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**An Arithmetic Sequence is made by adding some value each time.
**

Examples:

1, 4, 7, 10, 13, 16, 19, 22, 2, ...

!his sequence has a di""erence o" 3 bet#een each number.

!he $attern is continued by addin% 3 to the last number each time.

3, &, 13, 1&, 23, 2&, 33, 3&, ...

!his sequence has a di""erence o" bet#een each number.

!he $attern is continued by addin% to the last number each time.

!he value added each time is called the 'common di""erence'

(hat is the common di""erence in this e)am$le*

19, 27, 3, 43, ...

Ans#er+ !he common di""erence is 8

!he common di""erence could also be ne%ative, li,e this+

2, 23, 21, 19, 17, 1, ...

!his common di""erence is -2

!he $attern is continued by subtracting 2 each time.

Geometric Sequences

A -eometric Sequence is made by multiplying by some value each time.

Examples:

2, 4, &, 16, 32, 64, 12&, 26, ...

!his sequence has a "actor o" 2 bet#een each number.

!he $attern is continued by multi$lyin% the last number by 2 each time.

3, 9, 27, &1, 243, 729, 21&7, ...

!his sequence has a "actor o" 3 bet#een each number.

!he $attern is continued by multi$lyin% the last number by 3 each time.

Special Sequences

Triangular Numbers

1, 3, 6, 10, 1, 21, 2&, 36, 4, ...

!his sequence is %enerated "rom a $attern o" dots #hich "orm a trian%le.

.y addin% another ro# o" dots and countin% all the dots #e can "ind the ne)t

number o" the sequence.

Square Numbers

1, 4, 9, 16, 2, 36, 49, 64, &1, ...

!he ne)t number is made by squarin% #here it is in the $attern.

!he second number is 2 squared /2

2

or 2021

!he seventh number is 7 squared /7

2

or 7071 etc

ube Numbers

1, &, 27, 64, 12, 216, 343, 12, 729, ...

!he ne)t number is made by cubin% #here it is in the $attern.

!he second number is 2 cubed /2

3

or 202021

!he seventh number is 7 cubed /7

3

or 707071 etc

!ibonacci Numbers

0, 1, 1, 2, 3, , &, 13, 21, 34, ...

!he ne)t number is "ound by addin% the t#o numbers be"ore it to%ether.

!he 2 is "ound by addin% the t#o numbers in "ront o" it /1211

!he 21 is "ound by addin% the t#o numbers in "ront o" it /&2131

!he ne)t number in the sequence above #ould be /212341

!ibonacci Sequence

The Fibonacci Sequence is the series of numbers:

0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, ...

The next number is found b addin! u" the t#o numbers before it.

• The 2 is found b addin! the t#o numbers before it $1%1&

• Simi'ar', the 3 is (ust $1%2&,

• )nd the 5 is (ust $2%3&,

• and so on*

+xam"'e: the next number in the sequence abo,e #ou'd be $21%34& - 55

.t is that sim"'e*

/ere is a 'on!er 'ist:

0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 80, 144, 233, 311, 210, 081, 1501, 2584, 4181, 2125,

10042, 11111, 28251, 42328, 15025, 121303, 102418, 311811, ...

Can you figure out the next few numbers?

The Rule

The Fibonacci Sequence can be #ritten as a 34u'e3 $see Sequences and Series&:

The 4u'e is xn = xn-1 + xn-2

#here:

• xn is term number 3n3

• xn-1 is the "re,ious term $n51&

• xn-2 is the term before that $n52&

The terms are numbered form 0 on#ards 'i6e this:

n = 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

xn - 0 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 34 55 80 144 233 311 ...

+xam"'e: term 2 #ou'd be ca'cu'ated 'i6e this:

x6 = x6-1 + x6-2 = x5 + x4 = 5 + 3 = 8

Golden Ratio

)nd here is a sur"rise. .f ou ta6e an t#o successi,e !one

after the other" Fibonacci 7umbers, their ratio is ,er c'ose to

the 8o'den 4atio 3φ3 #hich is a""roximate' 1.618034...

