consider the following diagram and then
answer the questions that follow.

SOHCAHTOA
Complete:
(a)sin =
(b)cos =
(c)tan =
(d)sin =
(e)cos =
(f) tan =

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Exercise 1
1. Write down the following:
(a) sin C
(b) cos C
(c) tan C
(d) sin B
(e) cos B
(f) tan B

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2. Write down the following:

(a) sin
(b) cos
(c) tan
(d) Sin
(e) cos
(f) tan

Trigonometric Ratios
9
Calculating the value of a trig function
1. Evaluate the following rounded off to two decimal
places where appropriate:

(a) sin 57 (b) tan 67

(c) cos 24 (d) 3 sin 45

(e) 13 tan (45 + 54) (f)

(g) (h)

(i) (j)



If you ensure that your calculator is on the DEG mode, you can evaluate
trigonometric ratios
0
40 cos
4
1
13
150 sin
0
13
150 sin
0
0 2
309 sin
0 2 0 2
56 cos 56 sin +
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Calculating the size of an angle
when given the trigonometric ratio
Consider the equation sin = 0,5
Here we want to find the angle that
gives the number 0, 5
In order to do this, we will make use of
the button sin on the calculator
If sin = 0, 5, then we can find by
using the sequence:

1
2ndF sin 0,5 =
1
1
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Examples
Solve the following equations:
(Round your answers off to two decimal places.)

(a) cos = 0,5 (b) 2 sin = 1,124
(c) tan - 4,123 = 0 (d) cos 2 = 0,435
(e) (f)

(g) (h)
(i) (j)
(k)


3 2 tan
2
1
= x
( ) 678 , 0 10 sin
0
= + x
1 tan = o 0 924 . 0 sin = o
25 tan 5 = o
334 , 0 3 cos = o
12 , 0 3 cos
3
1
= |
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Solving problems using
trigonometric ratios
Calculating the length of a side when given an angle and
another side
Example 1: Calculate the length of AB in
You want side AB, which is opposite 36.
You have side BC, the hypotenuse.
You now need to create an equation
involving the ratio and the angle 36:
sin 36


ABC A
Hyp
Opp
=
Hyp
Opp
4 , 2
36 sin 4
36 sin
4
0
0
=
=
=
BC
BC
BC
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Example 2
Calculate the length of BC to one decimal place.

You want side BC, which is adjacent to 59.
You have side AB, which is opposite to 59.

You now need to create an
equation involving the
ratio and the angle 59:

Adj
Opp
14
= tan 59

Adj
Opp
4 , 1
59 tan
4 , 2
59 tan 4 , 2
59 tan
4 , 2
0
0
0
=
=
=
=
BC
BC
BC
BC
Using Trig Functions The Ladder
Using Trig Functions The Stairs
Using Trig Functions The Skyscraper
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EXERCISE
1. Calculate the length of PQ in

PQR A
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2. (a) Calculate the length of AB.
(b) Calculate the length of BC.
(c) What is the size of ? A Z
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3. By using the information provided on the
diagram, calculate:
(a) the length of AC.
(b) the length of AB.
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4. In the diagram, BD AC.
Using the information provided, calculate the
length of AC.

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5. Using the
information
provided on the
diagram , calculate
the length of BC.
Using Trig to Find the Perimeter
Challenge! Find the Perimeter of an Irregular Shape
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Calculating the size of an angle when given two
sides
Example 4
We need to find angle .
We have side BC, which is adjacent to
Side AC is the hypotenuse.

Finding an angle when given two sides
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Therefore, we need to form an equation
involving the ratio and the angle .

Hyp
Adj
0
3 , 51
625 , 0 cos
8
5
cos
cos
=
=
=
=
u
u
u
u
Hyp
Adj
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EXERCISE
1. (a) Calculate the
size of .
(b) Calculate the
length of AC.
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2. (a) Calculate the size of .
(b) Calculate the size of .
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3. In , CD AB, A = , B = 40,
AD = l5 cm and DB = l6 cm.
Calculate the size of
ABC A Z
u
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Reciprocals
e.g.

e.g.

e.g.

o
o
sin
1
cos = ec
73 . 1
30 tan
1
30 cot = =

o
o
cos
1
sec =
2
30 sin
1
30 cos = =

ec
15 . 1
30 cos
1
30 sec = =

o
o
tan
1
cot =
26
Calculate the following:
a) b)

c) d)


e)



42 tan 56 cos + ec

21 sec
21 cos
1


20 cot 80 cos ec

30 cos
90 sec

6 cos
55 tan
1
55 cot ec
Exercise
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P(-3;4) is a point on the Cartesian Plane
and OP makes an angle of .

Calculate the length of OP.
OP = (-3) + (4)
= 25
OP = 5 units
Calculate the value of:
a)

b)

c)
3
4

=
-3
4
u tan
u cos
u sin
5
4
=
5
3
=
SKETCHES
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K(-5;y) is a point on the Cartesian Plane
and OK makes an angle of and equals 13.

