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Organizational Behaviors Final Questions

Organizational Behaviors Final Questions

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Final Exam Questions of OB
Final Exam Questions of OB

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Program : ENM/BBA/BACC/BECS/KENGG/KIRKH/KOS/KICT Level of Study : 1 - 4
Time : 2.30 pm – 5.30 pm Date : 8.6.2013
Duration : 3 Hr(s) 0 Min(s)
Course Code : MGT 4110/K Section(s) : 1 - 7
Course Title : Organizational Behaviour

(This Examination Paper Consists of 14 Printed Pages Including A Cover Page With 3 Sections)

1. Section A: Answer 40 Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs). Each MCQ is worth 1 mark.
(Total: 40 Marks)
2. Section B: Answer TWO (2) essays out of the three essays below. Each essay is worth 15
marks. (Total: 30 Marks)
3. Section C: Answer the TWO questions at the end of the case. Each question is worth 15
marks. (Total: 30 Marks)

Any form of cheating or attempt to cheat is a serious offence which may lead to dismissal.


Head, Department of Business Administration
Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences


Section A: Answer 40 multiple choice questions (MCQs). Each MCQ is worth 1 mark.

1 ________ is an extrinsic means of motivation.

a) Recognition

b) Flexibility

c) Salary

d) Responsibility

e) Autonomy

2 Which of the following statements is true regarding job rotation?

a) It decreases employee motivation

b) It decreases productivity in the short-run.

c) It decreases the flexibility with which an organization can adapt to a change

d) It decreases the flexibility in scheduling work.

e) It decreases supervisory workload

3 Which of the following statements is true regarding job sharing?

a) It expands jobs by increasing the degree to which the worker controls the planning,
execution, and evaluation of the work

b) J ob sharing is a method of job enrichment

c) It allows two or more individuals to split a traditional 40-hour-a-week job

d) It is also called cross-training

e) It involves periodic shifting of an employee from one task to another with similar skill
requirements at the same organizational level

________ is a participative process that uses employees' input to increase their commitment
to the organization's success.

a) J ob enrichment

b) Employee involvement

c) Groupshifting

d )Vertical integration

e ) J ob sharing



5 Adam Sears is an assembly line employee with Swenson Motors. Though Adam is popular
among his supervisors and colleagues, Adam experiences low morale and lack of motivation.
He feels frustrated that his job is restricted to fixing nuts and bolts on the car parts. He fears that
he has no chances of advancing in his career as he cannot completely assemble a car. Which
of the following is true with regard to Adam?

a) Adam's job has high task complexity

b) Adam's job has low role definition

c )Adam's job has high task significance.

d )Adam's job has a high span of control

e) Adam's job has low task identity

6 The job characteristics model describes five dimensions of a job. A job can be enriched by
modifying one or more of these five dimensions. Which of the following methods of job
enrichment involves modifying skill variety and task identity dimensions of a job?

a) Combining tasks

b) Expanding jobs vertically

c) Establishing client relationships

d) Forming natural work units

e) Opening feedback channels

7 J anice and Shane are both senior software analysts. They have worked together on projects for
six years and get along very well. J anice is anticipating the arrival of her first child and will not
be able to work on a full-time basis in the future. Shane is also contemplating opening his own
business as a home media installation consultant and does not want to continue to work full time.
They both need some income. Which of the following alternative job structures would be best
for J anice and Shane?

a) Telecommuting

b) J ob enlargement

c) J ob enrichment

d) J ob rotation

e) J ob sharing

8 Which of the following is the distinct characteristic of participative management programs?

a) Establishment of work councils

b) Autocratic decision making

c) Performance norms

d) J oint decision making

e) Representative participation



9 Which of the following statements is true regarding flexible benefits?

a) Gainsharing and profit-sharing plans are two major types of flexible benefits

b) Flexible benefits are awarded through uniform packages to cover the requirements of
a married couple with two children

c) Flexible benefits can be altered to meet employee needs based on age, marital status,
and number and age of dependents

d) Flexible benefits are given based on an employee's skills, competence, and productivity

e) Flexible benefits are in accordance with the belief that employees have identical needs that
must be rewarded identically.

