241 views

Uploaded by Sajid Amin Shah

Dynamic Material Balance

- decline curve analysis
- Dynamic Material Balance
- Feketes Course Notes
- Gas Reservoir Engineering
- Natural Gas Engineering Hand Book (2005) Ch.3
- UserGuides Tutorials Examples OFM 2014
- Gas Material Balance
- ArseneBitsindouDissertation
- Sucker Rod Pumping
- 7. Decline Curve Analysis
- Gas Material Balance
- Day 4 Am - Gas Material Balance
- Fekete Harmony Ref Manual
- Dynamic NODAL Analysis
- Material Balance
- Sirikit Oil Field INFO
- Agarwal-Gardner Typecurve Analysis Theory
- Fekete Concepts
- Depletion and Decline Curve Analysis in Crude Oil Production
- SPE 30775 Water Control Diagnostic Plots

You are on page 1of 4

11 7

Dynamic Material BalanceOil-

or Gas-in-Place Without Shut-Ins

L. MATTAR, D. ANDERSON, G. STOTTS

Fekete Associates Inc.

THIS PAPER IS BEING PUBLISHED AS A TECHNICAL NOTE AND HAS NOT BEEN PEER REVIEWED.

Abstract

Material balance calculations for determining oil- or gas-in-

place require static reservoir pressures, which can only be ob-

tained when the well is shut in. In a previous publication

(1)

titled

The Flowing Gas Material Balance, it was shown that the res-

ervoir pressure could be obtained from the flowing pressure for

wells producing at a constant rate.

The Dynamic Material Balance is an extension of the

Flowing Material Balance and can be applied to either constant

or variable flow rates. Both methods are applicable for gas and

oil. The Dynamic Material Balance is a procedure that converts

the flowing pressure at any point in time to the average reservoir

pressure that exists in the reservoir at that time. Once that is done,

the classical material balance calculations become applicable,

and a conventional material balance plot can be generated.

The procedure is graphical and very straightforward: a)

knowing the flow rate and flowing sandface pressure at any given

point in time, convert the measured flowing pressure to the av-

erage pressure that exists in the reservoir at that time; and, b) use

this calculated average reservoir pressure and the corresponding

cumulative production, to calculate the original oil- or gas-in-

place by traditional methods. The method is illustrated using data

sets.

Introduction

The material balance method is a fundamental calculation in

reservoir engineering, and is considered to yield one of the more

reliable estimates of hydrocarbons in place. In principle, it consists

of producing a certain amount of fluids, measuring the average

reservoir pressure before and after the production, and with knowl-

edge of the PVT properties of the system, calculating a mass bal-

ance as follows:

Remaining hydrocarbons-in-place = initial hydrocarbons-in-

place produced hydrocarbons

At face value, the above equation is simple; however in prac-

tice, its implementation can be quite complex, as one must account

for such variables as external fluid influx (water drive), com-

pressibility of all the fluids and of the rock, hydrocarbon phase

changes, etc.

In order to determine the average reservoir pressure, the well is

shut in, resulting in loss of production. In high permeability reser-

voirs, this may not be a significant issue, but in medium to low per-

meability reservoirs, the shut-in duration may have to last several

weeks (and sometimes months) before a reliable reservoir pressure

can be estimated. This loss of production opportunity, as well as

the cost of monitoring the shut-in pressure, is often unacceptable.

It is clear that the production rate of a well is a function of many

factors such as permeability, viscosity, thickness, etc. Also, the

rate is directly related to the driving force in the reservoir, i.e.,

the difference between the average reservoir pressure and the

TECHNICAL NOTE

TECHNICAL NOTE

THIS IS THE PERFORATION

YOU PURCHASED

*

*Based on charge performance test in API concrete target.

8 Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology

sandface flowing pressure. Therefore, it is reasonable to expect that

knowledge about the reservoir pressure can be extracted from the

sandface flowing pressure if both the flow rate and flowing pres-

sure are measured. If, indeed, the average reservoir pressure can

be obtained from flowing conditions, then material balance calcu-

lations can be performed without having to shut in the well. This

is of great practical value. In a previous publication

(1)

, the authors

obtained a relationship between the well flowing pressure (which

can be measured) and the average reservoir pressure. They called

that procedure The Flowing Material Balance. In this Technical

Note, that procedure is extended to situations where the flow rate is

not constant. It is called the variable rate flowing material balance

or Dynamic Material Balance.

