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1. Any type of sugar that either has an aldehyde group or are capable of forming
one in solution through isomerism is a reducing sugar. The aldehyde
functional group allows the sugar to act as a reducing agent. There are
several ways to test for reducing sugars, for example in the Tollens' test or
Benedict's reagent. We have conducted the Benedict’s test and hence, we
have determined that glucose is a reducing sugar whereas sucrose is a non-
reducing sugar as there are no brick-red precipitate formed in the test tube
containing sucrose. This is because sucrose's anomeric carbon is not "free"
since this carbon is used to link fructose and glucose together. Therefore, this
anomeric carbon cannot open up the ring structure and react with the reagent
resulting in no formation of brick-red precipitate in Benedict’s test.

2. Benedict’s test is used to identify reducing sugars like monosaccharides.
When a reducing sugar is heated with the Benedict's reagent the blue solution
will form brick-red precipitate, green precipitate or yellow precipitate. When
onion is in used, the Benedict’s reagents turn to yellow. This happens
because onions contains fructose which is a type of reducing sugar. However,
when using potatoes for the test, there is no colour change after the solution
is heated. This indicates that potatoes do not contain reducing sugar but they
actually contains starch. Starch is a polysaccharide and it is hard to break to
monosaccharide due to its helical shape.