.n fact, the bi!!er the "air of Fibonacci 7umbers, the c'oser the

a""roximation. 9et us tr a fe#:

A B B / A

2 3 1.5

3 5 1.222222222...

5 8 1.2

8 13 1.225

... ... ...

144 233 1.218055552...

233 311 1.218025151...

... ... ...

7ote: this a'so #or6s if ou "ic6 t#o ando! #ho'e numbers to be!in the sequence,

such as 102 and 12 $ou #ou'd !et the sequence 192# 16# 208# 224# 432# 656# 1088# 1744#

2832# 4576# 7408# 11984# 19392# 31376# &:

A B B / A

1"2 16 0.08333333...

12 208 13

208 224 1.01202308...

224 432 1.02851143...

... ... ...

1408 11084 1.21111058...

11084 10302 1.21815154...

... ... ...

.t ta6es 'on!er to !et !ood ,a'ues, but it sho#s ou that it is not (ust the Fibonacci

Sequence that can do this*

#$in% The Golden Ratio to &al'ulate (i)ona''i

*u!)e$

)nd e,en more sur"risin! is this formu'a for ca'cu'atin! an Fibonacci 7umber usin! the

8o'den 4atio:

)ma:in!' the ans#er a'#as comes out as a #ho'e number, exact' equa' to the addition

of the "re,ious t#o terms.

+xam"'e:

;hen . used a ca'cu'ator on this $on' enterin! the 8o'den 4atio to 2 decima' "'aces& .

!ot the ans#er 8.00000033. ) more accurate ca'cu'ation #ou'd be c'oser to 8.

Tr it for ourse'f*

Te!$ Belo+ ,eo

The sequence can be extended bac6#ards*

9i6e this:

n = $6 $5 $4 $3 $2 $1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

xn - ... 58 5 53 2 51 1 0 1 1 2 3 5 8 ...

!%ro&e to yourse'f that a((ing the )re&ious two terms together sti'' wor*s+"

.n fact the sequence be'o# :ero has the same numbers as the sequence abo,e :ero, exce"t

the fo''o# a %5%5 ... "attern. .t can be #ritten 'i6e this:

x<n - $<1&

n%1

xn

;hich sas that term 35n3 is equa' to $<1&

n%1

times term 3n3, and the ,a'ue $<1&

n%1

neat'

ma6es the correct 1,51,1,51,... "attern.

Nature" The Golden #atio"

and !ibonacci too $$$

3lants %ro# ne# cells in

s$irals, such as this

$attern o" seeds in the

beauti"ul sun"lo#er.

!he s$iral ha$$ens

naturally because each

ne# cell is "ormed a"ter

a turn.

"New cell, then turn,

then another cell, then

turn, ..."

%o& !ar to Turn'

So, i" you #ere a $lant, ho# much o" a turn #ould you have in bet#een ne#

cells*

4" you don5t turn at all, you #ould have a strai%ht

line.

.ut that is a very $oor desi%n ... you #ant

somethin% round that #ill hold to%ether #ith no

gaps.

(hy not try

to )ind the

best *alue )or

yoursel)'

!ry di""erent

values, li,e

• 0.7,

• 0.9,

• 3.1416,

• 0.62

• etc,

6emember,

you are tryin%

to ma,e a

$attern #ith

no %a$s "rom

start to end7

/.y the #ay, it

doesn5t matter

about the

#hole number

$art, li,e +$ or

,$ because

they are "ull

revolutions

that $oint you

bac, in the

same

direction.1

!his animation

needs 8lash

3layer. See

belo# "or ho#

this animation

#or,s9

(hat -id .ou Get'

4" you %ot somethin% that ends li,e /$0+8 /or 0.3&2, #hich is 1:0.61&1 then

"Congratulations, you are a successful member of the plant kingdom!"