Details of the flowing material balance and the dynamic ma-

terial balance can be found in References 1 and 2. The equations

are derived for a volumetric reservoir (i.e., no water drive or ex-

ternal fluid influx), but the method can be extended to include such

complexities. The method is valid for both oil and gas systems, but

it is sometimes more convenient to present a particular concept (or

equation) in terms of gas rather than oil, or vice versa.

Dynamic Material Balance (Variable Rate

Flowing P/Z Plot)

The flowing material balance is restricted to constant rate pro-

duction. As a well produces at a constant rate in pseudo-steady

state flow, there is a consistent difference between the sandface

flowing pressure and the average reservoir pressure. This rela-

tionship can be used to acquire the average reservoir pressure and

construct the material balance plot

(1)

. However, many wells incur

significant variations in rate and flowing pressure over their pro-

duction life. The dynamic material balance

(2)

is applicable to both

constant rate and variable rate production. The complete develop-

ment of the appropriate equations can be found in References 2 and

3. A simplified summary of the concepts as they apply to variable

rate production is presented below:

Pseudo-steady state flow:

p p

qt

c N

b q

i wf

o

pss

+

........................................................................... (1)

Cumulative production:

q t N

p

( )

........................................................................................... (2)

Material balance equation:

p p

N

c N

i R

p

o

....................................................................................... (3)

Combining Equations (1), (2), and (3):

p p b q

R wf pss

.................................................................................... (4)

Re-arranging:

p p b q

R wf pss

+

.................................................................................... (5)

The above equation illustrates how the dynamic material bal-

ance can be applied to a well with a varying production rate and

a corresponding varying flowing pressure. The conversion from

flowing pressure to average reservoir pressure must take into ac-

count the varying flow rate. Since the flow rate is known, we need

only determine the value of b

pss

, using some independent method.

A plot of (p

i

p

wf

/q) vs. N

p

/q should yield a straight line when

boundary dominated flow is reached, as shown in Figure 1. The

intercept of this plot is b

pss

. Note that the value of b

pss

is subject to

interpretation, as it depends on the proper identification of the sta-

bilized (straight-line) section of the graph.

The above summary equations apply to a single phase liquid

system. Appendix C of CIPC 2005-113

(2)

presents the corre-

sponding equations for a gas reservoir. For a gas reservoir, two

modifications are necessary:

a) The pressure must be converted to pseudo-pressure to ac-

count for the dependence of viscosity and Z-factor on pres-

sure

(4)

; and,

b) Material balance time

(5-7)

must be converted to pseudo-time

to account for the strong dependence of gas compressibility

on pressure.

The step-by-step procedure for generating a dynamic material

balance plot for a gas well with varying flow rate is given below:

1. Convert initial pressure to pseudo-pressure, p

pi

;

2. Convert all flowing pressures to pseudo-pressures, p

pwf

;

3. Assume a value for the original gas-in-place, G;

4. Calculate pseudo-time from Equation (C-11)

(2)

, t

ca

;

5. Plot (p

pi

-p

pwf

/q) vs.

pseudo-time, t

ca

. The intercept gives b

pss

.

See Figure 1;

6. Calculate the average reservoir pseudo-pressure from Equa-

tion (C-19)

(2)

;

7. Convert the average reservoir pseudo-pressure to average

reservoir pressure, p

R

;

8. Calculate p

R

/Z and plot against cumulative gas produced,

Gp, just like the conventional material balance graph for a

gas pool. The intercept on the X-axis gives the original gas-

in-place, G. See Figure 2; and,

9. Using this new value of G, repeat Steps 3 to 7 until G

converges.

0.00

5.00

10.00

15.00

20.00

25.00

30.00

35.00

40.00

45.00

50.00

0.0 500.0 1,000.0 1,500.0 2,000.0 2,500.0

Np/q

b

pss

(

P

i

P

w

f

)

/

q

b

pss

FIGURE 1: Determination of b

pss

.

