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Unit 2: Chemistry

Carlo Joseph M. Moskito


Students Lecture Manual
SCIENCE 9
Students Lecture Manual | Unit 2: Chemistry
Carlo Joseph M. Moskito
August 2014
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MODULE 1
ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE
OF MATTER
Learning Competencies
Describe how the Bohr Model of the atom improved
Rutherfords Atomic Model.
Explain how the Quantum Mechanical Model of the atom
describes the energies and positions of the electrons.
Recall: Atomic Models
Solid Sphere Model
(John Dalton, 1807)
Atom is a uniform solid sphere
Plum-Pudding Model
(JJ Thomson, 1903)
Electrons (negative charges)
spread on positive sphere or
protons
Recall: Rutherfords Nuclear Atomic Model
Discovered the nucleus, a dense
positively charged center of the atom
through the Gold Foil Experiment
Lord Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937)
Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1908
Recall: Rutherfords Nuclear Atomic Model
Recall: Rutherfords Nuclear Atomic Model
In the Nuclear Model, the atom has a
dense positively charged nucleus
surrounded by negatively charged
electrons
The atom is mostly empty space and
its mass is concentrated in the
nucleus (consisting of protons and
neutrons)
Recall: Rutherfords Nuclear Atomic Model
However, it could not explain why
metals or compounds of metal give off
characteristic color when heated in
flame such as in fireworks.
The Flame Test
Harry Potter Movies
A C T I V I T I E S
Analysis of Colors: The Atomic Spectroscope
Excitation
of Light
Separation of Colors Production of Spectra
or Atomic Fingerprint
Examples of Atomic Spectra
Hydrogen
Lithium
Examples of Atomic Spectra
Niels Bohrs Explanations
Individual lines in the atomic spectra
corresponds to a definite energy
transformation within the atom
Electrons moved around the nucleus in a
fixed circular orbits
Orbits are located at definite distances
from the nucleus and is also known as
energy level, n, where n is any whole
number (1, 2, 3) .
These orbits also have definite or
quantized energy which increases as
distance from the nucleus increases.
Niels Bohr (1885-1962)
Nobel Prize in Physics, 1922
Niels Bohrs Planetary Model
In this model, electrons move in
circular orbits within specific
energy levels around the nucleus.
How is light produced?
The explanation behind fireworks
An atom gets excited. It absorbs energy to move to a
higher energy level in an unstable state.
It deexcites by giving up the extra energy by emission of
light to its original energy level or ground state. The
energy absorbed/released varies as shown by its color.
How is light produced?
The explanation behind fireworks
Visible Spectrum
How is light produced?
The explanation behind fireworks
Absorption of Energy
EXCITED STATE, Unstable
Emission of Energy
GROUND STATE, Stable
Elements emit characteristic light.
(a) Hydrogen, (b) Neon, (c) Lithium, (d) Sodium, (e) Potassium
Elements emit characteristic light.
Element Color
Strontium Red
Calcium Orange
Sodium Yellow
Barium Green
Copper Blue
Success and Failure of the Bohr Atomic
Model
SUCESS
It predicted the hydrogen
spectrum.
It introduced the concept
of discrete energy levels, n
(first quantum number).
FAILURE
It was not sufficient to
describe atoms (predict
energy levels) with more
than one electron.
Wave-Particle Duality of Matter
Proposed by Louie de Broglie
Small particles of matter may at times
display wave-like properties.
mv
h
=
Louis de Broglie (1892-1987)
Nobel Prize in Physics, 1929
Uncertainty Principle
Proposed by Werner Karl Heisenberg
It is impossible to know both the
location/position and velocity of an
electron at the same time
Denies the possibility of electrons
moving in definite orbits
Werner Karl Heisenberg (1901-1976)
Nobel Prize in Physics, 1932
Schrodinger Equation
A mathematical equation that uses de
Broglies hypothesis that electron can be
described as a wave
Uses a theoretical approach known as
quantum or wave mechanics
Erwin Schrodinger (1887-1961)
Nobel Prize in Physics, 1933
The Quantum Mechanical Model
Louie de Broglies
ELECTRONS AS WAVE
Werner Karl Heisenbergs
UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE
Erwin Schrodingers
SCHRODINGERS EQUATION
The Quantum Mechanical Model
Rejected the idea of electrons in definite orbits around the
nucleus
Electrons as a wave.