!hat is because the -olden 6atio /+$0+8/1...1 is the best

solution to this $roblem, and the Sun"lo#er ,no#s it.

!ry it ... it should loo, li,e this.

(hy'

.ecasue i" you choose any number that is a sim$le "raction /e)am$le+ 0.7 is 3;4,

and 0.9 is 19;20, etc1, then you #ill eventually %et a $attern o" lines stac,in% u$,

and hence lots o" %a$s.

.ut the -olden 6atio /its symbol is the -ree, letter 3hi,

sho#n at le"t1 is an e)$ert at not being any )raction.

4t is an 4rrational <umber /meanin% you cannot #rite it as a

sim$le "raction1, but more than that ... it is as "ar as you can

%et "rom bein% near any "raction.

2ust being irrational is not enough

3i /1$+3+,420,3...1, #hich is also irrational.

=n"ortunately it has a decimal very close to 1;7

/> 0.142&7...1, so it ends u$ #ith 7 arms.

e /2$5+828$$$1 also irrational, does not #or,

either because its decimal is close to ;7

/0.7142&...1, so it also ends u$ #ith 7 arms.

So" %o& -oes the Golden #atio (or6'

?ne o" the s$ecial $ro$erties o" the -olden 6atio is that it can be de"ined

in terms o" itsel", li,e this+

(In numbers: .!"#$... % & '.!"#$...(

!hat can be e)$anded into this "raction that %oes on "or ever /called a

"continued fraction"1+

So, it neatly sli$s in bet#een sim$le "ractions.

!ibonacci Numbers

!here is a s$ecial relationshi$ bet#een the -olden @ean and 8ibonacci

<umbers (#, , , ), $, *, ", $, ), ... etc, each number is the sum of the two

numbers before it(.

4" you ta,e any t#o successive (one after the other( 8ibonacci <umbers, their

ratio is very close to the -olden 6atio+

A 7 7 8 A

2 3 1.

3 1.666666666...

& 1.6

& 13 1.62

13 21 1.613&461...

... ... ...

144 233 1.61&06...

233 377 1.61&0271...

... ... ...

So, Aust li,e you naturally %et seven arms i" you

use 0.142&7 /1;71, you tend to %et 8ibonacci

<umbers #hen you use the -olden @ean.

!ry countin% the s$iral arms : the 'le"t turnin%'

s$irals, and then the 'ri%ht turnin%' s$irals ...

#hat numbers did you %et*

Spiral 9ea) Gro&th

!his interestin% behaviour is not Aust "ound in

sun"lo#er seeds.

Beaves, branches and $etals can %ro# in

s$irals, too.

(hy* So that ne# leaves don5t bloc, the sun

"rom older leaves, or so that the ma)imum

amount o" rain or de# %ets directed do#n to

the roots.

4n "act, i" a $lant has s$irals, the rotation tends to be a "raction made #ith t#o

successive 8ibonacci <umbers, "or e)am$le+

• A hal" rotation is 1;2 /1 and 2 are 8ibonacci <umbers1

• 3; is also common /both 8ibonacci <umbers1, and

• ;& also /you %uessed it71

all %ettin% closer and closer to the -olden 6atio.

And that is #hy 8ibonacci <umbers are very common in

$lants. 1,2,3,,&,13,21,... etc occur in an amaCin% number

o" $laces.

Dere is a daisy #ith 21 $etals

/but e)$ect a "e# more or less, because

some may have dro$$ed o"" or be Aust %ro#in%1

Golden Angle

So "ar #e have been tal,in% about 'turns' /"ull

rotations1.

!he equivalent o" 0.61&03... rotations is 222.4922...

de%rees, or about 222.E.

4n the other direction it is about +15$,:, called the

'-olden An%le'.