0

200

400

600

1,000

1,200

1,400

1,600

1,800

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Cumulative Production (Bcf)

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

R

a

t

e

(

M

M

c

f

d

)

P/Z

800

P

r

e

s

s

u

r

e

(

p

s

i

)

Average Reservoir

Pressure

Flowing Sandface

Pressure

P/Z extrapolated to

G = 24Bcf

P/Z

Rate (MMcfd)

FIGURE 2: Dynamic material balance plot.

November 2006, Volume 45, No. 11 9

Limitations

The procedure described in this paper is very effective and pro-

vides extremely valuable information. However, like any other res-

ervoir engineering, it has its limitations:

Since material balance time and pseudo-time are rigorous

only during boundary-dominated flow, data obtained during

transient flow cannot be used in this analysis. The transient

data can be identified as the curved part of the graph in Fig-

ures 1 and 2, and should be ignored;

In certain situations such as pressure-dependent permea-

bility, or continuously changing skin (both factors have been

ignored in the development of the equations), this method

will tend to under-predict the hydrocarbons-in-place. These

factors can be accounted for by more complex definitions of

pseudo-pressure and pseudo-time; and,

The dynamic material balance is an indirect method of de-

termining the average reservoir pressure. As such, it incor-

porates many assumptions. On the other hand, build-up tests

themselves have their own sets of assumptions when the

build-up pressure has to be extrapolated to obtain the average

reservoir pressure. Accordingly, whenever possible, these

methods should be used in concert with each other rather than

as alternatives to each other.

Conclusion

It is possible to obtain the average reservoir pressure without

shutting in a well.

The flowing pressure can be converted to the average reser-

voir pressure existing at the time of the measurement using a

very direct procedure.

The average reservoir pressure obtained from the dynamic

material balance method can be used anywhere the average

reservoir pressure has traditionally been used.

For a gas well, a conventional p

R

/Z plot can easily be gen-

erated without shutting in the well, and the original gas-in-

place determined as usual.

The dynamic material balance applies to variable rate

production.

The dynamic material balance should not be viewed as a re-

placement to build-up tests, but as a very inexpensive supple-

ment to them.

NOMENCLATURE

c

o

= oil compressibility

b

B

kh

r

r

pss

e

wa

.

ln

j

(

,

\

,

(

,

,

]

]

141 2 3

4

]]

(field units)

b

B

kh

r

r

pss

e

wa

.

ln

j

(

,

\

,

(

,

,

]

]

11 57 3

4

]]

(metric units)

G = original gas-in-place

G

p

= cumulative gas produced

h = pay thickness

k = reservoir permeability

N = original oil-in-place

N

p

= cumulative production produced

p

i

= initial reservoir pressure

P

R

= average reservoir pressure

p

wf

= flowing pressure

p

p

= pseudo-pressure

p

pi

= pseudo-pressure at initial reservoir pressure

p

pwf

= pseudo-pressure at the flowing pressure

q = production rate (can be a function of time)

r

e

=

exterior radius

r

wa

=

apparent wellbore radius

t = time

t

ca

= material balance pseudo-time for gas =

dt

cg

T = reservoir temperature, R

Z

= compressibility factor at average reservoir pressure

= oil formation volume factor

= viscosity

SI Conversion Factors

1 psia = 6.895 kPa

1 MMscfd = 28.32 10

3

m

3

/d

1 bcf = 28.32 10

6

m

3

REFERENCES

1. MATTAR, L. and MCNEIL, R., The Flowing Gas Material Bal-

ance; Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology, Vol. 37, No. 2,

pp. 52-55, February 1998.

2. MATTAR, L. and ANDERSON, D., Dynamic Material Balance;

paper CIPC 2005-113, presented at Canadian International Petro-

leum Conference, Calgary, Alberta, June 7 9, 2005.

3. BLASINGAME, T.A. and LEE, W.J ., Variable-Rate Reservoir Limits

Testing; paper SPE 15028, presented at the Permian Basin Oil and

Gas Recovery Conference, Midland, TX, March 13 15, 1986.

THIS IS THE PERFORATION

THEY DELIVERED

*

*Based on charge performance test in targeted formation sample.