As a consequence, electrons can be found in a certain
region in space around the nucleus called orbitals.
Successful in explaining atomic properties which the Bohrs
model was not able to explain
The Quantum Mechanical Model
Describes the electron position and energy through a
mathematical equation called Schrodinger equation
The model precisely define energy precisely, therefore a large
uncertainty on electron position based on the Uncertainty
principle
Electron in an atom is described by solution to the
Schrodinger equation called wave functions, .
The Quantum Mechanical Model
The darker an area, the
greater is the probability
of finding the electron in
that area
The Quantum Mechanical Model
Describes the region of space around the nucleus as
consisting of shells also principal or main energy levels.
Shells Maximum no. of electrons
1
st
K 2
2
nd
L 8
3
rd
M 18
4
th
N 32
5
th
O 50
6
th
P 72
7
th
Q 98
To determine maximum number
of electron per shell,
Max no. of electrons = 2n
2
where n is the first quantum
number
The Quantum Mechanical Model
The principal energy levels or shells may have one or
more sublevels. These sublevels are assigned with
letters: s, p, d, f, and g (and so on)
Subshells
Maximum no. of
electrons
Orbital
s (spherical) 2 1
p (principal) 6 3
d (diffuse) 10 5
f (fundamental) 14 7
Note: One orbital contains a maximum of 2 electrons
Orbital Shapes and Energies
s type orbital
Lowest energy on each level
Found only once per energy level
Sphere shaped
Series of concentric spheres
Orbital Shapes and Energies
p type orbitals
Higher energy that s orbital
Found starting at 2
nd
energy level
Sub-shells of three p orbitals per level
Hourglass shaped
Orbital Shapes and Energies
p type orbitals
Orbital Shapes and Energies
d type orbitals
Higher energy that s or p orbital
Found starting at 3rd energy level
Sub-shells of five d orbitals per level
Most 4 leaf clover shaped
Orbital Shapes and Energies
d type orbitals
Orbital Shapes and Energies
f type orbitals
Higher energy that s, p or d orbital
Found starting at 4th energy level
Sub-shells of seven f orbitals
Many different shapes
Orbital Shapes and Energies
f type orbitals
Comparison of the Bohr and Schrodinger
Model
Discrete energy levels with definite energy value
Only certain values are allowed
Energy if lost or gained by electrons during transition
from one energy level to another
SIMILARITIES
Comparison of the Bohr and Schrodinger
Model
BOHR MODEL
Electron in an orbit
around the nucleus
Knows distance/radius of
electron with certainty
Knows energy of electron
with certainty
SCHRODINGER MODEL
Wavefunctions defines
energy and position of
electron
Choose to define energy of
electron precisely
Exact position is not known
Wave functions describes
probability of finding
electron
DIFFERENCES
Electronic Configuration
A way of distributing electrons in different orbitals
around the nucleus of an atom
spdf notation
1s
1
Subshell designation
Number of electrons
Principal quantum
number, n
Electronic Configuration
Aufbau Principle: building of electrons one by one from
the lowest energy level first
Order:
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p
5s 4d 5p 6s 4f 5d 6p 7s
5d 6p 7s 5f 6d 7p .
Electronic Configuration
General Procedure in Writing Ground State Electronic
Configuration
1. Determine number of electrons (equal to Z)
2. Add electrons to orbital in increasing orbital energy.
(lowest orbital first)
Electronic Configuration
General Formula for Valence Shells
d-block ns
2
(n-1)d
x n is the period and x is the position
Except for the Group of Cu and Cr
f-block ns
2
(n-1)d
1
(n-2)f
x
Abbreviated Electronic Configuration
Starts with the nearest preceding noble gas
Electron Configuration Abbreviated
16
S 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
4
[Ne] 3s
2
3p
4
28
Ni 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
4s
2
3d
8
[Ar] 4s
2
3d
8
MODULE 2
Learning Competencies
Explain the formation of ionic and covalent bonds.
