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Speech 1010
Public Speaking
Mrs. Christianson
Oral VS. Written Language Style
There are 3 major differences between oral and
written language styles:
Oral style is more personal When speaking, you can look
your listeners in the eye and talk to them directly.
Oral style is less formal Written communication often uses
rather formal language and structure.
Oral style is more repetitious When speaking, you build in
repetition to make sure that your listener will grasp your
Use Words Effectively
Use specific, concrete words
Specific words are often concrete words, which appeal to
one of our five senses, whereas general words are often
abstract words, which refer to ideas or qualities.
When searching for a specific, concrete word, you may want
to consult a thesaurus.
Use simple words
Your words should be immediately understandable to your
Dont try to impress them with jargon and pompous
Use Words Effectively (continued)
Use words correctly
Denotation literal meaning; dictionary definition
Connotation meaning that is associated with the word,
based on past experience

As a public speaker, you should be aware of the possibility of
triggering audience members private connotations.
This awareness is particularly important when you are
discussing highly emotional or controversial topics.
Adapt Your Language to Diverse
Use understandable language Remember to use
Standard U.S. English (language taught in schools,
used by media and businesses)
Use appropriate language Your language should
not offend or degrade any group of people.
Use unbiased language Avoid using sexist language
For example, each doctor brought his own pen.
Not all doctors are male.

Craft Memorable Word Structures
Create figurative images
Use metaphors and similes Speakers often turn to
metaphors and similes in times that are especially
momentous or overwhelming times when literal
language seems insignificant. (Ex: 9/11)
Use personification
Create drama
Sentence length Use short sentences to express a vitally
important thought.

Craft Memorable Word Structure
Create cadence
Parallelism Parallelism occurs when two or more
clauses or sentences have the same grammatical pattern.
He enjoys hunting and fishing. (Parallel)
His hobbies are hunting and to fish. (Not parallel)
Antithesis Antithesis means opposition.
A sentence that uses antithesis has two parts with parallel
structures but contrasting meanings.
Franklin Roosevelt said, Our true destiny is not be
ministered unto but to minister to ourselves and to our
fellow men.
Craft Memorable Word Structure
Repetition Repetition of a key word or phrases gives
rhythm and power to a message and makes it
Alliteration Alliteration is the repetition of a consonant
sound (usually an initial consonant) several times in a
phrase, clause, or sentence.
Ethics Questions
Tom is preparing a speech on driver safety. He
plans to begin his speech with a series of graphic
pictures showing traffic-accident victims who were
maimed or killed because they did not use safety

Is it ethical to show graphic images that arouse
audience fears?