10 Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology

Authors Biographies

Louis Mattar is the president of Fekete As-

sociates Inc. He was the principal author of

the world-renowned E.R.C.B. publication,

Theory & Practice of the Testing of Gas

Wells, 1975. He specializes in well testing

and teaches it all around the world. He has

authored 45 technical publications. He is a

distinguished member of the Petroleum So-

ciety. In 1995, he received the Petroleum

Society Distinguished Author Award, and

the Outstanding Service Award. In 2003,

Louis was the SPE distinguished lecturer in

well testing.

David Anderson (P.Eng) is a technical ad-

visor with Fekete Associates Inc. He has

eight years of experience in the petroleum

industry, including production optimiza-

tion, gas deliverability modelling, and well

test analysis. He is currently the technical

leader for Feketes RTA (Rate Transient

Analysis) Group. He has taught numerous

industry courses on advanced production

decline analysis and has co-authored sev-

eral technical publications on both pressure

and rate transient analysis.

Garth Stotts (E.I.T.) is a project engineer at

Fekete Associates Inc. He acquired a B.Sc.

(with Distinction) in materials engineering

from the University of Alberta, and is cur-

rently working toward a M.Eng. at the Uni-

versity of Calgary.

4. Energy and Resource Conservation Board, E.R.C.B. Gas Well

TestingTheory and Practice; Third Edition, Alberta, Canada,

1975.

5. AGARWAL, R.G., GARDNER, D.C., KLEINSTEIBER, S.W., and

FUSSELL, D.D., Analyzing Well Production Data Using Combined

Type-Curve and Decline-Curve Analysis Concepts; SPE Reservoir

Evaluation & Engineering, pp. 478-486, October 1999.

6. FRAIM, M.L. and WATTENBARGER, R.A., Gas Reservoir Decline-

Curve Analysis Using Type Curves With Real Gas Pseudo-pressure

and Normalized Time; SPE Formation Evaluation, pp. 671-682,

December 1987.

7. PALACIO, J .C. and BLASINGAME, T.A., Decline Curve Anal-

ysis Using Type Curves: Analysis of Gas Well Production Data;

paper SPE 25909, presented at the Joint Rocky Mountain Re-

gional/Low Permeability Reservoirs Symposium, Denver, CO,

April 12 14, 1993.

ProvenanceOriginal Petroleum Society manuscript, Dynamic Material

BalanceOil- or Gas-in-Place Without Shut-Ins (2005-113TN), first

presented at the 6

th

Canadian International Petroleum Conference (the 56

th

Annual Technical Meeting of the Petroleum Society), J une 7 - 9, 2005, in

Calgary, Alberta. Abstract submitted for review December 10, 2004; edito-

rial comments sent to the author(s) October 26, 2005; revised manuscript

received December 5, 2005; paper approved for pre-press December 5,

2005; final approval October 11, 2006.

CALL FOR PAPERS

The Petroleum Society invites you to submit abstracts for

consideration to the Technical Program Committee for its

2007 Canadian International Petroleum Conference,

the Petroleum Societys 58

th

Annual Technical Meeting,

to be held at the TELUS Convention Centre, Calgary,

Alberta, Canada.

Deadline for abstracts is December 1, 2006.

We look forward to your participation!

For further information, contact the following

members of the organizing committee:

Catherine Laureshen

Conference Chairman

Alberta Energy Research Inst.

Phone: (403) 297-3638

Fax: (403) 297-3638

E-mail:

catherine.laureshen@gov.ab.ca

Dave Cuthiell

Conference Co-Chairman

Suncor Energy Inc.

Phone: (403) 205-6876

Fax: (403) 269-8738

E-mail:

dcuthiell@suncor.com

Laura Sullivan

Technical Program Chairman

Enerplus Resources Fund

Phone: (403) 298-2878

Fax: (403) 298-8882

E-mail:

lsullivan@enerplus.com

Tareq Chowdhury

Technical Prog. Co-Chairman

Rockyview Energy Inc.