Recognize different types of compounds (ionic or
covalent) based on their properties such as melting
point, hardness, polarity and electrical and thermal
conductivity.
Explain properties of metals in terms of their structure.
Explain how ions are formed.
Recall: The Periodic Table of Elements
METALS
NON-
METALS
METALLOIDS
Types of Elements:
Recall: The Periodic Table of Elements
Groups or Family
vertical columns
in the periodic
table
Tells about the
number of
valence
electrons
Recall: The Periodic Table of Elements
Special Group Names
1A: Alkali Metals
2A: Alkaline Earth
6A: Chalcogens
7A: Halogens
8A: Noble Gases
Recall: Valence Electrons
Electrons at the outermost energy
level of the atom
Electrons that participates in bonding
for the formation of compounds
For main group elements, the number
of valence electron is equivalent to
the group number.
Bohr Atomic Model of Magnesium
Electronegativity (EN)
Measure of the tendency of an atom to attract electron
Values for electronegativity was developed by Linus
Pauling
Higher electronegativity value, higher tendency to attract
electrons
Periodic Trends for Electronegativity
increasing
decreasing
Ionization Energy
Minimum energy needed to remove one or more
electrons from a neutral atom.
One electron is removed from the atom one at a time
Lower Ionization Energy, Easier to remove its valence
electron
Atom + Ionization Energy Atom
+
+ e
-
Periodic Trends for Ionization Energy
Comparison of Metals vs. Non-Metals
METALS
Low Ionization Energy
Low Electronegativity
NON-METALS
High Ionization Energy
High Electronegativity
Tends to transfer or
loose electrons
Tends to attract or gain
electrons
Valence electrons can be
easily removed
Valence electrons cannot
be easily removed
Lewis Electron-Dot Symbol
A way of representing valence electrons
This symbol is composed of the chemical
symbol of the element and dots that
represent the number of valence electrons.
Gilbert Newton Lewis
(1875 1946)
Na
Element symbol
Valence electron
Lewis Electron-Dot Symbols
Elements that are in the same group have the same Lewis
electron dot symbols.
The specific positions of the paired and unpaired dots are
arbitrary as long as there is only a pair (or two electrons)
per side of the element symbol.
Chemical Bonds
Attractive forces that hold atoms together in compounds
Why bind?
To attain most stable arrangement of eight electrons
(isoelectronic or same electronic configuration like
the noble gases)
Bonding lowers the potential energy between positive
and negative particles
Octet Rule
After bonding, an element that gain or lose or share
electron/s must have eight (8) electrons on its valence
shell following the configuration of the nearest noble
gas.
Exceptions:
Hydrogen which follows the duet rule. It must have at
most two (2) electrons on its valence shell
Three Types of Chemical Bonds
Ionic Bond
Covalent Bond
Metallic Bond
1. Ionic Bonding
Bonds that occur from the complete transfer of
electrons from electrostatic attractions among ions.
On the Pauling Scale, the difference between the
electronegativity of the metal and non metal must be
greater than 1.7
EN > 1.7 = EN
metal
EN
non-metal
Results in the formation of ion, an atom or a group of
atoms possessing a net electrical charge
1. Ionic Bonding
Na Cl
+
Na
+
Cl
-
Note: After Bonding, atoms become isoelectronic to the nearest noble gas
Na is isoelectronic to Ne while Cl is isoelectronic to Ar
Formation of ions
Loses one electron
Gains one electron
ANION
Negatively charged species
Non metals that gain/s
electrons
CATION
Positively charged species
Metals that lose/s
electrons
1. Ionic Bonding
Reaction of Group 1 metals with Group 17 Nonmetals
Li F F Li
+
+
Chemical Formula: LiF
Writing Chemical Formula of Ionic
Compounds
1. Write the symbols of the metal first followed by the
non-metal.
2. Use the criss-cross rule in determining the subscripts
of each element in the compound.
CRISS CROSS RULE: The superscript of the cation becomes the subscript
of the anion and the superscript of the anion becomes the subscript of
the cation. When the subscript in the formula can be divided by the same
number to simplify the formula.