+o, ne,t time you are walking in the garden, look for the -olden .ngle,

and count petals and lea/es to find 0ibonacci Numbers,

and disco/er how cle/er the plants are ... !

Exercise

(hy don5t you %o into the %arden or $ar, ri%ht no#, and start countin% leaves and

$etals, and measurin% rotations to see #hat you "ind.

Fou can #rite your results on this "orm+

;lant Name or -escription:

-o the 9ea*es Gro& in Spirals' F ; <

Gount a %rou$ o" Beaves+

Do# many leaves /a1 *

Do# many "ull rotations /b1 *

6otation $er lea" /b;a1 +

6otation An%le /360 0 b;a1 +

Are There !lo&ers' F ; <

Do# many $etals on 8lo#er 1+

8lo#er 2+

8lo#er 3+

/.ut remember, nature may "ollo# mathematical rules but the results aren5t

al#ays $er"ect1

< Notes About the Animation

Sun"lo#er seeds %ro# "rom the center out#ards, but on the animation 4 "ound

it easier to dra# the youn%er seeds "irst and add on the older ones.

!he animation should continue lon%er to be the same as the sun"lo#er : this

#ould result in cloc,#ise s$irals and 34 countercloc,#ise s$irals

/successive 8ibonacci <umbers1. 4 Aust didn5t #ant it to ta,e too lon%.

!he s$irals are not $ro%rammed into it : they occur naturally as a result o"

tryin% to $lace the seeds as close to each other as $ossible #hile ,ee$in%

them at the correct rotation.

Golden #atio

The !o'den ratio !symbo' is the ,ree* 'etter -)hi- shown at 'eft" is a

s"ecia' number a""roximate' equa' to 1.218

.t a""ears man times in !eometr, art, architecture and other areas.

The -dea Behind -t

.f ou di,ide a 'ine into t#o "arts so that:

the 'on!er "art di,ided b the sma''er "art

is also equal to

the #ho'e 'en!th di,ided b the 'on!er "art

then ou #i'' ha,e the !o'den ratio.

Gue$$in% -t

There is on' one ,a'ue that #ou'd ma6e a=b equa' to $a%b&=a. 9et us tr out some

"ossibi'ities to see if #e can disco,er it:

.et u$ t/ a=0 and )=31 $o a+)=102

1=3 - 2.333..., but 10=1 - 1.42"..., so that won.t wor*

.et u$ t/ a=6 and )=41 $o a+)=102

2=4 - 1.5, but 10=2 - 1.666..., /'oser but not there yet+

.et u$ t/ a=6.18 and )=3.821 $o a+)=102

2.18=3.82 - 1.6108..., and 10=2.18 - 1.6181..., getting &ery /'ose+

.n fact the ,a'ue is:

1.618033"8804"8"484820... $6ee"s !oin!, #ithout an "attern&

The di!its (ust 6ee" on !oin!, #ith no "attern. .n fact the 8o'den 4atio is 6no#n to be an

.rrationa' 7umber, and . #i'' te'' ou more about it 'ater.

&al'ulatin% -t

>ou can ca'cu'ate it ourse'f b startin! #ith an number and fo''o#in! these ste"s:

• )& di,ide 1 b our number $1=number&

• ?& add 1

• @& that is our ne# number, start a!ain at )

;ith a ca'cu'ator, (ust 6ee" "ressin! 31=x3, 3%3, 313, 3-3, around and around. . started

#ith 2 and !ot this:

*u!)e 1/*u!)e Add 1

2 1=2-0.5 0.5%1-1.5

1.5 1=1.5 - 0.222... 0.222... % 1 - 1.222...

1.222... 1=1.222... - 0.2 0.2 % 1 - 1.2

1.2 1=1.2 - 0.225 0.225 % 1 - 1.225

1.225 1=1.225 - 0.2154... 0.2154... % 1 - 1.2154...

1.2154...

