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PR-2: Pemodelan Kualitas Air Permukaan

Agnes Ferinna-0906551451-Teknik Sipil



2.1. You perform a series of batch experiments and come up with the following data:
t (hour) 0 2 4 6 8 10
c ( gram/Liter) 10,5 5,1 3,1 2,8 2,2 1,9
Determine the order (n) and the rate (k) of the underlying reaction.
Answer:
Zero-Order


x = t (hour)
y = c ( gram/Liter)
Figure 1. Plot of concentration versus time for a zero-order reaction

First-Order


x = t (hour)
y = ln c
Figure 2. Plot of concentration versus time for a first-order reaction

y = -0,7429x + 7,981
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
0 5 10 15
c

(


g
r
a
m
/
l
i
t
e
r
)

t (hour)
Zero-Order
Zero-Order
Linear (Zero-Order)
y = -0,1596x + 2,06
0,000
0,500
1,000
1,500
2,000
2,500
0 5 10 15
l
n

c

t (hour)
First-Order
First-Order
Linear (First-Order)
Second-Order


x = t (hour)
y = 1/c
Figure 3. Plot of concentration versus time for a second-order reaction

Dari ketiga plot reaksi diatas (zero-order, first-order dan second-order) didapat
gambaran hubungan sebaran data terhadap garis regresinya per masing-masing orde
reaksi, dimana pada akhirnya orde reaksi yang dipilih adalah berdasarkan plot garis
regresi yang paling mewakili sebaran data tersebut.

Dari ketiga plot diatas didapat bahwa garis regresi yang paling mewakili plot sebaran
data adalah pada saat plot reaksi second-order dimana persamaan dasarnya adalah 1/c
= 1/c
0
+ kt. Sehingga dapat dianalisis nilai laju reaksi (k), yakni sebagai berikut:


y = 0,0424x + 0,1135
Maka laju reaksi/k = 0,0424 dan orde reaksi/n = 2, karena merupakan reaksi
Second-Order.
y = 0,0424x + 0,1135
0,000
0,100
0,200
0,300
0,400
0,500
0,600
0 5 10 15
1
/
c

t (hour)
Second-Order
Second-Order
Linear (Second-Order)
2.6. You set up a series of 300 mL bottles and add 10 mL of a glucose solution to each.
Note that the glucose solution has a concentration of 100 mgCL
-1
. To each bottle you
add a small quantity (that is, with an insignificant amount of carbon compared to the
glucose) of bacteria. You fill the remainder of their volumes up with water. Finally
you seal each bottle and incubate them at 20C. At various times you open one of the
bottles and measure its oxygen content. The following data results:
t (day) 0 2 5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
c (mgO
2
L
-1
) 10 8,4 6,5 4,4 2,3 1,6 1,3 1,2 1,1 1,1
a. Develop a conceptual model for what is taking place inside the bottle.
b. Using the information from this lecture, attempt to estimate the decay rate for the
glucose.
Answer:
[Glukosa]
awal
= 100 mgC.L
-1
= 100 gramC.m
-3
dalam satuan karbon

Pengenceran larutan glukosa:
[Glukosa]
awal
= 100 gramC/m
3

Volume glukosa = 10 mL
Volume botol = 300 mL

Volume air = volume botol volume glukosa
Volume air = 300 mL 10 mL = 290 mL

[]

[]




[]



C
6
H
12
O
6
+ 6O
2
6CO
2
+ 6 H
2
O
r
oc
= massa oksigen yang dikonsumsi untuk setiap karbon yang terdekomposisi



r
oc
= 2,67 gramO.gramC
-1


Zero-Order


x = t (day)
y = c (mgO
2
/Liter)



Figure 1. Plot of concentration versus time for a zero-order reaction

First-Order


x = t (day)
y = ln c
Figure 2. Plot of concentration versus time for a first-order reaction

Second-Order


x = t (hour)
y = 1/c


y = -0,1114x + 6,9881
-2
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
0 20 40 60 80
c