Naming Ionic Compounds
General Rule: To name binary ionic compounds
1. Name the metal as an element.
2. Name the nonmetal with an -ide ending.
Elements with Fixed Oxidation States.
IA IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA IB IIB
+1 +2 +3 +4 -3 -2 -1 +1 +2
Li
Na
K
Be, Mg
Ca, Sr
Ba
B
Al
C
Si
N
P
O
S
Se
F, Cl
Br, I
Ag Zn, Cd
1. Ionic Bonding
Reaction of Group 2 metals with Group 17 Nonmetals
Be Be
2+
+
F
F
F
F
Chemical Formula: BeF
2
Simple Binary Ionic Compounds
Reacting Groups General Formula Example
1 + 17
2 + 17
3 + 17
MX
MX2
MX3
LiF
BeF2
AlF3
1 + 16
2 + 16
3 + 16
M2X
MX
M2X3
Na2O
BaO
Al2S3
1 + 15
2 + 15
3 + 15
M3X
M3X2
MX
Na3N
Mg3P2
AlN
Properties of Ionic Substances
Non conductors of electricity when solid, no moving
charges since ions are firmly bound in the lattice
Conductors of electricity when molten or in aqueous
solution, ions are free to move
High melting and boiling point, strong ionic bonding
extending through the lattice
Hard, ions strongly bound in the lattice
Dense, distortion causes repulsion between ions of like
charges
2. Covalent Bonding
Bonds that occur from the sharing of electrons
If 2 electrons are shared single bond
If 4 electrons are shared double bond
If 6 electrons are shared triple bond
Two types of covalent bond:
Polar Covalent: EN = 0.5 to 1.7
Non-Polar Covalent: EN < 0.5
Multiple Bonds
C, O, N, P, and S
Some Common Covalent Compounds
Lewis Structures For Covalent Structures
1. Determine the total number of valence electrons
2. Determine the number of electrons necessary to satisfy
the octet rule without electron sharing
3. Get the difference between (1) and (2). This is the
number of bonding electrons around the central atom.
(Divide by two to obtain the bonding pairs)
4. Determine the central atom. The least electronegative,
often the first atom in the formula.
Lewis Structures For Covalent Structures
5. Bond atoms to central atom with a single bond.
6. Complete the octet for central atom
7. Distribute electrons to complete the octet for any
attached atoms
place extra electrons on central atom in pairs
form double/triple bonds if necessary to complete octet
atoms
Exceptions to the Octet Rule
H and He follow the duet rule
B usually has only 6 surrounding electrons
Be bonds with just 4 surrounding electrons
Elements in the 3
rd
period and higher contain d
orbitals, so may accommodate more than 8. This is not
the most likely situation, but can occur. The result is an
expanded octet
Some Exceptions to the Octet Rule
Molecules with an odd number of
electrons
NO has 5 + 6 = 11 valence
electrons
Molecules in which an atom has less
than an octet (Be and Be).
Some Exceptions to the Octet Rule
Molecules in which an atom has more than an octet.
Draw the Lewis Structures of:
1. Ammonia, NH
3
2. Water, H
2
O
3. Hydrogen chloride, HCl
4. Nitrogen gas, N
2
5. Oxygen gas, O
2
6. Methane, CH
4
7. Hydrogen gas, H
2
8. Phosphine, PH
3
9. Sulfur dioxide, SO
2
10. Chlorine gas, Cl
2
2.A Nonpolar Covalent Bonds
Covalent bonds in which the
electrons are equally shared
To be nonpolar, the two atoms
involved in the bond must be
the same element to share
equally.
Has symmetrical charge
distribution
H H
or
H H
N N
or
N N
Hydrogen gas, H
2
Nitrogen gas, N
2
H
F
electron rich
region
electron poor
region
2.B Polar Covalent Bonds
Covalent bonds in which the
electrons are not equally
shared
To be nonpolar, the two
different atoms involved in the
bond must have different
electronegativities.
Has assymmetrical charge
distribution
F H
e
-
rich e
-
poor
o
+
o
-
The existence of partial charges means that a polar
covalent bond behaves as if it were partially ionic.