Phone: (403) 538-5047

Fax: (403) 538-5050

E-mail:

chowdhuryt@rockyviewenergy.com

CANADIAN INTERNATIONAL

P E T R O L E U M C O N F E R E N C E

- decline curve analysisUploaded byvietrv
- Dynamic Material BalanceUploaded bymoncho000
- Feketes Course NotesUploaded byketatni
- Gas Reservoir EngineeringUploaded byxion_mew2
- Natural Gas Engineering Hand Book (2005) Ch.3Uploaded byAbdelrahman Saeed
- UserGuides Tutorials Examples OFM 2014Uploaded byOmar Santamaría Castillo
- Gas Material BalanceUploaded byHadi Hendizadeh
- ArseneBitsindouDissertationUploaded bySeth Cheatham
- Sucker Rod PumpingUploaded byzezo2011
- 7. Decline Curve AnalysisUploaded bySau Hong
- Gas Material BalanceUploaded byNirma Afrisanti Kinasih
- Day 4 Am - Gas Material BalanceUploaded byMiguel Angel Toala
- Fekete Harmony Ref ManualUploaded byvajrahasta
- Dynamic NODAL AnalysisUploaded byMary Beach
- Material BalanceUploaded byLervino Fridela
- Sirikit Oil Field INFOUploaded bySuphachittra Thongchavee
- Agarwal-Gardner Typecurve Analysis TheoryUploaded bySifat Tanveer
- Fekete ConceptsUploaded byhorns2034
- Depletion and Decline Curve Analysis in Crude Oil ProductionUploaded byLuis Alberto Izarra
- SPE 30775 Water Control Diagnostic PlotsUploaded bymabmalex
- Analysis of Production Decline Curves.pdfUploaded byWilliam Hu
- Petroleum Production Systems -Michael j. EconomidesUploaded byEdgardo Andrés Oviedo Díaz
- Fundamentals of Basic Reservoir Engineering 2010Uploaded byjollyrex
- Reservoir Engineering NotesUploaded byimogen2007
- Advanced Well Testing HandbookUploaded bypaulegi5
- Comparison of Light Hydrocarbon Microseepage MechanismsUploaded byqiangeng007
- Official Definition From Oilfield GlossaryUploaded bymary1837
- Building the Dynamic Reservoir Model (2)Uploaded by조호범
- Well Testing MilisUploaded bydrg
- From the Reservoir Limit to Pipeline FlowUploaded byrobertmika

- 16025911Uploaded bybtwarrior
- Part_7_e-Sept14_006Uploaded byrishabhk28995
- Jackaroo 4JX1 Engine Manual 2014 Ver 2.2Uploaded byJoão Guardado
- Law of Definite Proportions Lab ReportUploaded byrinkeanmark
- Presentation Canadian Flagged Product TankersUploaded byAlex Caron
- List of Maharatna NavratnaUploaded bygayakwad09
- SPE-IADC 130324-PP-Multiphase Flow Modeling for N2 Concentric Nitrogen InjectionUploaded byKlaus Medina
- ae1344Uploaded byEzsilvasilva Silva
- Coke Oven WorkingUploaded by__medz__
- DHDSUploaded byravichandra
- Gasifier DesignUploaded byRidwan Kurniawan
- Oil Industry ConversionsUploaded byVu Hoc
- Energy Density of Coal - The Physics FactbookUploaded bySaylittle Prayer
- SPE-1167-Wettability of Porous Rock by Amott, 1960)Uploaded byMurat Syzdykov
- Kuwaiti Oil Fires 1991 Patents for ContainmentUploaded byBranko R Babic
- Breckwell P2000 ManualUploaded bykjgregor
- CUP IBChemistry c10 ItUploaded byLashonda Taylor
- CDU ReliefsUploaded bykishoreprithika
- 6 - Std'10 - Science - Exemplar Problems.pdfUploaded byhrishi
- HermeticUploaded bytzeian
- Cata Gene UK heater cataloge 7.5 kw and higherUploaded byehab8320014413
- sooting behavior of propane and n-butaneUploaded byAjit Dubey
- Fuels and CombustionUploaded byHamza Amin
- Basic Principle of Ship PropulsionUploaded byShengte Hsu
- central processingUploaded byshashi kant kumar
- tz-160 specsUploaded byapi-261294473
- General Science Questions and Answers With Tests for PracticeUploaded byMohan Raj
- D 6335Uploaded byJGD123
- Business Occupancy ChecklistUploaded byRozel Laigo Reyes
- 056. ROTAFLAM PILLARDUploaded byRogério Correia