.t is !ettin! c'oser and c'oser*

?ut it #ou'd ta6e a 'on! time to !et there, ho#e,er there are better #as and it can be

ca'cu'ated to thousands of decima' "'aces quite quic6'.

3a+in% -t

/ere is one #a to dra# a rectan!'e #ith the 8o'den

4atio:

• Ara# a square $of si:e 313&

• B'ace a dot ha'f #a a'on! one side

• Ara# a 'ine from that "oint to an o""osite corner

$it #i'' be C5=2 in 'en!th&

• Turn that 'ine so that it runs a'on! the squareDs

side

Then ou can extend the square to be a rectan!'e #ith

the 8o'den 4atio.

The (o!ula

9oo6in! at the rectan!'e #e (ust dre#, ou can see that there is a sim"'e formu'a for it. .f

one side is 1, the other side #i'' be:

The square root of 5 is a""roximate' 2.232028, so The 8o'den 4atio is a""roximate'

$1%2.232028&=2 - 3.232028=2 - 1.218034. This is an eas #a to ca'cu'ate it #hen ou

need it.

Beaut/

Ean artists and architects be'ie,e the 8o'den 4atio ma6es the

most "'easin! and beautifu' sha"e.

This rectan!'e has been made usin! the 8o'den 4atio, 9oo6s

'i6e a t"ica' frame for a "aintin!, doesnDt itF

Ean bui'din!s and #or6s of art

inc'ude the 8o'den 4atio in them,

such as the Barthenon in 8reece.

(i)ona''i 4e5uen'e

)nd here is a sur"rise. .f ou ta6e an t#o successi,e Fibonacci 7umbers, their ratio is

,er c'ose to the 8o'den 4atio. .n fact, the bi!!er the "air of Fibonacci 7umbers, the

c'oser the a""roximation.

9et us tr a fe#:

A B B/A

2 3 1.5

3 5 1.222222222...

5 8 1.2

8 13 1.225

... ... ...

144 233 1.218055552...

233 311 1.218025151...

... ... ...

This a'so #or6s if ou "ic6 t#o ando! #ho'e numbers to be!in the sequence, such as

102 and 12 $ou #ou'd !et the sequence 192# 16# 208# 224# 432# 656# 1088# 1744# 2832#

4576# 7408# 11984# 19392# 31376# &:

A B B / A

1"2 16 0.08333333...

12 208 13

208 224 1.01202308...

224 432 1.02851143...

... ... ...

1408 11084 1.21111058...

11084 10302 1.21815154...

... ... ...

The 6o$t -ational ...

The 8o'den 4atio is the !o$t irrationa' number. /ere is #h ...

Gne of the s"ecia' "ro"erties of the 8o'den 4atio is that it can be defined in

terms of itse'f, 'i6e this:

!0n numbers1 161803 = 1 2 13161803"

That can be ex"anded into this fraction that !oes on for e,er $ca''ed a

-/ontinue( fra/tion-&:

So, it neat' s'i"s in bet#een sim"'e fractions.

;hereas man other irrationa' numbers are reasonab' c'ose to rationa' numbers $for

exam"'e Bi - 3.141502254... is "rett c'ose to 22=1 - 3.1428511...&

7the *a!e$

The 8o'den 4atio is a'so sometimes ca''ed the %olden $e'tion, %olden !ean, %olden

nu!)e, di8ine 9o9otion, di8ine $e'tion and %olden 9o9otion.

Sequences - !inding The #ule

To find a missin! number in a Sequence, first ou must 6no# The Rule

:ui'; 3e<inition o< 4e5uen'e

Read Sequences and Series for a more in-depth discussion, but put

simply:

) Sequence is a set of thin!s $usua'' numbers& that are in order.

Each number in the sequence is called a term (or sometimes

"element" or "member"):

(indin% 6i$$in% *u!)e$

To find a missing number you need to first find The Rule behind the

Sequence

Sometimes it is !ust a matter of loo"ing at the numbers and seeing the

pattern

Example: 1, 4, 9, 16, ?