Naming Covalent Compounds
To name binary covalent compounds
1. Name the first nonmetal as an element.
The first non-metal should be the less
electronegative element or the more
metallic between the two.
2. Name the second nonmetal with an -ide
ending.
3. Use prefixes to indicate the number of
atoms (subscript) of each element. The
prefix mono is usually omitted.
Number of
Atoms
Prefix
1 mono-
2 di-
3 tri-
4 tetra-
5 penta-
6 hexa-
7 hepta-
8 octa-
9 nona-
10 deca-
11 undeca-
12 dodeca-
Writing Chemical Formula of Covalent
Compounds
1. Write the symbols in the order of the elements in the
name. More metallic element must comes first.
List of Non-Metals in decreasing electronegativity:
2. Write any prefixes as subscripts.
Some of this compounds are known only by their common names like:
H
2
O water
NH
3
ammonia
PH
3
phosphine
F < O < Cl < N < Br < I < S < C < Se < At < Te < H < P < As < B < Sb < Si < Kr < Xe <Rn
Classifying Chemical Bonds based on EN
Covalent
share e
-
Polar Covalent
partial transfer of e
-
Ionic
transfer e
-
Increasing difference in electronegativity
AEN Ionic Character
> 1.7 Mostly ionic
0.5 1.7 Polar covalent
< 0.5 Non Polar Covalent
Classifying Chemical Bonds based on EN
3. Metallic Bonding
Exists in metals through the attraction between freely
moving and evenly distributed or delocalized sea of
electrons and the positively charged metal atom.
Properties of Metallic Substances
Good conductors of electricity, due to delocalized
electrons transfer
High melting and boiling point, strong metallic bonding
Dense, ions tightly packed in the lattice
Malleable, distortion does not disrupt the bond
Lustrous, delocalized electrons causes reflection of light
MODULE 3
BASIC ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Learning Competencies
explain how the structure of carbon atom affects the
types of bonds it forms
recognize the general classes and uses of organic
compounds.
History of Organic Chemistry
(C) Carlo Joseph M. Moskito, Kristalle Cruz and James Anthony Franco
Submitted as requirement for Chemistry 192 (Chemical Literature), Second Semester AY 2011-2012
Institute of Chemistry, University of the Philippines Los Banos
Organic Chemistry
is a branch of chemistry that deals with the study of
compounds of carbon, especially those in which carbon
is covalently bonded to other non-metals such as
hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and the halogens
Organic Compounds
Group of compounds that contain the element carbon.
The carbon atom usually forms bond with:
hydrogen only (or hydrocarbons); and
heteroatoms, other elements namely oxygen,
nitrogen, phosphorous, sulfur, and halogens (fluorine,
chlorine, bromine, and iodine
General Properties of Organic Compounds
Some are gases and many are liquids at room
temperature
Low melting point
Limited solubility in water
Combustible (Flammable) and/or sensitive to heat
(decomposed by heat)
Examples of Organic Compounds
The Carbon Atom
Tetravelent, Has four valence electrons (Kekule and
Scotland)
Can form four strong covalent bond with other elements
and with carbon itself
The Carbon Atom
Can link with carbon atoms to form linear, branched or
cyclic backbones
The Carbon Atom
Can form many arrangement: single, double and triple
bonds
Concept Map of Organic
Compounds
Organic
Compounds
Hydrocarbons
Aliphatics
Alkanes Alkenes Alkynes Cyclic Analogs
Aromatics
With
Heteroatoms
Hydrocarbons
organic compounds that contain carbon and hydrogen
atoms only
Aliphatics:
alkanes (saturated),
alkenes and alkynes (unsaturated)
Aromatics or arenes
Hydrocarbons
Class
Formula
(straight chain analogs)
Functional Group
Alkanes C
n
H
2n+2
carbon-carbon
single bond
C-C
Alkenes C
n
H
2n
carbon-carbon
double bond
C=C
Alkynes C
n
H
2n-2
carbon-carbon
triple bond
CC
where n is the number of carbon atoms
Alkanes
Presence of carbon-carbon single bond (single covalent
bonds only)
Major sources of alkanes: natural gas (mostly methane,
CH
4
), petroleum deposits and coal