Determine the following:
a)

b)

c)

d)

e)
u u
2 2
cos sin +
u u cos tan
u ec cos
u sin 4
u
u
cos
sin
EXERCISE
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All Stations To Cape Town

It is IMPORTANT to memorize the CAST diagram, as we
can then determine the sign of the trigonometric function:
sinx: + Q1 & Q2
- Q3 & Q4
cosx: + Q1 & Q4
- Q2 & Q3
tanx: + Q1 & Q3
- Q2 & Q4


CAST Diagram
Quadrants of the Cartesian Plane
BASIC REDUCTIONS
30
and 180
0
-
u
P P`(-x;y)
O
u
180
0
-
(x;y)
P` is the reflection of P about
the y axis
sin = y / r
sin(180
0
- ) = y/r
= sin
cos = x/ r
cos (180
0
- ) = - x/r
= - cos
31
and 180
0
+
u
P
P`(-x;-y)
O
u
180
0
+
(x;y)
P` is the reflection of P about
the origin
sin = y / r
sin(180
0
+ ) = - y/r
= - sin
cos = x/ r
cos (180
0
+ ) = - x/r
= - cos
32
Simplify by means of reduction:

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

f)
) 360 tan( x

EXERCISE
) 180 sin( x +

) 360 sin( x

) 180 cos( x

) 180 tan( x +

) 360 sin( x +

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60
0

3
2
3
2
1
2
60
0

1
sin 60
0
= opp / hyp =
cos 60
0
= adj / hyp =
tan 60
0
= opp / adj =
1
3
Quiz: 60 Special Triangle
SPECIAL TRIANGLES
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30
0

3
2
3
2
1
2
30
0

1
sin 30
0
= opp / hyp =
cos 30
0
= adj / hyp =
tan 30
0
= opp / adj =
3
1
Quiz: 30 Special Triangle
35
45
0

Determine the magnitude of
the hypotenuse
2 2
1 1 + = hyp
1cm
1cm
2
=
2
45
0

36
45
0

Determine the following ratios
2
1
1
1
2
sin 45
0
= opp / hyp
=
2
1
cos 45
0
= adj / hyp =
tan 45
0
= opp / adj = 1
45
0

Quiz: 45 Special Triangle
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Calculate:

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

f)

30 sin 45 tan
EXERCISE

30 cos 60 cos

45 tan 45 sin
2
+

60 cos 60 sin
2 2
+
1 30 tan 4

45 cos
45 sin
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Solving for y in trig equations
1. Find the value of y:
a) y = sin 40
Sine Function Box
Calculator Work!
y = 0,64
b) y = cos 26
y = 0,90
c) y = tan 90
y = undefined
Why?
Think of the tan graph
Cos Function Box
Tan Function Box
EQUATIONS
] 90 ; 0 [

e x
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2. Solve for x:

a) sin x =
x = 30


b) cos x = 0,78
x = 38.74



c) tan x = 1
x = 45



Solving for the angle in trig equations
To findk
To solve for the angle type:
SHIFT sin / cos / tan of the
angle
40
Solve for x or y:

a) sin x = 0.37

b) y = 3 cos 90



c) y = tan 65



d) tan = 65



e) 5 sin x = 0.5

f) 3 cos x = 1
EXERCISE
41
Angles of elevation and depression
is the angle of elevation of C from A.
is the angle of depression of A from C.
u
|
2-D Problems
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Example
The angle of
depression of a boat
on the ocean from
the top of a cliff is
55.
The boat is 70
meters from the foot
of the cliff.
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(a) What is the angle of elevation of the
top of the cliff from the boat?
(b) Calculate the height of the cliff.
(a) The angle of elevation of the top of the
cliff from the boat is 55,
i . e = 55.
(b) We can calculate the height of the cliff
as follows:

B Z
m h
h
h
100
35 tan 70
35 tan
70
0
0
=
=
=
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Exercise
1. The Cape Town cable car takes tourists to
the top of Table Mountain. The cable is 1,2
kilometers in length and makes an angle of
40 with the ground.
Calculate the height (h) of the mountain.
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2. An architectural design of the front of a
house is given below.

The length of the house is to be 10 meters.
An exterior stairway leading to the roof is
slanted to form an angle of elevation of 30
with ground level.
The slanted part of the roof must be 7 meters
in length.
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(a) Calculate the height of the vertical wall (DE).
(b) Calculate the size of , the angle of
elevation of the top of the roof (A) from the
ceiling BCD.
(c) Calculate the length of the beam AC.
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3. In the 2006 Soccer World Cup, a player
kicked the ball from a distance of 11 meters
from the goalposts (4 meters high) in order
to score a goal for his team.
The distance traveled by the ball is in a
straight line.
The angle formed by the pathway of the ball
and the ground is represented by
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(a) Calculate the largest angle for
which the player will possibly score a
goal.
(b) Will the player score a goal if the
angle is 22? Explain.
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4. Treasure hunters in a boat, at point A,
detects a treasure chest at the bottom of the
ocean (C) at an angle of depression of l3
from the boat to the treasure chest.
They then sail for 80 meters so that they are
directly above the treasure chest at point B.
In order to determine the amount of oxygen
they will need when diving for the treasure,
they must first calculate the depth of the
treasure (BC).
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Calculate the depth of the treasure for the
treasure hunters.
Colliding Ships Example
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