#ns$er: they are Squares (%

&

'%, &

&

'(, )

&

'*, (

&

'%+, )

Rule: xn = n

2

Sequence: %, (, *, %+, 25, 36, 49, ...

,id you see ho$ $e $rote do$n the rule $ith "-" and "n" .

x

n

means "term number n", so term ) $ould be $ritten x

3

#nd $e also used "n" in the formula, so the formula for term ) is )

&

'

* This could be $ritten

x3 - 3

2

- 0

/nce $e ha0e The Rule $e can use it find any term, for e-ample, the

&1th term can be found by "plugging in" 25 $here0er n is

x25 - 25

2

- 225

2o$ about another e-ample:

Example: 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, ?

They are the sum of the t$o numbers before, that is ) 3 1 ' 4, 1 3 4 ' %)

and so on (it is actually part of the 5ibonacci Sequence):

Rule: xn = xn-1 + xn-2

Sequence: ), 1, 4, %), &%, 34, 55, 89, ...

6o$ $hat does x

n-1

mean. 7ell that !ust means "the pre0ious term"

because the term number (n) is % less (n-1)

So, if n $as 6, then x

n

= x

6

(the +th term) and x

n-1

= x

6-1

= x

5

(the

1th term)

So, let8s apply the Rule to the +th term:

x2 - x251 % x252

x2 - x5 % x4

7e already "no$ the (th term is %), and the 1th is &%, so the ans$er

is:

x2 - 21 % 13 - 34

9retty simple !ust put numbers instead of "n"

6an/ Rule$

/ne of the troubles $ith finding "the ne-t number" in a sequence is

that mathematics is so po$erful you can often find more then one Rule

that $or"s

What ! the next num"er n the !e#uen$e 1, 2, 4, %, ?

There are (at least) three solutions:

Solution %: #dd %, then add &, ), (,

So, %31'&, &32'(, (33':, :34'%%, etc

Rule: xn = n&n-1'(2 + 1

Sequence: %, &, (, :, 11, 16, 22, ...

(The rule loo"s a bit complicated, but it $or"s)

Solution &: #dd the t$o pre0ious numbers, plus %:

Rule: xn = xn-1 + xn-2 + 1

Sequence: %, &, (, :, 12, 2), 33, ...

Solution ): #dd the three pre0ious numbers

Rule: xn = xn-1 + xn-2 + xn-3

Sequence: %, &, (, :, 13, 24, 44, ...

So, $e had three perfectly reasonable solutions, and they created

totally different sequences

7hich is right. The* are all r+ht.

#nd there $ill be other solutions

2ey, it may be a list of the $inner8s numbers so

the ne-t number could be anything;

4i!9le$t Rule

7hen in doubt choose the !mple!t rule that ma"es sense, but also

mention that there are other solutions

(indin% 3i<<een'e$

Sometimes it helps to find the ,--eren$e! bet$een each number

this can often re0eal an underlying pattern

2ere is a simple case:

The differences are al$ays &, so $e can guess that "&n" is part of the

ans$er

<et us try 2n:

n: 1 2 3 4 5

Term! &xn': : * %% %) %1

2n: & ( + 4 %=

Wr.n+ "*: 1 1 1 1 1

The last ro$ sho$s that $e are al$ays $rong by 1, so !ust add 1 and

$e are done:

4u'e: xn - 2n % 5

/>, you could ha0e $or"ed out "&n31" by !ust playing around $ith the

numbers a bit, but $e $ant a !*!temat$ $ay to do it, for $hen the

sequences get more complicated

4e'ond 3i<<een'e$

?n the sequence /1, 2, 4, %, 11, 16, 22, ...0 $e need to find the

differences

and then find the differences of th.!e (called second differences),

li"e this:

The !e$.n, ,--eren$e! in this case are %

;ith second differences ou mu'ti"' b 3n

2

= 23.