List of Normal Alkanes
No. of Carbon Atom 1
Name Methane
Formula CH
4
Structural Formula
List of Normal Alkanes
No. of Carbon Atom 2
Name Ethane
Formula C
2
H
6
or CH
3
CH
3
Structural Formula
List of Normal Alkanes
No. of Carbon Atom 3
Name Propane
Formula C
3
H
8
or CH
3
CH
2
CH
3
Structural Formula
List of Normal Alkanes
No. of Carbon Atom 4
Name Butane
Formula C
4
H
10
or CH
3
CH
2
CH
2
CH
3
Structural Formula
line angle formula
List of Normal Alkanes
No. of Carbon Atom 5
Name Pentane
Formula C
5
H
12
or CH
3
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
3
Structural Formula
List of Normal Alkanes
No. of Carbon Atom 6
Name Hexane
Formula C
6
H
14
or CH
3
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
3
Structural Formula
List of Normal Alkanes
No. of Carbon Atom 7
Name Heptane
Formula C
7
H
16
or CH
3
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
3
Structural Formula
List of Normal Alkanes
No. of Carbon Atom 8
Name Octane
Formula C
8
H
18
or CH
3
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
3
Structural Formula
List of Normal Alkanes
No. of Carbon Atom 9
Name Nonane
Formula C
9
H
20
or CH
3
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
3
Structural Formula
List of Normal Alkanes
No. of Carbon Atom 10
Name Decane
Formula
C
10
H
22
or CH
3
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
3
Structural Formula
List of Normal Alkanes
No. of Carbon Atom 11
Name Undecane
Formula
C
11
H
24
or CH
3
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
3
Structural Formula
List of Normal Alkanes
No. of Carbon Atom 12
Name Dodecane
Formula
C
12
H
26
or CH
3
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
3
Structural Formula
Properties of Alkanes
Physical state:
C
1
C
4
, gases at room
temperature
C
5
C
17
, liquid at room
temperature
C
18
and above, solid at
room temperature
Name State
Methane Gas
Ethane Gas
Propane Gas
Butane Gas
Pentane Liquid
Hexane Liquid
Heptane Liquid
Octane Liquid
Nonane Liquid
Decane Liquid
Properties of Alkanes
Increased in boiling point as
molecular size increases (or
increasing number of carbon
atoms)
Insoluble in water
Less dense in water
Name
Normal Boiling
Point,
O
C
Methane -162
Ethane -88
Propane -42
Butane 0
Pentane 36
Hexane 69
Heptane 98
Octane 126
Nonane 151
Decane 174
Examples of Alkanes
Methane from cows metabolized by
Methanogenic archaea in the gut
Butane gas in lighters
n-nonane, a major
component in scent of rose
Alkenes
Presence of carbon-carbon double bond
Also known as olefins
Synthesized industrially by thermal cracking of
petroleum
A 3D model of ethylene, the
simplest alkene.
List of Normal Alkenes
No. of Carbon Atom 2
Name Ethene
Formula C
2
H
4
or CH
2
=CH
2
Structural Formula
List of Normal Alkenes
No. of Carbon Atom 3
Name Propene
Formula C
3
H
6
or CH
2
=CHCH
3
Structural Formula
List of Normal Alkenes
No. of Carbon Atom 4
Name 1-Butene
Formula C
4
H
8
or CH
2
=CHCH
2
CH
3
Structural Formula
List of Normal Alkenes
No. of Carbon Atom 5
Name 1-Pentene
Formula C
5
H
10
or CH
2
=CHCH
2
CH
2
CH
3
Structural Formula
List of Normal Alkenes
No. of Carbon Atom 6
Name 1-Hexene
Formula C
6
H
12
or CH
2
=CHCH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
3
Structural Formula
Properties of Alkenes
Physical state:
C
2
C
4
, gases at room
temperature
C
5
C
16
, liquid at room
temperature
C
17
and above, waxy solid
at room temperature
Name State
Ethene Gas
Propene Gas
1-Butene Gas
1-Pentene Liquid
1-Hexene Liquid
Properties of Alkenes
Like in alkanes, increased in
boiling point as molecular
size increases (or increasing
number of carbon atoms)
Less dense than water
Not soluble with water
Name
Normal Boiling
Point,
O
C
Ethene -104
Propene -47
1-Butene -6.3
1-Pentene 30
1-Hexene 63
Naturally Occurring Alkenes
-carotene, orange color in carrots
Naturally Occurring Alkenes
lycopene, red color in tomatoes
Naturally Occurring Alkenes
limonene in orange
Alkynes
Presence of carbon-carbon triple bond
A 3D model of
acetylene/ethyne, the simplest
alkyne.