10 J ack Holmes is a middle-aged, lower-level employee at an automobile service center. Though
he is not paid very well, he loves his job. His supervisor speaks to him with respect and he
is the favored candidate for mentoring new employees because of the vast experience he holds
in the job. Based on this information, which of the following is most likely to be the reason J ack
likes his job?

a) salary

b) recognition

c) prospects of growth

d) flextime

e) job sharing

11 Which of the following represents the three general categories into which the key components of
effective teams are grouped?

a) Internal, external and peripheral factors

b) Basic, functional, and strategic factors

c) Standard, segregated, and advanced factors

d) Context, composition, and process factors

e) Cardinal, central, and secondary factors

12 J ean Wills, a trainer with Leverage Inc., is infuriated because the conference hall that she
had booked for her morning session with a new batch of trainees will be occupied by the HR
team for the day. J ean feels that the company only superficially commits to training and that
it is not a priority as this lack of facilities for training is a recurring phenomenon. Recently,
she had asked the HR department to supply printed copies of her material for the orientation
and training modules to the new trainees, and HR refused, saying the soft copies available
on the systems would suffice. Which of the following contextual areas is the source of
problem between the training department and the HR department in this scenario?

a) Structure

b) Adequate resources

c) Reward systems

d) Leadership

e) Performance evaluation


13 A team that has a good plan, but is also willing to adjust their master plan and adapt when
conditions call for it demonstrates high ________, an important variable in successful team

a) Diversity

b) Reflexivity

c) Goal congruency

d) Goal specificity

e) Conformity

14 The existence of dissimilar mental models is likely to lead to ________.

a) Specific and accurate goals being pursued by all team members

b) Disagreements over the methods to be applied for task completion

c) Decisions being made on the basis of unanimous judgments

d) Higher levels of objectively rated performance

e) Diverse but appropriate decisions being made by the team

15 J ason has been asked to assemble an eight-member self-managed work team of experienced
employees to work on a project that combines the functional areas of research, production,
and distribution. J ason is scared about managing a team so large; he knows from experience that
larger teams do not always result in greater productivity. J ason plans to implement a
group-based incentive that he feels would motivate each of the team members to work
efficiently. Which of the following is an assumption made by J ason in implementing this plan?

a) Each employee in the team is motivated to work equally hard to ensure that the group's
performance is satisfactory

b) Increasing the number of experienced employees in the team will reduce the need for

c) Each employee will be committed to working within the resources allocated

d) Each employee will work well within the boundaries of their divisional functions and
conflicts will be relatively fewer.

e) Since the team is comprised of employees who are highly skilled in their respective areas,
the output of the group will be of high quality.

16 Leadership is best defined as ________.

a) The ability to merely project one's abilities in the lack of actual accomplishments

b) The ability to use factors like training and experience to reduce dependence on formal

c) The ability to influence a group toward the achievement of a vision or set of goals

d) The ability to induce the team members to focus on individual goals rather than collective

e) The ability to reduce the dependence of team members on each other


17 Which of the following is a desirable feature of leadership?

a) One-directional influence from the leader to the follower

b) Coexistence of leaders and managers

c) Lack of freedom

d) Coercive power and authority

e) Passivity of followers

18 Trait theories of leadership focus on ________.

a) The match between the leader's style and the degree to which the situation gives the
leader control

b) The extent to which followers are willing and able to accomplish a specific task

c) The personal qualities and characteristics that differentiate leaders from nonleaders

d) The way the leader makes decisions

e) The special relationship that leaders establish with a small group of their followers

19 Emotional intelligence (EI) is critical to effective leadership because one of its core
components is ________ which reflects the consideration that leaders must be able to express.

a) Perfectionism

b) Empathy

c) Conscientiousness

d) Introversion

e) Optimism

20 Contingency theories focus on the ________ that impact leadership success.

a) Leader's abilities to inspire and transform followers

b) Values and ethics

c) Personality variables

d) Features of the followers

e) Situational variables

21 Which of the following statements is true regarding power?

a) A is said to have power over B if B controls something that A desires

b) If A has the capacity to influence the behavior of B, then A is said to have power over B.

c) A can have power over B only if A is B's leader

d) The greater A's dependence on B, the greater A's power in the relationship

e) A can have power over B only when A and B have similar goals



22 Power may be categorized as ________.

a) Formal and personal

b) Formal and informal

c) Informational and personal

d) Informal and legitimate

e) Direct and indirect

23 The power tactic of using flattery and creating goodwill before making a request is known as

a) Inspirational appeal

b) Consultation

c) Ingratiation

d) Affective appeal

e) Motivational appeal

24 Which of the following is an overt form of sexual harassment?

a) Unwanted looks or comments

b) Being too friendly

c) Off-color jokes

d) Posters of naked women in the workplace

e) Unwanted physical touching

25 Research on power is likely to provide information on the most effective ________.

a) Leadership styles for motivating followers

b) Tactics for gaining compliance of employees

c) Modes of assessing employee performance

d) Methods of rewarding successful employees

e) Methods to reduce dependence on leaders

26 As a regional sales officer, one of Brandon's job responsibilities is to process the yearly
appraisal forms of his subordinates and provide them with increments, bonuses, or benefits
based on their performance that year. This job responsibility directly reflects his ________.