(
m
g
O
2
L
-
1
)

t (day)
Zero-Order Glucose Decomposition
Zero-Order Glucose
Decomposition
Linear (Zero-Order
Glucose
Decomposition)
y = -0,0324x + 1,903
-1
-0,5
0
0,5
1
1,5
2
2,5
0 20 40 60 80
l
n

c

t (day)
First-Order Glucose Decomposition
First-Order Glucose
Decomposition
Linear (First-Order
Glucose
Decomposition)
Figure 3. Plot of concentration versus time for a second-order reaction


Dari ketiga plot reaksi diatas (zero-order, first-order dan second-order) didapat
gambaran hubungan sebaran data terhadap garis regresinya per masing-masing orde
reaksi, dimana pada akhirnya orde reaksi yang dipilih adalah berdasarkan plot garis
regresi yang paling mewakili sebaran data tersebut.

Dari ketiga plot diatas didapat bahwa garis regresi yang paling mewakili plot sebaran
data adalah pada saat plot reaksi second-order dimana persamaan dasarnya adalah 1/c
= 1/c
0
+ kt. Sehingga dapat dianalisis nilai laju reaksi (k), yakni sebagai berikut:


y = 0,013x + 0,1338
Maka laju reaksi/k = 0,013 dan orde reaksi/n = 2, karena merupakan reaksi Second-
Order.

Decay rate glukosa menurut reaksi Second-Order:

[]



y = 0,013x + 0,1338
0
0,2
0,4
0,6
0,8
1
1,2
0 20 40 60 80
1
/
c

t (day)
Second-Order Glucose Decomposition
Second-Order Glucose
Decomposition
Linear (Second-Order
Glucose Decomposition)
2.17. The following data for concentrations and times were developed for a series of batch
experiments having different initial conditions:
t c
0 1 2 5 10
1 0,95 1,87 4,48 8,59
2 0,91 1,74 4,04 7,46
Assuming that Eq. 2.7. holds, use the method of initial rates to determine the order
and the rate of the reaction.
Answer:
(


x = log c
0

y = log (

)
Figure 1. Plot of log (

) versus log c
0


Dari plot diatas didapat bahwa persamaan sebaran datanya adalah log (

) =
1,3081 log c
0
0,1265. Sehingga dapat dianalisis nilai laju reaksi (k), yakni sebagai
berikut:
(


y = 1,3081x 0,1265
k = log
-1
(-0,1265) = 0,7473
Maka laju reaksi/k = 0,7473 dan orde reaksi/n = 1,3081.

y = 1,3081x - 0,1265
-0,4
-0,2
0
0,2
0,4
0,6
0,8
1
1,2
1,4
1,6
0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1 1,2
l
o
g

(
-
d
c
0
/
d
t
)

log c
0
Method of Initial Rates
Method of Initial Rates
Linear (Method of Initial
Rates)
2.18. Assuming that Eq. 2.7. holds, use the method of half-lives to determine the reaction
order and rate by evaluating the following half-lives and initial concentrations
developed from a series of batch experiments:
c
0
1 2 5 10
t
50
16 11 7 5
Answer:


x = log c
0
y = log t
50

Figure 1. Plot of log t
50
versus log c
0


Dari plot diatas didapat bahwa persamaan sebaran datanya adalah log t
50
= -0,5035
log c
0
+ 1,1992. Sehingga dapat dianalisis nilai laju reaksi (k), yakni sebagai berikut:
(


y = -0,5035x + 1,1992
k = log
-1
(1,1992) = 15,82
Maka laju reaksi/k = 15,82 dan orde reaksi/n = -0,5035.

y = -0,5035x + 1,1992
0,000
0,200
0,400
0,600
0,800
1,000
1,200
1,400
0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1 1,2
l
o
g

t
5
0

log c
0
Method of Half-Lives
Method of Half-Lives
Linear (Method of Half-Lives)