Alkynes
The simplest alkyne, ethyne or acetylene, is prepared
industrially as:
2 2 2

2
2
lim
lim
3
) ( 2
3
OH Ca CH HC O H CaC
CO CaC CaO C
C coal
CO CaO CaCO
ethyne
carbide calcium
furnace electric
coke
e
estone
+ +
+ +

+
A
A
kalburo
List of Normal Alkynes
No. of Carbon Atom 1
Name Ethyne
Formula C
2
H
2
or CHCH
Structural Formula
List of Normal Alkynes
No. of Carbon Atom 2
Name Propyne
Formula C
3
H
4
or CHCCH
3
Structural Formula
List of Normal Alkynes
No. of Carbon Atom 4
Name 1-Butyne
Formula C
4
H
6
or CHCCH
2
CH
3
Structural Formula
List of Normal Alkynes
No. of Carbon Atom 5
Name 1-Pentyne
Formula C
5
H
8
or CHCCH
2
CH
2
CH
3
Structural Formula
List of Normal Alkynes
No. of Carbon Atom 6
Name 1-Hexyne
Formula C
6
H
10
or CHCCH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
3
Structural Formula
Properties of Alkynes
Physical state:
C
2
C
4
, gases at room
temperature
C
5
C
17
, liquid at room
temperature
C
18
and above, solid at
room temperature
Name State
Ethyne Gas
Propyne Gas
1-Butyne Gas
1-Pentyne Liquid
1-Hexyne Liquid
Properties of Alkynes
Like in alkanes and alkenes,
increased in boiling point as
molecular size increases (or
increasing number of carbon
atoms)
Less dense than water
Not soluble with water
Name
Normal Boiling
Point,
O
C
Ethyne -84
Propyene -23
1-Butyne 8.1
1-Pentyne 39.2
1-Hexeye 71
Examples of Alkynes
acetylene, widely used as a fuel
and a chemical building block
Alcohol
Derived from a hydrocarbon by replacing a hydrogen
atom by an OH (hydroxide) group
Higher boiling point that the same alkane
Soluble in water
) ( 3
C atm,350 250
O Cr ZnO,
) (
2 ) (
o
3 2
2
gas
gas
gas
OH CH H CO +
Preparation of Alcohol
Fermentation of sugars and starch by years to produce
ethanol
C
6
H
12
O
6
+ Zymase 2 C
2
H
5
OH + 2 CO
2
Examples of Alcohols
Methanol, also wood alcohol and gin bulag
Ethanol, used as a fuel additive
Examples of Alcohols
Menthol, used as analgesic, smooth muscle
relaxant and pesticide against bees
Benzyl alcohol, component of jasmine
and ilang-ilang oils
Examples of Alcohols
Ethylene glycol, automobile antifreeze
Glycerol, wetting agent in lotions, used for
manufacture of nitroglycerin (an explosive)
Carbonyl Compounds: Ketone and Aldehydes
Has a C=O (carbon atom doubly bonded to oxygen) or
carbonyl group
Aldehyde
RCOH
Ketone
RCOR
Aldehyde
Carbonyl group bonded to an alkyl group (R) and a
hydrogen atom
where R is an alkyl group
Examples of Aldehydes
Formaldehyde, used for preservation of
biological specimens
Acrolein, used as contact herbicide and
precursor to many compounds
Examples of Aldehydes
Citral in lemon grass oil
Benzaldehyde in almond, cherry, peach,
and laurel oil
Ketone
Carbonyl group is bonded to two carbon-containing
substitutents
where R is an alkyl group
Examples of Ketones
Acetone, nail polish remover and
solvent
Benzophenone, UV-blocker used in
sunscreens
MODULE 4
Learning Competencies
Use the mole concept to express mass of substances;
and
Determine the percentage composition of a compound
given its chemical formula and vice versa.