a) Coercive power

b) Expert power

c) Active power

d) Referent power

e) Reward power



27 Which of the following power tactics uses warnings and threats and is typically the least
effective of all the power tactics?

a) Pressure

b) Exchange

c) Rational persuasion

d) Consultation

e) Coalitions

28 Which of the following factors can lead to greater probability of sexual harassment at the

a) An active sexual harassment policy

b) Larger percentage of women in positions of power

c) Awareness regarding sexual harassment

d) Large power differentials

e) A no-retaliation policy for victims seeking justice

29 Timothy J enkins was working for six years at Hartford Mills, a company that takes a
strong stand against unions. Though Timothy's designation was that of a production supervisor,
as the company grew, he also took on additional duties like keeping a check on employee
safety, ensuring that legal measures are followed, and implementing programs for labor welfare
that the company planned. Many believed that Timothy was doing a great job for the company
and so it came as a surprise when Timothy was rumored to face severe disciplinary action as
he was encouraging the workers to join a union. However, he was let off with a mere warning.
Which of the following, if true, would explain this paradox?

a) Timothy claimed that he was only looking to ensure greater employee welfare which was one
of the duties the company had assigned to him

b) Timothy stressed the fact that he was a meticulous worker who always adhered to company

c) Timothy argued that allowing unionization had increased the levels of employee satisfaction
in one of their rival companies

d) The management had recently moved from an open shop mechanism to a closed shop

e) The management had recently instituted a formal employee welfare committee



30 Will Cears works at Mesner Corp, as a middle-level manager. Will recognizes that his firm
is plagued by organizational politics. Since he is not good at playing games, he frequently
engages in defensive behaviors in order to protect himself and his interests. Will is frustrated
because he believes that he has little control over his environment, and his environment
is uncomfortable to him. He has had some success at establishing a sense of control for
himself by appearing to be cooperative and supportive to his colleagues. However, he continues
to hold his reservations against politicking and does not engage in it. This is an example of
________ in order to avoid action, blame, or change.

a) Buffing

b) Misrepresenting

c) Scapegoating

d) Buck passing

e) Stalling

31 Negotiation can be defined as a process in which two or more parties exchange goods or
services and attempt to agree upon ________.

a) Effective arbitrators for disputes

b) The exchange rate for those goods and services

c) A model of the negotiation process for resolving differences

d) The monetary value of the exchanged items

e) Acceptable bargaining strategies for obtaining the goods and services

32 Emma is the labor union negotiator. Today she is meeting with management to discuss
the new five year contract, including wages and benefits. This example of
labor-management negotiations over wages exemplifies which type of bargaining?

a) Reflective

b) Affective

c) Restrictive

d) Integrative

e) Distributive

33 Integrative bargaining focuses on ________.

a) Long-term relationships

b) Competition

c) Short-term benefits

d) Ensuring balanced inputs

e) Zero-sum gains



34 Which bargaining strategy is preferable for use in intraorganizational behavior?

a) Equal bargaining

b) Distributive bargaining

c) Equity splitting

d) Positive negotiation

e) Integrative bargaining

35 Which of the following is not a step in the negotiation process?

a) Clarification and justification

b) Preparation and planning

c) Bargaining and problem solving

d) Process evaluation

e) Definition of ground rules

36 A paper sales company designs and offers a new method of purchasing and shipping
commercial quantities of paper through their Web site. Earlier, the company used to
do its business through its sales representative. This is an example of a(n) ________ change.

a) Planned

b) Cognitive

c) Secondary

d) Accidental

e) Integrated

37 Which of the following is an example of an individual source of resistance to change?

a) Employee orientation

b) Structural inertia

c) Limited focus of change

d) Fear of the unknown

e) Product orientation

38 Which of the following tactics for overcoming resistance to change is most likely to be
beneficial when employees' fear and anxiety are high?

a) Coercion

b) Implementing changes fairly

c) Manipulation

d) Participation

e) Building support and commitment



39 Which of the following is an organizational development technique that involves an
outsider assisting a manager to identify what to improve and how?

a) Social reinforcement

b) Action research

c) Intergroup development

d) Process consultation

e) Appreciative inquiry

40 In order to make their firm a learning organization, managers should ________.

a) Reinforce interdependence and reduce boundaries

b) Avoid the use of cross-functional teams

c) Increase the degree of departmentalization

d) Increase the number of hierarchical levels in the organization

e) Penalize mistakes



Section B: Answer TWO (2) questions out of the three questions below. Each questions is worth
15 marks.