?n our case the difference is %, so let us try n

2

( 2:

n: 1 2 3 4 5

Term! &xn': 1 2 4 % 11

n

2

: % ( * %+ &1

n

2

( 2: ).5 2 4.5 8 12.5

Wr.n+ "*: =1 = -=1 -% -%1

7e are close, but seem to be drifting by =1, so let us try: n

2

( 2 -

n(2

n

2

( 2 - n(2: ) 1 3 6 1)

Wr.n+ "*: % % % % %

7rong by % no$, so let us add %:

n

2

( 2 - n(2 + 1: 1 2 4 % 11

Wr.n+ "*: = = = = =

The formula n

&

@ & - n@& 3 % can be simplified to n&n-1'(2 + 1

So, by "trial-and-error" $e $ere able to disco0er the rule

Sequence: %, &, (, :, %%, %+, &&, 29, 3%, ...

7the T/9e$ o< 4e5uen'e$

#s $ell as the sequences mentioned on Sequences and Series:

• #rithmetic Sequences

• Aeometric Sequences

• 5ibonacci Sequence

• Triangular, etc Sequences

;ascal=s Triangle

Gne of the most interestin! 7umber Batterns is

Basca'Ds Trian!'e $named after 4'aise %as/a', a

famous French Eathematician and

Bhi'oso"her&.

To )uild the tian%le1 $tat +ith =1= at

the to91 then 'ontinue 9la'in%

nu!)e$ )elo+ it in a tian%ula

9atten.

>a'h nu!)e i$ ?u$t the t+o

nu!)e$ a)o8e it added to%ethe

@ex'e9t <o the ed%e$1 +hi'h ae

all =1=A.

$/ere . ha,e hi!h'i!hted that 1+3 = 4A

Batten$ Cithin the Tian%le

3ia%onal$

The first dia!ona' is, of

course, (ust 313s, and the

next dia!ona' has the

@ountin! 7umbers $1,2,3,

etc&.

The third dia!ona' has the

trian!u'ar numbers

$The fourth dia!ona', not

hi!h'i!hted, has the

tetrahedra' numbers.&

7dd$ and >8en$

.f ou co'or the Gdd and +,en numbers, ou end u"

#ith a "attern the same as the Sier"ins6i Trian!'e

DoiEontal 4u!$

;hat do ou notice about

the hori:onta' sumsF .s

there a "atternF .snDt it

ama:in!*

.t doub'es each time

$"o#ers of 2&.

(i)ona''i

4e5uen'e

Tr this: ma6e a

"attern b !oin! u"

and then a'on!, then

add u" the squares

$as i''ustrated& ...

ou #i'' !et the

Fibonacci Sequence.

$The Fibonacci

Sequence starts 31,

13 and then

continues b addin!

the t#o "re,ious

numbers, for

exam"'e 3%5-8,

then 5%8-13, etc&

4/!!eti'al

)nd the trian!'e is a'so smmetrica'. The numbers on the

#$in% Ba$'alF$ Tian%le

Dead$ and Tail$

Basca'Ds Trian!'e can sho# ou ho# man #as heads and tai's can combine. This can

then sho# ou 3the odds3 $or "robabi'it& of an combination.

For exam"'e, if ou toss a coin three times, there is on' one combination that #i'' !i,e

ou three heads $///&, but there are three that #i'' !i,e t#o heads and one tai' $//T,

/T/, T//&, a'so three that !i,e one head and t#o tai's $/TT, T/T, TT/& and one for a''

Tai's $TTT&. This is the "attern 31,3,3,13 in Basca'Ds Trian!'e.

To$$e$ Bo$$i)le Re$ult$ @Gou9edA Ba$'alF$ Tian%le

1

/

T

1, 1

2

//

/T T/

TT

1, 2, 1

3

///

//T, /T/, T//

/TT, T/T, TT/

TTT

1, 3, 3, 1

4

////

///T, //T/, /T//, T///

//TT, /T/T, /TT/, T//T, T/T/, TT//

/TTT, T/TT, TT/T, TTT/

TTTT

1, 4, 2, 4, 1

... etc ...