Mole
A counting unit used by chemists to measure atoms not
in terms of number of particles but according to the
mass of substances
Defined as the quantity of a substance containing the
same number of particles as C-12 or 6.022 10
23
particles
1 mole = 6.022 10
23
particles
6.022 10
23
particles (N
A
)
Also Avogadros number in honor of
Italian physicist Amedero Conte di
Quaregna e Ceretto Avogadro, who
postulated in 1811 that equal volumes
of gases at same temperature and
pressure contain the same number of
gas molecules.
Remember!
A mole is equivalent to:
6.022 10
23
particles
602,200,000,000,000,000,000,000
Particles could be:
ATOMS, for elements
IONS/ FORMULA UNITS, for ionic compounds
MOLECULES, for covalent compounds
When to use atoms, ions or molecules?
1 mole C = 6.022 x 10
23
C atoms
1 mole H
2
O = 6.022 x 10
23
H
2
O molecules
1 mole NaCl = 6.022 x 10
23
NaCl formula units
or 6.022 x 10
23
Na
+
ions and
6.022 x 10
23
Cl

ions
Avogadros Number as a Conversion Factor
Since, 1 mole = 6.022 10
23
particles
6.022 10
23
particles
1 mole
1 mole
6.022 10
23
particles
or
Molar Mass
The Mass of 1 mole (in grams)
Equal to the numerical value of the average atomic mass
1 mole of C atoms = 12.0 g
1 mole of Mg atoms = 24.3 g
1 mole of Cu atoms = 63.5 g
Other Names Related to Molar Mass
Molecular Mass/Molecular Weight: Sum of the total
masses of the atoms in molecular compound, in amu
(atomic mass units).
Formula Mass/Formula Weight: Sum of the total masses
of atoms in an ionic compound, in amu (atomic mass
units)
How to Calculate for Molar Mass?
Example: Find the molar mass of H
2
O.
2 H 1.01 = 2.02
1 O 16.00 = 16.00
Molar mass: 18.02 g/mol
Add the atomic weight/masses of all
elements in a compound
Mass of 1 Mole of Different Substances
Substance
Chemical
Formula
Molar Mass
(g/mol)
Number of
Particle
Oxygen gas O
2
32.00 6.022 x 10
23
Sucrose/ Table
sugar
C
12
H
22
O
11
342.34 6.022 x 10
23
Hydrogen
Peroxide
H
2
O
2
34.02 6.022 x 10
23
Calcium Ca 40.08 6.022 x 10
23
One mole of different substances contain different masses
Calculations involving Molar Mass and
Avogadros Number
Mass
Mole
No. of
Particles
Molar Mass Avogadros
number
THE MOLE ROADMAP
Calculations involving Molar Mass and
Avogadros Number
Mass
Mole
No. of
Particles
Molar Mass Avogadros
number
(mol) compound of mole
(gram) compound of mass
mol
g
Mass Molar =
|
.
|

\
|
Calculations involving Molar Mass and
Avogadros Number
Mass
Mole
No. of
Particles
Molar Mass Avogadros
number
particles 10 6.022
mole 1
or
mole 1
particles 10 6.022
23
23

Percentage Composition
The mass of each element in a compound compared to
the entire mass of the compound multiplied by 100
percent
or simply, mass percentage of an element in a
compound.
% 100
compound of mass
compound the in element the of mass
element an of mass % =
Percentage Composition
For example, H
2
O:
From the molar mass, the sum of all elements is: 18.02
g/mol
__ __________ H %
% 100
g/mol 18.02
g/mol 2.02
H %
=
=
__ __________ O %
% 100
g/mol 18.02
g/mol 16.00
O %
=
=
Percentage Composition
For example, H
2
O:
11
89
Percentage Composition of Water
% H % O