Teams are critical to the work done in most organizations.
a) Name four types of teams discussed in class. How are they different from one another?
(8 marks)

b) In a world where things are increasingly virtual, explain what management can do to
ensure that virtual teams are effective.
(7 marks)


Leadership is one of the most talked about topics in management. It is one where there are a
variety of definitions, theories and opinions.

a) Define leadership
(2 marks)

b) Explain the theory of leadership that you believe best explains your personal experience
of leadership (either because you were leading a programme or because you observed
others leading a programme)
(8 marks)

c) Give an example of an event that you attended at university in which you observed good
leadership. Describe what happened and why you think this was good leadership.

(5 marks)


In every organization, there are conflicts.

a) Identify the five stages of the conflict process.
(10 marks)

b) Compare the traditional and interactionist view of conflicts
(5 marks)



Section C: Answer the TWO questions at the end of the case. Each question is worth 15 marks.

Wyeth Implements Major Organizational Change

When Denise Peppard was studying for her master’s degree in business administration at the
University of Michigan more than 20 years ago, she decided to pursue a career in human
resources management. Peppard realized that potential when she became senior vice president of
HR for Wyeth in J anuary last year. Corporate and cultural change at Wyeth has served as
Peppard’s focal point. She began her present job in the midst of a large-scale corporate
restructuring program called Project Impact. Peppard began implementing the project while
serving as the head of HR for Wyeth Pharmaceuticals – the largest division, employing
approximately 92 present of Wyeth’s 50,000 employees worldwide.
“The change we’re experiencing is throughout the pharmaceutical industry right now. You can
look at it as an opportunity” Peppard says, “because it’s good change, it’s the kind of change
that we should be doing and will ultimately make Wyeth a better company”. Project Impact goals
• Streamlining Wyeth’s operations
• Exploring opportunities for alliances for research and development
• Reducing production costs

One of the first steps in implementing the restructuring plan was a series of job cuts. J ust as
Peppard began her new job, Wyeth officials announced the company would reduce its workforce
by 10 percent during the next five years. In March, the company laid off 1,200 sales
representatives in a cost-cutting move. The job cuts came after Wyeth’s patent expired on its
popular Protonix acid-relief medication and the company began facing stiffer competition from
manufacturers of generic drugs. Yet Project Impact appears to meet the intended short-term
result: Compared with 2007, Wyeth’s revenue and earnings have grown approximately 6 percent
in 2008. The company reported revenue of $11.65 billion for the first six months of 2008.

“If there’s one thing to regret in this change process, [it’s] that we began with a short-term cost
reduction associated with Protonix production and the sales force,” says Peppard. “I don’t think
everyone in the company has quite grasped that his effort is not just about job reductions and that
it is actually about changing the way we work.” For example, Peppard points to ideas such as
using fewer manufacturing facilities and possibly using more third-party suppliers. Research and
development partnerships with other pharmaceutical companies represent other avenues for
Wyeth leaders to ponder. “We really have to restructure the way people are working, and that’s a
massive, massive change,” Peppard says during an interview at Wyeth headquarters.

Peppard sees the changes within Wyeth and the pharmaceutical industry as the natural response
to its shifts in the global market. In the past year and for the first time ever, Wyeth’s international
sales surpassed the company’s domestic sales. Nearly half of Wyeth’s employees now work
outside the United States.



Still, the workforce reductions ultimately impact individuals, and Peppard admits that making
decisions that affect the livelihoods of people proves to be the toughest part of her job. “These
are not decisions that are taken lightly,” Peppard says. Wyeth leaders “take great care with
decisions to cut jobs and make sure that each affected individual is treated with care and dignity.
Even though it’s a business decision, ultimately it comes down to a personal level, and that’s the
really tough part.”

What were the external and internal forces for change at Wyeth?
(15 marks)
Explain how Denise Peppard followed the change models proposed by Lewin and Kotter?
(15 marks)

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