Chat i$ the 9o)a)ilit/ o< %ettin% exa'tl/ t+o head$ +ith 4 'oin to$$e$G

There are 1%4%2%4%1 - 12 $or 2

4

-12& "ossib'e resu'ts, and 2 of them !i,e

exact' t#o heads. So the "robabi'it is 2=12, or 31.5H

&o!)ination$

The trian!'e a'so sho#s ou ho# man @ombinations of ob(ects are "ossib'e.

+xam"'e, if ou ha,e 12 "oo' ba''s, ho# man different #as cou'd ou choose (ust 3 of

them $i!norin! the order that ou se'ect them&F

)ns#er: !o do#n to ro# 12 $the to" ro# is 0&, and then a'on! 3 "'aces and the ,a'ue

there is our ans#er, 560.

/ere is an extract at ro# 12:

1 14 91 364 ...

1 15 105 455 1365 ...

1 16 120 560 1820 4368 ...

.n fact there is a formu'a from @ombinations for #or6in! out the ,a'ue at an "'ace in

Basca'Ds trian!'e:

.t is common' ca''ed 3n choose 63 and #ritten @$n,6&.

The 3*3 means 3factoria'3, for exam"'e 4* - 1I2I3I4 - 24&

+xam"'e: 4o# 4, term 2 in Basca'Ds Trian!'e is 323. 9etDs see if the formu'a #or6s:

Bol/no!ial$

Basca'Ds Trian!'e can a'so sho# ou the coefficients in binomia' ex"ansion:

Bo+e Bino!ial >x9an$ion Ba$'alF$ Tian%le

2 $x % 1&

2

- 1x

2

% 2x % 1 1, 2, 1

3 $x % 1&

3

- 1x

3

% 3x

2

% 3x % 1 1, 3, 3, 1

4 $x % 1&

4

- 1x

4

% 4x

3

% 6x

2

% 4x % 1 1, 4, 2, 4, 1

... etc ...

The (i$t 15 .ine$

For reference, . ha,e inc'uded ro# 0 to 14 of Basca'Ds Trian!'e

1

1 1

1 2 1

1 3 3 1

1 4 6 4 1

1 5 10 10 5 1

1 6 15 20 15 6 1

1 7 21 35 35 21 7 1

1 8 28 56 70 56 28 8 1

1 9 36 84 126 126 84 36 9 1

1 10 45 120 210 252 210 120 45 10

1

1 11 55 165 330 462 462 330 165 55 11

1

1 12 66 220 495 792 924 792 495 220 66

12 1

1 13 78 286 715 1287 1716 1716 1287 715 286 78

13 1

1 14 91 364 1001 2002 3003 3432 3003 2002 1001 364

91 14 1

The &hine$e Hne+ A)out -t

This dra#in! is entit'ed 3The G'd Eethod @hart of the Se,en

Eu'ti"'in! Squares3. Jie# Fu'' .ma!e

.t is from the front of @hu Shi5@hiehDs boo6 35su 6uan 67 Chien-

!%re/ious 8irror of the 9our :'ements", #ritten in A3 1303 $o,er

100 ears a!o*&, and in the boo6 it sas the trian!'e #as 6no#n

about more than t#o centuries before that.

The :uin'unx

)n ama:in! 'itt'e machine created b Sir Francis 8a'ton is a Basca'Ds

Trian!'e made out of "e!s. .t is ca''ed The Kuincunx.

?a''s are dro""ed onto the first "e! and then bounce do#n to the bottom

of the trian!'e #here the co''ect in 'itt'e bins.

)t first it 'oo6s com"'ete' random $and it is&,

but then ou find the ba''s "i'e u" in a nice

"attern: the 7orma' Aistribution.

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